Cold War II

From EverybodyWiki Bios & Wiki
Cold War II
Part of Arab–Iranian conflict, Iran–Israel proxy conflict, Middle Eastern Cold War, Arab Spring, and more
Iran–Saudi Arabia proxy conflict.png
     Iran     Saudi Arabia     Major proxy conflict locations
Date2003 – ongoing[47][48]
Location
Global[49]
Status Ongoing
  • Qatif conflict (2017–19 Qatif unrest)
  • Saudi-led intervention in Bahrain
  • Suppression of Bahraini opposition demonstrators from 2011 until 2012, with GCC and Saudi support[50]
  • Shia insurgency in Bahrain
  • Iranian involvement in the Syrian Civil War
  • Saudi involvement in the Syrian Civil War
  • Saudi-led intervention in Yemen
  • Saudi–Yemeni border conflict
  • Iranian intervention in Iraq[51]
  • Qatar diplomatic crisis[52]
  • 2011 alleged Iran assassination plot
  • Saudi-led formation of the Islamic Military Alliance (which excludes Iran, Iraq and Syria) in 2015
  • Execution of Nimr al-Nimr and 47 others by Saudi Arabia in 2016
  • Attack on Saudi Arabian embassy in Tehran and the consulate in Mashhad
  • Bahrain and Saudi Arabia sever diplomatic relations with Iran in January 2016[53][54]
  • 2017 Lebanon–Saudi Arabia dispute – Saudi Arabia suspend military aid to Lebanon over alleged Iranian influence and the country's refusal to condemn the attack on Saudi embassy[55]
  • Ahvaz military parade attack
  • 2019 Abqaiq–Khurais attack
  • 2019–2020 Persian Gulf crisis
Main Belligerents

 Russia
 China[1]
 Iran

Support:  Iraq
 Ba'athist Iraq
 Syria

 Hezbollah
 Lebanon
 North Korea
 Libya (until 2011)
 Venezuela (since 2005)
 Bolivia (since 2006)
 Cuba
 Nicaragua
 Turkmenistan (limited)
 Belarus
 Namibia
 Angola
 Cambodia
 Ecuador[10]
 Algeria[11]

 United States
 United Kingdom
 Saudi Arabia

Support  NATO
 Ba'athist Iraq(only against Iran)
 Egypt
 United Arab Emirates
 Bahrain
 Iraqi Kurdistan
 Morocco
 Jordan
 Turkey
 Albania
 Kosovo
 Israel
 Senegal
 Peru[22]
 Tunisia
 Sudan(Sometimes)
 Honduras
 Chile

2020 Nagorno-Karabakh War (2020)

Republic of Artsakh Artsakh Republic
 Armenia

 Iran[7]  Russia[8]  FranceCite error: Closing </ref> missing for <ref> tag


Azerbaijan Azerbaijan
Syrian opposition Free Syrian Army[23]

 Turkey
 Israel[19]
 Northern Cyprus
 Afghanistan
 Pakistan
 Saudi Arabia
 Qatar

Syrian Civil War (2011–present)

 Syria
IranIran

 Hezbollah
 Russia
PMF[24]
Autonomous Administration of North and East Syria People's Protection Units[6]
Syriac Military Council[25]

 Iraq[26]
 China[27]
 Armenia[28]
 North Korea[29]

 Syrian opposition

Free Syrian Army
Army of Conquest (2015–17)[30][31]

 Turkey[30][31]
 Qatar[32]
 Libya (2012–14)
 United States

Yemeni Civil War (2014–present)

Yemen Supreme Political Council
 Houthis
Ahrar al-Najran(allegedly)

 Iran

 North Korea[33][34]

Yemen Cabinet of Yemen
Southern Transitional Council
 Sudan[35][36]

 UAE
 Bahrain[35]
 Kuwait[35]
 Qatar[35]
(until 5 June 2017)
 Jordan[35]
 Djibouti[35]
 Egypt[35]
 Senegal[37]
 United States[38][39]
ShababFlag.svg Al-Qaeda[40][41][42]

Support:
 Somalia[43][44]
 Turkey[45]
 United States[46]

Commanders and leaders

Ali Khamenei
(Supreme Leader of Iran)
Hassan Rouhani
(President of Iran)
Esmail Ghaani
(Quds Force commander)
Vladimir Putin
(President of Russia)
Nikol Pashinyan (Prime Minister of Armenia)
Arayik Harutyunyan (President of Artsakh)
Bashar al-Assad
(President of Syria)
Hassan Nasrallah
(Secretary-General of Hezbollah)
Xi Jinping
(President of the People's Republic of China)
Kim Jong-un
(Supreme Leader of North Korea)
Western Sahara Brahim Ghali
(President of the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic)
File:Badr Organisation Military flag.svg Hadi Al-Amiri
(Leader of the Badr Organization)
Abdul-Malik Badreddin al-Houthi
(Leader of Ansar Allah)
File:Asa'ib Ahl Al-Haq flag.png Qais al-Khazali
(Secretary-General of Asa'ib Ahl al-Haq)[56]
Akram al-Kaabi
(Secretary-General of Harakat Hezbollah al-Nujaba)[57]
Iraq Nouri al-Maliki (Secretary-General of Islamic Dawa Party)[58]
Mohammad Ali Jafari (2007–19)
(Commander of the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps)[59][60][61]
Qassim al-Muamen (Leader of Al-Ashtar Brigades)[62]

Abu Ala al-Walai (Secretary-General of Kata'ib Sayyid al-Shuhada)[63]
King Salman
(King of Saudi Arabia)
Mohammad bin Salman
(Crown Prince of Saudi Arabia and Minister of Defense)
Abdulaziz bin Saud
(Minister of Interior)[64]
Thamer al-Sabhan
(Minister of Gulf Affairs)[65]
Obeid Fadel Al-Shammari
(Commander of Saudi Arabia Force in Yemen)[66]
Fahd bin Turki bin Abdulaziz Al Saud
(Commander of the Joint Forces)[67]
Joe Biden
(President of the United States)
Ilham Aliyev
(President of Azerbaijan)
Hassan bin Hamza al-Shehri
(Commander of the PSF)[68]
Maryam Rajavi
(Leader of the People's Mojahedin of Iran and "President-Elect" of Iran)
Khalifa bin Zayed Al Nahyan
(President of the United Arab Emirates)
Mohammed bin Zayed Al Nahyan (Crown Prince of Abu Dhabi)
Abdrabbuh Mansur Hadi
(President of Yemen)
King Hamad
(King of Bahrain)
Recep Tayyip Erdogan
(President of Turkey)
Units involved
  • Hezbollah
  • Syrian Armed Forces
  • Iranian Armed Forces
  • Armenia Armed Forces of Armenia
  • Republic of Artsakh Artsakh Defence Army
  • Republican Guard
  • Russian Armed Forces
  • Houthi fighters
  • Yemen Armed Forces (pro-Saleh)
  • Popular Mobilization Forces
  • Armed Forces of Saudi Arabia
  • United States Armed Forces
  • Armed forces of Azerbaijan
  • Peninsula Shield Force
  • Bahrain Defence Force
  • Free Syrian Army
  • Yemen Armed Forces (pro-Hadi)
    1. Russia and China team against GNA
    2. Daoud, David (March 2015). "Meet the Proxies: How Iran Spreads Its Empire through Terrorist Militias". The Tower Magazine (24). Retrieved 18 August 2016.
    3. Hashim, Ahmed Salah (29 January 2016), "Saudi-Iranian Rivalry and Conflict: Shia Province as Casus Belli?" (PDF), RSIS Commentary, S. Rajaratnam School of International Studies (22), retrieved 18 August 2016
    4. Abedin, Mahan (26 October 2006). "Saudi Shi'ites: New light on an old divide". Asia Times. Retrieved 24 April 2017.
    5. Mashal, Mujib; Faizi, Fatima (11 November 2017). "Iran Sent Them to Syria. Now Afghan Fighters Are a Worry at Home". The New York Times. Retrieved 4 February 2019.
    6. 6.0 6.1 Özkizilcik, Ömer (21 February 2018). "Iran and the YPG: Friends or Foes?".
    7. 7.0 7.1 "What's Iran's role in the Armenia-Azerbaijan clash?". What’s Iran’s role in the Armenia-Azerbaijan clash?.
    8. 8.0 8.1 AFP, Mariam Harutyunyan for (31 October 2020). "Russia Pledges Help to Yerevan if Fighting Reaches Armenia". The Moscow Times.
    9. "Diplomatic relations between Morocco and Iran sour over Western Sahara dispute". 16 July 2018.
    10. Gaddafi Rebels clash with Tunisian Army
    11. Algeria violates UN Resolution for sending weapons to Gaddafi
    12. Goulka, Jeremiah; Hansell, Lydia; Wilke, Elizabeth; Larson, Judith (2009). The Mujahedin-e Khalq in Iraq: a policy conundrum (PDF). RAND Corporation. ISBN 978-0-8330-4701-4. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 February 2016. Retrieved 8 October 2016. Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) Search this book on Amazon.com Logo.png
    13. Mousavian, Seyed Hossein (21 July 2016). "From Iran to Nice, We Must Confront All Terrorism to End Terrorism". Huffington Post. Retrieved 18 August 2016.
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    16. Dehghanpisheh, Babak (4 September 2016). "To Iranian eyes, Kurdish unrest spells Saudi incitement". Reuters. Retrieved 2 November 2017.
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    18. "Lebanese Hezbollah: Ahvaz crime reaction to Resistance victories". Islamic Republic News Agency. 23 September 2018. Retrieved 4 February 2019.
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    20. "Saudi Arabia voices support for Azerbaijan's territorial integrity". AzerNews.az. 12 October 2020.
    21. https://eurasianet.org/amid-iran-crisis-us-offers-big-military-aid-boost-to-azerbaijan#:~:text=The%20Pentagon%20program%20would%20give,security%20against%20threats%20from%20Tehran.&text=As%20the%20U.S.%20has%20ratcheted,%24100%20million%20in%20military%20aid.
    22. U.S. Department of State official statment on Peru-U.S.A relations
    23. Abdulrahim, Raja (14 October 2020). "Turkish-Backed Syrian Fighters Join Armenian-Azeri Conflict" – via www.wsj.com.
    24. "الحشد الشعبي العراقي (يقاتل) إلى جانب الأسد في سوريا". دنيا الوطن.
    25. {{cite web|url=http://links.org.au/node/4503/
    26. Kelley, Michael (6 March 2013). "It Looks Like Iraq Has Joined Assad's Side In The Syrian War". Business Insider. Retrieved 4 February 2019.
    27. Jansen, Michael (23 August 2016). "China enters fray in Syria on Bashar al-Assad's side". The Irish Times. Retrieved 3 August 2018.
    28. "U.S. Frowns On Armenia's Involvement In Russia-Backed Syria Mission". RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty.
    29. Schwirtz, Michael (27 February 2018). "U.N. Links North Korea to Syria's Chemical Weapons Program (Published 2018)" – via NYTimes.com.
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    33. "North Korea's Balancing Act in the Persian Gulf". HuffPost. 17 August 2015.
    34. "Secret UN report reveals North Korea attempts to supply Houthis with weapons". Al Arabiya English. 4 August 2018.
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    36. "Child soldiers from Darfur fighting at front line of war in Yemen, returned soldiers say". The Independent. 29 December 2018.
    37. "Senegal to send 2,100 troops to join Saudi-led alliance". Reuters. 4 May 2015. Retrieved 4 May 2015.
    38. "US special forces secretly deployed to assist Saudi Arabia in Yemen conflict". The Independent. 3 May 2018.
    39. "In Yemen's "60 minutes" moment, no mention that the U.S. is fueling the conflict". The Intercept. 20 November 2017.
    40. "Report: Saudi-UAE coalition 'cut deals' with al-Qaeda in Yemen". Al-Jazeera. 6 August 2018.
    41. "US allies, Al Qaeda battle rebels in Yemen". Fox News. 7 August 2018.
    42. "Allies cut deals with al Qaeda in Yemen to serve larger fight with Iran". San Francisco Chronicle. 6 August 2018.
    43. "SOMALIA: Somalia finally pledges support to Saudi-led coalition in Yemen – Raxanreeb Online". RBC Radio. 7 April 2015. Archived from the original on 7 April 2015. Retrieved 7 April 2015. Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
    44. Ricks, Thomas E. (11 January 2016). "What Would a Saudi-Iran War Look Like? Don't look now, but it is already here". Foreign Policy. Retrieved 5 October 2016.
    45. "Dışişleri Bakanlığı, Husi terörüne karşı Yemen'e destek verdi". Türkiye (in Türkçe). 26 March 2013. Retrieved 14 April 2017.
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    50. "Bahrain: Widespread Suppression, Scant Reforms". Human Rights Watch. 31 January 2013. Retrieved 6 March 2018.
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    63. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 11 October 2018. Retrieved 13 February 2021. Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
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