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List of Austronesian languages

From EverybodyWiki Bios & Wiki

Below is a list of ISO 639-3 codes for Austronesian languages.

List[edit]

Code Language Classification Country Distribution Population Status Alternate names Autonym Dialects
tay Atayal Austronesian, Atayalic Taiwan Hualien and Taitung counties 84,300 (CIP-EY 2002) 5* (Developing) Ataiyal, Attayal, Bonotsek, Shabogala, Taijyal, Taiyal, Takonan, Tangao, Tyal, Yukan Tayal Sqoleq (Squliq), Ts’ole’ (Ci’uli’). Mayrinax is a Ci’uli’ subdialect.
trv Seediq Austronesian, Atayalic Taiwan Hualien county: inland from coast; Nantou county; Yunlin county: small area in Nan’ao township. Central mountains 20,000 (2008 R. Covell) 4 (Educational) Bu-Hwan, Che-Hwan, Daiya-Ataiyal, Hogo, Iboho, Saediq, Sazek, Sedek, Sedeq, Sediakk, Sedik, Sediq, Seedakka, Seedek, Seedeq, Seedik, Sejiq, Shedekka, Taroko, Taruku, Toda, Toroko Seediq Teruku (Truku), Te’uda (Tuuda), Tekedaya (Paran, Tkdaya). Dialects differ mainly in phonology and lexicon, some in grammar.
bnn Bunun Austronesian, Bunun Taiwan Chiayi, Hualien, Nantou, and Taitung counties; east central plain 38,000 (CIP-EY 2002). Ethnic population: 38,000 5* (Developing) Bubukun, Bunan, Bunti, Bunum, Vonun, Vunum, Vunun, Vunung Bunun Randai, Tondai, Shibukun (Sibucoon, Sibukaun, Sibukun, Sivukun), North Bunun (Takebakha, Taketodo, Takibakha, Takitudu, Takituduh), Central Bunun (Takbanuao, Takbanuaz, Takevatan, Takivatan), South Bunun (Isbukun, Ishbukun), Takopulan.
ami Amis Austronesian, East Formosan, Central Taiwan Hualien and Taitung counties: valley plains and east coast 138,000 (CIP-EY 2002). Ethnic population: 138,000 5* (Developing) Ami, Amia, Bakurut, Lam-Si-Hoan, Maran, Pagcah, Pangcah, Pangtsah, Sabari, Tanah Amis Central Amis (Haian Ami, Hsiukulan Ami), Tavalong-Vataan (Kuangfu, Kwangfu), Southern Amis (Hengch’un Amis, Peinan, Taitung), Chengkung-Kwangshan, Northern Amis (Nanshi Amis). Chengkung-Kwangshan dialect is most similar to Central Amis dialect.
szy Sakizaya Austronesian, East Formosan, Central Taiwan Hualien county 960 (2018 census). Based on nationality 4 (Educational) Kizaya, Qilai, Sakidaya, Sakiray, Sakiraya, Sukizaya Sakizaya None known. Lexical similarity: 53%–58% with Amis [ami].
byq Basay Austronesian, East Formosan, Northern Taiwan New Taipei Municipality No known L1 speakers (Liu 2007). The last fluent speaker probably died by the 1910s 10 (Extinct) Basai, Basay-Trobiawan, Kawanuwan, Ketangalan, Sprache von Formosa Trobiawan, Linaw-Qauqaul.
ckv Kavalan Austronesian, East Formosan, Northern Taiwan Yilan county: above Toucheng to Ilan and inland; migrants on east coast in Hualien county: Fengpin township, Hsishe village 24 (2000 P. Li). Ethnic population: 1,000 (Tsukida and Tsuchida 2007) 8b (Nearly extinct) Cabaran, Kabalan, Kabaran, Kamalan, Kavanan, Kavarauan, Kbalan, Kibalan, Kiwaraw, Kiwarawa, Kuvalan, Kuvarawan, Kuwarawan, Kvalan, Shekwan Kareovan (Kareowan).
fos Siraya Austronesian, East Formosan, Southwest Taiwan Tainan Municipality: Hengchun to Peimen to Tapu No known L1 speakers. No fluent native speakers since 1908. Some older semi-speakers (2008 C. Huang) 9 (Dormant) Baksa, Formosan, Sideia, Sideis, Sideisch, Siraia, Siraiya, “Pepo-Hwan” (pej.), “Pepohoan” (pej.) Siraya, Makatao (Makattao, Takaraya, Tta’o), Pangsoia-Dolatok, Lamai.
tvx Taivoan Austronesian, East Formosan, Southwest Taiwan No known L1 speakers. The last known speaker died near the end of the 1800s 9 (Dormant) Taivuan, Tevorang, Tevorangh None known. Most closely related to Siraya [fos].
uun Kulon-Pazeh Austronesian, Northwest Formosan Taiwan Miaoli county 2 (Jen-kuei Li 2013). Pazeh dialect is extinct. Only known speakers use Kaxabu dialect (Jen-kuei Li 2013) 8b (Nearly extinct) Kulon, Kulon-Pazih, Kulun, Pazeh, Pazeh-Kahabu, Pazehe, Pazih, Pazzehe, Sprache von Formosa Kulon (Kulun), Pazeh (Pazih), Kaxabu. Last speaker of the Pazeh dialect, Pan Jin-Yu, died in 2010.
xsy Saisiyat Austronesian, Northwest Formosan Taiwan Miaoli county: Nanchuang and Shihtan townships; Hsinchu county: Wufeng township. Western mountains 4,750 (CIP-EY 2002). Tungho: more active use. Taai: a few speakers; nearly assimilated into Atayal [tay]. Ethnic population: 7,900 6b (Threatened) Amutoura, Bouiok, Saiset, Saisett, Saisiat, Saisiett, Saisirat, Saisyet, Saisyett, Seisirat Taai (North Saiset), Tungho (South Saiset). Dialect differences are mainly phonological and lexical (1978 P. Li).
pwn Paiwan Austronesian, Paiwan Taiwan Pingtung and Taitung counties: mountains southeast 66,100 (CIP-EY 2002). Ethnic population: 66,100 5* (Developing) Butanglu, Kadas, Kale-Whan, Kapiangan, Katausan, Li-Li-Sha, Paiuan, Payowan, Samobi, Samohai, Saprek, Stimul, Tamari, Vinuculjan Pinayuanan
pyu Puyuma Austronesian, Puyuma Taiwan Taitung county: southeast coast and inland 1,000 (Teng 2008). Ethnic population: 10,800 (2007 Council of Indigenous People). About 6,800 still reside in the Taitung area (Teng 2008) 8a (Moribund) Kadas, Panapanayan, Pelam, Pilam, Piyuma, Pyuma, Tipun Pinuyumayan Nanwang, Katipol.
dru Rukai Austronesian, Rukai Taiwan Kaohsiung, Pingtung, and Taitung counties: west of Taitung city, 13 or 14 villages in south central mountains 10,500 (CIP-EY 2002). Some monolingual older adults. Ethnic population: 10,500 5 (Developing) Banga, Bantalang, Bantaurang, Drukai, Drukay, Dukai, Dyokay, Kadas, Rutkai, Sarisen, Taloma, Tsalisen, Tsarisen Budai (Adiri, Kalramomodhesae, Kinulan, Kucapungan, Vedrai), Labuan (Laboan, Talamakao), Tanan (Taromak), Maga (Teldrɨka), Tona (Kongadavane), Mantauran (’oponoho). Mantauran, Tona, and Maga dialects are divergent.
xnb Kanakanabu Austronesian, Tsouic Taiwan Kaohsiung county: Sanmin township, Minchuan village area 4 (2012 P. Jen-Kuei). A few other semi-speakers who have passive knowledge of the language (2012 P. Jen-Kuei). Ethnic population: 250 (UNESCO) 8b (Nearly extinct) Kanabu, Kanakanavu
sxr Saaroa Austronesian, Tsouic Taiwan Kaohsiung county: enclave south and southeast of Minchuan, along Laonung river in west central mountains 10 (2012 C. Pan). Ethnic population: 300 (2000 UNESCO) 8b (Nearly extinct) Hla’alua, La’alua, La’arua, Lha’alua, Pachien, Paichien, Rarua, Saarua, Saroa, Shishaban, Sisyaban None known. Reportedly similar to Kanakanabu [xnb].
tsu Tsou Austronesian, Tsouic Taiwan Chiayi county: Alishan (Mt. Ali) area; Kaohsiung county: northwest and central; Nantou county: south central 4,000 (Zeitoun 2005) 6b (Threatened) Cou, Namakaban, Niitaka, Tibola, Tibolah, Tibolak, Tibolal, Tso, Tsoo, Tsu-U, Tsu-Wo, Tsuou, Tzo Luhtu (Duhtu), Luhtu, Tapangu, Tfuya (Tfuea), Iimucu (Iimutsu). Iimucu has no remaining speakers (Wurm and Hattori 1981); Luhtu is on the verge of extinction (Zeitoun 2005).
kae Ketangalan Austronesian, Unclassified Taiwan New Taipei Municipality: Panchiao area No known L1 speakers. Probably extinct by mid 20th century 10 (Extinct) Basay, Ketagalan, Sprache von Formosa, Tangalan
bzg Babuza Austronesian, Western Plains, Central Western Plains Taiwan Changhua county: west central coast and inland, Tatu and Choshui rivers and beyond No known L1 speakers. Survived into the 2000s. Ethnic population: 35 9 (Dormant) Babusa, Favorlang, Favorlang-Babuza, Favorlangsch, Jaborlang, Poavosa, Sprache von Formosa Poavosa, Taokas.
ppu Papora-Hoanya Austronesian, Western Plains, Central Western Plains Taiwan Taichung Municipality No known L1 speakers. The last speaker survived into the 1980s (Tsuchida 1982) 10 (Extinct) Bupuran, Hinapavosa, Hoanya, Papola, Papora, Sprache von Formosa, Vupuran Papora, Hoanya.
ssf Thao Austronesian, Western Plains, Thao Taiwan Nantou county: Sun Moon Lake southeast shore, Te-hua village, and Ta-p’ing-lin, 14 km away No known L1 speakers. Last speaker died in 2017. Ethnic population: 300 (Tsukida and Tsuchida 2007) 9 (Dormant) Chui-Huan, Chuihwan, Sao, Sau, Shao, Suihwan, Vulung Brawbaw, Shtafari.
nuw Nguluwan Mixed language, Yapese-Ulithi Micronesia Yap state: Ngulu atoll, 480 km south of Yap island 50 (Sakiyama 2000) 8b (Nearly extinct) None known. Phonology from Ulithian [uli] and grammar and lexicon from Yapese [yap].
eno Enggano Unclassified Indonesia Bengkulu province: Enggano island, southwest of mainland; 4 small nearby islands 1,500 (2000 census), decreasing 6b (Threatened) Engganese None known. Not closely related to other languages.
dyg Agta, Villa Viciosa Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian Philippines Cordillera Administrative Region: Abra province No known L1 speakers. Last speaker probably died by the 1990s (Headland 2010) 10 (Extinct)
ban Bali Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Bali-Sasak-Sumbawa Indonesia Bali province: widespread; West Nusa Tenggara province: Kota Mataram and Lombok Barat regency; west central Lombok island 3,300,000 (2010 census). 7,000 in South Sulawesi. Includes immigrant speakers in west Nusa Tenggara, west Lombok Islands. Ethnic population: 3,950,000 (2011 census) 5 (Developing) Balinese Basa Bali Lowland Bali (Badung, Buleleng, Gianyar, Jembrana, Karangasem, Klungkung, Tabanan), Highland Bali (“Bali Aga” (pej.)), Nusa Penida. Reportedly 2 distinct dialects. High Bali is used in religion, but users are diminishing. Speech strata in several lowland varieties (1989 A. Clynes).
sas Sasak Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Bali-Sasak-Sumbawa, Sasak-Sumbawa Indonesia West Nusa Tenggara province: Lombok island 2,100,000 (1989). Ethnic population: 3,170,000 (2011 census) 5* (Developing) Lombok Kuto-Kute (North Sasak), Ngeto-Ngete (Northeast Sasak), Meno-Mene (Central Sasak), Ngeno-Ngene (Central East Sasak, Central West Sasak), Mriak-Mriku (Central South Sasak). Complex dialect network. Some varieties have low mutual intelligibility.
smw Sumbawa Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Bali-Sasak-Sumbawa, Sasak-Sumbawa Indonesia West Nusa Tenggara province: Sumbawa and Moyo islands 300,000 (1989) 6a* (Vigorous) Semawa, Sumbawarese
ivb Ibatan Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Bashiic, Ivatan Philippines Cagayan Valley region: Cagayan province, Aparri municipality on Fuga island, Calayan municipality; on Babuyan islands 1,240 (2007 NCIP). No monolinguals. Ethnic population: 1,400 (2008 SIL) 4 (Educational) Babuyan, Ibataan, Ivatan Ibatan None known. Intelligibility of Itbayaten Ivatan [ivv] 64%; Basco Ivatan [ivv] 31%. Lexical similarity: 72% with Itbayaten Ivatan [ivv], 74% with Basco Ivatan [ivv] (1974–1975 SIL survey).
ivv Ivatan Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Bashiic, Ivatan Philippines Cagayan Valley region: Batanes province; MIMAROPA region: Palawan province. Many scattered in Mindanao; Manila 35,000 (1998 SIL), increasing. 3,450 Itbayatan (1996 census) 4 (Educational). De facto language of provincial identity in Batanes province Ivatanen Chirin nu Ibatan Itbayaten (Itbayat), Basco Ivatan, Southern Ivatan.
tao Yami Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Bashiic, Yami Taiwan Taitung county: Botel Tobago (Lanyu) island, Orchid island, southeast coast 3,800 (Rau and Dong 2006) 6b (Threatened) Botel Tabago, Botel Tobago, Lanyu, Tao, Tawu Pongso no Tao None known. Reportedly similar to northern Philippines Ivatan [ivv].
bgi Giangan Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Bilic Philippines Davao region: Davao del Sur province, east slopes of Mount Apo; Davao City 58,500 (2005 UNSD) 7 (Shifting) Atto, Bagobo, Bagobo-Guiangga, Clata, Diangan, Eto, Guanga, Gulanga, Jangan None known. 69% comprehension of Tagabawa [bgs]; 79% of Obo Manobo [obo]. Lexical similarity: 34% with Tagabawa [bgs], 35% with Obo Manobo [obo], 43% with Blaan [bpr].
tiy Tiruray Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Bilic Philippines Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao: Maguindanao province southwest, Datu Blah T. Sinsuat, North Upi, and south Upi municipalities; Soccsksargen region: Sultan Kudarat province northwest, Lebak municipality 60,500 (2005 UNSD). Ethnic population: 50,000 5* (Developing) Tirurai Téduray
bpr Blaan, Koronadal Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Bilic, Blaan Philippines Davao region: Davao del Sur province; Soccsksargen region: Sarangani and South Cotabato (east) provinces; Sultan Kudarat province, Lutayan area 150,000 (2007 SIL). 40,000 monolinguals 5 (Developing) Baraan, Bilanes, Biraan, Blaan, Koronadal Bilaan, Tagalagad Koronadal B’laan
bps Blaan, Sarangani Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Bilic, Blaan Philippines Davao region: Davao del Sur province, across from north Sarangani border; Soccsksargen region: Sarangani province; South Cotabato province, General Santos and north 90,800 (2000) 5* (Developing) Balud, Bilaan, Blaan, Sarangani Blaan, Tumanao
tbl Tboli Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Bilic, Tboli Philippines Soccsksargen region: Sarangani province, Katabau west to provincial border on Celebes seacoast; South Cotabato province, Mount Busa area and west; Sultan Kudarat province, Bagumbayan municipality and Kraun area 87,200 (2005 UNSD). 10,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 100,000 4 (Educational) T’boli, Tiboli, “Tagabili” (pej.) Tboli Central Tboli, Western Tboli, Southern Tboli.
blz Balantak Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Eastern, Saluan-Banggai, Eastern Indonesia Central Sulawesi province: Banggai regency, Balantak, Lamala, Luwuk, and Tinangkung Lamala sub-districts, at least 49 villages; Cape Talabu 31,000, all users. L1 users: 30,000 (2000 SIL), increasing. L2 users: 1,000 (2015 R. Busenitz). 1,500 monolinguals (2015 R. Busenitz) 5 (Developing) Balanta, Kosian Wurung Balantak None known. Lexical similarity: 66% with Andio [bzb], 51% with Saluan [loe], 39% with Bobongko [bgb].
bgz Banggai Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Eastern, Saluan-Banggai, Eastern Indonesia Central Sulawesi province: Banggai Kepulauan regency, at least 157 villages; Banggai and Bowokan islands 125,000 (2000 census), decreasing 7 (Shifting) Aki, Banggaai, Banggaiy, Banggay, Banggaya East Banggai, West Banggai.
bzb Andio Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Eastern, Saluan-Banggai, Western Indonesia Central Sulawesi province: Lamala sub-district, Tangeban and Tauge villages, peninsula east tip area 1,700 (Busenitz 1991) 6b (Threatened) Andio’o, Imbao’o, Masama, “Bobongko” (pej.) None known. Lexical similarity: 44% with Bobongko [bgb], 60% with Batui [zbt], 62% with Saluan [loe], 66% with Balantak [blz].
zbt Batui Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Eastern, Saluan-Banggai, Western, Saluanic Indonesia Central Sulawesi province: Banggai regency, Batui sub-district, Balantang, Batui, Sisipan, and Tolando villages; eastern peninsula 2,900, decreasing 7 (Shifting) Baha None known. Lexical similarity: 74% with Saluan [loe], 60% with Andio [bzb], 54% with Bobongko [bgb], 46% with Balantak [blz], 38% with Banggai [bgz].
bgb Bobongko Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Eastern, Saluan-Banggai, Western, Saluanic Indonesia Central Sulawesi province: Batu Daka island, Tumbulawa village on northwest coast; Togian islands, Lembanato village on Kilat bay, north side of Togian island 1,500 (Mead 2001). 1,100 in Lembanato and 400 in Tumbulawa 6b* (Threatened) None known. Different from Andio [bzb]. Lexical similarity: 53% with Saluan [loe], 44% with Andio [bzb], and 30% with Gorontalo [gor], 25%–30% with Gorontalo-Mongondow languages.
loe Saluan Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Eastern, Saluan-Banggai, Western, Saluanic Indonesia Central Sulawesi province: Banggai regency, Balingara town east to Mount Balantak area; Lamala bay southwest along Peleng strait to Mantawa town, inland to central highlands; Tojo Una-Una regency, Togian islands, Walbabhi island: Batui, Boalemo, Bunta, Kintom, Luwuk, East Luwuk, Nuhon, and Pagimana sub-districts, 136 villages 76,000 (1978) 6b (Threatened) Coastal Saluan, Loinang, Loindang, Madi, Mondono Loinang (Baloa’, Kohumama’, Lingketeng), Luwuk, Kintom-Pagimana-Boalemo. Lexical similarity: 74% with Batui [zbt], 53% with Bobongko [bgb], 62% with Andio [bzb], 51% with Balantak [blz].
wow Wawonii Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Eastern, Southeastern, Bungku-Tolaki, Eastern, East Coast Indonesia Southeast Sulawesi province: Wawonii and Menui islands near Kendari port 30,000 (2004 D. Andersen), increasing. 22,500 Wawonii, 7,500 Menui 6a* (Vigorous) Wowonii Wawonii, Menui (Manoei). Lexical similarity: 75% with Bungku [bkz] and Tulambatu dialect of Bungku [bkz], 66% with Taloki [lbw], Kulisusu [vkl], and Koroni [xkq], 65% with Moronene [mqn].
bsu Bahonsuai Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Eastern, Southeastern, Bungku-Tolaki, Eastern, East Coast Indonesia Central Sulawesi province: Morowali regency, Bungku Tengah sub-district, Bahonsuai village on the east coast, Tolo bay 200 (Mead 1999) 7 (Shifting) Bahoe-soeaai, Bahonsoewaai None known. Lexical similarity: 71% with Tomadino [tdi], 68% with Mori Atas [mzq], Mori Bawah [xmz], and Padoe [pdo].
bkz Bungku Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Eastern, Southeastern, Bungku-Tolaki, Eastern, East Coast Indonesia Central Sulawesi province: Bungku Selatan, Bungku Tengah, and Bungku Utara sub-districts, about 45 coastal villages from Mondeodo south to Kenduri area; Southeast Sulawesi province: Konawe regency, Asera, Soropia, and Lasolo sub-districts, Tulambatu and Kenduri areas inland, interior enclave southeast of Lake Poso 27,000 (2000 census), increasing 6a* (Vigorous) Ikinyikiusa, Tamboeko, Tambuku, Tobuco, “Nahina” (pej.) Bungku, Routa, Tulambatu, Torete (To Rete), Landawe, Waia. Lexical similarity: 81% with Torete, Waia, Tulambatu, and Landawe dialects; 38% with Pamona dialects [pmf]; 88% with Landawe dialect; 84% with Waia dialect; 82% with Torete dialect; 74% with Wawonii [wow]; 66% with Taloki [tlk], Kulisusu [vkl], and Koroni [xkq]; 65% with Moronene [mqn]; 54% with the Mori and Tolaki groups; 82% with the Routa dialect.
xmz Mori Bawah Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Eastern, Southeastern, Bungku-Tolaki, Eastern, East Coast Indonesia Central Sulawesi province: Bungku Tengah, Lembo, and Petasia sub-districts, 24 villages; South Sulawesi province: Mahalone and Matano lakes. All locations are on southeast Sulawesi island peninsula, Lake Towuti area 14,000 (1988 D. Mead) 6b* (Threatened) Beneden-Tomori, East Mori, Lower Mori, Nahina, Oost-Mori, Petasia Tinompo (Mokole, Soroako), Watu (Towatoe), Moiki (Tomoiki), Tiu (Tioe), Karunsi’e (Karonsie, Korongsi, Sinongko), Nuha (Soroako). Lexical similarity: 73%–86% with Mori Atas [mzq], 75% with Padoe [pdo].
vkl Kulisusu Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Eastern, Southeastern, Bungku-Tolaki, Eastern, East Coast, Kulisusu Indonesia Southeast Sulawesi province: North Buton regency, Bonegunu, Kulisusu Barat, Kulisusu Induk, and Kulisusu Utara sub-districts on north Buton island 22,000 (Mead 1999), increasing 6a* (Vigorous) Kalisusu, Kolensusu, Kolinsusu Lexical similarity: 81% between dialects, 77% with Tolaki [lbw], 75% with Koroni [xkq], 66% with Wawonii [wow] and Bungku [bkz] group, 65% with Moronene [mqn], 54% with the Mori languages.
xkq Koroni Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Eastern, Southeastern, Bungku-Tolaki, Eastern, East Coast, Kulisusu Indonesia Central Sulawesi province: Morowali regency, Bungku Tengah sub-district, Unsongi village on Tolo bay east coast 500 (Mead 1999) 7 (Shifting) Oengsongi Lexical similarity: 75% with Taloki [tlk] and Kulisusu [vkl], 66% with Wawonii [wow], Bungku [bkz], Tulambatu dialect of Bungku [bkz]; 65% with Moronene [mqn].
tlk Taloki Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Eastern, Southeastern, Bungku-Tolaki, Eastern, East Coast, Kulisusu Indonesia Southeast Sulawesi province: Buton Utara regency; Kapontori and Wakorumba sub-districts, Maligano and Wakalambe villages on Buton island northwest coast 550 (2005 R. Van den Berg). 400 in Maligano, 150 in Wakalambe 7 (Shifting) Talloki, Taluki Lexical similarity: 77% with Kulisusu [vkl]; 75% with Koroni [xkq]; 66% with Wawonii [wow], Bungku [bkz], and Tulambatu dialect of Bungku [bkz]; 65% with Moronene [mqn].
mqn Moronene Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Eastern, Southeastern, Bungku-Tolaki, Eastern, Southwest Indonesia Southeast Sulawesi province: Bombana regency, Bombana district, Wita Ea village; Rumbia mountains on southeast mainland; Kabaena island, Tokotu’a village; mainland opposite Kabaena. Rumbia, Poleang, and Poleang Timur sub-districts (Wita Ea dialect) 37,000 (2000 D. Andersen), increasing. Wita Ea 23,000, Tokotu’a 14,000. Includes about 3,500 living in cities. Second or third generations in cities no longer speak Moronene. 1,850 monolinguals 6a (Vigorous) Maronene Wita Ea (Poleang, Rumbia), Tokotu’a (Kabaena). Lexical similarity: Wita Ea dialect 80% with Tokotu’a dialect; 68% with Menui dialect of Wawonii [wow], 66% with Kulisusu [vkl], 65% with Taloki [tlk], Koroni [xkq], Tulambatu dialect of Bungku [bkz], 64% with Bungku [bkz], and 57% with Tolaki [lbw].
mzq Mori Atas Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Eastern, Southeastern, Bungku-Tolaki, Western, Interior Indonesia Central Sulawesi province: Lembo, Mori Atas, and Petasia sub-districts, 25 villages on southeast peninsula neck; South Sulawesi province: Nuha sub-district 14,000 (1988 D. Mead) 6b* (Threatened) Aikoa, Berg-Tomori, Boven-Mori, Upper Mori, West Mori Impo, Molio’a, Molongkuni, Ulu Uwoi, Tambee (Ajo, South Mori, Zuid-Mori). Lexical similarity: 73%–86% with Mori Bawah [xmz] and Padoe [pdo].
pdo Padoe Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Eastern, Southeastern, Bungku-Tolaki, Western, Interior Indonesia South Sulawesi province: Luwu Utara regency, Malili, Mangkutana, and Nuha sub-districts, 9 villages inland between Lake Mantana and Usu arm of Bone bay 5,000 (1991 P. Vuorinen) 6b* (Threatened) Alalao, Mori, Pado-e, Padoé, South Mori Central Padoe, Western Padoe. 2 dialects. Lexical similarity: 73%–86% with Mori Atas [mzq], 75% with Mori Bawah [xmz].
tdi Tomadino Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Eastern, Southeastern, Bungku-Tolaki, Western, Interior Indonesia Central Sulawesi province: Bungku Tengah sub-district, Sakita village on Tolo bay east coast 600 (Mead 1999) 8a (Moribund) None known. Lexical similarity: 71% with Bahonsuai [bsu], 68% with Mori Atas [mzq], Mori Bawah [xmz], and Padoe [pdo].
wru Waru Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Eastern, Southeastern, Bungku-Tolaki, Western, West Coast Indonesia Southeast Sulawesi province: Konawe Utara regency, Asera sub-district interior, Mopute village 350 (Mead 1999) 6b (Threatened) Mapute, Mopute Waru, Lalomerui. Lexical similarity: 86% with the Waru and Lalomerui dialects, 79% with Mekongga and other Tolaki [lbw] dialects, 70% with Rahambuu [raz] and Kodeoha [vko], 54% with the Mori [mzq] or [xmz] and Bungku [bkz] groups.
raz Rahambuu Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Eastern, Southeastern, Bungku-Tolaki, Western, West Coast Indonesia Southeast Sulawesi province: Kolaka Utara regency, Pakue sub-district on upper Bone bay west coast, Batunong and north; some in South Sulawesi Selatan province 5,000 (Mead 1999) 7 (Shifting) Lellewao, Lellewau, Noihe, Wiaoe, Wiau Lexical similarity: 87% between dialects, 75% with Kodeoha [vko], 70% with Tolaki [lbw], Mekongga dialect of Tolaki [lbw], and Waru [wru]; 54% with Mori [mzq] or [xmz] and Bungku [bkz] groups.
vko Kodeoha Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Eastern, Southeastern, Bungku-Tolaki, Western, West Coast Indonesia Southeast Sulawesi province: North Kolaka regency, Lasusua sub-district, 4 villages in upper Bone bay, east coast 1,500 (Mead 1999) 6b* (Threatened) Kondea, Kondeha Lexical similarity: 75% with Rahambuu [raz]; 70% with the Mekongga dialect of Tolaki [lbw], and Waru [wru]; 54% with the several Mori and Bungku [bkz] groups.
lbw Tolaki Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Eastern, Southeastern, Bungku-Tolaki, Western, West Coast Indonesia Southeast Sulawesi province: Kolaka, North Kolaka, Konawe, North Konawe, and South Konawe regencies, Mekongga district; Point Kolono on southeast peninsula, northwest across plains to highlands; west coast, past Klaka town toward Bone bay narrows 331,000 (2000 census). 298,000 Tolaki (Konawe), 33,000 Mekongga and 200 Wiwirano. Asera and Laiwui not separately listed, but less than 1,000 6b* (Threatened) Laki, Lolaki, To’olaki, Tokia, Tololaki Wiwirano (Nohina), Asera (Asera Wanua, Noie), Konawe (Kendari, Kioki, Tambuoki), Mekongga (Bingkokak, Kolaka, Konio, Norio, Tamboki), Laiwui. Lexical similarity: 88% with Asera, 84% with Konawe, 85% with Mekongga, 81% with Laiwui, 78% with Waru, 70% with Rahambuu and Kodeoha, 54% with the Mori and Bungku groups. Mekongga has 86% with Konawe, 80% with Laiwui.
llm Lasalimu Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Eastern, Southeastern, Muna-Buton, Nuclear Muna-Buton, Buton, East Buton Indonesia Southeast Sulawesi province: Buton regency, Lasalimu sub-district, Lasalima town, Lasalimu and Malaoge villages facing Lawelu bay on Buton island 1,700 (1999 SIL) 6b (Threatened) None known. Lexical similarity: 68% with Kamaru [kgx], 64% with Cia-Cia [cia], 48% with Tukang Besi North [khc], 49% with Tukang Besi South [bhq], 51% with Pancana [pnp], 50% with Wolio [wlo] and Muna [mnb].
xks Kumbewaha Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Eastern, Southeastern, Muna-Buton, Nuclear Muna-Buton, Buton, East Buton Indonesia Southeast Sulawesi province: Buton regency, Lasalimu sub-district, Kumbewaha and Wajah Jaya villages on southeast Buton island 3,400 (2004 SIL) 6a (Vigorous) Kumberaha, Umbewaha
cia Cia-Cia Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Eastern, Southeastern, Muna-Buton, Nuclear Muna-Buton, Buton, West Buton Indonesia Southeast Sulawesi province: southeast tip, Flores sea; Buton island, inland between Membula and Pasawajo towns; Batu Atas and Binongko islands 79,000 (2005 SIL) 6a (Vigorous) Boetoneezen, Buton, Butonese, Butung, South Buton, Southern Butung Kaesabu, Sampolawa (Mambulu-Laporo), Wabula, Masiri. Lexical similarity: 93% with Masiri dialect, 74% with Kambe-Kambero dialect of Kaimbulawa [zka], 69% with Busoa [bup], 67% with Lontoi dialect of Kaimbulawa [zka], 66% with Liabuku [lix], 61% with Wolio [wlo], 60% with Muna [mnb].
bup Busoa Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Eastern, Southeastern, Muna-Buton, Nuclear Muna-Buton, Munan Indonesia Southeast Sulawesi province: Buton regency, Batauga sub-district, Busoa and Laompo villages on Buton island southwest tip, Flores sea 2,300 (2000 SIL) 7 (Shifting) Bosoa Lexical similarity: 84% with Kambe-Kambero (probably a dialect of Kaimbulawa [zka]), 70%–79% with Muna dialects, 71% with Muna [mnb], 76% with Lantoi [zka].
zka Kaimbulawa Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Eastern, Southeastern, Muna-Buton, Nuclear Muna-Buton, Munan, Munic Indonesia Southeast Sulawesi province: Kaimbulawa and Lantoi villages on Siompu island, southwest Buton island, Kambe-kambero village 2,200 (2005 SIL) 6b (Threatened) Kambe-Kambero, Kaimbulawa (Lontoi). Not a dialect of Muna [mnb] or Cia-Cia [cia]. Lexical similarity: 81% with Kambe-kambero dialect, 75% with Busoa [bup], 64%–74% with Muna [mnb] dialects, 64% with Muna, 70% with Liabuku [lix], 66% with Cia-Cia [cia], 58% with Wolio [wlo], 45% with Kaledupa dialect of Tukang Besi North [khc]; Kambe-kambero dialect is 84% with Busoa [bup], 72% with Muna [mnb], 76% with Liabuku [lix].
ues Kioko Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Eastern, Southeastern, Muna-Buton, Nuclear Muna-Buton, Munan, Munic, Western Indonesia Southeast Sulawesi province: north Buton regency, Bonegunu and Kambowa sub-districts, east central Buton island 1,000 (1991 SIL) 6b (Threatened) Kioko, Kambowa. Possibly dialect of the Pancana [pnp] language. Lexical similarity: 82% with Kambowa dialect, 81% with Laompo dialect of Muna [mnb], 74% with Muna, 75% with Liabuku [lix] and Busoa [bup].
mnb Muna Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Eastern, Southeastern, Muna-Buton, Nuclear Muna-Buton, Munan, Munic, Western Indonesia Southeast Sulawesi province: Buton regency, Kadatuang and Siumpu islands; some in Ambon city; Buton Utara regency on northwest Buton island along Buntung strait, from Puntau north past Lebo; Muna regency, Muna and Tiworo islands 300,000 (2007 R. Van den Berg) 6b* (Threatened) Wuna Standard Muna (Northern Muna), Tiworo (Eastern Muna), Gu, Lakudo, Mawasangka, Kadatua, Siompu, Katobengke, Burukene, Laompo, Kapontori. Subvarieties of standard Muna are: Tungkuno, Kabawo, Lawa, Katobu, Tobea Besar; of Gulamas are: Gu, Mawasangka, Lakudo, Wale-Ale, Lawama, Kadatua, Lowu-Lowu, Kalia-Lia, Katobengke, Topa, Salaa, Lawela, Laompo, and Burukene. Lexical similarity: 71% with Pancana [pnp], 62% with Cia-Cia [cia], 52% with Wolio [wlo], 50% with Lasalimu [llm], 47% with Tukang Besi [khc] or [bhq], 45% with Kamaru [kgx].
lix Liabuku Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Eastern, Southeastern, Muna-Buton, Nuclear Muna-Buton, Munan, Munic, Western Indonesia Southeast Sulawesi province: Bungi district, Bau-Bau sub-district; south Buton island Liabuku village area north of Bau-Bau 75 (2004 SIL), decreasing 8a (Moribund) Quite divergent from other Muna varieties. Lexical similarity: 82% with the Burukene dialect of Muna [mnb], 72%–76% with other Muna dialects, 72% with Muna, 75% with Kioko [ues].
pnp Pancana Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Eastern, Southeastern, Muna-Buton, Nuclear Muna-Buton, Munan, Munic, Western Indonesia Southeast Sulawesi province: central Buton island, east and west coasts 6,000 (2005 D. Andersen) 6a* (Vigorous) Pantjana Kapontori (Akido), Kalende (Lawele), Labuandiri. Dialect names are also place names. May be more than 1 language. Lexical similarity: 71% with Muna [mnb], 57% with Cia-Cia [cia].
bna Bonerate Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Eastern, Southeastern, Muna-Buton, Tukangbesi-Bonerate Indonesia South Sulawesi province: Bonerate, Madu, Kalaotoa, Karompa, and Selayer islands 9,500 (1987 SIL) 6a* (Vigorous) Bonerate, Karompa. Lexical similarity: 79%–81% with Tukang Besi South [bhq], 31% with Kalao [kly], 25% with Laiyolo [lji].
khc Tukang Besi North Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Eastern, Southeastern, Muna-Buton, Tukangbesi-Bonerate Indonesia Southeast Sulawesi province: Ambon, Bacan, Buru, Kaledupa, Maluku, Mongole, Runduma, Seram, Sulabesi, Taliabu, and Wangiwangi islands; Baubau and Sumbawa cities 120,000 in Indonesia (1995 SIL). 60,000 in Maluku 6a* (Vigorous) Buton, Wakatobi Kaledupa (Kahedupa), Wanci (Wangi- Wangi, Wanje, Wanji, Wantji). Lexical similarity: 80% with Kaledupa and Wanci, and may be separate languages. 70%–75% with Tukang Besi South [bhq], 48% with Lasalimu [llm], 47% with Cia-Cia [cia], 40% with Kamaru [kgx], an average of 35% with other nearby languages.
bhq Tukang Besi South Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Eastern, Southeastern, Muna-Buton, Tukangbesi-Bonerate Indonesia South Sulawesi province: Selayar regency, Bonerate, Kalaotoa, Karompa, and Madu islands; Alor, Ambon, Buru, Maluku, Mongole, Seram, Sulawesi, and Taliabu islands; Southeast Sulawesi province: Tukang Besi archipelago, south islands, and northern Binongko and Tomea islands; Papua province: western areas; Papua province: western areas 130,000 (1995 SIL), increasing. 100,000 in Maluku 6a (Vigorous) Buton, Tukang-Besi, Wakatobi Binongko, Bonerate, Tomea (Tomia). Lexical similarity: 70%–75% with Tukang Besi North [khc], 48% with Cia-Cia [cia], 49% with Lasalimu [llm], average of 35% with other nearby languages. Lexical similarity 85% with Binongko and Tomea, 81% with Bonerate, 79% with Tomea and Bonerate.
tvw Sedoa Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Kaili-Pamona, Northern, Kaili Indonesia Central Sulawesi province, Lore Utara subdistrict, Sedoa village; Poso Pesisir subdistrict, parts of Tambarona and Pinedapa villages 900 (2009 S. Shore). Ethnic population: 4,000 6b* (Threatened) Baria, Tawaelia, Tawailia, Tawelia, Topobaria Sedoa Not a dialect of nearby Napu [npy] or of Kaili languages. Most closely related to Moma [myl] in Palolo Valley.
kzf Kaili, Da’a Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Kaili-Pamona, Northern, Kaili Indonesia Central Sulawesi and West Sulawesi provinces: Banawa, Dolo, Marawola, Palolo, and Sigi-Biromaru sub-districts 55,000 (2007 SIL), increasing. 3,000–5,000 Da’a and Inde in south Sulawesi. Many monolinguals 5 (Developing) Binggi, Bunggu, Da’a, Pakawa, Pekava, Pekawa Basa Da’a Da’a (Dombu), Inde. Some intelligibility of Ledo dialect of Kaili, Ledo [lew] and other Kaili varieties, but with major sociolinguistic differences. Lexical similarity: 98% between the Da’a and Inde dialects.
toy Topoiyo Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Kaili-Pamona, Northern, Kaili Indonesia West Sulawesi province: Mamuju regency, Budong-Budong sub-district, inland along Budong-Budong river 450 (Yamaguchi and Nakashima 2001), decreasing 8a (Moribund) Lexical similarity: 66% with Sarudu [sdu] and Da’a [kzf], 56% with Ledo [lew], 54% with the Parigi dialect of Kaili [lew].
brs Baras Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Kaili-Pamona, Northern, Kaili Indonesia West Sulawesi province: Mamuju Utara regency, Baras sub-district, in and north of Bambaloka village, Karossa sub-district, Salubiro village 250 (Valkama 1987). 50 households 8a (Moribund) Ende Lexical similarity: 84% with Da’a Kaili [kzf], 85% with Inde dialect of Kaili, Da’a [kzf], 80% or more with other Kaili varieties, 64% with Uma [ppk].
lew Kaili, Ledo Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Kaili-Pamona, Northern, Kaili Indonesia Central Sulawesi province: south Donggala, Morowali, south Parigi Moutong, Poso, Sigi, and Tojo Una-Una regencies, Kota Palu city; Una-Una island in Togian chain, coastal groups near Malai, Puna, and Tomori bay head 350,000 (2000 census), increasing 3 (Wider communication). Ledo is lingua franca in West Toraja area Kaili, Ledo, Paloesch, Palu Kaili-Ledo Ledo (Palu), Doi (Kayu Malue, Mamboro), Ado (Pakuli, Sibalaya), Edo (Sidondo), Tado (Ri Io, To ri Io, Torio, Toriu), Tara (Parigi), Rai (Sindue-Tawaili, Tawaili-Sindue), Raio (Kori), Ija (Sigi), Taa (Palolo), Ta’a (Dolago-Sausu, Sausu). Doi dialect is intelligible of Ledo and Edo; Ado next most intelligible; Tado a little less. Some intelligibility of Da’a [kzf], but major sociolinguistic differences. Lexical similarity: 80%–88% between Ledo and the Ado, Edo, Doi, and Lindu dialects.
unz Kaili, Unde Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Kaili-Pamona, Northern, Kaili Indonesia Central Sulawesi province: Banawa, Palu, and Tawaeli sub-districts; Pulu bay west to Makassar strait; West Sulawesi province: Pasangkayu sub-district 25,000 (2007 SIL), increasing 6a* (Vigorous) Banava, Banawa Lole, Ganti.
myl Moma Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Kaili-Pamona, Northern, Kaili Indonesia Central Sulawesi province: Kulawi sub-district, Kulawi and Toro town areas 5,500 (Barr et al 1979) 5* (Developing) Kulawi, Moma-Kulawi None known. Reportedly historically a variety of Kaili [lew], but strong lexical influences from Uma [ppk].
klw Tado Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Kaili-Pamona, Northern, Kaili Indonesia Central Sulawesi province: Lindu sub-district, Anca, Langko, and Tomado villages near Lake Lindu 2,400 (2000 census), increasing 5 (Developing) Lindoe, Lindu, Linduan Tado Tado is reportedly very similar to Moma [myl]; considered by some a Moma dialect.
ttp Tombelala Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Kaili-Pamona, Northern, Pamona Indonesia Central Sulawesi province: Morowali regency, Bungku Tengah sub-district, 4 villages on Tolo bay west coast 1,100 (Mead and Mead 1991) 6b (Threatened) Baria, Belala, Mbelala None known. Lexical similarity: 66%–76% with Pamona [pmf] varieties and 38% with Bungku [bkz].
pmf Pamona Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Kaili-Pamona, Northern, Pamona Indonesia Central Sulawesi province: Poso regency, Ampana Kota, Ampanatete, Bungku Tengah, Bungku Utara, Lage, Mori Atas, Pamona Selatan, Pamona Utara, Parigi, Petasia, Poso Kota, Poso Pesisir, Tojo, Ulubongko, and Una-Una sub-districts; South Sulawesi province: Luwu Utara district, Bone-Bone, Mangkutana, and north Wotu sub-districts. 193 villages 137,000 (Lauder et al 2000) 6b* (Threatened) Bare’e, Baree, Poso Pamona, Laiwonu (Iba), Rapangkaka (Aria), Tomoni, Tobau (Bare’e, Tobalo, Tobao), Tokondindi, Topada, Taa (Topotaa, Wana). Laiwonu and Rapangkaka dialects may be separate languages. Lexical similarity: 76% (Taa)–90% among dialects, except for Tombelala [ttp], which has 66%–76% with other Bungku Tengah dialects, and is considered a separate language.
ppk Uma Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Kaili-Pamona, Southern Indonesia Central Sulawesi province: Sigi regency, South Kulawi and Pipikoro sub-districts, 32 villages on Lariang river and tributaries; South Sulawesi province: north Luwu regency, enclave within Seko Padang [skx] language area; south Pasangkayu regency, Mamuju sub-district; West Sulawesi province: Lariang river west bank area 20,000 (1990 M. Martens), increasing. 15,000 in the region, 5,000 outside (1990 SIL), 500 in Benggaulu 5 (Developing) Koro, Oema, Pipikoro Uma Winatu (Northern Uma), Tobaku (Dompa, Ompa, Western Uma), Tolee’ (Eastern Uma), Kantewu (Central Uma), Southern Uma (Aria), Benggaulu (Bingkolu), Bana. Literature exists in Kantewu dialect, but many would prefer to read their own dialect.
lje Rampi Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Kaili-Pamona, Southern Indonesia Central Sulawesi province: border area southwest of Lake Poso; South Sulawesi province: Luwu Utara regency, Rampi district, 6 mountain villages; Limbong, Mangkutana, Sabbang, and Wotu districts scattered 10,000 (2006). 2,300 in South Sulawesi, 5,700 in Central Sulawesi 6b* (Threatened) Ha’uwa, Leboni, Rampi-Leboni Rampi (Lambu), Rato. Leboni is prestige dialect.
sdu Sarudu Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Kaili-Pamona, Southern Indonesia West Sulawesi province: Mamuju Utara regency, south Pasangkayu sub-district, 1 area near Lariang river mouth, another south, both on Makassar strait north coast 4,000 (Grimes and Grimes 1987) 6b* (Threatened) Doda’ Nunu’, Kulu (Lariang). Lexical similarity: 75% with Uma [ppk], 80% with Benggaulu dialect of Uma [ppk].
bep Behoa Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Kaili-Pamona, Southern, Badaic Indonesia Central Sulawesi province: Poso regency, Lore Utara sub-district, 8 villages; Behoa and Napu valleys 10,000 (2007 SIL), increasing 6b* (Threatened) Ako, Besoa None known. Geographically, politically, culturally, and lexically distinct from Bada [bhz] and Napu [npy].
bhz Bada Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Kaili-Pamona, Southern, Badaic Indonesia Central Sulawesi and border area South Sulawesi provinces: Luwu Utara and Poso regencies, Lore Selatan, Pamona Selatan, Parigi, and Poso Pesisir sub-districts; at least 24 villages. Northern Mamuju regency, Pasangkayu sub-district; some in Ampibabo sub-district, Lemusa village (Ako dialect) 6,800 (Martens 1989), increasing 5* (Developing) Tobada’ Bádá’ Bada, Ako. Lexical similarity: 85% with Bada and Behoa [bep], 91% with Behoa and Napu [npy], 80% with Bada and Napu [npy]. The 3 are geographically, politically, and culturally separate.
npy Napu Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Kaili-Pamona, Southern, Badaic Indonesia Central Sulawesi province: Poso regency, Lore Utara sub-district, 10 villages in Tomini bay 6,100 (2000 R. Hanna), increasing 6b* (Threatened) Pekurehua None known. Reportedly most similar to Behoa [bep].
bzl Boano Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Tomini-Tolitoli, Tolitoli Indonesia Central Sulawesi province: Parigi Moutong sub-district, Bolano village; north peninsula, south coast, facing gulf of Tomini 2,700 (Himmelmann 2001) 6b (Threatened) Boan-diks, Bolano None known. Lexical similarity: 83% with Totoli [txe].
txe Totoli Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Tomini-Tolitoli, Tolitoli Indonesia Central Sulawesi province: Toli-Toli regency, Baolan, Dampal Selatan, Dampal Utara, Dondo, Galang, and Tolitoli Utara sub-districts, 29 villages; also Kabetan island 25,000 (Himmelmann 2001) 7 (Shifting) Gage, Tolitoli, Tontoli
dok Dondo Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Tomini-Tolitoli, Tomini, Northern Indonesia Central Sulawesi province: Buol and Tolitoli regencies, Baolan, Dampal Utara, Dondo, Galang, and Tolitoli Utara sub-districts; at least 25 villages; Gorontalo province: Pohuwato regency 13,000 (Himmelmann 2001) 6b* (Threatened)
law Lauje Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Tomini-Tolitoli, Tomini, Northern Indonesia Central Sulawesi province: Donggala and Parigi Moutong regencies, Ampibabo, Dampelas Sojol, Dondo, Tinombo, and Tomini sub-districts in Sidoan river area 44,000 (Himmelmann 2001). 6,000 use Ampibabo dialect (Himmelmann 2001) 6b* (Threatened) Laudje, Tinombo Ampibabo (Ampibabo-Lauje). Ampibabo dialect may be a separate language.
txm Tomini Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Tomini-Tolitoli, Tomini, Northern Indonesia Central Sulawesi province: Parigi Moutong and Toli-Toli regencies; Gorontalo province: Pohuwato regency, east to Mautang area. 42 villages 30,000 (Himmelmann 2001) 6b* (Threatened) Mouton, Moutong, Tiadje, Tialo
bls Balaesang Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Tomini-Tolitoli, Tomini, Southern Indonesia Central Sulawesi province: Donggala regency, Balaesang sub-district, Kamonji, Ketong, and Rano villages on Manimbayu peninsula 3,200 (Himmelmann 2001) 7 (Shifting) Balaesan, Balaisang, Pajo
dms Dampelas Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Tomini-Tolitoli, Tomini, Southern Indonesia Central Sulawesi province: Donggala, Parigi-Moutong, and Toli-Toli regencies, Balaesang, Dampelas, and Sojol sub-districts, 8 villages on northwest Makassar Strait 2,000 (Wurm 2007), decreasing. Ethnic population: 10,000 (Wurm 2007) 7 (Shifting) Dampelasa, Dian
ums Pendau Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Tomini-Tolitoli, Tomini, Southern Indonesia Central Sulawesi province: Balaesang sub-district, Sibayu, Walandano, and other villages; scattered north to Dampal Utara district 3,940 (Quick 2007) 6b* (Threatened) Ndaoe, Ndau, “Umalasa” (pej.)
pee Taje Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Tomini-Tolitoli, Tomini, Southern Indonesia Central Sulawesi province: Parigi Moutong regency, Ampibabo and Parigi Tengah sub-districts in Tomini bay 200 (Himmelmann 2001), decreasing 8b (Nearly extinct) Andje, Lole, Petapa
tdj Tajio Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Tomini-Tolitoli, Tomini, Southern Indonesia Central Sulawesi province: Ampibabo, Sindue, and Tinombo sub-districts, 21 villages on Tomini bay west coast 12,000 (Himmelmann 2001) 7 (Shifting) Adjio, Kasimbar, Ta’adjio, Tadjio Northern Tajio, Central Tajio, Western Tajio.
wtw Wotu Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Wotu-Wolio Indonesia South Sulawesi province: Luwu Timur regency, Wotu sub-district, Bawalipu and Lampenai villages in north Bone bay; coast near Kalaena river mouth 500 (2009 Masruddin and Wahibah), decreasing. Ethnic population: 4,000 (2009) 7 (Shifting) Wadu None known. Lexical similarity: 58% with Wolio [wlo], 53% with Laiyolo [lji], average 43% with South Sulawesi Group, 43% with Kaili-Pamona Subgroup, 41% with Seko Padang [skx], 39% with Tae’ Luwu [rob], 36%–43% with Bungku-Tolaki Subgroup, 37% with Toraja-Sa’dan [sda], 33% with Bugis [bug], 31% with Rampi [lje], 25% with Lemolang [ley].
kly Kalao Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Wotu-Wolio, Kalao Indonesia South Sulawesi province: Kepulauan Selayar regency, Selayar islands; east Kalao island 500 (Friberg and Laskowske 1989) 7 (Shifting) Kalaotoa, Lambego None known. Lexical similarity: 76% with Laiyolo [lji] and Wotu [wtw].
lji Laiyolo Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Wotu-Wolio, Kalao Indonesia South Sulawesi province: Kepulauan Selayar regency, Barang-Barang, Laiyolo, Lowa, and other villages on Selayar island south tip 800 (1997 SIL). 250 Laiyolo, 550 Barang-Barang 6b (Threatened) Barang-Barang, Da’ang Barang-Barang (Loa, Loa’, Lowa), Laiyolo (Lajolo, Layolo). Lexical similarity: 86% between Laiyolo and Barang-Barang dialect, 76% with Kalao [kly], 65% with Wolio [wlo], 53% with Wotu [wtw], 39% with Muna [mnb].
kgx Kamaru Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Wotu-Wolio, Wolio-Kamaru Indonesia Southeast Sulawesi province: Buton regency, east Buton island on Lawelu bay 3,500 (2004 SIL) 6b* (Threatened) None known. Lexical similarity: 68% with Lasalimu [llm], 67% with Wolio [wlo], 54% with Cia-Cia [cia], 51% with Pancana [pnp], 49% with Tukang Besi [khc], 45% with Muna [mnb].
wlo Wolio Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Wotu-Wolio, Wolio-Kamaru Indonesia Southeast Sulawesi province: Buton regency, Kota Bau-Bau city on Buton island southwest coast 65,000 in Indonesia (2004 D. Andersen). Population does not include those in other provinces 6b (Threatened) Baubau, Buton, Butonese, Butung Lexical similarity: 61% with Cia-Cia [cia]; 60% with Masiri dialect of Cia-Cia and Lantoi dialect of Kaimbulawa [zka].
pam Pampangan Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central Luzon, Pampangan Philippines Central Luzon region: southwest Nueva Ecija province; Tarlac province; most of Pampanga province west of Pampanga river; Central Visayas region: Zambales province, scattered along east border 2,040,000 in Philippines (2005 UNSD). Total users in all countries: 2,049,670 3 (Wider communication). Statutory language of provincial identity in Pampanga and 2 other Luzon provinces (1991, ACFLC Section 3(f)) Amánung Sísuan, Pampango, Pampangueño Kapampangan
abc Ayta, Ambala Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central Luzon, Sambalic Philippines Central Visayas region: Zambales province, Castillejos, Olongapa, San Marcelino and Subic city; Central Luzon region: Bataan province, Dinalupinan barrio 1,660 (1986 SIL) 6b* (Threatened) Ambala Agta, Ambala Sambal None known. Ambala Ayta speakers’ comprehension of Botolan Sambal [sbl] is 60%, of Mag-Indi Ayta [blx] is 54%, of Mag-antsi Ayta [sgb] is 60%, of Magbukun Ayta [ayt] is 70%. Lexical similarity: 70% with Botolan Sambal, 55% with Filipino [fil].
ayt Ayta, Magbukun Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central Luzon, Sambalic Philippines Central Luzon region: Bataan province, Mariveles 1,000 (2011 SIL). Ethnic population: 2,000 (2011) 6b (Threatened) Bataan Ayta, Bataan Sambal, Magbikin, Magbukun Ayta, Mariveles Ayta, Mariveleño None known. Lexical similarity: 63% with Botolan Sambal [sbl] and Filipino [fil].
abp Ayta, Abellen Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central Luzon, Sambalic Philippines Central Luzon region: Tarlac province, Capas, Maamot, Mayantoc, San Jose, and Station Juliana 3,000 (2008 SIL), decreasing. 45 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 5,000 6b (Threatened) Abenlen, Aburlen Negrito, Aburlin, Ayta Abellen Sambal Abellen, Ayta Abellen None known. Lexical similarity: 66% with Botolan Sambal [sbl], 49% with Sambal [xsb], 38%–44% with Ilocano [ilo], Pangasinan [pag], Filipino [fil], Pampangan [pam].
sgb Ayta, Mag-antsi Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central Luzon, Sambalic Philippines Central Luzon region: Botolan Sambal area, Angeles city, Bamban, Capas, 2 of Castillejos, 2 of Mabalacat, Pampanga, San Marcelino, Sapang Bato, Tarlac, and Zambales barrios; all on Mount Pinatubo east side near Tarlac-Pampanga border 8,200 (1992 SIL) 5* (Developing) Anchi, Antsi, Mag-Anchi Ayta, Mag-Anchi Sambal Ayta Mag-Antsi None known. 77% intelligibility of Mag-Indi Ayta [blx], 65% of Ambala Ayta [abc], 46% of Pampangan [pam]. Lexical similarity: 76% with Botolan Sambal [sbl], 50% with Filipino [fil], 46% with Pampangan.
blx Ayta, Mag-Indi Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central Luzon, Sambalic Philippines Central Luzon region: far north Bataan province; Pampanga province, barrios in Florida Blanca and Porac; Central Visayas region: Zambales province, San Marcelino 5,000 (1998 SIL), increasing 5 (Developing) Ayta, Indi, Indi Ayta, Mag-Indi Sambal Ayta Mag-Indi None known. 46% comprehension of Botolan Sambal [sbl], 50% of Ambala Ayta [abc], 59% of Pampangan [pam], 32% of Mag-antsi Ayta [sgb]. Lexical similarity: 75% with Botolan Sambal [sbl], 38% with Filipino [fil], 83% with Mag-Anchi [sgb], 71% with Ayta Abellen [abp], 51% with Kapampangan [pam].
smk Bolinao Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central Luzon, Sambalic Philippines Ilocos region: west Pangasinan province, Anda and Bolinao municipalities 56,200, all users. L1 users: 51,200 (2007 census), decreasing. L2 users: 5,000. 510 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 104,000 (2007) 6b (Threatened) Bino-Bolinao, Binubolinao, Binubulinao, Boliano, Bolinao Sambal, Bolinao Zambal, Bulinaw, Sambal Bolinao Binobolinao
xsb Sambal Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central Luzon, Sambalic Philippines Central Luzon region: Tarlac province, western border; Ilocos region: Pangasinan province, 2 villages; MIMAROPA region: Palawan province, Quezon municipality, Panitian village; north Zambales province, 5 towns 70,000 (2000 SIL), decreasing. No monolinguals. Ethnic population: 70,000 7 (Shifting). De facto language of provincial identity in Zambales province Sambali, “Tina” (pej.), “Tina Sambal” (pej.) Sambalì Santa Cruz, Masinloc, Iba. 70% intelligibility with Botolan [sbl].
sbl Sambal, Botolan Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central Luzon, Sambalic Philippines Central Luzon region: Zambales province, Botolan and Cabangan municipalities 32,900 (2000 SIL), increasing 5 (Developing) Aeta Negrito, Ayta Hambali, Botolan Zambal Hambali Ayta Hambali (Hambali Botolan), Sambali Botolan. Among themselves, Ayta Hambali reportedly use some words that are similar to Ayta Mag-anchi [sgb].
agv Dumagat, Remontado Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central Luzon, Sinauna Philippines CALABARZON region: Laguna province, Santa Maria municipality; Quezon province, General Nakar, Paimohuan; Rizal province, Santa Inez 2,530 (2000) 8a (Moribund) Hatang-Kayey, Remontado Agta, Sinauna, Sinauna Tagalog None known. Lexical similarity: 73% with Filipino [fil], 37% with Umiray Dumaget Agta [due].
bay Batuley Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Aru Indonesia Maluku province: Aru islands regency, Arafura Sea east coast offshore communities, 7 island villages 3,640 (2011 SIL) 6b* (Threatened) Gwataley, Watulai None known. Slightly more distant from Dobel [kvo]. Lexical similarity: 70% with Barakai [baj] and Karey [kyd], 81% with Mariri [mqi].
kyd Karey Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Aru Indonesia Maluku province: Tarangan island southeast coast, Karey valley in Aru Islands 610 (2011 SIL) 6b* (Threatened) Kerei, Krei None known. Lexical similarity: 70% with East Tarangan [tre] and Batuley [bay].
lcd Lola Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Aru Indonesia Maluku province: Kepulauan Aru regency, Jambuair, Lola, and Warabal villages in Aru island group on Barakan, Lola, and Penambulai islands 900 (2011 SIL) 6b (Threatened) Lola, Warabal. Reportedly linguistically between Batuley [bay] and Dobel [kvo]; similar to Koba [kpd].
lrn Lorang Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Aru Indonesia Maluku Province: Aru islands group, Koba island on northwest coast 220 (2011 SIL) 6a (Vigorous) None known. Reportedly similar to Koba [kpd] and, to a lesser extent, Dobel [kvo]. Some similarities with Manombai [woo], but intelligibility is lower than might be expected.
txn Tarangan, West Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Aru Indonesia Maluku province: south Aru islands, Tarangan island west coast 7,910 (2011 SIL), increasing. No monolinguals 5 (Developing) Tarangan Barat, West Trangan Rau Jarjar Southwestern Tarangan (Rau Jar-jar, Tarangan Barat, TarBar, West Tarangan), North Central Tarangan (Northwest-Serwatu Tarangan, Ra Jir-jar, Rau Jar-jar). 2 sharply distinct dialect groups with minor variation within them. Lexical similarity: 70% with East Tarangan [tre] and Manombai [woo].
udj Ujir Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Aru Indonesia Maluku province: Kepulauan-Aru regency; northwest Aru islands on Udjir and Wokam islands 1,030 (2011 SIL) 7 (Shifting) Udjir None known. Lexical similarity: 75% with Kola [kvv] in north Aru, and slightly less with Kola on the west coast of Kola Island.
baj Barakai Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Aru Indonesia Maluku province: Apara, Bemun, Longgar, and Mesiang villages in the south; Barakai island; some on Gomo-Gomo island northeast of Barakai 4,450 (2011 SIL) 6a* (Vigorous) Workai Barakai, Mesiang. Reportedly similar to Karey [kyd]. Lexical similarity: 70% with Batuley [bay].
kvo Dobel Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Aru Indonesia Maluku province: Kepulauan Aru regency, Aru islands; Kobror island central and east coast, 18 villages; southeast Wokam island, 1 village; 4 villages in east Barakai strait on Kobror and Koba islands; 2 villages south of Beding Warlai town; many in Dobo; some in Ambon 5,680 (2011 SIL), increasing 5 (Developing) Doibel, Kobro’or, Kobroor, Sersifar Tannin Dobel Northern Dobel (Doibel), Straits Dobel (Dobel), Southeast Dobel (Dobel). At least 3 dialects. Lexical similarity: 78%–86% with Koba [kpd].
kpd Koba Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Aru Indonesia Maluku province: southeast, at least 3 villages; Aru island group, Baun and Fukarel islands in mouth of Barakai strait 870 (2011 SIL) 6b* (Threatened) Southeast Koba. Low comprehension of Dobel [kvo]. Lexical similarity: 78%–86% with Dobel [kvo].
kvv Kola Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Aru Indonesia Maluku province: 22 villages in north Aru islands on Kola and adjacent islands 7,400 (2011 SIL) 6a (Vigorous) Kulaha, Marlasi, Warilau Intelligibility test showed Marlasi dialect intelligible of Kompane [kvp]. Lexical similarity: 77% with Kompane [kvp], 70% with Ujir [udj].
kvp Kompane Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Aru Indonesia Maluku province: Kepulauan Aru regency, Kompane village on Kongan island 330 (1995 SIL) 6b (Threatened) Komfana, Kongampani None known. Similar to Kola [kvv], linguistically between Kola and Batuley [bay]. Good intelligibility of Kola.
woo Manombai Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Aru Indonesia Maluku province: Aru islands, Manombai strait to Wakua island, from Wokam village south, 21 villages; Kobror island, Benjina; Maikor island, Gardakau; Wokam island east coast, Kobamar village 9,110 (2011 SIL) 6a* (Vigorous) Manobai, Wamar, Wokam None known. Not inherently intelligible with Dobel [kvo]. Lexical similarity: 76% with Lorang [lrn].
mqi Mariri Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Aru Indonesia Maluku province: 1 village southeast on Mairi island in Aru island group 280 (2011 SIL) 6a (Vigorous) Mairiri None known. Lexical similarity: 81% with Batuley [bay].
tre Tarangan, East Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Aru Indonesia Maluku province: 12 villages in south Aru islands, Tarangan island east coast, and Maikor strait (Sungai Maikor) 6,110 (2011 SIL). Population counted in the 12 villages only 6a* (Vigorous) East Trangan, Tarangan Timur North East Tarangan, South East Tarangan. Lexical similarity: 71% with West Tarangan [txn].
bcd Babar, North Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Babar, North Indonesia Maluku province: Maluku Barat Daya regency, Ilwiara, Nakarhamto, and Yatoke villages, northeast Babar island 1,000 (2007 SIL) 6b (Threatened) Dialect variation reported.
dij Dai Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Babar, North Indonesia Maluku province: Maluku Barat Daya regency, Sinairusi, 3 other villages on Lewa island 820 (2007 SIL) 6b (Threatened) No dialect variation. Lexical similarity: 72% with Dawera-Daweloor (most similar) [ddw], 71% with Nakarahamto, 49% with Masela-South Babar, 48% with Tepa (Luang).
ddw Dawera-Daweloor Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Babar, North Indonesia Maluku province: Maluku Barat Daya regency, Wiratan, Watuwei, and Nurnyaman villages in Banda Sea on twin coral islands northeast of Babar island; Daweloor island; Dawera island, Ilmarang, Letmasa, and Welora villages 1,270 (2007 SIL) 7 (Shifting) Davelor Minor dialect differences.
vbb Babar, Southeast Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Babar, South, Masela-South Babar Indonesia Maluku province: Ahanari, Analutur, Kokwari, Kroing, Letwurung, Manuweri, Tutuwawan, and Wakpapai villages; southeast Babar island coast 4,460 (2007 SIL) 6a* (Vigorous)
mxz Masela, Central Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Babar, South, Masela-South Babar Indonesia Maluku province: Maluku Barat Daya regency, 3 villages in Ilbutung area on Marsela island 510 (1980 N. de Jonge) 8a (Moribund) Central Marsela, Marsela-South Babar
vme Masela, East Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Babar, South, Masela-South Babar Indonesia Maluku province: Maluku Barat Daya regency, 3 villages from Welulora to Latalola Besar on east central Marsela island west coast 520 (1980 N. de Jonge) 8a (Moribund) East Marsela
mss Masela, West Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Babar, South, Masela-South Babar Indonesia Maluku province: 5 villages on Masela island west tip 850 (2007 SIL) 7 (Shifting) West Marsela
sve Serili Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Babar, South, Masela-South Babar Indonesia Maluku province: Babar island group, Papilewan town on northeast Marsela island 330 (1980 N. de Jonge) 8a (Moribund)
emw Emplawas Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Babar, South, Southwest Babar Indonesia Maluku province: Maluku Barat Daya regency, Emplawas village, south Babar island 250 (2007 SIL) 8b (Nearly extinct)
imr Imroing Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Babar, South, Southwest Babar Indonesia Maluku province: Maluku Barat Daya regency, Emroing village; Babar island southwest 560 (2007 SIL) 7 (Shifting) Imroin
tvm Tela-Masbuar Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Babar, South, Southwest Babar Indonesia Maluku province: Maluku Barat Daya regency, Masbuar and Tela villages on southwest Babar island 1,050 (2007 SIL) 6a (Vigorous) Masbuar-Tela, Tela’a
lmq Lamatuka Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Bima-Lembata Indonesia East Nusa Tenggara province: central Lembata island, several villages between Ile Ape [ila] and Lewo Eleng [lwe] language areas 4,000 (2008 census) 6a* (Vigorous) Lamatoka None known. Lewo Eleng [lwe] is probably most closely related.
ple Palu’e Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Bima-Lembata Indonesia East Nusa Tenggara province: Palu’e island; Flores mainland, Nangahure village northwest of Maumere 10,000 (Grimes et al 1997) 6a* (Vigorous) Lu’a, Palue, Paluqe None known. Possible grouping with Ende [end] and Li’o [ljl] languages; marginal intelligibility of Li’o.
wrx Wae Rana Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Bima-Lembata Indonesia East Nusa Tenggara province: south central Flores island, 2 separate areas between Manggarai [mqy] and Ngad’a [nxg] language areas 3,000 (2010) 6b* (Threatened) Waerana
end Ende Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Bima-Lembata Indonesia East Nusa Tenggara province: south central Flores island 110,000 (2009 census) 6a* (Vigorous) Endeh Ende (Djau, Endeh, Ja’o), Nga’o (Ngao, West Ende). Some consider Li’o [ljl] to be a dialect of Ende.
kvh Komodo Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Bima-Lembata Indonesia East Nusa Tenggara province: Manggarai Barat regency, Komodo island 1,730 (2015 F. Hurd) 6b (Threatened) None known. A separate language from Manggarai [mqy] (1982 J. Verheijen).
lwe Lewo Eleng Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Bima-Lembata Indonesia East Nusa Tenggara province: central eastern Lembata island; north coastal plains villages are from recent government-induced migration 4,000 (2008 census) 6a* (Vigorous) None known. Lamatuka [lmq] probably most closely related.
adr Adonara Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Bima-Lembata Indonesia East Nusa Tenggara province: Adonara and east Solor islands 98,000 (2008 census) 6a* (Vigorous) Nusa Tadon, Sagu, Vaiverang, Waiwerang West Adonara, East Adonara, East Solor.
aol Alor Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Bima-Lembata Indonesia East Nusa Tenggara province: coastal Bird’s Head of Alor, north Pantar and adjacent islands 25,000 (Grimes et al 1997) 6a* (Vigorous) Alorese Baranusa, Muna. Not inherently intelligible with Lembata languages or Adonara [adr].
bhp Bima Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Bima-Lembata Indonesia East Nusa Tenggara province: Komodo island area; West Nusa Tenggara province: Sumbawa island, east of the isthmus, Banta and Sangeang islands 500,000 (1989) 6a* (Vigorous) Bimanese Kolo, Sangar (Sanggar), Toloweri, Bima, Mbojo.
ila Ile Ape Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Bima-Lembata Indonesia East Nusa Tenggara province: Lembata regency, north Lomblem island, Ile Ape peninsula and inland 15,000 (2008 census) 6b* (Threatened) Nusa Tadon North Ile Ape, South Ile Ape.
xxk Ke’o Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Bima-Lembata Indonesia East Nusa Tenggara province: 4 villages on south central Flores island 40,000 (2001 L. Baird). Ethnic population: 40,000 6a (Vigorous) Nage-Keo None known. Reportedly distinct from but most similar to Nage [nxe].
ksx Kedang Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Bima-Lembata Indonesia East Nusa Tenggara province: northeast Lembata island 30,000 (2008 census) 6a* (Vigorous) Dang, Kdang, Kedangese, Kédang
kuk Kepo’ Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Bima-Lembata Indonesia East Nusa Tenggara province: Manggarai Timur regency, 2 areas in central Flores island highlands 6,000 (2010) 6b* (Threatened) Kepoq
slp Lamaholot Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Bima-Lembata Indonesia East Nusa Tenggara province: Flores Timur regency; also Solor island; possibly north Pantar coast, northwest Alor, and surrounding islands 180,000 in Indonesia (2010). Total users in all countries: 225,000 3 (Wider communication) Solor, Solorese West Lamaholot (Muhang, Pukaunu), Lamaholot (Ile Mandiri, Larantuka, Lewolaga, Ritaebang, Taka, Tanjung Bunda), West Solor.
lmr Lamalera Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Bima-Lembata Indonesia East Nusa Tenggara province: 3 or more villages on Lembata island south coast 4,000 (2008 census) 6a* (Vigorous) Kawela, Lebatukan, Mulan
lmf Lembata, South Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Bima-Lembata Indonesia East Nusa Tenggara province: south Lembata island 7,000 (2008 census) 6a* (Vigorous)
lmj Lembata, West Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Bima-Lembata Indonesia East Nusa Tenggara province: west Lembata island 8,000 (2008 census) 6a* (Vigorous) Labalekan, Mingar
lvu Levuka Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Bima-Lembata Indonesia East Nusa Tenggara province: west central Lembata island 4,000 (2008 census) 6a* (Vigorous) Lembata, Lewokukun, Lewuka, Painara Levuka, Kalikasa.
lwt Lewotobi Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Bima-Lembata Indonesia East Nusa Tenggara province: southeastern Flores island in Lewotobi volcano area 6000 6a* (Vigorous) Southwest Lamaholot
ljl Li’o Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Bima-Lembata Indonesia East Nusa Tenggara province: east central Flores island 105,000 (2009 census) 6a* (Vigorous) Aku, Lio, Lionese, Tanah Kunu Dialect subgroup with Ende [end].
mqy Manggarai Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Bima-Lembata Indonesia East Nusa Tenggara province: Flores island, western third 900000 6a* (Vigorous) Western Manggarai, Central Manggarai (Ruteng), West-Central Manggarai, Eastern Manggarai. Around 43 subdialects. Reportedly similar to Riung [riu].
nxe Nage Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Bima-Lembata Indonesia East Nusa Tenggara province: central Flores island, west slopes of Ebu Lobo volcano 50,000 (Forth 1993) 6a* (Vigorous) Nage-Keo, Nagé
nxg Ngad’a Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Bima-Lembata Indonesia East Nusa Tenggara province: south central Flores island 60,000 (1995) 6a* (Vigorous) Badjava, Bajava, Bajawa, Nad’a, Nga’da, Ngada, Ngadha, Rokka Central Ngada, Bajawa, South Ngada. Dialect diversity.
nea Ngad’a, Eastern Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Bima-Lembata Indonesia East Nusa Tenggara province: south central Flores, Desa Rowa, Kabupaten Ngada, Kecamatan Boawae, Kecamatan Golewa, Sanga Deto, Sara Sedu, and Taka Tunga 5,000 (1994) 6a* (Vigorous) Southeast Ngada Minor dialect variation.
rjg Rajong Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Bima-Lembata Indonesia East Nusa Tenggara province: Central Flores island near Mount Watuweri, 2 areas 6,000 (2010) 6a* (Vigorous) Razong
reb Rembong Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Bima-Lembata Indonesia East Nusa Tenggara province: north central Flores island 5,000 (2010 C. Grimes) 6a* (Vigorous) Rembong, Wangka, Namu.
riu Riung Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Bima-Lembata Indonesia East Nusa Tenggara province: north central Flores island, Kabupaten Ngada and Kecamatan Riung 14,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981) 6a* (Vigorous) Far Eastern Manggarai None known. Reportedly similar to Manggarai [mqy], but marginal intelligibility.
ror Rongga Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Bima-Lembata Indonesia East Nusa Tenggara province: south central Flores island 4,000 (2005 W. Arka) 6a* (Vigorous)
ski Sika Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Bima-Lembata Indonesia East Nusa Tenggara province: east Flores island 175,000 (Lewis and Grimes 1995) 6a* (Vigorous) Krowe, Maumere, Sara Sikka, Sikka, Sikkanese Sara Krowe (Central Sikka), Sikka Natar (Kangaé, South Coast Sikka), Tana Ai. Wide linguistic and cultural variation.
ssq So’a Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Bima-Lembata Indonesia East Nusa Tenggara province: Flores island, central Kabupaten Ngada 10,000 (1994) 6a* (Vigorous) Soa None known. Reportedly similar to Ngad’a [nxg].
amv Ambelau Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, Ambelau Indonesia Maluku province: central Ambelau island; Buru island coast, Wae Tawa village; 8 villages 5,700 (1989 SIL). Ethnic population: 5,700 6a* (Vigorous) Amblau None known. Not intelligible with Buru [mhs].
mhs Buru Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, Buru Indonesia Maluku province: Buru island except northeast corner, 70 villages; some on Ambon island in Jakarta 45,000 (Grimes 2010) 6a (Vigorous) Boeroe, Buruese Buru Masarete (South Buru), Wae Sama (Waesama), Central Buru (Rana, Wae Geren, Wae Kabo), Fogi (Li Emteban, Tomahu). Li Garan is a special taboo dialect spoken by the Rana people (3,000 to 5,000 users). Ethnic population Fogi dialect: 500, but no remaining speakers. Lexical similarity: 90% between Masarete and Wae Sama dialects, 88% between Masarete and Rana, 80% between Wae Sama and Rana, 68% between Lisela [lcl] and Masarete, 48% between Leliali dialect of Kayeli [kzl] and Masarete, 45% between Kayeli [kzl] and Masarete, 44% between Ambelau [amv] and Masarete, 27%–33% between Buru dialects and Sula [szn].
lcl Lisela Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, Buru Indonesia Maluku province: Buru island; Wae and Apo river valleys, and west on north Seram Sea coast; some in Ambon 11,900 (1989 SIL) 7 (Shifting) Buru, Li Enyorot, Liet Enjorot, North Buru, Wayapo Lisela (Licela, Licella), Tagalisa.
vms Moksela Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, Buru Indonesia Maluku province: east Buru island near Kayeli No known L1 speakers. Last speaker died in 1974 10 (Extinct) Maksela, Opselan
mqp Manipa Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East Indonesia Maluku province: Central Maluku regency, 4 villages on Manipa island, west of Seram island 1,500 (Voorhoeve and Collins 1981) 6b* (Threatened) Soow Huhelia None known. Lexical similarity: 64% with Luhu [lcq], 60%–62% with Hitu [htu], 60%–61% with Tulehu [tlu] and Asilulu [asl], 58%–61% with Seit-Kaitetu [hik], 55%–60% with Larike-Wakasihu [alo], 56% with Boano [bzn] and Kaibobo [kzb].
bnd Banda Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Banda-Geser Indonesia Maluku province: Maluku Tenggara regency, Banda-Eli and Banda-Elat villages, possibly a third; Kei Besar island west and northeast 3,000 (1987 SIL) 7 (Shifting) Eli, Elat. Different from other south Maluku languages.
bvt Bati Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Banda-Geser, Geser-Gorom Indonesia Maluku province: Seram island east coast between Kian Darat and Keleser towns, inland 3,500 (Loski and Loski 1989) 6b* (Threatened) Gah None known. Related to Geser-Gorom [ges] and Watubela [wah].
wah Watubela Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Banda-Geser, Geser-Gorom Indonesia Maluku province: Watubela islands east central area 4,000 (1990 SIL) 6a* (Vigorous) Esiriun, Kasiui, Kasui, Kesui, Matabello, Snabi Watubela, Wesi Tamher Timur, Sulmelang. Lexical similarity: 77% between dialects, 51%–61% with Geser-Gorom [ges], 41% with Teor [tev] and Kur [kuv], 37% with Bobot [bty], 34% with Masiwang [bnf].
ges Geser-Gorom Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Banda-Geser, Geser-Gorom Indonesia Maluku province: Seram island southeast 36,500 (1989 SIL) 6a* (Vigorous) Gesa, Geser, Goram, Goran, Gorom, Gorong, Seram, Seran, Seran Laut Goram Laut, Mina Mina Gorong, Kelimuri. Lexical similarity: 73%–93% among dialects, 51%–61% with Watubela [wah].
bty Bobot Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Bobot Indonesia Maluku province: Seram Bagian Timur regency, Werinama sub-district, southeast from Atiahu village to Kota Baru; Tunsai village in Liana area 4,500 (1989 SIL) 6b* (Threatened) Ahtiago, Atiahu, Hatumeten, Ntau, Werinama None known. Lexical similarity: 44% with Sepa [spb] and Sou Nama [tlt], 42% with Yalahatan [jal].
hti Hoti Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, East Seram Indonesia Maluku province: east Seram island No known L1 speakers. Last known speaker survived into the 1990s (1987 SIL) 10 (Extinct)
hud Huaulu Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Manusela-Seti Indonesia Maluku province: Maluku Tengah regency, 10 villages on north Seram island, Salemen bay, south end near Opin town 300 (1987 SIL) 6b (Threatened) Alakamat, Bahasa Asli Lexical similarity: 64%–72% with Sou Upaa [wha] dialects.
bgy Benggoi Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Manusela-Seti Indonesia Maluku province: Werinama and Bula districts, Balakeo, Benggoi, and Lesa villages; Seram island, north Seram Sea coast 350 (1989 SIL) 8a (Moribund) Bengoi, Isal, Kobi-Benggoi, Uhei Kachlakan, Uhei-Kaclakin, Uhei-Kahlakim Lesa, Benggoi, Balakeo. Lexical similarity: 70% with dialects; 54%–66% with Liana-Seti [ste], 46%–50% with Salas Gunung dialect [sgu], 32%–46% with Sou Upaa [wha].
ste Liana-Seti Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Manusela-Seti Indonesia Maluku province: Maluku Tengah and Seram Bagian regencies, Tehoru, Timur Bula, and Werinama districts, 8 villages from east Teluti bay north to Seram Sea coast 3,000 (1989 SIL) 6b (Threatened) Liambata-Kobi, Liana, Lianan, Teula, Uhei Kachlakan, Uhei Kaclakin, Uhei Kahlakim Seti, Wahakaim, Kobi. Lexical similarity: 66%–74% between Seti (westernmost and interior) and Wahakaim (near coast) dialects, 69%–78% between Kobi and Seti, 70% between Kobi and Wahakaim, 42%–61% between Kobi and Sou Upaa [wha], 54%–66% between Kobi and Benggoi [bgy], 48%–58% between Kobi and Salas [sgu].
sgu Salas Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Manusela-Seti Indonesia Maluku province: Seram Bagian Timur regency, Gunung village on Seram island northeast coast 50 (1989 SIL) 8b (Nearly extinct) Lenkaitahe, Liambata, Salas Gunung None known. Lexical similarity: 48%–58% with Liana-Seti [ste], 46%–50% with Benggoi [bgy], 35%–46% with Sou Upaa [wha].
wha Sou Upaa Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Manusela-Seti Indonesia Maluku province: 30 villages on north Seram island mountain area; south along Teluti bay 7,000 (1989 SIL) 6a* (Vigorous) Manusela, Wahai, Wahinama Kanikeh, Hatuolu, Maneo, South Sou Upaa. Lexical similarity: 66%–74% between the Kanikeh dialect and other varieties, 67%–75% with Hatuolo, 64%–86% with Maneo, 66%–86% with Maneoratu, 67%–80% with South Sou Upaa; 64%–72% with Huaulu [hud], 42%–61% with Liana Seti [ste], 45% with Saleman [sau].
bnf Masiwang Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Masiwang Indonesia Maluku province: Bula district along Seram island northeast coast 1,000 (1989 SIL) 6b* (Threatened) Bonfia None known. Lexical similarity: 44% with Bobot [bty], 43% with Salas [sgu], 39% with Sepa [spb] and Sou Nama [tlt], 36% with Liana Seti [ste] and Yalahatan [jal].
kzl Kayeli Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Nunusaku, Kayeli Indonesia Maluku province: Buru regency, northeast Buru island, Kayeli bay area No known L1 speakers. Last speaker of Leliali dialect died in 1989, and last speaker of Lumaete dialect died in the 1990s 9 (Dormant) Caeli, Cajeli, Gaeli, Kajeli Kayeli, Leliali (Liliali), Lumaete (Lumaiti, Lumara, Mumaite).
hrk Haruku Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Nunusaku, Piru Bay Indonesia Maluku province: Haruku island, Lease islands 18,200 (1989 SIL) 8a (Moribund) Hulaliu, Pelauw, Kailolo, Rohomoni, Kabauw. Each village uses a separate dialect. Lexical similarity: 81%–92% among dialects, 74%–76% with Tulehu [tlu], 67%–71% with Saparua [spr].
kzb Kaibobo Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Nunusaku, Piru Bay, East Indonesia Maluku province: Seram Bagian Barat regency, Kairatu sub-district, Hatusua, Kaibobo, Kamarian, Seruawan, Tihulale, and Waisamu villages; west Seram island, north Piru bay area 500 (Collins 1983) 8b (Nearly extinct) Kaibubu Kaibobo, Hatusua. Lexical similarity: 82%–88% between Kaibobo and Hatusua dialect, 75% with Kamarian [kzx], 62%–65% with Saparua [spr], 62% with Luhu [lcq], 61% with Naka’ela [nae].
spb Sepa Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Nunusaku, Piru Bay, East Indonesia Maluku province: Sepa village on Seram island, and several areas on southwest coast 2,600 (1989 SIL) 6b* (Threatened) Tamilouw None known. Lexical similarity: 69%–78% with Sou Nama [tlt], 50% with Yalahatan [jal].
tlt Sou Nama Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Nunusaku, Piru Bay, East Indonesia Maluku province: south Seram island, Teluti bay area 17,000 (1989 SIL) 6a* (Vigorous) Silen, Taluti, Tehoru, Teluti, Tihoru, Wolu West Sou Nama (Haya, Tehoru, Tehua, Wolu), Laha Serani. Lexical similarity: 74%–89% among dialects, 69%–78% with Sepa [spb], 50% with Yalahatan [jal].
lhh Laha Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Nunusaku, Piru Bay, East, Seram Straits, Ambon Indonesia Maluku province: Laha and other villages on Ambon island south central coast 3,890 (1987 SIL) 6a (Vigorous) Central Ambon None known. Distinct from Sou Upaa [wha]. Lexical similarity: 64%–66% with Asilulu [asl] and Seit-Kaitetu [hik] (most similar).
htu Hitu Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Nunusaku, Piru Bay, East, Seram Straits, Ambon Indonesia Maluku province: Maluku Tengah regency, Hila, Hitu, Mamala, Morela, and Wakal villages on Ambon island, Piru Sea coast, Hitu peninsula 16,000 (1987 SIL) 6b* (Threatened) Wakal, Morela, Mamala, Hitu, Hila. Lexical similarity: 67%–82% with Seit-Kaitetu [hik], 74%–82% with Tulehu [tlu].
tlu Tulehu Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Nunusaku, Piru Bay, East, Seram Straits, Ambon Indonesia Maluku province: Maluku Tengah regency, Ambon island, 4 villages on northeast coast 18,800 (1987 SIL) 7 (Shifting) Northeast Ambon, Sou Amana Teru Tulehu, Liang, Tengah-Tengah, Tial. Each dialect is in a separate village. Eastern end of Ambon dialect chain. Lexical similarity: 84%–90% among dialects, 74%–82% with Hitu [htu], 72%–76% with Haruku [hrk].
plh Paulohi Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Nunusaku, Piru Bay, East, Seram Straits, Solehua Indonesia Maluku province: Maluku Tengah regency, Kecamatan and Amahai villages on Seram island, Elpaputih bay west shore 50 (1982). Very few left (Wurm 2007) 8b (Nearly extinct)
amq Amahai Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Nunusaku, Piru Bay, East, Seram Straits, Uliase, Hatuhaha, Elpaputi Indonesia Maluku province: Maluku Tengah regency, 4 villages; Seram island in Elpaputih bay near Masohi town 50 (Wurm 2007) 8b (Nearly extinct) Amahei Makariki, Rutah, Soahuku. Lexical similarity: 87% with Makariki and Rutah dialects, probably 2 languages; 59%–69% with Saparua [spr], 59% with Kamarian [kzx], 58% with Kaibobo [kzb], 52% with Luhu [lcq] and Hulung [huk], 50% with Alune [alp], 49% with Naka’ela [nae], 47% with Lisabata-Nuniali [lcs], 45% with Wemale [weo] and Nuaulu, 44% with Boano [bzn] and Saleman [sau].
nul Nusa Laut Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Nunusaku, Piru Bay, East, Seram Straits, Uliase, Hatuhaha, Elpaputi Indonesia Maluku province: Maluku Tengah regency, Lease islands and Nusa Laut island in Titawai village No known L1 speakers. Last known speaker survived into the late 1990s (1989 SIL). Ethnic population: 2,230 (1989 SIL) 9 (Dormant) Nusalaut None known. Lexical similarity: 69% with Saparua [spr], 65% with Amahai [amq].
ltu Latu Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Nunusaku, Piru Bay, East, Seram Straits, Uliase, Hatuhaha, Saparua Indonesia Maluku province: Seram Bagian Barat regency, Latu village; west Seram island, southwest Elpaputih bay, Point Latu 2,130 (1982 SIL) 7 (Shifting) Lexical similarity: 82%–84% with Saparua [spr] dialects.
spr Saparua Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Nunusaku, Piru Bay, East, Seram Straits, Uliase, Hatuhaha, Saparua Indonesia Maluku province: Hualoy, Iha, Kairatu, Kulur, Latu, Siri-Sori, Tomalehu villages; Saparua and Seram islands 10,200 (1989 SIL). 4,520 in Iha 8a (Moribund) Kulur, Iha-Saparua, Iha-Seram, Siri-Sori. Each village has its own dialect. Lexical similarity: 86%–89% among dialects; 82%–84% with Latu [ltu], 69% with Amahai [amq], 67% with Kamarian [kzk], 68%–71% with Haruku [hrk], 65% with Kaibobo [kzb], 62%–66% with Tulehu [tlu], 49% with Luhu [lcq], 54% with Naka’ela [nae].
kzx Kamarian Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Nunusaku, Piru Bay, East, Seram Straits, Uliase, Kamarian Indonesia Maluku province: Seram Bagian Barat regency, southwest Seram island inland from Ceram strait, Haruku, and Sapura islands No known L1 speakers. Last known speakers survived into the 1990s (1987 SIL). Ethnic population: 6,000 (1987 SIL) 9 (Dormant) Kamariang, Seruawan None known. Lexical similarity: 75% with Kaibobo [kzb], 67% with Saparua [spr], 60% with Lisabata-Nuniali [lcs], 59% with Amahai [amq], Luhu [lcq], Naka’ela [nae], and Hulung [huk].
asl Asilulu Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Nunusaku, Piru Bay, West, Asilulu Indonesia Maluku province: Asilulu, Negeri Lima, and Ureng, villages. Northwest Ambon island and west Seram island, Hoamoal peninsula, south coast 8,760 (1987 SIL) 6b* (Threatened) Asilulu, Ureng, Negeri Lima (Henalima, Lima). Lexical similarity: 88% with Asilulu and the Negeri Lima dialect, 78%–82% with Seit-Kaitetu [hik], 72%–73% with the Wakal dialect of Hitu [htu], 67%–72% with Larike-Wakasihu [alo], 71%–73% with Luhu [lcq] in Seram.
hik Seit-Kaitetu Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Nunusaku, Piru Bay, West, Asilulu Indonesia Maluku Province, Maluku Tengah regency, Piru bay, Ambon island, north coast: Seit and Kaitetu villages 10,200 (1987 SIL) 6b* (Threatened) Hila-Kaitetu Seit (Seith), Kaitetu. Lexical similarity: 85% between Kaitetu and Seit dialects. Lexical similarity: 78%–82% with Asilulu [asl], 67%–74% with Tulehu [tlu].
bzn Boano Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Nunusaku, Piru Bay, West, Hoamoal Indonesia Maluku province: North Buano main village; Boano and Seram islands 3,240 (1982) 6a* (Vigorous) Buano None known. Lexical similarity: 60% with Luhu [lcq], 61% with Lisabata-Nuniali [lcs] (most similar).
alo Larike-Wakasihu Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Nunusaku, Piru Bay, West, Hoamoal Indonesia Maluku province: Maluku Tengah regency, Allang, Lai, Larike, Tapi, and Wakasihu villages on southwest Ambon island coast, Hitu peninsula 12,600 (1987 SIL) 6b (Threatened) Allang, Wakasihu, Larike. The western end of the Ambon dialect subgroup. Lexical similarity: 81% among Allang, and Larike, and Wakasihu dialects; 92% between Larike and Wakasihu; 68%–71% with Asilulu [asl], 67%–72% with Negeri Lima dialect of Asilulu [asl].
jal Yalahatan Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Nunusaku, Three Rivers Indonesia Maluku province: Makulu Tengah regency, south central Seram island coastal area 1,700 (2004 SIL) 6b (Threatened) Atamanu, Awaiya, Jahalatan, Jahalatane Slight dialect differences reported between the 2 villages. Lexical similarity: 50%–52% with Sepa [spb], 49%–50% with Sou Nama [tlt].
lcs Lisabata-Nuniali Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Nunusaku, Three Rivers, Amalumute, Northwest Seram Indonesia Maluku province: 5 villages on west and north Seram island 1,830 (1982) 6b* (Threatened) Lisabata, Noniali, Nuniali Lisabata-Timur, Nuniali, Sukaraja, Kawa. Lexical similarity: between Kawa (far western) and Lisabata Timur (far eastern) dialects is 85%, 72% with Naka’ela [nae], 67% with Hulung [huk], 63% with Alune [alp].
lcq Luhu Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Nunusaku, Three Rivers, Amalumute, Northwest Seram Indonesia Maluku province: Seram Bagian Barat regency, Luhu village on northwest and south coast of Seram island, Boano and Manipa islands 6,500 (Collins 1983) 6b* (Threatened) Piru Luhu, Batu Merah, Kelang. Kelang dialect is endangered (Florey 2005), and the Batu Merah dialect spoken on Ambon Island has few remaining speakers. Lexical similarity: 72% with Luhu dialect, 71%–73% with Asilulu [asl].
huk Hulung Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Nunusaku, Three Rivers, Amalumute, Northwest Seram, Hulung Indonesia Maluku province: Seram Bagian Barat regency, Hulung village on west Seram island No known L1 speakers. Last know speakers survived into the early years of the 2000s (Wurm 2007) 10 (Extinct) None known. Lexical similarity: 67% with Lisabata-Nuniali [lcs], 66% with Naka’ela [nae], 63% with Alune [alp], 59% with Wemale [weo].
lox Loun Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Nunusaku, Three Rivers, Amalumute, Northwest Seram, Loun Indonesia Maluku province: Maluku Tengah regency, north central Seram island No known L1 speakers. The last speakers survived into the late 1980s (Collins 1983) 10 (Extinct)
alp Alune Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Nunusaku, Three Rivers, Amalumute, Northwest Seram, Ulat Inai Indonesia Maluku province: Seram Bagian Barat regency, Kairatu and Taniwel districts, 27 villages in Latuhelu area and Piru bay 17,200 (2000) 6b* (Threatened) Patasiwa Alfoeren, Sapalewa Alune Kairatu, Central West Alune (Niniari-Piru-Riring-Lumoli), South Alune (Rambatu-Manussa-Rumberu), North Coastal Alune (Nikulkan-Murnaten-Wakolo), Central East Alune (Buriah-Weth-Laturake). South Alune dialect is extinct (Florey 2005). Kawe [kgb] may be a dialect. Lexical similarity: 77%–91% among dialects, 64% with Lisabata-Nuniali [lcs], 63% with Hulung [huk] and Naka’ela [nae].
nae Naka’ela Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Nunusaku, Three Rivers, Amalumute, Northwest Seram, Ulat Inai Indonesia Maluku province: Seram Bagian Barat regency, Kairatu village on southwest Seram island No known L1 speakers. Last known speakers survived into the 1990s (1985 SIL) 10 (Extinct) None known. Lexical similarity: 71% with Lisabata-Nuniali [lcs], 66% with Hulung [huk], 63% with Alune [alp].
weo Wemale Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Nunusaku, Three Rivers, Wemale Indonesia Maluku province: at least 14 villages on Seram island north coast, from Taniwel to Walakone towns; also southwest Seram 6,000 (2000 census). No monolinguals. Ethnic population: 7,500 6a (Vigorous) Honitetu, Oemale, Tala West Wemale, West-Central Wemale, East Wemale, South Wemale. Lexical similarity: 84% with east and west dialects, 70% with South Wemale dialect.
nni Nuaulu, North Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Sawai-Nuaulu Indonesia Maluku province: 2 villages on Seram island, central north coast and inland, and Saleman bay 500 (1990 SIL) 6b* (Threatened) Fatakai, Nuaulu, Patakai None known. Lexical similarity: 67% with South Nuaulu [nxl], 64% with Saleman [sau].
nxl Nuaulu, South Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Sawai-Nuaulu Indonesia Maluku province: Amahai district, 6 villages on Seram island inland from south coast 1,500 (1995 SIL) 6b* (Threatened) Fatakai, Nuaulu, Patakai None known. Lexical similarity: 67% with North Nuaulu [nni]; 50% with South Wemale [weo], Hulung [huk], and Naka’ela [nae]; 48% with Saleman [sau].
sau Saleman Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Sawai-Nuaulu Indonesia Maluku province: Maluku Tengah regency on Saleman bay, north central Seram island, 3 areas 4,800 (1989 SIL) 6b* (Threatened) Hatue, Sawai, Seleman, Wahai None known. Lexical similarity: 64% with North Nuaulu [nni], 48% with South Nuaulu [nxl].
mqc Mangole Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, Sula Indonesia North Maluku province: Sula islands on Mangole island south coast, south to Sula Besi island south tip 7,280 (2000) 6a* (Vigorous) Mangoli, Sula Mangoli
szn Sula Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, Sula Indonesia North Maluku province: Sula islands; Sula Besi (Sanana) island, widespread; Mangole island scattered on east, west and north coasts; Buru island northeast coast 20,000 (1983 SIL) 6a* (Vigorous) Sanana Fagudu, Falahu, Facei (Facé). Reportedly similar to Mangole [mqc].
kzd Kadai Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, Sula, Taliabo Indonesia North Maluku province: Kepulauan Sula regency in Sula Islands, Molucca sea coast, Tjapaplulu strait area; Taliabu island, 2 east coast groups; west Mangole island coast east from Dofa; 2 small offshore islands 350 (2000) 7 (Shifting) None known. May be intelligible with Taliabu [tlv].
tlv Taliabu Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, Sula, Taliabo Indonesia North Maluku province: Sula island group; Taliabu island northwest coast; some on Mangole island 4,520 (2000). 500–1,500 in Mangei 6a* (Vigorous) Taliabo Padang (Samada), Mananga, Mangei (Mang, Mange, Mange’e, Sobojo, Soboyo). Dialects 90% or more lexically similar.
anx Andra-Hus Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Eastern, Manus, East Papua New Guinea Manus province: Andra and Hus islands 1,410 (2000 census) 6a* (Vigorous) Ahus, Ha’us Idioh, Pohon Kol Andra.
elu Elu Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Eastern, Manus, East Papua New Guinea Manus province: Manus island north coast 600 (2000 census) 6a* (Vigorous)
twp Ere Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Eastern, Manus, East Papua New Guinea Manus province: Drabitou, Hatwara, Loi, Lohe, Londru, Metawari, Pau, Piterait, and Taui-Undrau villages on south coast 1,400 (2000 census) 6a* (Vigorous) Londru, Nane
sbc Kele Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Eastern, Manus, East Papua New Guinea Manus province: Buyang, Droia, Kawaliap, Koruniat, and Tingau on south coast inland 1,460 (2000 census) 6a* (Vigorous) Gele’
kxr Koro Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Eastern, Manus, East Papua New Guinea Manus province 810 (2000 census) 6a (Vigorous) None known. Reportedly similar to, and possibly intelligible of, Papitalai [pat].
ktm Kurti Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Eastern, Manus, East Papua New Guinea Manus province: north central coast 3,000 (2002 SIL). About 400 outside the language area 4 (Educational) Kuruti, Kuruti-Pare, Ndrugul Kurti
lek Leipon Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Eastern, Manus, East Papua New Guinea Manus province: Lolo village, Hauwai, Ndrilo, and Pityilu islands 1,320 (2000 census) 6a* (Vigorous) Pitilu, Pityilu Pafulu.
lle Lele Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Eastern, Manus, East Papua New Guinea Manus province: Manus island 3,400 (2000 census) 5* (Developing) Elu-Kara, Hai, Lele Hai, Manus, Moanus, Usiai Sabon.
nss Nali Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Eastern, Manus, East Papua New Guinea Manus province: southeast Manus island; southwest coast, northwest of Titan 2,900 (2000 census). 200 Okro (2000 D. Tryon). Ethnic population: 4,500. In Okro 5 (Developing) Yiru Okro. Tryon (2001) makes Okro (200) and Nali (1,800) separate languages.
pat Papitalai Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Eastern, Manus, East Papua New Guinea Manus province: Los Negros island, Naringel, and Papitalai 420 (2000 census) 6b* (Threatened) 3 dialects. Reportedly similar to Koro [kxr].
ncc Ponam Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Eastern, Manus, East Papua New Guinea Manus province: Ponam island 630 (2000 census) 6a* (Vigorous) None known. Reportedly similar to Andra-Hus [anx].
ttv Titan Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Eastern, Manus, East Papua New Guinea Manus province: Manus island, southeast coast, Baluan, Bundro, Johnson, M’buke, Rambutyo, Tawi, Tilianu, and Wal islands 5,100 (2000 census) 6a (Vigorous) M’bunai, Manus, Moanus, Tito Titan 2 dialects, r speakers on southeast Manus Island, l speakers on outlying islands. Intelligibility between, r and l, dialects 100%.
los Loniu Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Eastern, Manus, Mokoreng-Loniu Papua New Guinea Manus province: Lolak and Loniu villages on Los Negros island south coast 780 (2000 census). Ethnic population: 660 6a (Vigorous) Lonio, Ndroku None known. Reportedly similar to Bipi [biq].
mft Mokerang Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Eastern, Manus, Mokoreng-Loniu Papua New Guinea Manus province: north Los Negros island, Ndrilo island 300 (2000 census) 6a (Vigorous) Mokareng, Mokoreng
biq Bipi Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Eastern, Manus, West Papua New Guinea Manus province: west coast, Maso, Matahei, and Salapai villages, Bipi and Sisi islands 1,380 (2000 census) 6a* (Vigorous) Sisi-Bipi None known. Reportedly similar to Loniu [los].
llf Hermit Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Eastern, Manus, West Papua New Guinea Western Manus province: Hermit Islands, Luf and Maron islands 10 (2000 census) 8b (Nearly extinct) Agomes, Luf, Maron
tlx Khehek Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Eastern, Manus, West Papua New Guinea Manus province: Soparibeu district, Bucho, Levei and Ndrehet villages 1,620 (2000 census) 5* (Developing) Levei-Drehet, Levei-Ndrehet Levei (Lebei, Lebej), Drehet (Chechek, Chehek, Khehek), Bucho. In Levei a dialect closely related to Bucho south dialect is spoken.
lib Likum Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Eastern, Manus, West Papua New Guinea Manus province: west Manus island 80 (Wurm 2000) 6b (Threatened)
npn Mondropolon Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Eastern, Manus, West Papua New Guinea Manus province: north central coast, Manus island 530 (2000 census) 6a (Vigorous)
lid Nyindrou Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Eastern, Manus, West Papua New Guinea Manus province: Manus island west coast. 10 villages 4,800 (2000 census). Few monolinguals 4 (Educational) Lindau, Lindrou, Nyada, Salien Nyindrou Babon. Babon is in 3 southern villages.
sbh Sori-Harengan Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Eastern, Manus, West Papua New Guinea Manus province: Manus island northwest coast; Harengan and Sori islands 770 (2000 census) 6a* (Vigorous) Sori, Harengan. Dialects nearly identical.
rak Tulu-Bohuai Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Eastern, Manus, West Papua New Guinea Manus province: Bohuai, Peli island, Pelipowai 1,970 (2000 census) 6a* (Vigorous) Bohuai, Bohuai-Tulu, Bowai, Pahavai, Pelipowai, Pohuai Keli, Bohuai, Tulu (Chutu-uw, Tjudun, Tulun). Reportedly similar to Khehek [tlx].
pkg Pak-Tong Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Eastern, Pak-Tong Papua New Guinea Manus province: Pak and Tong islands 1,090 (2000 census) 6a* (Vigorous) Tong-Pak Pak, Tong. 2 nearly identical dialects; Pak is larger.
blq Baluan-Pam Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Eastern, Southeast Islands Papua New Guinea Manus province: Baluan and Pam islands 2,000 (2000 census) 6a* (Vigorous) Pam-Baluan Baluan, Pam. Dialects are similar; Baluan is the larger.
ler Lenkau Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Eastern, Southeast Islands Papua New Guinea Manus province: southwest Rambutyo island. 1 village 380 (2000 census). Ethnic population: 250 (2000 D. Tryon) 6a (Vigorous)
loj Lou Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Eastern, Southeast Islands Papua New Guinea Manus province: Lou island 1,230 (2000 census) 6a* (Vigorous) Baluan-Lou-Pam Rei. Dialects are very similar. Rei is dominant.
ncn Nauna Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Eastern, Southeast Islands Papua New Guinea Manus province: Nauna island. 1 village 420 (2000 census) 6b (Threatened) Naune
pek Penchal Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Eastern, Southeast Islands Papua New Guinea Manus province: Rambutyo island 1,060 (2000 census) 6a* (Vigorous)
ktk Kaniet Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Western Papua New Guinea Manus province: Anchorite and Kaniet islands No known L1 speakers. The last known speaker died by 1950 10 (Extinct)
ssg Seimat Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Western Papua New Guinea Western Manus province: Anchorite and Ninigo islands 1,240 (2000 census) 4 (Educational) Ninigo Seimat
wuv Wuvulu-Aua Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Western Papua New Guinea Western Manus province: Aua, Durour, Maty, and Wuvulu islands 1,560 (2000 census) 5* (Developing) Aua-Viwulu, Viwulu-Aua Aua, Wuvulu (Wuu). Dialects nearly identical.
fij Fijian Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Central Pacific, East Fijian-Polynesian, East Fijian Fiji Kabara, Kadavu, Komo, Lakeba, Moce, Namuka, Nayau, Ogea, Oneata, Vatoa, and Vulaga islands; Vanua Levu and offshore islands, east half of Viti Levu and eastern offshore islands 650,000 in Fiji, all users. L1 users: 330,000 in Fiji (1996 census). 10,000 in Kadavu (1,500 Nabukelevu), 20,000 in Northeast Viti Levu. L2 users: 320,000 (1991 UBS). Total users in all countries: 670,710 (as L1: 350,710; as L2: 320,000) 4 (Educational). Statutory language of national identity (2000, Constitution, Article 4(1)) Boumaa Fijian, Eastern Fijian, Fiji, Nadroga, Standard Fijian, Vakaviti Na Vosa Vakaviti Kadavu (Nabukelevu, Ono, Tavuki), Southeast Viti Levu (Lutu, Naimasimasi, Nandrau, Waidina), Bau (Bauan, Mbau), Northeast Viti Levu (Lovoni, Namena, Tokaimalo), Central Vanua Levu (Baaravi, Nabalebale, Savusavu, Seaqaaqaa), Northeast Vanua Levu (Dogotuki Saqani, Korolau, Labasa), Southeast Vanua Levu (Baumaa, Navatu-C, Naweni, Tunuloa), West Vanua Levu (Bua, Navakasiga, Navatu-B, Soolevu). Southern Vanua Levu has several dialects similar to Bau dialect. On Northern Vanua, Levu, and adjacent islands people speak a somewhat related variety. Bau is very similar to standard Fijian, used as traditional lingua franca among Fijians.
goo Gone Dau Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Central Pacific, East Fijian-Polynesian, East Fijian Fiji Bua province: Dau and Gone islands off western Vanua Levu 600 (2011 J. Leclerc) 6a* (Vigorous) Gonedau Dialect chain from Gone Dau to Bau (standard) Fijian [fij]. Though speakers learn standard Fijian, it is not inherently intelligible.
llx Lauan Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Central Pacific, East Fijian-Polynesian, East Fijian Fiji Lau province: Lau island group of Lakeba, Lau, and Nayau; Yagasa Cluster of Kabara, Komo, Moce, Namuka, Ogea, Oneata, and Vulaga; Vatoa island, outlier southeast 21,000 (2011 J. Leclerc) 6a* (Vigorous) Lau Lau, Vanua Balavu. Middle East Fijian dialect chain; a subgroup of dialects. Similarities to Bau Fijian; may be inherently intelligible with it.
lmv Lomaiviti Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Central Pacific, East Fijian-Polynesian, East Fijian Fiji Lomaiviti province 1,700 (2011 J. Leclerc) 6a* (Vigorous)
ray Rapa Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Central Pacific, East Fijian-Polynesian, Polynesian, Nuclear, East, Central French Polynesia Austral Islands: Rapa (Rapa Iti) island, ’Area, Ha’urei villages 300 (2007 census). Ethnic population: 515 (2012 census). Populations for Rapa island; many more on other islands, especially Tahiti 7 (Shifting) Rapan Reo Rapa May be a dialect of Austral [aut].
haw Hawaiian Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Central Pacific, East Fijian-Polynesian, Polynesian, Nuclear, East, Central, Marquesic United States Hawaii: mainly Ni’ihau island, Island of Hawai’i, some on all other islands; some in every state 2,000 (Wurm 2007). 500 with Ni’ihau Island connections, another 500 in their 70s or 80s (1995 L. Wong). 8,000 can speak and understand it (1993 K. Haugen). In 1900 there were 37,000 L1 speakers (1995 Honolulu Advertiser). 2000 census lists 27,200. Ethnic population: 336,000. 237,000 in Hawaii (1996 Hawaii State Department of Health), 19% of the population (1990 Hawaii State Department of Health), and 99,000 ethnic Hawaiians on the United States mainland (1990 census), including 24,300 in California. Ethnic Hawaiians include 8,300 pure Hawaiian, 72,800 between 50% and 99% Hawaiian, 127,500 fewer than 50% Hawaiian in Hawaii (1984 Office of Hawaiian Affairs). In 1778 there were believed to have been more than 500,000 pure Hawaiians (1995 W. Harada) 2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial language in State of Hawaii (1978, Hawaii Constitution, Article 15(4)), co-official with English ’Olelo Hawai’i Makuahine ’Olelo Hawai’i None known. Lexical similarity: 79% with Rarotongan [rar], 77% with Tuamotuan [pmt], 76% with Tahitian [tah] (Elbert), 71% with Maori [mri] (Schütz), 70% with Marquesan [mqm], 64% with Rapa Nui [rap].
mrv Mangareva Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Central Pacific, East Fijian-Polynesian, Polynesian, Nuclear, East, Central, Marquesic French Polynesia Tuamotu and Gambier Islands: Mangareva island, Rikitea town 600 (2011 census). Ethnic population: 1,590 (2017 census) 7 (Shifting). Recognized language (2004, Organic Law, No. 2004-192, Article 57) Mangarevan Reo Magareva None known. 65% average comprehension of Tahitian [tah]. Lexical similarity: 75% with Rarotongan [rar], 73% with Marquesan [mrq], 72% with Tuamotuan [pmt], 50%–68% with Tahitian [tah].
mrq Marquesan, North Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Central Pacific, East Fijian-Polynesian, Polynesian, Nuclear, East, Central, Marquesic French Polynesia Marquesas Islands: Eiao, Hatutu, Matu One, Motuiti, Nuku Hiva, Ua Huka, and Ua Pou islands 5,390 (2007 census). Ethnic population: 6,100 (2017 census) 7 (Shifting). Statutory language of national identity (2004, Organic Law, No. 2004-192, Article 57) ’Eo ’Enana Hatutu, Nuku Hiva, Ua Huka, Ua Pou. Wurm and Hattori (1981) list North Marquesan and South Marquesan [mqm] as 2 languages. North Marquesan dialects all inherently intelligible. 50% intelligibility of Tahitian [tah]. Lexical similarity: 45%–67% with Tahitian [tah], 73% with Mangareva [mrv] and Rarotonga [rar], 70% with Hawaiian [haw], 29% with Tuamotuan [pmt].
mqm Marquesan, South Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Central Pacific, East Fijian-Polynesian, Polynesian, Nuclear, East, Central, Marquesic French Polynesia Marquesas Islands: Fatu Hiva, Fatu Huka, Hiva Oa, Mohotani, and Tahuta islands 2,700 (2007 census). Ethnic population: 3,700 (2017 census) 7 (Shifting). Statutory language of national identity (2004, Organic Law, No. 2004-192, Article 57) ’Eo ’Enata Hiva Oa, Tahuata, Fatu Hiva. Dialects listed are inherently intelligible. Wurm and Hattori (1981) list North Marquesan [mrq] and South Marquesan as 2 languages.
aut Austral Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Central Pacific, East Fijian-Polynesian, Polynesian, Nuclear, East, Central, Tahitic French Polynesia Austral Islands 5,000, all users. L1 users: 3,000 (2007 census). L2 users: 2,000. Ethnic population: 6,720 (2017 census) 7 (Shifting) Reo Tuhaa Pae, Tubuai-Rurutu Raivavae, Rimatara, Rurutu, Tubuai. Mutually intelligible with Tahitian [tah]. Currently Raivavae, Rurutu, Tubuai and Rimatara dialects considered as dialects of Tahitian.
rar Cook Islands Maori Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Central Pacific, East Fijian-Polynesian, Polynesian, Nuclear, East, Central, Tahitic Cook Islands Widespread 13,100 in Cook Islands (2011 census), decreasing. 2,035 Aitutaki, 481 Atiu, 573 Mangaia, 307 Mauke, 189 Mitiaro (2011 census). Speaker numbers rapidly decreasing, especially in the diaspora (Wurm 2007). Total users in all countries: 27,200 6b* (Threatened). Statutory language of national identity (1965, Constitution, Article 35), limited use in higher government domains Cook Island, Kuki Airani, Māori Kūki ’Āirani, Maori, Rarotongan Te Reo Maori Mitiaro, Mauke, Atiu, Mangaia, Rarotonga, Aitutaki. Lexical similarity: 83% with Tuamotuan [pmt], 79% with Hawaiian [haw], 75% with Mangareva [mrv], 73% with Marquesan [mrq].
mri Maori Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Central Pacific, East Fijian-Polynesian, Polynesian, Nuclear, East, Central, Tahitic New Zealand Far north, North Island, east coast 148,000 in New Zealand (2013 census). 100,000 understand but do not speak it (1995 Maori Language Commission); 30,000–50,000 adult speakers over 15 years old (1995). Ethnic population: 599,000 (2013 census). Total users in all countries: 159,700 6b (Threatened). Statutory language of national identity (1987, Maori Language Act, No. 176, Article 3), legal domains mostly New Zealand Maori, te reo te reo Māori North Auckland, South Island, Taranaki, Wanganui, Bay of Plenty, Rotorua-Taupo, Moriori. Formerly fragmented into regional dialects, some of which diverged quite radically from what became the standard dialect. Lexical similarity: 71% with Hawaiian [haw], 57% with Samoan [smo].
pnh Penrhyn Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Central Pacific, East Fijian-Polynesian, Polynesian, Nuclear, East, Central, Tahitic Cook Islands Penrhyn 200 (2011 census) 7 (Shifting) Penrhynese Mangarongaro, Tongareva None known. Almost intelligible with Rarotongan [rar].
rkh Rakahanga-Manihiki Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Central Pacific, East Fijian-Polynesian, Polynesian, Nuclear, East, Central, Tahitic Cook Islands Manihiki and Rakahanga 320 in Cook Islands (2011 census). Total users in all countries: 2,820 7 (Shifting) Manihiki-Rakahanga Rakahanga-Manihiki None known. Limited intelligibility of Rarotongan [rar].
tah Tahitian Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Central Pacific, East Fijian-Polynesian, Polynesian, Nuclear, East, Central, Tahitic French Polynesia Leeward Islands and Windward Islands; some islands in Tuamotu and Gambier Islands including the Mihiroa group 63,000 in French Polynesia (2007 census). Total users in all countries: 68,000 1 (National). Statutory national language (2004, Organic Law, No. 2004-192, Article 57) Reo Tahiti None known. Lexical similarity: 85% with Rarotongan [rar], 76% with Hawaiian [haw].
pmt Tuamotuan Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Central Pacific, East Fijian-Polynesian, Polynesian, Nuclear, East, Central, Tahitic French Polynesia Windward Islands: Tahiti; Tuamotu and Gambier Islands: Tuamotu 4,000 (2007 census). Ethnic population: 16,000 (2017 census) 6b (Threatened). Statutory language of national identity (2004, Organic Law, No. 2004-192, Article 57) Paumotu Pa’umotu Vahitu, Tapuhoe, Napuka, Reao, Fangatau (Tupitimoake), Parata (Putahi), Marangai. Lexical similarity: 83% with Rarotongan [rar], 77% with Hawaiian [haw].
rap Rapa Nui Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Central Pacific, East Fijian-Polynesian, Polynesian, Nuclear, East, Rapanui Chile Valparaíso region: Easter Island, 3,800 km from Chile, 4,000 km from Tahiti 1,000 (2016 R. Weber). Ethnic population: 5,000 (Kieviet 2016). Approximately 3,600 on Easter Island 6b (Threatened). Recognized language (1993, Indigenous Peoples Law (No. 19.253)) Easter Island, Pascuense, Rapanui Rapa Nui None known. Lexical similarity: 64% with Hawaiian [haw], Mangareva [mrv], and Rarotongan [rar]; 63% with Marquesan [mrq]; 62% with Tahitian [tah] and Tuamotuan [pmt].
num Niuafo’ou Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Central Pacific, East Fijian-Polynesian, Polynesian, Nuclear, Samoic-Outlier, East Uvean-Niuafo’ou Tonga ’Eua and Tongatapu divisions; Ongo Niua division: Niuafo’ou island 1,000, all users. L1 users: 500 (2015 S. Tuilautala). L2 users: 500 (2015 S. Tuilautala). Ethnic population: 1,500 (2011 census). 523 on Niuafo’ou (2010), many elsewhere 6b (Threatened) Niuafo’ou Probably a dialect of East Uvean [wls] (Wallisian).
wls Wallisian Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Central Pacific, East Fijian-Polynesian, Polynesian, Nuclear, Samoic-Outlier, East Uvean-Niuafo’ou New Caledonia South province: mainly Nouméa Ethnic population: 18,400. Ethnic population estimated from global population figure for Futunians and Wallisians (2009 census) 6b (Threatened) East Uvean, Uvean, Wallisien
wls Wallisian Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Central Pacific, East Fijian-Polynesian, Polynesian, Nuclear, Samoic-Outlier, East Uvean-Niuafo’ou Wallis and Futuna Wallis Island 7,660 in Wallis and Futuna (2015 World Factbook). Total users in all countries: 8,440 5 (Developing). De facto language of provincial identity in Wallis (Uvea) Island East Uvea, East Uvean, Uvean, Wallisien Some dialect divergence between Wallis Islands and New Caledonia. Not functionally intelligible with Tongan [ton].
kpg Kapingamarangi Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Central Pacific, East Fijian-Polynesian, Polynesian, Nuclear, Samoic-Outlier, Ellicean Micronesia Pohnpei state: Caroline Islands; Kapingamarangi and Pohnpei islands 3,000 (1995 SIL). 1,000 on Kapingamarangi and 2,000 in Pohnrakied village on Pohnpei 4 (Educational) Kapingamarangi, Kirinit None known. Lexical similarity: 55% with Nukuoro [nkr], 54% with Rarotongan [rar], 53% with Samoan [smo], 51% with Tuamotuan [pmt], 50% with Tahitian [tah].
nur Nukeria Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Central Pacific, East Fijian-Polynesian, Polynesian, Nuclear, Samoic-Outlier, Ellicean Papua New Guinea Bougainville province: Atolls district, north of Bougainville island, Nukuria atoll 550 (2003 SIL). 170 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 700 6a* (Vigorous) Fead, Nahoa, Nuguria, Nukuria Nukeria.
nuq Nukumanu Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Central Pacific, East Fijian-Polynesian, Polynesian, Nuclear, Samoic-Outlier, Ellicean Papua New Guinea Bougainville province: Atolls district, Nukumanu atoll 750 (2015 SIL) 6a (Vigorous) Tasman Nukumanu Nukumanu. Tryon (2001) says distinct from Takuu [nho] (Nukuria) in Papua New Guinea and Ontong Java [ojv] in Solomon Islands. Speakers have contact with Luangiua.
nkr Nukuoro Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Central Pacific, East Fijian-Polynesian, Polynesian, Nuclear, Samoic-Outlier, Ellicean Micronesia Pohnpei state: Nukuoro island, about 480 km southwest of Pohnpei island 700 (2016 B. Amon). 400 on Pohnpei, 300 on Nukuoro 5 (Developing) Nuguor, Nukoro Nukuoro None known. Lexical similarity: 55% with Kapingamarangi [kpg].
ojv Ontong Java Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Central Pacific, East Fijian-Polynesian, Polynesian, Nuclear, Samoic-Outlier, Ellicean Solomon Islands Malaita province: Luangiua atoll, Lord Howe island; 210 km from Santa Isabel island 2,370 (1999 SIL) 5 (Developing) Leuangiua, Lord Howe, Luaniua Luangiua Luangiua, Pelau. Reportedly similar to Sikaiana [sky], Takuu [nho], and Nukumanu [nuq] in Papua New Guinea.
sky Sikaiana Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Central Pacific, East Fijian-Polynesian, Polynesian, Nuclear, Samoic-Outlier, Ellicean Solomon Islands Malaita province: Sikaiana atoll 730 (1999 SIL) 8a (Moribund) Sikayana None known. Reportedly similar to Luangiua [ojv] (Ontong Java).
nho Takuu Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Central Pacific, East Fijian-Polynesian, Polynesian, Nuclear, Samoic-Outlier, Ellicean Papua New Guinea Bougainville province: Atolls district, northeast of Bougainville, Mortlock village, Takuu atoll 580 (Moyle 2011), decreasing. 100 monolinguals 5 (Developing) Mortlock, Taku, Tau, Tauu None known. Distinct from Nukumanu [nuq] and Nukuria [nur] and Ontong Java [ojv] and Sikaiana [sky] in Solomon Islands, though very closely related.
tvl Tuvaluan Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Central Pacific, East Fijian-Polynesian, Polynesian, Nuclear, Samoic-Outlier, Ellicean Tuvalu Tuvalu, 7 of the 9 inhabited islands 10,000 in Tuvalu (2015 S. Ager). Total users in all countries: 14,270 3 (Wider communication). De facto language of national identity, possible use in local courts, councils Ellice, Ellicean, Tuvalu Te ’gana Tūvalu North Tuvaluan (Nanumanga, Nanumea, Niutao), South Tuvaluan (Funafuti, Nukufetau, Nukulaelae, Vaitupu). Not intelligible with Samoan [smo]. Formerly used as mission language. Intelligible of Tokelau [tkl]. Southern dialect is official.
aud Anuta Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Central Pacific, East Fijian-Polynesian, Polynesian, Nuclear, Samoic-Outlier, Futunic Solomon Islands Temotu province: Anuta island 270 (1999 SIL) 8b (Nearly extinct)
mmw Emae Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Central Pacific, East Fijian-Polynesian, Polynesian, Nuclear, Samoic-Outlier, Futunic Vanuatu Shefa province: Emae, Sesake and Three Hills islands. 2 villages 400 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Ethnic population: 570 6b (Threatened) Emai, Emwae, Mae, Mai, Mwae
uve Fagauvea Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Central Pacific, East Fijian-Polynesian, Polynesian, Nuclear, Samoic-Outlier, Futunic New Caledonia Loyalty Islands province: Lifou and Tiga, Ouvea Atoll, north and south 2,220 (2009 census), increasing. 51% live in greater Nouméa 6b* (Threatened) Faga Uvea, Faga-Uvea, Iaian, Ouvean, West Uvean None known. Related to Wallisian [wls], but 3 centuries of contact with Iaai [iai] have resulted in significant phonological and lexical differences.
fud Futuna, East Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Central Pacific, East Fijian-Polynesian, Polynesian, Nuclear, Samoic-Outlier, Futunic New Caledonia South province: mainly Nouméa Ethnic population: 2,900. Ethnic population estimated from global population figure for Futunians and Wallisians (2009 census) 6b* (Threatened) Futunian
fud Futuna, East Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Central Pacific, East Fijian-Polynesian, Polynesian, Nuclear, Samoic-Outlier, Futunic Wallis and Futuna Futuna islands 3,900 in Wallis and Futuna (2015 World Factbook) 5 (Developing). De facto language of provincial identity in Futuna Islands East Futunan, Futunan, Futunian None known. Not intelligible of Wallisian [wls] (East Uvean). Closely related to other Western Polynesian languages (Fagauvea [uve], Wallisian [wls], Tongan [ton], Samoan [smo], Tokelau [tkl], and Niuafo’ou [num]).
fut Futuna-Aniwa Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Central Pacific, East Fijian-Polynesian, Polynesian, Nuclear, Samoic-Outlier, Futunic Vanuatu Tafea province: Aniwa and West Futuna islands, east of Tanna 1,500 (Lynch and Crowley 2001) 5* (Developing) Erronan, West Futuna-Aniwa West Futuna (Fotuna), Aniwa (Anewa). Significant differences between West Futunan and Aniwan dialects.
mxe Mele-Fila Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Central Pacific, East Fijian-Polynesian, Polynesian, Nuclear, Samoic-Outlier, Futunic Vanuatu Shefa province: Efate, Mele village; Ifira island 3,500 (Lynch and Crowley 2001) 5* (Developing) Fila-Mele, Ifara-Mele, Ifira-Mele Fila (Efira, Fira, Ifira), Mele. Significant differences between Mele and Fila, but mutually intelligible (Clark 2002).
mnv Rennell-Bellona Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Central Pacific, East Fijian-Polynesian, Polynesian, Nuclear, Samoic-Outlier, Futunic Solomon Islands Rennell and Bellona province: Rennell and Bellona islands 4,390 (1999 SIL) 5 (Developing) Rennell, Rennellese, Rennellese-Bellonese Te hegeunga a Mugaba ma Mugiki Munggava (Mugaba, Rennell), Mungiki (Bellona, Bellonese, Mugiki).
tkp Tikopia Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Central Pacific, East Fijian-Polynesian, Polynesian, Nuclear, Samoic-Outlier, Futunic Solomon Islands Makira province: Makira island; Temotu province: Tikopia island, settlements on Nendo and Vanikoro islands 1,800 (2012 A. François) 5 (Developing) Fakatikopia
piv Vaeakau-Taumako Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Central Pacific, East Fijian-Polynesian, Polynesian, Nuclear, Samoic-Outlier, Futunic Solomon Islands Temotu province: widespread on Duff and Reef islands, including on Matema, Nifiloli, Nukapu, Nupani, Pileni, and Taumako 1,660 (1999 SIL) 6a (Vigorous) Pileni, Pilheni Matema, Taumako (Duff), Nupani, Nukapu, Pileni, Aua. Pileni and Taumako differ in significant ways.
pkp Pukapuka Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Central Pacific, East Fijian-Polynesian, Polynesian, Nuclear, Samoic-Outlier, Pukapuka Cook Islands Nassau, Pukapuka, and Rarotonga 700 in Cook Islands (2011 census), decreasing. 451 Pukapuka, 73 Nassau Island (Census), plus approximately 200 L1 speakers on Rarotonga (Pue village), less a few non-Pukapukan spouses most of whom speak Pukapuka as L2 (2015 M. Salisbury). Ethnic population: 700 (2011 census). Total users in all countries: 3,100 6b* (Threatened). Recognized language (2003, Te Reo Maori Act, Articles 2(b) and 4), Te Reo Maori is deemed to include Pukapukan as spoken or written in Pukapuka Bukabukan, Pukapukan Te Leo Wale None known. Not intelligible with Rarotongan [rar] or other Cook Islands languages. Related to Samoan [smo].
smo Samoan Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Central Pacific, East Fijian-Polynesian, Polynesian, Nuclear, Samoic-Outlier, Samoan American Samoa Widespread 49,600 in American Samoa (2010 World Factbook) 4 (Educational). De facto language of national identity Gagana Samoa
smo Samoan Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Central Pacific, East Fijian-Polynesian, Polynesian, Nuclear, Samoic-Outlier, Samoan Samoa 169,000 in Samoa (2015). Total users in all countries: 415,720 1 (National). Statutory national language (1960, Constitution, Article 54) Gagana Samoa No significant dialect variation, but important register-based distinctions in phonology. Lexical similarity: 70% with Wallisian [wls], 67% with Rarotongan [rar], 66% with Tongan [ton].
tkl Tokelauan Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Central Pacific, East Fijian-Polynesian, Polynesian, Nuclear, Samoic-Outlier, Tokelauan Tokelau Widespread 1,070 in Tokelau (2013 UNSD). Total users in all countries: 3,640 6b* (Threatened). De facto language of national identity, only absent from the highest government domains Tokelau Dialect differences among the 3 atolls. Intelligible with Tuvaluan [tvl]. Reportedly similar to Samoan [smo].
niu Niue Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Central Pacific, East Fijian-Polynesian, Polynesian, Tongic Niue 1,330 in Niue (2011 World Factbook). Total users in all countries: 5,910 1 (National). Statutory national language (1974, Niue Constitution Act, Article 23) Niuean, “Niuefekai” (pej.) Vagahau Niuē None known. Reportedly similar to Tongan [ton].
ton Tongan Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Central Pacific, East Fijian-Polynesian, Polynesian, Tongic Tonga 104,000 in Tonga (2015). Total users in all countries: 187,710 1 (National). De facto national language, considered co-official with English [eng] Tonga Faka Tonga Reportedly similar to Niue [niu]. Slight dialect differences north to south. Lexical similarity: 86% with Wallisian [wls], 66% with Samoan [smo].
rtm Rotuman Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Central Pacific, West Fijian-Rotuman, Rotuman Fiji Rotuma Dependency: Rotuma island, about 450 km northwest of Vanua Levu 7,500 (Schmidt, H. 2002) 6b* (Threatened) Rotuna, Rutuman No dialect differences (Schmidt, H. 2002).
wyy Fijian, Western Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Central Pacific, West Fijian-Rotuman, West Fijian Fiji Ba province, including Waya and Yasawa islands; Nadroga-Navosa province; west Serua province 83,000 (2011 J. Leclerc) 6a* (Vigorous) Fiji, Koronubu-Ba, Nadrogaa Nuclear Western Fijian (Baaravi, Nadrogaa, Tubaniwai), Waya (Magodro, Nakoroboya, Noikoro).
bwb Namosi-Naitasiri-Serua Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Central Pacific, West Fijian-Rotuman, West Fijian Fiji Naitasiri, Nadroga and Navosa, Namosi, and Serua provinces: west and southwest of Viti Levu island 1,700 (2011 J. Leclerc) 6a* (Vigorous) Namosi-Naitaasiri-Seerua Batiwai, Tubai, Nalea. Namosi is a divergent variety of West Fijian. Dialects listed may be separate languages.
dhv Drehu Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Loyalty Islands New Caledonia Loyalty Islands province: Lifou and Tiga 13,000 (2009), increasing. 60% live in greater Nouméa. Population figure adapted from 2009 census figure of 15,586 includes many second language speakers 4 (Educational) De’u, Dehu, Lifou, Lifouan, Lifu, Qene Drehu Drehu Minimal dialect difference between the 3 districts of Wetr, Gaica and Mu.
iai Iaai Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Loyalty Islands New Caledonia Loyalty Islands province: Ouvéa 4,080 (2009 census). 57% live in greater Nouméa 6b (Threatened) Hwen Iaai, Iai, Yai
nen Nengone Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Loyalty Islands New Caledonia Loyalty Islands province: Mare and Tiga 8,720 (2009 census), increasing. 53% live in greater Nouméa 5* (Developing) Iwatenu, Mare, Marean, Nengonese, Pene Nengone Nengone None known. Iwateno (Iwatenu) is a register of respect; Egesho is a joking or insulting register.
gil Kiribati Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Micronesian, Micronesian Proper, Ikiribati Fiji Scattered 6,400 in Fiji (2011 J. Leclerc). 3,000 or more Banaban 5* (Dispersed) Gilbertese, Ikiribati Banaban.
gil Kiribati Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Micronesian, Micronesian Proper, Ikiribati Kiribati 103,000 in Kiribati (2010 census). Total users in all countries: 119,881 1 (National). De facto national language Gilbertese, Ikiribati, Kiribatese I-Kiribati Banaban. North-south dialect Division. In Tuvalu, Nui inherently intelligible with Kiribati, but has vocabulary and pronunciation differences. Lexical similarity: 26% with Pohnapeian [pon].
gil Kiribati Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Micronesian, Micronesian Proper, Ikiribati Solomon Islands Choiseul province: Rob Roy island; Western province: Gizo island, 1 area; Honiara, Guadalcanal 6,800 in Solomon Islands (2012 J. Leclerc) 5 (Dispersed) Gilbertese, Ikiribati
gil Kiribati Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Micronesian, Micronesian Proper, Ikiribati Tuvalu Nui district: Nui island northwest of Funafuti capital, between Nanumanga and Nukufetau islands 100 in Tuvalu (2002 J. Leclerc) 5* (Dispersed) Gilbertese, Ikiribati Nui (Nuian).
kos Kosraean Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Micronesian, Micronesian Proper, Kusaiean Micronesia Kosrae state; Caroline Islands 6,620 in Micronesia (2005 UNSD). Total users in all countries: 7,790 2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial language in State of Kosrae (1984, Kosrae State Constitution, Article 13(1)) Kusaie, Kusaiean Kosrae Lelu-Tafunsak, Malen-Utwe. Lexical similarity: 26% with Pohnapeian [pon].
mah Marshallese Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Micronesian, Micronesian Proper, Marshallese Marshall Islands Widespread 42,500 in Marshall Islands (2001 UNSD). Total users in all countries: 61,000 1 (National). De facto national language Ebon Rälik, Ratak. Dialects inherently intelligible. Ujelang, the westernmost island, has slightly less homogeneous speech. Lexical similarity: 33% with Pohnapeian [pon].
cal Carolinian Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Micronesian, Micronesian Proper, Pohnpeic-Chuukic, Chuukic Northern Mariana Islands Widespread 2,420 (2000 census). No monolinguals 4 (Educational). Statutory language of national identity (1978, Constitution, Article 22(3)), co-official with English [eng] and Chamorro [cha] Saipan Carolinian, Southern Carolinian, “Gupallao” (pej.) Refalúwasch None known. Lexical similarity: 95% with Satawalese [stw], 88% with Woleaian [woe] and Puluwatese [puw], 81% with Mortlockese [mrl], 78% with Chuukese [chk], and 74% with Ulithian [uli].
stw Satawalese Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Micronesian, Micronesian Proper, Pohnpeic-Chuukic, Chuukic Micronesia Yap state: Satawal island 500 (2016 C. Fruit) 5 (Developing) None known. 60% intelligibility of Ulithian [uli] and Woleaian [woe]. Lexical similarity: 95% with Carolinian [cal], 88% with Woleaian [woe] and Puluwatese [puw], 82% with Mortlockese [mrl], 79% with Chuukese [chk], 77% with Ulithian [uli].
sov Sonsorolese Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Micronesian, Micronesian Proper, Pohnpeic-Chuukic, Chuukic Palau Sonsorol state: Merir, Pulo Anna, and Sonsorol islands 360 (2007 R. Dongosaro). About 60 on the outer islands (Sonsoral 30, Pulo Anna 10, Merir 3) and 300 in Koror town, Echang village 6b (Threatened). Recognized language (1979, Constitution, Article 13(1)) Sonsorol, Sonsorol-Tobi Sonsorolese, Pulo Anna, Merir. Significant linguistic differences between Tobian [tox] and Sonsorolese; similar to or greater than differences between, e.g., Puluwatese [puw] and Namonuito [nmt]. 50% intelligibility of Woleaian [woe], less with the remainder of the Trukic continuum. The Merir dialect reportedly has no remaining speakers. Lexical similarity: 69% with Ulithian [uli].
tpv Tanapag Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Micronesian, Micronesian Proper, Pohnpeic-Chuukic, Chuukic Northern Mariana Islands Northern Mariana Islands, Saipan, west central coast, Tanapag community 10 (2011 SIL), decreasing 7 (Shifting) Northern Carolinian, Talaabog, Talaabwogh None known. Mutually intelligible of Saipan Carolinian [cal] and Namonuito [nmt] in Micronesia.
uli Ulithian Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Micronesian, Micronesian Proper, Pohnpeic-Chuukic, Chuukic Micronesia Yap state: Fais, Ngulu, Sorol, and Ulithi islands 1,000 (Lynch 2002b) 5 (Developing) None known. 85% intelligibility of Woleaian [woe], 57% of Satawalese [stw], very low intelligibility of Puluwatese [puw] and Chuukese [chk]. Lexical similarity: 74%–80% with Woleaian [woe], 77% with Satawalese [stw], 74% with Carolinian [cal], 72% with Puluwatese [puw] and Mortlockese [mrl], 68% with Chuukese [chk].
woe Woleaian Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Micronesian, Micronesian Proper, Pohnpeic-Chuukic, Chuukic Micronesia Yap state: eastern islands, mainly Woleai (Wottegai) island and others: Eauripik, Elato, Falalop (Falalap), Falalus, Faraulep, Ifaluk, Lamotrek, Mariang, Paliau, Seliap (Sulywap), and Tegailap (Tagalap) islands; some inhabited, 22 islands total 1,630 (1987 census) 6a (Vigorous) Woleaian, Lamotrek. 84% intelligibility of Satawalese [stw], 81% of Ulithian [uli], 50% of Sonsorol [sov], very low of Puluwatese [puw] and Chuukese [chk]. Lexical similarity: 88% with Satawalese [stw] and Carolinian [cal], 82% with Puluwatese [puw], 80% with Ulithian [uli], 78% with Mortlockese [mrl], 75% with Chuukese [chk].
puw Puluwatese Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Micronesian, Micronesian Proper, Pohnpeic-Chuukic, Chuukic Micronesia Chuuk state: Pollap, Polowat, Pulusuk, and Tamtam islands, about 260 km west of Chuuk lagoon 1,500 (Lynch 2002c) 6a (Vigorous) Puluwat Puluwatese, Pulapese, Pulusukese. 64% intelligibility of Satawalese [stw], 40% of Woleaian [woe], 21% of Ulithian [uli]. Lexical similarity: 88% with Satawalese [stw] and Carolinian [cal], 83% with Mortlockese [mrl], 82% with Woleaian [woe], 81% with Chuukese [chk], 72% with Ulithian [uli].
chk Chuukese Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Micronesian, Micronesian Proper, Pohnpeic-Chuukic, Chuukic Micronesia Chuuk state: Chuuk Lagoon, Caroline Islands; some on Pohnpei island 48,200 in Micronesia (2005 UNSD). Total users in all countries: 100,990 2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial language in State of Chuuk (1989, Chuuk State Constitution, Article 11(6)) Chuk, Lagoon Chuukese, Ruk, Truk, Trukese Chuuk East Lagoon, Fayichuck.
mpy Mapia Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Micronesian, Micronesian Proper, Pohnpeic-Chuukic, Chuukic Indonesia Papua Barat province: Manokwari regency, Mapia islands No known L1 speakers. Last speaker survived into the 1990s. Ethnic population: The ethnic group emigrated from Micronesia in the early 20th century 10 (Extinct) Mapian, Old Mapian
mrl Mortlockese Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Micronesian, Micronesian Proper, Pohnpeic-Chuukic, Chuukic Micronesia Chuuk state: Mortlock islands southeast of Chuuk islands; some on Pohnpei island 5,900 (1989 census). 1,690 Upper Mortlock, 1,760 Mid Mortlock, 2,460 Lower Mortlock, about 1,000 elsewhere 6b* (Threatened) Mortlock, Nomoi Upper Mortlock, Mid Mortlock, Lower Mortlock. 75% intelligibility of Puluwatese [puw], 18% of Satawalese [stw], 8% of Woleaian [woe]. Lexical similarity: 80%–85% with Chuukese [chk], 83% with Puluwatese, 82% with Satawalese, 81% with Carolinian [cal], 78% with Woleaian, 72% with Ulithian [uli].
nmt Namonuito Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Micronesian, Micronesian Proper, Pohnpeic-Chuukic, Chuukic Micronesia Chuuk state: Magur, Namonnuito and other islands 940 (1989 census) 6a (Vigorous) Namon Weite
pfa Pááfang Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Micronesian, Micronesian Proper, Pohnpeic-Chuukic, Chuukic Micronesia Chuuk state: Hall Islands of Fananu, Marilo, Nomwin, and Ruo 1,320 (1989 census) 8a (Moribund) None known. Indications of convergence with Chuukese [chk].
tox Tobian Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Micronesian, Micronesian Proper, Pohnpeic-Chuukic, Chuukic Palau Hatohobei state: Helen and Tobi islands; Koror state: Koror island 150 (2017) 6b (Threatened) Hatohobei, Tobi None known. Significant linguistic differences between Tobian and Sonsorolese [sov], although often treated as 1 language.
mkj Mokilese Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Micronesian, Micronesian Proper, Pohnpeic-Chuukic, Pohnpeic Micronesia Pohnpei state: Mokil (Mwoakiloa) atoll, southeast of Pohnpei island 1,000 (2015 P. Knapp). 135 on Mokil Atoll 6a (Vigorous) Mwoakilese Mokil, Mwoakilloa None known. Lexical similarity: 79% with Pingelapese [pif], 75% with Pohnapeian [pon].
pif Pingelapese Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Micronesian, Micronesian Proper, Pohnpeic-Chuukic, Pohnpeic Micronesia Pohnpei state: Pingelap and Pohnpei islands 4,500 in Micronesia (2014 K. Dixon), all users. L1 users: 2,500 (1991 K. Rehg). 500 on Pingelap, about 2,000 on Ponape. Ethnic population: 6,000 (2019 K. Dixon). Total users in all countries: 5,100 (as L1: 3,100; as L2: 2,000) 6a (Vigorous) Pingilapese Pingelap None known. Lexical similarity: 81% with Pohnpeian [pon], 79% with Mokilese [mkj].
pon Pohnpeian Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Micronesian, Micronesian Proper, Pohnpeic-Chuukic, Pohnpeic Micronesia Pohnpei: Caroline Islands; Pohnpei island 29,000 in Micronesia (Johnstone and Mandryk 2001). 24,000 on Pohnpei, 3,430 on outer islands, 280 elsewhere. Total users in all countries: 32,530 2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial language in State of Pohnpei (1984, Pohnpei State Constitution, Article 13(1)) Ponapean Pohnpei Kiti, Ponapean, Sapwuahfik. Lexical similarity: 81% with Pingelapese [pif], 75% with Mokilese [mkj], 36% with Chuukese [chk].
nau Nauruan Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Micronesian, Nauruan Nauru Nauru Island 10,300, all users. L1 users: 9,300 (2013), decreasing. L2 users: 1,000 3 (Wider communication). De facto national working language Nauru dorerin Naoero
aek Haeke Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, New Caledonian, Haekic New Caledonia North province: west coast, Baco and Voh-Koné 300 (2009), decreasing. Estimated population based on census. 2009 census figures for all 6 Voh-Koné languages: 1,203 8b (Nearly extinct) ’Aeke, Aeke, Baco, Haeake Regarded as a dialect of Voh-Koné (Wurm and Hattori 1981).
hvk Haveke Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, New Caledonian, Northern New Caledonia North province: west coast, Voh-Koné: Gatope, Oundjo, and Tiéta 300 (2009), decreasing. Estimated population based on 2009 census figures for all Voh-Koné languages: 1,203 7 (Shifting) ’Aveke, Aveke Regarded as a dialect of Voh-Koné (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Bwatoo [bwa] is most closely related.
mkt Vamale Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, New Caledonian, Northern New Caledonia North province: east coast Ouanache, Téganpaïk, and Tiouandé (Vamale dialect); West coast Tiéta and Voh (Hmwaeke dialect) 100 (2009 census), decreasing. Estimated population based on census. 2009 census figures for all 6 Voh-Koné languages: 1,203 7 (Shifting) ’Moaeke, Hmwaeke, Pamale Vamale, Hmwaeke. Regarded as dialect of Voh-Koné (Wurm and Hattori 1981).
cam Cemuhî Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, New Caledonian, Northern, Central New Caledonia North province: east coast, Touho, from Congouma to Wagap and inland valleys 2,600 (2009 census), increasing 6b* (Threatened) Camuhi, Camuki, Cemuhi, Cèmuhî, Tie, Touho, Tyamuhi, Wagap Cemuhî
pri Paicî Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, New Caledonian, Northern, Central New Caledonia North province: east coast, Poindimié and Ponérihouen; west coast, Koné, Poya, and inland valleys 7,250 (2009 census), increasing 6b (Threatened) Cî, Paaci, Pati, Ponerihouen Paicî Minor lexical and phonetic variation between East and West Coast, and on the East between Poindimié and Ponérihouen regions.
msq Caac Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, New Caledonian, Northern, Extreme Northern New Caledonia North province: east coast, Pouébo 1,170 (2009 census), increasing. 33% live in greater Nouméa 6b* (Threatened) Caaac, Caawac, Moenebeng, Mwelebeng Pouébo (Pwebo), La Conception (Saint Louis).
nee Nêlêmwa-Nixumwak Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, New Caledonian, Northern, Extreme Northern New Caledonia North province: west coast, Koumac (Nixumwak) and Poum (Nelemwa) 1,090 (2009 census) 6b* (Threatened) Fwa-Goumak, Koumac, Kumak Nelemwa (Nelema, Nenema), Nixumwak (Fwa Kumak, Koumac, Kumak). Dialect differences mostly phonological and lexical.
yly Nyelâyu Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, New Caledonian, Northern, Extreme Northern New Caledonia North province: Belep island; mainland at Arama, Balade, and Tiari 1,960 (2009 census) 6b* (Threatened) Nielaiou, Nielaiu, Nyalayu, Puma, Yalasu, Yalayu Belep, Arama, Tiari-Balade.
nua Yuanga Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, New Caledonian, Northern, Extreme Northern New Caledonia North province: west coast and central north, inland valleys between Gomen (Thuanga) and Ouégoa (Juanga) 2,400 (2009 census) 6b* (Threatened) Bonde, Gomen, Juanga, Nua, Nyua, Nyuaanga, Thuanga, Yuaanga, Yuaga, Zwanga Thuanga (Gomen), Juanga (Bonde, Paimboas).
pme Pwaamei Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, New Caledonian, Northern, North New Caledonia North province: west coast, Boyen, Ouélisse, Témala and Voh 290 (2009 census) 7 (Shifting) Poamei, Pwamei Hnaaka, Yaak (Zaak).
pop Pwapwâ Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, New Caledonian, Northern, North New Caledonia North province: west coast, Boyen, Témala, and Voh 40 (2006 census), decreasing 8b (Nearly extinct) Poapoa, Pwapwa
bwa Bwatoo Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, New Caledonian, Northern, North, Hmwaveke New Caledonia North and South provinces: west coast, Voh Koné area, Baco, Gatope, and Oundjo; Népou and Poya 150 (2009), decreasing. Estimated population based on census. 2009 census figures for all 6 Voh-Koné languages: 1,203 7 (Shifting) Regarded as dialect of Voh-Koné (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Lexical similarity: most closely with Haveke [hvk].
mrk Hmwaveke Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, New Caledonian, Northern, North, Hmwaveke New Caledonia North province: west coast, Tiéta and Voh 200 (2009), decreasing. Estimated population based on 2009 census figures for all 6 Voh-Koné languages: 1,203 6b (Threatened) ’Moaveke, Ceta, Faa Ceta Regarded as a dialect of Voh-Koné (Wurm and Hattori 1981).
wmn Waamwang Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, New Caledonian, Northern, North, Hmwaveke New Caledonia North province: Voh commune No known L1 speakers. The last speaker probably survived into the 1950s (Sakiyama 2007) 10 (Extinct) Wamoang Now generally regarded as extinct dialect of Voh-Koné group of languages.
fwa Fwâi Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, New Caledonian, Northern, North, Nemi New Caledonia North province: east coast, Hienghène; Panié to Pindache and lower valleys 1,860 (2009 census), increasing. 30% live in greater Nouméa 6b* (Threatened) Fûai, Poai, Yehen, Yengen
jaz Jawe Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, New Caledonian, Northern, North, Nemi New Caledonia North province: east coast, Hienghène, Tao to Tchamboenne; inland villages on both sides of central divide 990 (2009 census), increasing 6b* (Threatened) Diahoue, Njawe, Oubatch, Ubach
nem Nemi Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, New Caledonian, Northern, North, Nemi New Caledonia North province: east coast, Hienghène, coast north of town and upper inland valleys; west coast, Ouélisse, Témala and Voh 910 (2009 census) 6b* (Threatened) East Coast Nemi, West Coast Nemi.
piz Pije Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, New Caledonian, Northern, North, Nemi New Caledonia North province: east coast, Hienghène, Oué-hawa, Tiendanite, and Tipindjé; Touho: Ouanache and Tiouandé 180 (2009 census), decreasing 8a (Moribund) Pindje, Pinje
duf Drubea Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, New Caledonian, Southern, Extreme Southern New Caledonia South province: west coast, Païta; east coast, Unia 1,210 (2009 census), decreasing. Over a third live outside the traditional language area, mostly in greater Nouméa 6b* (Threatened) Diubea, Dubea, Dumbea, Naa Drubea, Naa Dubea, Ndumbea, Nraa Drubea, Paita None known. Slight differences between west and east coast.
kdk Numèè Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, New Caledonian, Southern, Extreme Southern New Caledonia South province: Isle Ouen (Ouen dialect); Isle of Pines (Kwényi dialect); Touaouru, Goro, and Yate on south end of main island (Numèè dialect) 2,180 (2009 census) 6b* (Threatened) Dialectes de l’Extreme Sud, Duauru, Kapone, Kunie, Kwényi, Naa Numee, Naa-Wee, Ouen, Touaouru, Truaru, Tuauru, Uen, Wen, Xere Numèè (Touaouru), Ouen, Kwényi (Kunie).
aqr Arhâ Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, New Caledonian, Southern, South, Wailic New Caledonia North and South provinces: west coast, Poya, upper valleys 170 (2009 census) 8a (Moribund) Ara None known. Arhâ and Arhö [aok] are very closely related to each other and to Ajië [aji], but are mutually unintelligible (de la Fontinelle 1976).
aok Arhö Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, New Caledonian, Southern, South, Wailic New Caledonia North and South provinces: Cradji, Nékliai, and Poya on west coast 10 (Wurm 2000), decreasing. Ethnic population: 350 8b (Nearly extinct) Aro None known. Arhö and Arhâ [aqr] are very closely related to each other and to Ajië [aji], but are mutually unintelligible (de la Fontinelle 1976).
aji Ajië Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, New Caledonian, Southern, South, Wailic New Caledonia North and South provinces: Houaïlou east coast, and Monéo to Kouaoua and inland valleys 5,360 (2009 census), increasing 5* (Developing) A’jie, Anjie, Houaïlou, Wai, Wailu Waawilûû
nek Neku Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, New Caledonian, Southern, South, Wailic New Caledonia South province: west coast, Bourail and Moindou, lower valley 130 (2009 census), decreasing. 34% live in greater Nouméa 8a (Moribund)
bpk Orowe Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, New Caledonian, Southern, South, Wailic New Caledonia South province: west coast, Azareu, Bouirou and upper valleys, Ny and Pothé 490 (2009 census), decreasing 7 (Shifting) ’Ôrôê, Abwebwe, Boewe, Boewi None known. Reportedly similar to Ajië [aji].
ane Xârâcùù Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, New Caledonian, Southern, South, Xaracuu-Xaragure New Caledonia North and South provinces: east coast, Canala and Thio; west coast Boulouparis and La Foa 5,730 (2009 census) 6a* (Vigorous) Anesu, Canala, Haraneu, Kanala, Naa Xaracuu, Xaracii
axx Xârâgurè Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, New Caledonian, Southern, South, Xaracuu-Xaragure New Caledonia South province: east coast, Thio; west coast, Ouinané 760 (2009 census) 7 (Shifting) ’Aragure, Aragure, Borendy, Borindi, Haragure, Naa Xaragure, Thio, Xaragure
sih Sîshëë Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, New Caledonian, Southern, South, Zire-Tiri New Caledonia North province: Poya commune; South province: Bourail commune; Coral Sea coastal plain No known L1 speakers. Last known speaker died by the year 2000. Ethnic population: 19 (2009 census) 9 (Dormant) Nere, Siche, Sirhe, Yirhe, Yirhee, Ziche, Zira, Zire
cir Tîrî Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, New Caledonian, Southern, South, Zire-Tiri New Caledonia South province: west coast, Couli (Sarraméa), La Foa lower valleys (Tîrî dialect); east coast, Kouaoua, upper valleys (Méa dialect) 600 (2009 census), decreasing 7 (Shifting) Ciiri, Ciri, Grand Couli, Ha-Tiri, Hamea, Méa, Tinrin, Tiri-Mea Tîrî, Méa (Ha Mea, Hameha, Mea, Xaa Mea).
sku Sakao Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, East Santo, North Vanuatu Sanma province: northeast Espiritu Santo island 2,000 (Crowley 2002b) 6a (Vigorous) Hog Harbour, Klep, N’kep, Sakau, Santo
bnr Butmas-Tur Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, East Santo, South Vanuatu Sanma province: east central Espiritu Santo island 520 (1983 SIL) 6a* (Vigorous) Ati, Farafi
lnn Lorediakarkar Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, East Santo, South Vanuatu Sanma province: Espiritu Santo island, central east coast 340 (2000). Ethnic population: 850 6b (Threatened) None known. Reportedly similar to Shark Bay [ssv].
plb Polonombauk Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, East Santo, South Vanuatu Sanma province: southeast Espiritu Santo island 120 (Wurm 2007). Ethnic population: 550 6b (Threatened)
ssv Shark Bay Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, East Santo, South Vanuatu Sanma province: east Espiritu Santo island and Litaro (Pilot) islands; Shark Bay coast 450 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Ethnic population: 1,130 6b (Threatened) Ngen None known. Reportedly similar to Lorediakarkar [lnn].
mwi Ninde Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Malekula Interior, Labo Vanuatu Malampa province: Malekula, Southwest Bay town, Labo, Lawa, and Windua villages 1,100 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Ethnic population: 1,600 6b (Threatened) Labo, Meaun, Mewun, Nide
mrs Maragus Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Malekula Interior, Malekula Central Vanuatu Malampa province: Malekula, Tautu village 15 (Crowley 2006b) 8b (Nearly extinct) Maragaus, Marakus, Tape, Tobah None known. Most similar to V’ënen Taut [nmb] (Crowley 2006b).
tmb Avava Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Malekula Interior, Malekula Central Vanuatu Malampa province: central Malekula, Khatbol, Taremp, Tembimbi, and Tisvel villages 700 (Crowley 2006a) 6a (Vigorous) Katbol, Navava, Taremp, Tembimbe-Katbol, Tisvel, Vava Umbbuul (Bangasak), Nivat, Timbembe. Nivat dialect is now extinct.
lrv Larevat Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Malekula Interior, Malekula Central Vanuatu Malampa province: central Malekula 680 (Lynch and Crowley 2001) 6b (Threatened) Laravat
lzl Litzlitz Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Malekula Interior, Malekula Central Vanuatu Malampa province: Malekula 15 (Lynch and Crowley 2001) 8b (Nearly extinct) Lagalag, Litzlitz-Visele, Lolnarrong, Naman, Netensal
nvh Nasarian Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Malekula Interior, Malekula Central Vanuatu Malampa province: southwest coast of Malekula 5 (Lynch and Crowley 2001) 8b (Nearly extinct)
vnm Neve’ei Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Malekula Interior, Malekula Central Vanuatu Malampa province: central west Malekula 500 (Musgrave 2007). Ethnic population: 710 6b (Threatened) Banggor, Lambumbu, Nabusian teget, Nefe’ei, Telag, Vinmavis Winiv.
lgk Neverver Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Malekula Interior, Malekula Central Vanuatu Malampa province: Malekula 1,250 (Lynch and Crowley 2001) 6b (Threatened) Bushman’s Bay, Lingarak, Nevwervwer Mindu, Wuli.
nmb V’ënen Taut Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Malekula Interior, Malekula Central Vanuatu Malampa province: northwest Malekula 3,350 (Lynch and Crowley 2001) 5* (Developing) Big Nambas
dix Dixon Reef Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Malekula Interior, Small Nambas Vanuatu Malampa province: southwest Malekula 50 (1982 SIL). Ethnic population: 60 (1982 SIL) 6b (Threatened)
nms Letemboi Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Malekula Interior, Small Nambas Vanuatu Malampa province: south Malekula 800 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Ethnic population: 1,100 (2001) 6b (Threatened) Small Nambas
rpn Repanbitip Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Malekula Interior, Small Nambas Vanuatu Malampa province: east Malekula 90 (1983 SIL). Ethnic population: 130 6b (Threatened)
llp Efate, North Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, Central Vanuatu Vanuatu Shefa province: north Efate island, Nguna, Tongoa, and several smaller islands, southeast Epi 9,500 (Lynch and Crowley 2001) 5* (Developing) Nakanamanga Nguna (Guna, Ngunese, Tongoa), Buninga, Sesake, Emau, Paunangis, Livara.
erk Efate, South Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, Central Vanuatu Vanuatu Shefa province: Efate island 6,000 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Population includes Eton [etn] 5 (Developing) Erakor, Fate, Nafsan, Southern Efate
etn Eton Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, Central Vanuatu Vanuatu Shefa province: southeast Efate island, Eton, Pang Pang, and surrounding villages 500 (1989 census) 6a (Vigorous) Eastern Efate, Epwau Eton, Pang Pang. Formerly thought a dialect of South Efate [erk]. 88% inherent intelligibility of Lelepa [lpa], 64% of South Efate.
lpa Lelepa Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, Central Vanuatu Vanuatu Shefa province: west Efate island, Lelepa island, Mangaliliu and Napkoa 400 (1989 census) 6a (Vigorous) Havannah Harbour Formerly thought a dialect of North Efate [llp]. Also related to South Efate [erk]. 84% inherent intelligibility of Eton [etn], 88% of South Efate.
nmk Namakura Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, Central Vanuatu Vanuatu Shefa province: north Efate, Tongariki and Tongoa 3,750 (Lynch and Crowley 2001) 6a* (Vigorous) Makura, Namakir Tongoa Island, Tongariki Island, Buninga, Makura (Emwae Island), Mataso.
fnb Fanbak Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, East Vanuatu Vanuatu Malampa province: North Ambrym island, Faramsu, Ranvetlam, and Konkon villages 95 (2015 M. Franjieh). Ethnic population: 190 (2015 M. Franjieh) 6b* (Threatened) Fanbyak, Orkon None known. Lexical similarity: 60% with North Ambrym [mmg] and 40% with Southeast Ambrym [tvk].
lrz Lemerig Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, East Vanuatu Vanuatu Torba province: Vanua Lava island, northeast coastal villages 2 (2008 A. François) 8b (Nearly extinct) Bek, Leon, Päk, Sasar None known. Reportedly similar to Vera’a [vra] and Vurës [msn].
olr Olrat Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, East Vanuatu Vanuatu Torba province: Gaua island west coast, mainly Dolap village 5 (2008) 8b (Nearly extinct) Olrat None known. Reportedly similar to Koro [krf] and Lakon [lkn].
vra Vera’a Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, East Vanuatu Vanuatu Torba province: Vanua Lava island west coast, Vera’a village 300 (2005 A. François) 6b* (Threatened) Vatrata, Vetrat None known. Reportedly similar to Lemerig [lrz] and Vurës [msn].
omb Ambae, East Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, East Vanuatu Vanuatu Penama province: Ambae (Leper’s) island 5,000 (Lynch and Crowley 2001) 5* (Developing) Aoba, Northeast Ambae, Northeast Aoba, Oba, Omba, Walurigi Lombaha (Lobaha), Longana, Lolokaro (Lolokara, Lolsiwoi), Lolovoli. About 15 dialects.
nnd Ambae, West Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, East Vanuatu Vanuatu Penama province: west Ambae (Aoba, Leper’s) island 8,700 (Lynch and Crowley 2001) 5* (Developing) Duidui, Opa Walaha, Nduindui (Duindui). Many dialects.
mmg Ambrym, North Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, East Vanuatu Vanuatu Malampa province: north Ambrym island 5,250 (2001 SIL) 6a* (Vigorous) Magam, Olal.
tvk Ambrym, Southeast Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, East Vanuatu Vanuatu Malampa province: southeast Ambrym island; Shefa province: Mele-Maat 2,000 (Crowley 2002e) 5* (Developing) Taveak (Taviak), Endu, Toak, Penapo. Linguistically similar to Paama [pma].
app Apma Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, East Vanuatu Vanuatu Penama province: central Pentecost (Raga) 10,000 (2017 A. Gray). Latest published estimate: 7,800 (Lynch and Crowley 2001) 6a (Vigorous) Abma, Central Raga, Daleda Apma, Dalekte Asuk (Asa, Asu), Suru Mwerani, Suru Rabwanga (Suru Bo), Suru Kavian, Wolwolan (Volvoluana).
btr Baetora Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, East Vanuatu Vanuatu Penama province: Maewo island 1,330 (Lynch and Crowley 2001) 6a* (Vigorous) Nasawa, Talise, Narovorovo. Considerable dialect variation.
bpa Daakaka Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, East Vanuatu Vanuatu Malampa province: south Ambrym 1,200 (Lynch and Crowley 2001) 6a* (Vigorous) Baiap, Dakaka, South Ambrym Daakaka Sesivi. Several other dialects.
wwo Dorig Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, East Vanuatu Vanuatu Torba province: Banks Islands group, Gaua island, Dorig and Kweteon villages 200 (2003 A. François) 6a (Vigorous) Wetamut
lml Hano Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, East Vanuatu Vanuatu Penama province: south Maewo, north Pentecost (Raga), and Whitsuntide islands 7,500 (2017 A. Gray) 3 (Wider communication) Bwatvenua, Lamalanga, Loltong, Nonda, North Pentecost Language, North Raga, Qatvenua, Raxa, Vunmarama Raga Nggasai (Kasai). Slight dialect differences; the last Nggasai dialect speaker died in 1999.
hiw Hiw Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, East Vanuatu Vanuatu Torba province: Hiw island, Torres Islands 150 (2007 A. François) 6a (Vigorous) Hiu
krf Koro Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, East Vanuatu Vanuatu Torba province: Banks Islands group, Gaua island, Koro and Mekeon villages 160 (2003 A. François) 6a (Vigorous)
lkn Lakon Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, East Vanuatu Vanuatu Torba province: Banks Islands group, Gaua island 700 (2003 A. François) 4 (Educational) Lakona, Lakona Bay, West Gaua Lakon Qatareu, Togla, Vure.
tql Lehali Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, East Vanuatu Vanuatu Torba province: Banks Islands group, Ureparapara island west coast 250 (2007 A. François). Ethnic population: 350 6b (Threatened) Teqel
crc Lonwolwol Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, East Vanuatu Vanuatu Malampa province: west Ambrym island; Efate island, Maat village 1,200 (Lynch and Crowley 2001) 5* (Developing) Ambrym, Craig Cove, Fali, Fanting, West Ambrym 2 main dialects.
lht Lo-Toga Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, East Vanuatu Vanuatu Torba province: Torres islands 650 (2007 A. François) 6b (Threatened) Loh-Toga Lo, Toga.
urr Löyöp Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, East Vanuatu Vanuatu Torba province: Banks Islands group, Divers bay area, Ureparapara island 250 (2007 A. François) 6a (Vigorous) Divers Bay, Lehalurup
mwo Maewo, Central Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, East Vanuatu Vanuatu Penama province: Maewo (Aurora) island 1,400 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Ethnic population: 2,000 (2001) 6b (Threatened) Maewo, Sungwadaga, Tanoriki Lotora. Arata and Bangoro may be dialects or closely related languages.
mrb Marino Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, East Vanuatu Vanuatu Penama province: north Maewo 500 (2008 A. Henri), increasing 6a* (Vigorous) Naone, North Maewo, Sunwadia
mtt Mota Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, East Vanuatu Vanuatu Torba province: Banks Islands group, Mota (Sugarloaf) island 900 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Ethnic population: 1,300 6b (Threatened) Veverau (Ira we nao), Maligo (Ira we tak).
mrm Mwerlap Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, East Vanuatu Vanuatu Torba province: Mere Lava and Merig islands 1,350 (Lynch and Crowley 2001) 6a* (Vigorous) Merelava, Merlav, Merlav-Merig Matliwag, Mwerig (Merig), West Merelava.
mlv Mwotlap Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, East Vanuatu Vanuatu Torba province: Banks Islands group, Mota Lava (Saddle) island 1,800 (2007 A. François), increasing 6a (Vigorous) Motalava, Motlav Dagmel, Valuwa, Volow.
tgs Nume Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, East Vanuatu Vanuatu Torba province: northeast Gaua island 900 (Lynch and Crowley 2001) 6b (Threatened) Gaua, Gog, North-East Gaua, Tarasag
pma Paama Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, East Vanuatu Vanuatu Malampa province: Paama, 1 village on east Epi (Lopevi), large group in Vila 6,000 (1996 SIL) 5* (Developing) Paama-Lopevi, Paamese, Pauma North Paama, South Paama. Reportedly similar to Southeast Ambrym [tvk].
ptv Port Vato Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, East Vanuatu Vanuatu Malampa province: southwest Ambrym island 1,300 (Lynch and Crowley 2001) 6a (Vigorous) Daakie None known. High degree of mutual intelligbility with Daakaka [bpa].
sax Sa Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, East Vanuatu Vanuatu Penama province: south Raga island 4,000 (2017 A. Gray) 6a (Vigorous) Ponorwol, Saa, South Pentecost Language Dlo Kêt, Sa Ponorwal (South Raga), Lolatavola, Ninebulo.
ske Seke Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, East Vanuatu Vanuatu Penama province: Pentecost island 300 (2011 K. Johnson). Ethnic population: 430 6b (Threatened) Baravet, Bwaravet, Dol, Ske Seke
sww Sowa Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, East Vanuatu Vanuatu Penama province: central Raga island No known L1 speakers. Last fluent speaker, Maurice Tabi, died in 2000 10 (Extinct)
msn Vurës Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, East Vanuatu Vanuatu Torba province: Banks Islands group, Vanua Lava island, southeast 2,000 (Malau 2016) 6a* (Vigorous) Vetumboso, Vuras, Vureas Vurës Mwesen (Mosin, Mosina). Lexical similarity: 88% with Mosina.
brj Bieria Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, Epi, Bieria-Maii Vanuatu Shefa province: south Epi, between Maii [mmm] and Lewo [lmu] language areas 70 (Early 2006), decreasing. Ethnic population: 100 7 (Shifting) Bieri, Vovo, Wowo Bieria, Vovo (Wowo). Wurm and Hattori (1981) treat Bieria and Vovo as separate languages.
mmm Maii Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, Epi, Bieria-Maii Vanuatu Shefa province: southwest Epi, Mafilau village; north of Bieria [brj] language area, south of Baki [bki] language area 180 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Ethnic population: 260 (2001) 6b (Threatened) Mae-Morae, Mafilau, Mkir
bki Baki Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, Epi, Lamenu-Baki, Baki-Bierebo Vanuatu Shefa province: west Epi 350 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Few monolinguals, youngest and oldest 6b (Threatened) Burumba, Paki Baki Slight dialect variation.
bnk Bierebo Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, Epi, Lamenu-Baki, Baki-Bierebo Vanuatu Shefa province: west Epi, south of Lamenu [lmu] and north of Baki [bki] language areas 800 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Ethnic population: 1,140 6b (Threatened) Bonkovia-Yevali
lmu Lamenu Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, Epi, Lamenu-Baki, Lamenu-Lewo Vanuatu Shefa province: Varmali region, Epi island northwest tip, Lamenu island; Luganville, Port Vila, and Sara villages 500 (Early 2002). Very few monolinguals 5 (Developing) Lamen, Lewo, Varmali Lewo-Lamen Galoparua, Galokumali, Galovasoro. Lexical similarity: borderline with Lewo [lww], but strong local identification as separate language.
lww Lewo Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, Epi, Lamenu-Baki, Lamenu-Lewo Vanuatu Shefa province: east Epi island, Varmali and Varsu regions 2,200 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Only very elderly and very young are monolingual 5 (Developing) Varsu Tasiko, Mate-Nul-Filakara. Lexical similarity: borderline with Lamenu [lmu] but strong community perception that it is a different language.
psw Port Sandwich Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, Malekula Coastal Vanuatu Malampa province: southeast Malekula 750 (Crowley 2002d) 8b (Nearly extinct) Lamap Several dialects; similar to Axamb [ahb] and Maskelynes [klv].
aul Aulua Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, Malekula Coastal Vanuatu Malampa province: east Malekula 750 (Lynch and Crowley 2001) 6a (Vigorous) Aulua Bay Onesso, Boinelang.
ahb Axamb Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, Malekula Coastal Vanuatu Malampa province: south Malekula 750 (Lynch and Crowley 2001) 6a* (Vigorous) Ahamb None known. Similar to Port Sandwich [psw].
vrt Banam Bay Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, Malekula Coastal Vanuatu Malampa province: southeast Malekula 900 (Lynch and Crowley 2001) 6a* (Vigorous) Banan Bay, Burmbar, Vartavo Some dialect differences.
mme Mae Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, Malekula Coastal Vanuatu Malampa province: Malekula 1,000 (Lynch and Crowley 2001) 6a* (Vigorous) Dirak, Tirakh North Small Nambas.
mll Malua Bay Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, Malekula Coastal Vanuatu Malampa province: Malekula, northwest coast 500 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Ethnic population: 715 (2001) 6b (Threatened) Espiegle Bay, Middle Nambas Several dialects.
klv Maskelynes Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, Malekula Coastal Vanuatu Malampa province: southeast Malekula, Maskelyne Islands 1,100 (Lynch and Crowley 2001), increasing. No monolinguals 5 (Developing) Kuliviu, Maskelyne Islands Uliveo, Uluveu. Similar to Port Sandwich [psw].
mvt Mpotovoro Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, Malekula Coastal Vanuatu Malampa province: Malekula, north tip 430 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Ethnic population: 610 6b (Threatened)
mlx Na’ahai Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, Malekula Coastal Vanuatu Malampa province: south Malekula 600 (1983 SIL) 6a* (Vigorous) Malfaxal, Malvaxal-Toman Island, Taman, Tomman Orierh (Na’ahai), Milip, Toman.
sns Nahavaq Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, Malekula Coastal Vanuatu Malampa province: southwest Malekula 600 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Ethnic population: 860 6b (Threatened) Labo, Lamangkau, Na’ahai, Nahapa, Seniang, Sinesip
pgk Rerep Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, Malekula Coastal Vanuatu Malampa province: east Malekula 380 (1983 SIL). Ethnic population: 540 6b (Threatened) Pangkumu, Pangkumu Bay, Tisman Tisman.
onu Unua Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, Malekula Coastal Vanuatu Malampa province: east Malekula island. Batabbu, Batabong, Black Sands, Penamor, and Ruxbo villages (Unua dialect). Hemertabos, Pandeur, Rembe, Rerep, Retchar, and Tisman villages (Pangkumu dialect) 1,050 (Pearce 2015), increasing 6a (Vigorous) Onua Unua Unua, Pangkumu.
upv Uripiv-Wala-Rano-Atchin Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, Malekula Coastal Vanuatu Malampa province: northeast Malekula and nearby islands 9,000 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). 1,380 Atchin, 3,450 Uripiv-Wala-Rano 5* (Developing) Northeast Malakula Tirax Uripiv, Wala-Rano, Atchin (Nale). Dialect chain from Uripiv in the south to Atchin in the north. Lexical similarity: 85% at extremes of the dialect chain.
vao Vao Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, Malekula Coastal Vanuatu Malampa province: north Malekula and Vao islands 1,900 (Lynch and Crowley 2001) 6a* (Vigorous) Fooa.
wlr Wailapa Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, West Santo Vanuatu Sanma province: southwest Espiritu Santo island 100 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Ethnic population: 140 6b (Threatened) A dialect chain with Akei [tsr] and Penantsiro [ptr] at the extremes; similar to Fortsenal [frt].
alm Amblong Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, West Santo Vanuatu Sanma province: south Espiritu Santo island 150 (1983 SIL). Ethnic population: 220 6b (Threatened) None known. Reportedly most similar to Narango [nrg] and Morouas [mrp].
aor Aore Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, West Santo Vanuatu Sanma province: east Espiritu Santo island No known L1 speakers. Last known speaker survived into the 1980s (1982 SIL) 10 (Extinct) None known. Reportedly similar to Malo [mla] and Tutuba [tmi].
frt Fortsenal Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, West Santo Vanuatu Sanma province: central Espiritu Santo island 450 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Ethnic population: 560 6b (Threatened) Kiai, Vara Kiai None known. Reportedly similar to Akei [tsr] and Wailapa [wlr].
mla Malo Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, West Santo Vanuatu Sanma province: north Malo island; some in Port Vila and Santo 4,000 (Lynch and Crowley 2001), increasing 5 (Developing) Tamabo Avunatari (North Malo), Ataripoe (South Malo), Tamambo, Tamapo. Reportedly similar to Araki [akr], Aore [aor] (extinct), and Tutuba [tmi].
mrp Morouas Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, West Santo Vanuatu Sanma province: central Espiritu Santo island 150 (1983 SIL). Ethnic population: 210 6b (Threatened) Moruas Several dialects. Possibly a dialect subgroup with Amblong [alm] and Narango [nrg].
nrg Narango Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, West Santo Vanuatu Sanma province: south Espiritu Santo island 160 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Ethnic population: 230 6b (Threatened) Several dialects. Reportedly similar to Amblong [alm] and Morouas [mrp].
tmi Tutuba Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, West Santo Vanuatu Sanma province: Tutuba and south Espiritu Santo islands 500 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Ethnic population: 1,250 6b (Threatened) None known. Reportedly similar to Aore [aor] and Malo [mla].
tsr Akei Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, West Santo Vanuatu Sanma province: southwest Espiritu Santo island 650 (Wurm and Hattori 1981) 6a* (Vigorous) Tasiriki Reportedly similar to Fortsenal [frt]. Complex dialect chain.
akr Araki Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, West Santo Vanuatu Sanma province: Araki island, south Espiritu Santo island 8 8b (Nearly extinct)
mkv Mafea Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, West Santo Vanuatu Sanma province: east Espiritu Santo, Deproma village; Mavea island 41, all users. L1 users: 32 (Guérin 2011). 21 semi-speakers (Guérin 2011). L2 users: 9 (Guérin 2011). Ethnic population: 150 (Guérin 2011) 7 (Shifting) Mavea
lmb Merei Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, West Santo Vanuatu Sanma province: central Espiritu Santo island, between Lape and Ora rivers north of Morouas 400 (1997 J. Chung). Ethnic population: 570 6b (Threatened) Lametin Winiv.
nsw Navut Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, West Santo Vanuatu Sanma province: west central Espiritu Santo island 520 (1983 SIL) 6a* (Vigorous) None known. Reportedly similar to Tiale [mnl].
nkk Nokuku Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, West Santo Vanuatu Sanma province: northwest Espiritu Santo island 160 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Ethnic population: 400 6b (Threatened) Nogugu
ptr Piamatsina Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, West Santo Vanuatu Sanma province: northwest Espitiru Santo island 150 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Ethnic population: 210 6b (Threatened) None known. Reportedly similar to Vunapu [vnp].
rga Roria Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, West Santo Vanuatu Sanma province: central Espiritu Santo island 75 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Ethnic population: 100 6b (Threatened) Mores Some dialect differences.
tls Tambotalo Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, West Santo Vanuatu Sanma province: southeast Espiritu Santo island, Tambotalo village 50 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Ethnic population: 70 6b (Threatened)
tgp Tangoa Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, West Santo Vanuatu Sanma province: Tangoa island, off south Espiritu Santo island. 4 villages 800 (2001 SIL) 5 (Developing) Santo, South Santo
tmt Tasmate Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, West Santo Vanuatu Sanma province: west Espiritu Santo island 150 (1983 SIL). Ethnic population: 210 6b (Threatened) Some dialect differences.
mnl Tiale Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, West Santo Vanuatu Sanma province: north central Espiritu Santo island 400 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Ethnic population: 570 6b (Threatened) Malmariv None known. Reportedly similar to Navut [nsw]; mutually intelligible with Merei [lmb].
tlm Tolomako Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, West Santo Vanuatu Sanma province: Big Bay, Espiritu Santo island 900 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Ethnic population: 1,300 6b (Threatened) Big Bay, Marina, Tolomako-Jereviu Slight dialect differences.
vlp Valpei Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, West Santo Vanuatu Sanma province: northwest Espiritu Santo island 300 (1983 SIL). Ethnic population: 430 6b (Threatened) Valpay, Valpei-Hukua
vnp Vunapu Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, West Santo Vanuatu Sanma province: northwest Espiritu Santo island 380 (1983 SIL). Ethnic population: 540 6b (Threatened) None known. Reportedly similar to Piamatsina [ptr].
wsi Wusi Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, West Santo Vanuatu Sanma province: west Espiritu Santo island 300 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Ethnic population: 430 6b (Threatened) Wusi-Kerepua Some dialect differences.
aty Aneityum Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, South Vanuatu, Aneityum Vanuatu Tafea province: Aneityum island 900 (Lynch and Crowley 2001) 5* (Developing) Aneiteum, Aneiteumese, Anejom, Antas Anejom̃, Intas Anejom Anejom̃
iff Ifo Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, South Vanuatu, Erromanga Vanuatu Tafea province: south Erromanga island No known L1 speakers. Last speaker, James Nalig, died in 1954 10 (Extinct) Utaha
erg Sie Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, South Vanuatu, Erromanga Vanuatu Tafea province: Erromanga island 1,900 (Lynch and Crowley 2001) 6a* (Vigorous) Eromanga, Erramanga, Erromanga, Erromangan, Sye nam Eromaga Yoku (Enyau), Potnariven, Sie (Sorung).
uur Ura Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, South Vanuatu, Erromanga Vanuatu Tafea province: north Erromanga island 6 (1998 T. Crowley) 8b (Nearly extinct)
tnk Kwamera Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, South Vanuatu, Tanna Vanuatu Tafea province: Galilee, Greenpoint, Imaki, Imayo, Kwamera, Kwaraka, Port Resolution, Samaria, Yenmarei, and Yeruareng are major villages on southeast Tanna coast 3,500 (Lynch and Crowley 2001) 5 (Developing) Nafe, Neninafe, Southeast Tanna 2 main dialects.
tnl Lenakel Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, South Vanuatu, Tanna Vanuatu Tafea province: west central Tanna 11,500 (Lynch and Crowley 2001) 5* (Developing) Tanna Loanatit, Nerauya, Itonga, Ikyoo. Complex dialect chain; up to 10 dialects (Wurm and Hattori 1981).
tnn Tanna, North Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, South Vanuatu, Tanna Vanuatu Tafea province: north Tanna island 5,000 (Lynch and Crowley 2001) 5* (Developing) East Tanna, West Tanna, Imafin. In a dialect chain. Reportedly similar to Whitesands [tnp].
nwi Tanna, Southwest Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, South Vanuatu, Tanna Vanuatu Tafea province: southwest Tanna island 4,500 (2011 SIL), increasing 5* (Developing) Naha, Nvhal, Yahurmene Siporo, Nowai, Vaha, Narpaimene. Complex dialect chain (Wurm and Hattori 1981).
tnp Whitesands Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, South Vanuatu, Tanna Vanuatu Tafea province: Tanna island east coast 7,500 (Lynch and Crowley 2001) 7 (Shifting) Napuanmen, Whitsands Weasisi (Wassisi), Lometimeti.
bgt Bughotu Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Southeast Solomonic, Gela-Guadalcanal, Bughotu Solomon Islands Isabel province: Santa Isabel island, southeast end from Suma to Horara; Furona island off Kia district northwest coast 4,050 (1999 SIL) 5 (Developing) Bugota, Bugoto, Bugotu, Mahaga, Mbughotu Hageulu, Vulava. Reportedly similar to Gela [nlg] and Gao [gga]. Related to vernaculars on Guadalcanal.
nlg Gela Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Southeast Solomonic, Gela-Guadalcanal, Gela Solomon Islands Central province: Gela and Florida islands, Guadalcanal (immigrants), Savo island 11,900 (1999 SIL) 5 (Developing) Florida Islands, Nggela Gela Sandfly (Mboko ni mbeti), Big Nggela (Central Gela, Nggela Sule), Small Nggela (Nggela Pile). Reportedly similar to Lengo [lgr] in north Guadalcanal.
lgr Lengo Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Southeast Solomonic, Gela-Guadalcanal, Gela Solomon Islands North and east central Guadalcanal 13,800 (1999 SIL). 13,600 Lengo and 160 Ghaimuta 6a (Vigorous) Doku, Ruavatu, Tadhimboko Aola, Paripao, Ghaimuta (Ghua), Lengo.
brr Birao Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Southeast Solomonic, Gela-Guadalcanal, Guadalcanal Solomon Islands Guadalcanal province: east Guadalcanal island 5,900 (1999 SIL) 6a (Vigorous) Mbirao
gri Ghari Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Southeast Solomonic, Gela-Guadalcanal, Guadalcanal Solomon Islands Guadalcanal province: Guadalcanal, west, northwest, and north central coast 12,100 (1999 SIL). 7,110 Ghari, 950 Gae, 3,020 Ndi, 490 Nginia, 550 Tandai-Nggaria 5 (Developing) Gari, Sughu, Tangarare, West Guadalcanal Gae (Nggae, Qae), Geri (Nggeri), Ndi (Vaturanga), Nginia, Tandai-Nggaria (Tanaghai), Ghari.
mln Malango Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Southeast Solomonic, Gela-Guadalcanal, Guadalcanal Solomon Islands Guadalcanal province: central Guadalcanal Island 4,140 (1999 SIL) 6a (Vigorous) Teha
tlr Talise Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Southeast Solomonic, Gela-Guadalcanal, Guadalcanal Solomon Islands Guadalcanal province: Guadalcanal, southeast to southwest coast 12,500 (1999 SIL). 5,940 in Talise, 2,090 in Moli, 4,490 in Koo 6a (Vigorous) Talisi, Tolo Talise, Tolo, Moli, Poleo, Koo (Inakona), Malagheti.
lgu Longgu Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Southeast Solomonic, Malaita-San Cristobal, Malaita, Longgu Solomon Islands Guadalcanal: east coast, Bambasu, Longgu, Nangali, and Totongo villages 1,500 (Hill 2002) 6a (Vigorous) Kaoka, Logu None known. Brought over long ago by settlers from Malaita; probably not intelligible with other Malaita languages.
bvd Baeggu Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Southeast Solomonic, Malaita-San Cristobal, Malaita, Northern Solomon Islands Malaita province: north Malaita island 5,900 (1999 SIL) 6a (Vigorous) Baegu, Mbaenggu None known. Baelelea [bvc] and Baeggu almost equal intelligibility of To’abaita [mlu] and Lau [llu].
bvc Baelelea Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Southeast Solomonic, Malaita-San Cristobal, Malaita, Northern Solomon Islands Malaita province: north Malaita island 8,800 (1999 SIL) 6a (Vigorous) Mbaelelea None known. Baelelea and Baeggu [bvd] almost equal intelligibility of To’abaita [mlu] and Lau [llu].
gmb Gula’alaa Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Southeast Solomonic, Malaita-San Cristobal, Malaita, Northern Solomon Islands Malaita province: Kwai, east Kwara’ae, and Ngongosila islands 1,570 (1999 SIL) 6a (Vigorous) Kwai, Ngongosila None known. May be intelligible of Lau [llu] or Kwara’ae [kwf]. Lexical similarity: 85% with Lau [llu] and Kwara’ae [kwf].
mlu To’abaita Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Southeast Solomonic, Malaita-San Cristobal, Malaita, Northern Solomon Islands Malaita province: north Malaita island 12,600 (1999 SIL) 6a (Vigorous) Malu, Malu’u, North Malaita, To’aba’ita, To’ambaita, Toabaita Toqabaqita None known. Baelelea [bvc] and Baeggu [bvd] about equally intelligible of To’abaita and Lau [llu].
far Fataleka Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Southeast Solomonic, Malaita-San Cristobal, Malaita, Northern Solomon Islands Malaita province: Malaita island 6,700 (1999 SIL) 6a (Vigorous) Dialect of To’abaita [mlu] (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Intelligibility of Baeggu variety of To’abaita reportedly high, but of To’abaita much less. Lexical similarity: 82% with Kwara’ae [kwf], 76% with Lau [llu].
kwd Kwaio Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Southeast Solomonic, Malaita-San Cristobal, Malaita, Northern Solomon Islands Malaita province: central Malaita island 13,200 (1999 SIL) 5 (Developing) Koio None known. Reportedly more similar to Kwara’ae [kwf] than to ’Are’are [alu].
kwf Kwara’ae Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Southeast Solomonic, Malaita-San Cristobal, Malaita, Northern Solomon Islands Malaita province: central Malaita island 32,400 (1999 SIL) 5 (Developing) Fiu
llu Lau Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Southeast Solomonic, Malaita-San Cristobal, Malaita, Northern Solomon Islands Malaita province: northeast Malaita island 16,900 (1999 SIL) 5 (Developing) Suafa, Lau, Dai (Ndai).
lgl Wala Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Southeast Solomonic, Malaita-San Cristobal, Malaita, Northern Solomon Islands Malaita province: west central Malaita island 6,980 (1999 SIL) 5 (Developing) Langalanga None known. Lexical similarity: 56% with Kwaio [kwd]; 66% with Kwara’ae [kwf].
alu ’Are’are Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Southeast Solomonic, Malaita-San Cristobal, Malaita, Southern Solomon Islands Malaita province: central Malaita island, 2 areas; western tip, Guadalcanal island. Some in Honiara 17,900 (1999 SIL), increasing. Few monolinguals 5 (Developing) Areare ’Are’are ’Are’are, Marau (Marau Sound).
dor Dori’o Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Southeast Solomonic, Malaita-San Cristobal, Malaita, Southern Solomon Islands Malaita province: west central Malaita island 2,410 (1999 SIL) 6a (Vigorous) Kwarekwareo None known. Lexical similarity: 71% with ’Are’are [alu].
ora Oroha Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Southeast Solomonic, Malaita-San Cristobal, Malaita, Southern Solomon Islands Malaita province: Malaita island, near southern tip 38 (1999 SIL) 7 (Shifting) Mara Ma-Siki, Oraha
apb Sa’a Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Southeast Solomonic, Malaita-San Cristobal, Malaita, Southern Solomon Islands Makira province: Ulawa and Three Sisters islands; Malaita province: southern Malaita island 11,500 (1999 SIL). 7,300 Sa’a, 3,300 Ulawa, and 920 Uki Ni Masi 5 (Developing) Apae’aa, Saa, South Malaita Ulawa, Uki Ni Masi (Ugi).
aia Arosi Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Southeast Solomonic, Malaita-San Cristobal, San Cristobal Solomon Islands Makira province: northwest Makira island 6,750 (1999 SIL) 5 (Developing) Arosi Wango, Arosi. Many dialects.
faf Fagani Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Southeast Solomonic, Malaita-San Cristobal, San Cristobal Solomon Islands Makira province: northwest Makira island 900 (1999 SIL) 6b* (Threatened) Faghani Fagani, Rihu’a, Agufi.
agw Kahua Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Southeast Solomonic, Malaita-San Cristobal, San Cristobal Solomon Islands Makira province: south Makira island 5,170 (1999 SIL) 5 (Developing) Anganiwai, Anganiwei, Narihua, Wanoni
stn Owa Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Southeast Solomonic, Malaita-San Cristobal, San Cristobal Solomon Islands Makira province: San Cristobal; Santa Anna and Santa Catalina islands 8,410 (1999 SIL) 5 (Developing) Anganiwai, Anganiwei, Narihua, Santa Anna, Wanoni Owa Tawarafa (Star Harbour), Santa Anna (Owa Raha), Santa Catalina (Owa Riki). Part of dialect chain that includes Kahua [agw].
bxa Tairaha Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Southeast Solomonic, Malaita-San Cristobal, San Cristobal Solomon Islands Makira province: central Makira (San Cristobal) island 4,980 (1999 SIL) 5 (Developing) Bauro, Bwauro Haununu (Hauhunu), Bauro, Rawo (Ravo). Deep linguistic division between Tairaha and Arosi [aia]. The Mamaregho variety reportedly is the bush variety.
emi Mussau-Emira Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, St. Matthias Papua New Guinea New Ireland province: Emira, Mussau, and Saint Matthias Islands northwest of Kavieng; Goroka, Kavieng, Lae, Madang, and Port Moresby 6,000 (2015 SIL), increasing. Ethnic population: 6,000 (2015 SIL). Includes 3,500 in the traditional area (2015 J. Brownie) 5 (Developing) Emira-Mussau, Musao, Musau-Emira Mussau Emira (Emirau), Western Mussau, Southern Mussau, Eastern Mussau.
tns Tenis Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, St. Matthias Papua New Guinea New Ireland province: Tench (Enus) island, Kavieng 30 (Wurm 2000), decreasing. Ethnic population: 250 (2015 J. Brownie) 8b (Nearly extinct) Tench
nlz Nalögo Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Temotu, Reefs-Santa Cruz Solomon Islands Temotu province: south Santa Cruz island, Bibö, Nea, and Nooli villages 1,620 (2007 census), increasing 5 (Developing) Nalrgo, Nea, Southern Santa Cruz Nalögo End of a dialect chain not mutually intelligible of its sister language Natügu [ntu] at the other end.
nfl Äiwoo Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Temotu, Reefs-Santa Cruz Solomon Islands Temotu province: Santa Cruz Islands, primarily the Reef islands: Fenualoa, Lomlom, Nibanga Nede, and Nibanga Temaa. Many villages scattered along Honiara and Santa Cruz north coast 8,400 (1999 SIL), increasing 6a (Vigorous) Ayiwo, Aïwo, Gnivo, Lomlom, Naaude, Nifilole, Nivo, Reef Islands, Reefs
ngr Engdewu Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Temotu, Reefs-Santa Cruz Solomon Islands Temotu province: Santa Cruz island. 3 villages 210 (1999 SIL) 7 (Shifting) Nagu, Nanggu, Nangu
ntu Natügu Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Temotu, Reefs-Santa Cruz Solomon Islands Temotu province: west Santa Cruz island, Graciosa Bay; some on north coast 4,280 (2007 census), increasing 5 (Developing) Nambakaengö, Natqgu, Northern Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz Natügu Ndeni (Deni), Londai, Malo, Bënwë, Nea, Nooli. Speakers of most dialects understand Malo and Bënwë.
npx Noipä Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Temotu, Reefs-Santa Cruz Solomon Islands Temotu province: southwest Santa Cruz island, Noipä village 250 (2016 B. Boerger) 6a (Vigorous) Noipx None known. Most similar to Nalögo [nlz].
vnk Lovono Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Temotu, Utupua-Vanikoro Solomon Islands Temotu province: Vanikolo island, Lale and Lavaka villages 4 (2012 A. François). Old people remember a few words (Wurm 2007). Ethnic population: 120 (Wurm 2007) 8b (Nearly extinct) Alavana, Alavano, Lavana, Vanikolo, Vanikoro, Vano
tnx Tanema Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Temotu, Utupua-Vanikoro Solomon Islands Temotu province: Vanikolo island, Emua village 1 (2012 A. François). Ethnic population: 150 (Wurm 2007) 8b (Nearly extinct) Tetau, Tetawo
tkw Teanu Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Temotu, Utupua-Vanikoro Solomon Islands Temotu province: Vanikolo island, Emua, Lale, Lavaka, and Puma villages 800 (2012 A. François) 7 (Shifting) Buma, Puma
utp Amba Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Temotu, Utupua-Vanikoro, Utupua Solomon Islands Temotu province: Utupua island, Aveta, Matembo, and Nembao villages 590 (1999 SIL) 6a (Vigorous) Aba, Nembao, Utupua
aua Asumboa Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Temotu, Utupua-Vanikoro, Utupua Solomon Islands Temotu province: Utupua island, Asumbuo village 10 (1999 SIL) 8b (Nearly extinct) Asumbua, Asumuo
tbe Tanibili Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Temotu, Utupua-Vanikoro, Utupua Solomon Islands Temotu province: Utupua island, Tanibili village 15 (1999 SIL) 8b (Nearly extinct) Nyisunggu
bbn Uneapa Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, Bali-Vitu Papua New Guinea West New Britain province: Talasea district, Unea island, off northwest coast 12,000 (2010 Ethnos360) 6a (Vigorous) Bali, Bali-Vitu, Unea
wiv Vitu Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, Bali-Vitu Papua New Guinea West New Britain Province: Talasea district, Vitu and Bali islands off northwest coast 8,800 (1991 SIL) 4 (Educational) Bali-Vitu, Muduapa, Pole Matotoa, Tok Vitu, Vittu, Witu Pole Vitu Bali, Vitu (Witu). 2 or 3 dialects. Mudua Island variety may be a separate language.
leu Kara Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, Lavongai-Nalik Papua New Guinea New Ireland province: north New Ireland district 5,000 (1998 SIL) 5* (Developing) Lemakot, Lemusmus East Kara, West Kara, Lauan-Nonopai, Ngavalus-Lossuk, Luburua.
tbf Mandara Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, Lavongai-Nalik Papua New Guinea New Ireland province: Simberi, Tabar, Tatau 4,000 (2000 census) 4 (Educational) Madara Simberi, Tatau, Tabar.
nal Nalik Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, Lavongai-Nalik Papua New Guinea New Ireland province: north central, Kavieng, on the east coast, 14 villages; west coast, 3 villages. Some in urban areas 5,140 (1990 census) 6a* (Vigorous) Fesoa, Fessoa, Lugagon
tbj Tiang Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, Lavongai-Nalik Papua New Guinea New Ireland province: east Djaul island area 4,000 (2011 SIL) 6a (Vigorous) Djaul Tiaang
tgc Tigak Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, Lavongai-Nalik Papua New Guinea New Ireland province: Kavieng district, west Djaul island 6,000 (1991 SIL) 5* (Developing) Omo Island Tigak, West Tigak, Central Tigak, South Tigak.
lcm Tungag Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, Lavongai-Nalik Papua New Guinea New Ireland province: Lamet district, New Hanover, Tingwon, and Umbukul islands 12,000 (1990 SIL) 5* (Developing) Dang, Lavangai, Lavongai, Toangai, Tungak
bjk Barok Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, Madak Papua New Guinea New Ireland province: south central, east and west coasts. 15 villages 2,120 (1985) 4 (Educational) Kanalu, Kanapit, Kolube, Komalu, Kulubi Barok Usen, Barok.
lbv Lavatbura-Lamusong Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, Madak Papua New Guinea New Ireland province: central 1,310 (Beaumont 1972) 6a* (Vigorous) Lamasong Ugana, Kontu, Lavatbura, Lamusong (Lamasong).
mmx Madak Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, Madak Papua New Guinea New Ireland province: Central New Ireland district 3,000 (1985 UBS). Ethnic population: 5,000 (2000 SIL) 6b* (Threatened) Lelet, Mandak Danu, Katingan, Lelet, Mesi, Malom.
bxf Minigir Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic Papua New Guinea East New Britain province: Gazelle peninsula, southeast of Cape Gazelle. 12 villages 4,180 (2012 SIL) 6a (Vigorous) Bilur, Birar
baa Babatana Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, Choiseul Solomon Islands Choiseul province: east Choiseul island 7,070 (1999 SIL) 5 (Developing) Central-Eastern Choiseul, East Choiseul, Mbambatana Babatana, Sisiqa (Senga, Sengan, Sengga, Seqa, Sisingga), Kuboro (Kumboro), Katazi, Lömaumbi, Avasö.
rri Ririo Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, Choiseul Solomon Islands Choiseul province: central Choiseul island, north third of northeast coast 18 (Wurm 2007) 8b (Nearly extinct) None known. Reportedly similar to Babatana [baa].
tva Vaghua Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, Choiseul Solomon Islands Choiseul province: Choiseul island, Tavula 1,960 (1999 SIL) 6a (Vigorous) Tavola, Tavula, Vagua None known. Reportedly similar to Varisi [vrs].
vrs Varisi Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, Choiseul Solomon Islands Choiseul province: northeast Choiseul island 5,160 (1999 SIL) 5 (Developing) Varese Ghone, Varisi. Reportedly similar to Vaghua [tva].
vmg Lungalunga Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, Mono-Uruava Papua New Guinea East New Britain province: Ataliklikun bay, Lungalunga and Vunamarita villages on Gazelle peninsula 600 (2000). Ethnic population: 1,500 6a (Vigorous) Minigir, Tavue, Vinitiri
mte Mono Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, Mono-Uruava Solomon Islands Western province: Treasury island, Mono; Shortland islands, Alo and Alu, Fauro island 2,940 (1999 SIL). 660 Mono, 2,270 Alu, 14 Fauro 6a (Vigorous) Alu, Mono-Alu Mono, Alu (Alo), Fauro.
ttu Torau Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, Mono-Uruava Papua New Guinea Bougainville province: southeast coast, north of Kieta 2,000 (Jepson 2014) 6b* (Threatened) Rorovana
urv Uruava Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, Mono-Uruava Papua New Guinea Bougainville province: southeast coast No known L1 speakers. Last known speaker survived into the 1980s 10 (Extinct)
pex Petats Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, Nehan-North Bougainville, Buka Papua New Guinea Bougainville province: Buka Passage district, Hitau, Petats, and Pororan islands off Buka island west coast 10,000, all users. L1 users: 2,000 (1975 SIL). L2 users: 8,000 (Voegelin and Voegelin 1977) 3 (Wider communication) Majugan Hitau-Pororan, Matsungan, Sumoun. Sumoun [pex] may be a dialect.
hla Halia Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, Nehan-North Bougainville, Buka, Halia Papua New Guinea Bougainville province: North Bougainville district, Buka island east coast; Selau peninsula, Cartaret Islands 20,000 (1994 SIL), increasing 5* (Developing) Tasi Hanahan, Hangan, Touloun (Tulon, Tulun), Selau. Tryon (1990) says distinct from Takuu [nho] (Nukuria) and Luangiua (Ontong Java [ojv]) in Solomon Islands. Users have contact with Luangiua.
hao Hakö Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, Nehan-North Bougainville, Buka, Halia Papua New Guinea Bougainville province: North Bougainville district, northeast Buka island 5,000 (1982 SIL), increasing 6a (Vigorous) Haku Lontes.
nsn Nehan Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, Nehan-North Bougainville, Nehan Papua New Guinea Bougainville province: Nissan islands 7,000 (Glennon 2014), increasing. 5,000 Uanuleik, 1,000 Sirouatan, and 1,000 Pinipel (Glennon 2014) 5* (Developing) Nihan, Nissan Uanuleik, Pinipel (Pinipin), Sirouatan. Not closely related to other languages. Lexical similarity: 83% between the main dialects (Glennon 2014).
ppn Papapana Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, Nehan-North Bougainville, Papapana Papua New Guinea Bougainville province: northeast coast 110 (Smith 2015). Ethnic population: 510 (Smith 2015) 7 (Shifting)
hah Hahon Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, Nehan-North Bougainville, Saposa-Tinputz Papua New Guinea Bougainville province: northwest 1,300 (1977 P. Lincoln) 6a* (Vigorous) Hanon Kurur, Ratsua, Aravia.
sps Saposa Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, Nehan-North Bougainville, Saposa-Tinputz Papua New Guinea Bougainville province: Buka district, island chain south of Buka Island off northwest coast of Bougainville 1,400 (1998 SIL) 5* (Developing) Taiof, Saposa (Fa Saposa).
tio Teop Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, Nehan-North Bougainville, Saposa-Tinputz Papua New Guinea Bougainville province: Tinputz district, northeast 5,000 (1991 SIL) 5 (Developing) Teapu Taunita, Coastal Teop, Rausara (Rausiara), Kosina Mohina, Manava. Coastal Teop speakers understand other dialects, and vice versa. Coastal Teop is 84% cognate with Rausara, 73% with Taunita dialects.
tpz Tinputz Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, Nehan-North Bougainville, Saposa-Tinputz Papua New Guinea Bougainville province: Teop-Tinputz district 3,900 (1991 SIL) 5* (Developing) Timputs, Vasui, Vasuii, Wasoi Vasui, Vavoehpoa’, Vaene’, Vado-Vaene’, Vapopeo’, Vapopeo’-Rausaura, Vado.
sol Solos Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, Nehan-North Bougainville, Solos Papua New Guinea Bougainville province: central and southwest Buka island 3,200 (1977 P. Lincoln) 5 (Developing) Toros Mainland Solos, Nora Solos, Peit Solos, Coastal Solos (Hetal, Kahule, Pokai Tung).
mvo Marovo Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, New Georgia, East Solomon Islands Western province: south New Georgia island, Marovo lagoon, Nggatokae, and Vangunu islands 8,090 (1999 SIL) 5* (Developing)
mpr Vangunu Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, New Georgia, East Solomon Islands Western province: north Vangunu island, Bareke; southwest Vangunu island, Vangunu 910 (1999 SIL). 400 Bareke, 510 Vangunu 6a (Vigorous) Bareke (Mbareke), Vangunu.
lga Lungga Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, New Georgia, West Solomon Islands Western province: south Ranonga island 2,770 (1999 SIL) 5 (Developing) Luga, Luqa None known. Reportedly similar to Duke [nke] (Nduke). Ghanongga [ghn] and Simbo [sbb] related but separate.
nke Duke Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, New Georgia, West Solomon Islands Western province: Kolombangara island 2,310 (1999 SIL) 6a (Vigorous) Kolombangara, Ndughore, Nduke None known. Reportedly similar to Lungga [lga] and Roviana [rug].
hoa Hoava Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, New Georgia, West Solomon Islands Western province: New Georgia island, North Marovo lagoon 460 (1999 SIL) 6b (Threatened) Considered by some to be a dialect of the same language with Kusaghe [ksg] (Davis 2003).
kzk Kazukuru Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, New Georgia, West Solomon Islands Western province No known L1 speakers. The last speaker shifted to Roviana [rug] in the early 20th century (Dunn and Ross 2007) 10 (Extinct)
ksg Kusaghe Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, New Georgia, West Solomon Islands Western province: north New Georgia island 1,230 (Davis 2003) 6a (Vigorous) Kusage, Kushage Reportedly similar to Roviana [rug]. Considered by some to be a dialect of the same language with Hoava [hoa] (Davis 2003).
rug Roviana Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, New Georgia, West Solomon Islands Western province: north central New Georgia, Roviana and Vonavona lagoons 25,870, all users. L1 users: 9,870 (1999 SIL). L2 users: 16,000 (1987 UBS) 3 (Wider communication). Being supplanted as lingua franca by Pijin [pis] in Western Province; now used as L2 in Western Province and as far north as Buka and Bougainville, Papua New Guinea, mainly by those over 30 years old Robiana, Rubiana, Ruviana Roviana
sbb Simbo Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, New Georgia, West Solomon Islands Western province: Simbo island 2,700 (1999 SIL) 6a (Vigorous) Madeggusu, Mandeghughusu, Sibo None known. Distinct from Lungga [lga] and Ghanongga [ghn].
drr Dororo Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, New Georgia, West Solomon Islands Western province Unattested Doriri Was a Kazukuru dialect (Dunn and Ross 2007).
ghn Ghanongga Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, New Georgia, West Solomon Islands Western province: north Ranonga island 2,510 (1999 SIL) 6a (Vigorous) Ganongga, Kubokota, Kumbokota
gli Guliguli Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, New Georgia, West Solomon Islands Western province Unattested Gulili Was a Kazukuru dialect (Dunn and Ross 2007).
uge Ughele Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, New Georgia, West Solomon Islands Western province: north Rendova island 1,200 (1999 SIL) 6a (Vigorous) Ugele
bjp Fanamaket Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, Patpatar-Tolai Papua New Guinea New Ireland province: Namatanai Rural LLG, Muliama, Sena, and Warangansau villages 1,080 (2000 census) 6a (Vigorous) Maket, Tangga
grz Guramalum Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, Patpatar-Tolai Papua New Guinea New Ireland province No known L1 speakers. Last known speaker survived into the early 1990s (1987 SIL) 10 (Extinct)
kqw Kandas Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, Patpatar-Tolai Papua New Guinea New Ireland province: Danop, Kait, King, Palangot, Semalu, and Watpi villages on southwest coast 1,400 (2010 SIL). Ethnic population: 1,460 (2010 SIL) 6b (Threatened) Kadas, King Kandas
koa Konomala Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, Patpatar-Tolai Papua New Guinea New Ireland province: southeast coast. 8 villages 800 (1985 SIL). Ethnic population: 1,990 (2000 census) 6b (Threatened) Laket, Konomala.
ksd Kuanua Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, Patpatar-Tolai Papua New Guinea East New Britain province: Rabaul district, Gazelle peninsula 81,000, all users. L1 users: 61,000 (1991 SIL). L2 users: 20,000 (1985 UBS) 3 (Wider communication). Used as a church language widely in New Ireland and East New Britain provinces within the United Church. It is not used beyond the church domain in most of the language groups that use it for church Blanche Bay, Gunantuna, New Britain Language, Tolai, Tuna Tinata Tuna Vunadidir, Rapitok, Raluana, Vanumami, Livuan, Matupit, Kokopo, Kabakada, Nodup, Kininanggunan, Rakunei, Rebar, Watom, Masawa.
lbb Label Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, Patpatar-Tolai Papua New Guinea New Ireland province: southwest coast, Nasko village 150 (2010 SIL). Ethnic population: 160 (2010 SIL) 6a (Vigorous)
hrc Niwer Mil Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, Patpatar-Tolai Papua New Guinea New Ireland province: Tangga islands 6,300 (2000 census) 6a (Vigorous) Tanga, Tangga
gfk Patpatar Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, Patpatar-Tolai Papua New Guinea New Ireland province: south central Namatanai district 7,000 (1998 SIL) 5 (Developing) Gelik, Pala, Patpari Sokirik, Patpatar (Central Patpatar), Sokarek, Hinsaal.
rai Ramoaaina Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, Patpatar-Tolai Papua New Guinea East New Britain province: Kokopo district, Duke of York Islands 10,300 (2000 census), increasing 4 (Educational) Duke of York, Ramuaina Makada, Molot (Main Island), Aalawa (Aalawaa, Alawa, Mioko, South Islands, Ulu). Makada dialect very different, possibly not intelligible to speakers of other dialects.
sjr Siar-Lak Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, Patpatar-Tolai Papua New Guinea New Ireland province: Namatanai district 2,080 (2000 census) 5 (Developing) Lak, Lamassa, Lambom, Siar
sgz Sursurunga Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, Patpatar-Tolai Papua New Guinea New Ireland province: Namatanai district 3,000 (1991 SIL) 5 (Developing) Surkutus.
hrw Warwar Feni Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, Patpatar-Tolai Papua New Guinea New Ireland province: Feni islands 2,100 (2000 census) 6a (Vigorous) Anir, Feni, Tangga
bcm Bannoni Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, Piva-Banoni Papua New Guinea Bougainville province: Empress Augusta Bay coast, between Aruma and Puriata rivers 1,000 (1977 P. Lincoln) 6a* (Vigorous) Banoni Tsunari
tgi Lawunuia Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, Piva-Banoni Papua New Guinea Bougainville province: Piva river 2,000 (2000 SIL) 6a* (Vigorous) Nagarege, Nagarige, Naghareghe, Piva Amun.
blp Blablanga Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, Santa Isabel, Central Solomon Islands Isabel province: Santa Isabel island, Maringe district, Hovukoilo and Popoheo villages; Ghove to Biluro on Hograno coast 1,770 (1999 SIL) 6b* (Threatened) Blanga, Gema, Goi Slight dialect differences.
kkk Kokota Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, Santa Isabel, Central Solomon Islands Isabel province: Santa Isabel, northeast coast, Ghoveo and Sisiga villages; Hurepelo southeast coast 1,200 (Palmer 2009) 6b* (Threatened) Ooe Kokota
jaj Zazao Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, Santa Isabel, Central Solomon Islands Isabel province: central Isabel island, Hograno coast, Kilokaka village 10 (1999 SIL) 8b (Nearly extinct) Jajao, Kilokaka
mrn Cheke Holo Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, Santa Isabel, East Solomon Islands Isabel province: central Santa Isabel island, on Maringe side, Gnulahaghe village southeast to Kuma’ihaui; Kia district, Hograno coast villages; Gao-Bughotu region, scattered villages 10,800 (1999 SIL), increasing. 1,500 monolinguals 5* (Developing) A’ara, Cheke Tahati, Kubonitu Cheke Holo, Holo Maringe (Maringhe), Hograno (Hogirano).
gga Gao Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, Santa Isabel, East Solomon Islands Isabel province: central Isabel island, Tausese southeast to Floakora point, primarily in Poro 1,220 (1999 SIL) 6a (Vigorous) Nggao
lgb Laghu Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, Santa Isabel, West Solomon Islands Isabel province: Santa Isabel, Kia district, Baolo and Samasodu villages No known L1 speakers. The last speaker died or shifted to Zabana [kji] in 1984 (Palmer 2009) 10 (Extinct) Hoatana, Katova, Lagu
kji Zabana Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, Santa Isabel, West Solomon Islands Isabel province: Santa Isabel island, Samasodu southwest to Kia village, northeast to Baolo village 3,360 (2003 SIL) 5 (Developing) Kia None known. Borrowings from Roviana [rug]. Reportedly most similar to Cheke Holo [mrn].
lih Lihir Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, Tabar Papua New Guinea New Ireland province: Lihir and 3 smaller islands 12,600 (2000 census), increasing 4 (Educational) Lir Lihir
ncf Notsi Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, Tabar Papua New Guinea New Ireland province: Central New Ireland district, east coast 1,840 (2000 census) 5* (Developing) Nochi
tqp Tomoip Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, Tomoip Papua New Guinea East New Britain province: Pomio district, Waterfall Bay to Wide Bay and interior; West New Britain province: Talasea district, inland from Open bay, small border area 700 (1982 SIL) 6a* (Vigorous) Tomoive, Tomoyp, Tumie, Tumuip
bnp Bola Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, Willaumez Papua New Guinea West New Britain province: Willaumez peninsula northeast coast, Harua east of Kimbe 13,700 (2000 census). 2,250 Harua 5 (Developing) Bakovi Bola-Bakovi Harua (Garua, Karua, Mai, Xarua), Bola. Harua developed among people resettled on an oil palm plantation.
bjl Bulu Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, Willaumez Papua New Guinea West New Britain province: Willaumez peninsula, Buludaba and Bulumuri villages 910 (2000 census) 6a* (Vigorous)
mxm Meramera Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, Willaumez Papua New Guinea East New Britain province: Lolobau island, coast east to Cape Torkoro; West New Britain province: Bialla district, northwest coast to Toriu river and inland 2,000 (1995 SIL). 100 monolinguals 6a (Vigorous) Melamela, Ubili Lolobao.
nak Nakanai Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, Willaumez Papua New Guinea East New Britain province: small area in Pomio district, Mamusi-West Pomio RLLG; West New Britain province: Talasea district, especially Hoskins RLLG, and northwest coast, Biala RLLG, 42 villages 13,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981) 5* (Developing) Nakonai Losa (Auka, Loso), Bileki (Lakalai, Mamuga, Muku), Vere (Tarobi, Vele), Ubae (Babata), Maututu.
laz Aribwatsa Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, Markham, Lower, Busu Papua New Guinea Morobe province: lower Wamped river No known L1 speakers. Last speaker died in 1997 (Wurm 2007) 10 (Extinct) Lae, Lahe
ylu Aribwaung Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, Markham, Lower, Busu Papua New Guinea Morobe province: Yalu village; lower Markham valley 500 (2008 SIL). Ethnic population: 1,200 (2000 census) 6b (Threatened) Aribwaungg, Jaloc, Yalu None known. Reportedly similar to Musom [msu], Duwet [gve], Nafi [srf], and Wampar [lbq].
gve Duwet Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, Markham, Lower, Busu Papua New Guinea Morobe province: Busu river area 400 (2011 SIL), increasing. No monolinguals. Ethnic population: 450 6b (Threatened) Guwet, Guwot, Waing
msu Musom Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, Markham, Lower, Busu Papua New Guinea Morobe province: Busu river tributary 200 (Wurm 2000). Ethnic population: 620 7 (Shifting) Misatik
srf Nafi Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, Markham, Lower, Busu Papua New Guinea Morobe province: Busu river 160 (Holzknecht 1988). May be less than 100 speakers (Wurm 2007). Ethnic population: 540 (2000 census) 6b (Threatened) Sirak
lbu Labu Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, Markham, Lower, Labu Papua New Guinea Morobe province: Labu-Butu, Labu-Miti, and Labu-Tali, Markham river coast area Ethnic population: 1,500 (2000 census) 6b* (Threatened) Hapa, Labo, Labu’
lbq Wampar Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, Markham, Lower, Wampar Papua New Guinea Morobe province: lower Markham and Wamped rivers 5,150 (1990) 5* (Developing) Laewamba, Laewomba, Laiwomba None known. Lexical similarity: 50% with Adzera [adz].
adz Adzera Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, Markham, Upper Papua New Guinea Eastern Highlands province: Kainantan Rural LLG border area; Morobe province: Markham district and valley, Leron river to Markham-Ramu divide 30,000 (2000 census). A few monolinguals, among the youngest and oldest. Ethnic population: 31,000 4 (Educational) Acira, Atsera, Atzera, Azera Adzera Yarus, Amari, Ngarowapum, Tsumanggorun, Guruf-Ngariawang (Ngariawan). Related to Sukurum [zsu], Sarasira [zsa], Wampur [waz], and Mari [hob] (all Upper Markham subfamily).
waz Wampur Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, Markham, Upper, Mountain Papua New Guinea Morobe province: Wanton river, Mirir and Wampur villages (Holzknecht 1989); some in Aringon village of Waffa [waj] language group 530 (2000 census). Ethnic population: 550 6a* (Vigorous) Wampul None known. Reportedly most similar to Mari [hob]. Lexical similarity: 50% with Adzera [adz].
hob Mari Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, Markham, Upper, Mountain Papua New Guinea Madang province: upper Ramu river, 4 villages; Morobe province: extreme northwest 810 (2000 D. Tryon) 6a* (Vigorous) Hop
zsa Sarasira Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, Markham, Upper, Mountain Papua New Guinea Morobe province: upper Markham valley, southeast side of Leron river 600 (2000 SIL). Ethnic population: 950 (2000 SIL) 6b (Threatened) Sirasira, Som
zsu Sukurum Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, Markham, Upper, Mountain Papua New Guinea Morobe province: upper Markham valley, Leron river northwest side 1,160 (2000 census). Ethnic population: 1,160 6a (Vigorous) Wapu
mpl Kodut, Middle Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, Markham, Watut Papua New Guinea Morobe province: Mumeng district, lower Watut valley, Babuaf (Madzim and Singono), Bencheng, Dungutung, and Marauna villages 1,700 (Carter et al 2014) 6a (Vigorous) Maraliinan, Maralinan, Middle Watut, Silisili, Watut Borar, Babuaf, Tsangg (Changg), Zowents (Jowench).
una Kodut, North Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, Markham, Watut Papua New Guinea Morobe province: Mumeng district, Kaiapit area, Waffa valley, Mafanazo, Onom (Morom), and Uruf villages 630 (Carter et al 2014). Ethnic population: 900 6a (Vigorous) North Watut, Onank, Unangg, Unank, Watut Wagongg, Waroh.
mcy Kodut, South Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, Markham, Watut Papua New Guinea Morobe province: lower or south Watut river, Bulaprik (Gumots), Dangal, Maralangko, Sanang, Wawas and Zinimb villages 730 (Carter et al 2014) 6b (Threatened) South Watut Zamun (Jamun), Sanggak.
buk Bugawac Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, North Papua New Guinea Morobe province: Huon gulf coast. Central-Western dialect: Buhalu, Cape Arkona, Hec, Tikeleng, Wideru villages; Eastern dialect: Bukawasip, Ulugidu; South Western dialect: Asini, Busamang; Western dialect: Lae city villages 12,000 (2011 W. Eckermann). 4,800 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 12,500 4 (Educational) Bukaua, Bukawa, Bukawac, Kawa, Kawac, Yom Gawac Bugawac Eastern Bugawac, Central-Eastern Bugawac, Central Bugawac, Central-Western Bugawac, Western Bugawac, South-Western Bugawac. Reportedly similar to Yabem [jae].
kcl Kala Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, North Papua New Guinea Morobe province: Alẽso, Apoze, Kamiali, Kui, Lambu, and Manidala villages 2,200 (2011 SIL). Ethnic population: 3,000 6b (Threatened) Apoze, Gela, Kela, Kelana, Laukanu Manidala, Lambu, Apoze, Kamiali-Alẽso-Kui.
jae Yabem Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, North Papua New Guinea Morobe province: Huon peninsula, near Finschhafen coast 2,080 (McElhanon 1978). Ethnic population: 5,890 (2000 census) 6b* (Threatened) Jabem, Jabim, Laulabu, Yabim Jabêm
sij Numbami Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, Numbami Papua New Guinea Morobe province: Lae district. 1 coastal village 200 (Wurm 2007). Ethnic population: 240 (2000 census) 6b (Threatened) Siboma, Sipoma
val Vehes Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, South, Hote-Buang, Buang Papua New Guinea Morobe province: near the coast between Lae and Salamaua. 1 village 70 (Wurm 2000) 7 (Shifting) Buasi, Vehees None known. Lexical similarity: 60% with Mapos Buang [bzh] (most similar).
mmo Buang, Mangga Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, South, Hote-Buang, Buang Papua New Guinea Morobe province: Mumeng district, Lae and Moresby, mid-upper Snake river area 1,500 (2011 SIL), decreasing. Ethnic population: 3,000 5 (Developing) Kaidemui, Manga Buang Lagis, Kwasang.
bzh Buang, Mapos Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, South, Hote-Buang, Buang Papua New Guinea Morobe province: Mumeng district, middle Snake river area. 10 villages 10,500 (2000). 3,150 monolinguals 5 (Developing) Central Buang, Mapos Wagau, Mambump, Buweyeu, Wins, Chimbuluk, Papakene, Mapos. Lexical similarity: 61% between Mambump dialect and Mangga Buang [mmo].
tbx Kapin Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, South, Hote-Buang, Buang Papua New Guinea Morobe province: Bulolo and Mumeng districts; hills southwest of Mumeng, 5 villages; Lae and Wau settlements 2,350 (1979 census) 6a (Vigorous) Katumene, Sambio, Taiak, Tayek Kapin, Garawa (Gawawa). May be part of the Mumeng group of related varieties.
pix Piu Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, South, Hote-Buang, Buang Papua New Guinea Morobe province: upper Watut river. 1 village 100 (Wurm 2000) 7 (Shifting) Kuruko, Lanzog, Sanbiau
ptp Patep Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, South, Hote-Buang, Buang, Mumeng Papua New Guinea Morobe province: Mumeng district 1,700 (2003 SIL) 7 (Shifting) Buang, Mumeng, Ptep Dengalu. In Mumeng, group of related varieties. Some intelligibility of Gorakor [goc] and Zenag [zeg].
dac Dambi Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, South, Hote-Buang, Buang, Mumeng Papua New Guinea Morobe province: Mumeng district 350 (2000 SIL). Ethnic population: 400 6b* (Threatened) None known. Some intelligibility of Kumalu [ksl].
goc Gorakor Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, South, Hote-Buang, Buang, Mumeng Papua New Guinea Morobe province: Mumeng district, including Yanta 2,740 (1979 census) 6a* (Vigorous) Yanta. Part of Mumeng group of related varieties. Some intelligibility with Patep [ptp].
ksl Kumalu Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, South, Hote-Buang, Buang, Mumeng Papua New Guinea Morobe province: Mumeng district 2,580 (1979 census) 6a* (Vigorous) Kumara None known. In Mumeng group of related varieties. Some intelligibility with Dambi [dac].
zeg Zenag Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, South, Hote-Buang, Buang, Mumeng Papua New Guinea Morobe province: Mumeng district, northwest of Bulolo 1,820 (1979 census) 6a* (Vigorous) Zenang Latep. In the Mumeng chain of related varieties. Some intelligibility of Patep [ptp].
ymp Yamap Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, South, Hote-Buang, Hote Papua New Guinea Morobe province: Francisco river area 1,580 (2000 census) 6a* (Vigorous) Reportedly similar to Hote [hot] and Misim, a dialect of Hote.
hot Hote Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, South, Hote-Buang, Hote Papua New Guinea Morobe province: Lae district, Francisco river area 2,300 (2000 census). Ethnic population: 2,350 5* (Developing) Ho’tei, Hotec, Malei, Malê Hote, Misim (Musim, Ombalei). Lexical similarity: 90% between Hote and Misim dialects; 70% with Yamap [ymp].
kbm Iwal Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, South, Kaiwa Papua New Guinea Morobe province: Lae district, between Salamaua and Wau 2,100 (2011 SIL). Ethnic population: 2,300 5* (Developing) Kaiwa None known. Reportedly similar to Yabem [jae].
bch Bariai Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Ngero, Bariai Papua New Guinea West New Britain province: east of Cape Gloucester, northwest coast 1,380 (1998 SIL) 5 (Developing) Bariai None known. Lexical similarity: 72% with Kove [kvc], 76% with Lusi [khl].
kvc Kove Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Ngero, Bariai Papua New Guinea West New Britain province: northwest coast. 24 villages, most on small coastal islands 8,000 (2015 SIL), decreasing 6b (Threatened) East Kove, Central Kove, West Kove.
khl Lusi Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Ngero, Bariai Papua New Guinea West New Britain province: northwest coast 2,000 (1994 SIL) 6a* (Vigorous) Kaliai, Kaliai-Kove Kaliai.
mmt Malalamai Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Ngero, Bariai Papua New Guinea Madang province: Bonga, Malalamai, and Yara villages; Rai coast east of Saidor 900 (2011 SIL) 6a* (Vigorous) Bonga, Garpunei
ggt Gitua Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Ngero, Tuam Papua New Guinea Morobe province: Huon peninsula north coast 900 (2000 SIL). Ethnic population: 900 (2000 SIL) 6a (Vigorous) Gitoa, Kelana
tuc Mutu Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Ngero, Tuam Papua New Guinea Morobe province: south of Umboi island, Aramot, Aronai, Malai, Mandok, Mutu Malau, Siassi islands, and Tuam; Yaga village on Umboi Island 3,500 (2007 SIL), increasing. Only older adults are monolingual. Ethnic population: 3,500 4 (Educational) Sisi, Tuam, Tuam-Mutu, Tuom Saveeng Oov/Mutu, Tuam, Malai.
bcu Awad Bing Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Bel, Astrolabe Papua New Guinea Madang province: Astrolabe Bay area, west of Saidor. 7 villages 1,450 (2000 SIL) 4 (Educational) Awad Gey, Biliau, Bing, Samang, Sengam Awad Bing Biliau, Yamai, Suit (Semang), Galeg, Yori. Distinct from, but reportedly similar to, Mindiri [mpn] and Wab [wab].
mpn Mindiri Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Bel, Astrolabe Papua New Guinea Madang province: Rai Coast area west of Saidor. 1 village 80 (Wurm 2000). Ethnic population: 300 (2016 J. Claussen) 7 (Shifting) None known. Reportedly similar to Awad Bing [bcu] and Wab [wab].
wab Wab Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Bel, Astrolabe Papua New Guinea Madang province: Huon peninsula north coast, Saui and Wab villages next to Saidor 120 (Wurm 2000). Ethnic population: 320 (2000 census) 6b (Threatened) Som
brz Bilbil Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Bel, Nuclear Bel, Northern Papua New Guinea Madang province: coast just south of Madang town 1,250 (2003 SIL) 6b* (Threatened) Bilibil Bel
gdd Gedaged Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Bel, Nuclear Bel, Northern Papua New Guinea Madang province: Bagabag, Karkar, Sek, and Yabob islands, Astrolabe bay, Madang coastal villages area 6,950 (2003 SIL) 5* (Developing) Bel, Graged, Mitebog, Ragetta, Rio, Sek, Siar, Siar-Ragetta, Szeak-Bagili, Tiara
mjk Matukar Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Bel, Nuclear Bel, Northern Papua New Guinea Madang province: north of Madang town, Matukar area 160 (Anderson et al 2015). Ethnic population: 700 (Anderson et al 2015) 7 (Shifting) Matugar, Matukar Panau
tbc Takia Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Bel, Nuclear Bel, Northern Papua New Guinea Madang province: Madang district, Bagabag island, Karkar island south half, Megiar and Serang coastal villages 25,000 (Ross 2002) 5 (Developing) Takia Megiar, Serang.
dad Marik Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Bel, Nuclear Bel, Southern Papua New Guinea Madang province: Madang district, Gogol river area inland. 10 villages 3,500 (1998 SIL) 5* (Developing) Dami, Ham Northern Marik, Western Marik, Southern Marik.
mgl Maleu-Kilenge Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Kilenge-Maleu Papua New Guinea West New Britain province: Talasea district west tip 5,200 (1983 census). 1,560 Kilenge 5 (Developing) Idne Maleu, Kilenge (Kaitarolea). Lexical similarity: 93% between Maleu and Kilenge dialects.
apr Arop-Lokep Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Korap Papua New Guinea Madang province: Saidor district, Long and Crown islands (Arop dialect); Morobe province: Siassi district, Tolokiwa island and northwest tip of Umboi island (Lokep dialect). Vitiaz Strait, Siassi chain, 4 islands 3,020 (2000 census), increasing. Few monolinguals 5 (Developing) Arop-Lukep, Lukep, Moromiranga, Siasi, Siassi, Tolokiwa Arop-Lokep Arop (Poono), Lokep (Lokewe, Lukep).
bbv Karnai Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Korap Papua New Guinea Morobe province: 4 mainland villages near Wasu, 3 on southwest Umboi island 520 (2005 M. Raymond) 6a (Vigorous) None known. 70%–80% with Arop-Lokep [apr].
tkv Mur Pano Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Korap Papua New Guinea Madang province: Mur village 1,000 (2012 SIL) 6a (Vigorous) Pano Lexical similarity: 63% with Karnai [bbv], 63% with Pano [mqz (Singorokai dialect), 59% with Pano (Malasanga dialect), 58% with Arop-Lokep [apr].
mqz Pano Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Korap Papua New Guinea Morobe province: Huon peninsula north coast, Bugada, Malasanga, Sigawa, and Singorokai villages from Lepsius Point tip to Wasu 1,180 (2000 census). Including 433 in Singorokai Ward, 461 in Malasanga Ward and 279 in Kiari Ward 6a (Vigorous) Malasanga Malasanga, Singorokai. Intelligibility: 88% between dialects. Lexical similarity (based on Pano dialect): 76% with Karnai [bbv], 71% with Arop-Lokep [apr], 36% with Ronji [roe], 32% with Malalamai [mmt], 29% with Mato [met], 22% with Gitua [ggt].
mna Mbula Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Mangap-Mbula Papua New Guinea Morobe province: Siassi district, east Umboi island, 6 villages; Sakar island, 1 village 4,500 (2007 SIL), increasing. 450 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 4,500 4 (Educational) Mangaaba, Mangaava, Mangaawa, Mangap, Mangap-Mbula, “Kaimanga” (pej.) Mbula Mbula (Central Mbula), Northern Mbula, Gauru, Sakar.
uvl Lote Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Mengen Papua New Guinea East New Britain province: Pomio district, southeast coast and inland near Cape Dampier 5,500 (2004 SIL). 700 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 7,000 5 (Developing) Uvol
kdf Mamusi Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Mengen Papua New Guinea East New Britain province: southeast coast and inland on Melkoi and Torlu rivers 6,000 (1985 SIL) 6a* (Vigorous) Kakuna Mamusi, Melkoi, Kakuna.
mee Mengen Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Mengen Papua New Guinea East New Britain province: Pomio district, Jacquinot bay and inland, 20 villages; West New Britain province: Talasea district, coast, Bismark Sea 8,400 (1982 SIL) 6a (Vigorous) Poeng North Coast Mengen (Maeng, Maenge, Orford), South Coast Mengen (Poeng), Bush Mengen (Inland Mengen, Longueinga). Some linguists separate Poeng (South Coast Mengen and Bush Mengen) and Maeng (North Coast Mengen) into 2 languages.
met Mato Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Roinji-Nenaya Papua New Guinea Morobe province: Huon peninsula north coast, near Morobe-Madang provincial border, Uruwa river plain west of Wasu, north of Sapmanga, southeast of Saidor 580 (2002 SIL) 5* (Developing) Nenaya, Nengaya, Nineia Ramuk, Tabares. Lexical similarity: 54% with Ronji [roe], 29% with Sio [xsi] and Pano [mqz], 28% with Karnai [bbv], 23% with Arop-Lokep [apr] and Mutu [tuc], 19% with Gitua [ggt].
roe Ronji Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Roinji-Nenaya Papua New Guinea Madang and Morobe provinces: 1 village in each province, north coast of Huon peninsula, northwest of Wasu, north-northwest of Sapmanga, southeast of Saidor 450 (2003 SIL) 6b* (Threatened) Gali, Roinji None known. Lexical similarity: 54% with Mato [met], 36% with Pano [mqz], 36% with Karnai [bbv], 33% with Arop-Lokep [apr], 33% with Sio [xsi], 28% with Mutu [tuc] 28% with Malalamai [mmt], 24% with Gitua [ggt].
xsi Sio Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Sio Papua New Guinea Morobe province: Wasu district, mainland near Sio island 3,500 (1987 SIL) 5* (Developing) Sigawa
aie Amara Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Southwest New Britain, Amara Papua New Guinea West New Britain province: northwest coast, Anepmate, Kaugo, Niuniuai, Siamatai, and Waramasalai villages 230 (2011 SIL), decreasing. No monolinguals 6b (Threatened) Bibling, Longa None known. Related to Mouk-Aria [mwh] and Lamogai [lmg].
mbh Mangseng Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Southwest New Britain, Arawe-Pasismanua, Arawe Papua New Guinea East New Britain province: Montagu harbor south coast to Fulleborn harbor west; West New Britain province: north coast, south of Commodore bay 2,500 (1998 SIL) 4 (Educational) Mangsing, Masegi, Maseki Mangseng Umua, Marapu. Linguistic isolate, most closely related to Solong [aaw].
akt Akolet Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Southwest New Britain, Arawe-Pasismanua, Arawe, East Arawe Papua New Guinea West New Britain province: south coast, and islands Awio bay area 950 (1982 SIL) 6a* (Vigorous)
let Amio-Gelimi Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Southwest New Britain, Arawe-Pasismanua, Arawe, East Arawe Papua New Guinea West New Britain and East New Britain provinces: east and Solomon sea coast. Kaskas island, Amio village (Amio dialect), Atui island and Poronga village (Gelimi dialect) 2,000 (2000 census) 6a (Vigorous) Amio, Atui, Gelimi, Lesing-Atui, Lesing-Gelimi, Poronga Gelimi, Amio.
avb Avau Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Southwest New Britain, Arawe-Pasismanua, Arawe, East Arawe Papua New Guinea West New Britain province: south coast and islands around Gasmata 620 (2002 SIL) 6a (Vigorous) Awau Eastern Avau, Western Avau.
bek Bebeli Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Southwest New Britain, Arawe-Pasismanua, Arawe, East Arawe Papua New Guinea West New Britain province: Stettin Bay, Cape Hoskins area 3,130 (Bullock et al 2013) 6b (Threatened) Banaule, Beli, Benaule, Kapore, Yangura Morokea, Mosa, Banaule.
mwg Aiklep Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Southwest New Britain, Arawe-Pasismanua, Arawe, West Arawe Papua New Guinea West New Britain province: Ais, Analo, Asailo, and Yumielo villages on southwest coast; inland, Aviklo island near Kandrian 3,700 (1991 SIL) 6a* (Vigorous) Agerlep, Eklep, Kaul, Moewehafen None known. With Gimi [gip] and Ambul [apo] forms a group of closely related varieties.
apo Ambul Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Southwest New Britain, Arawe-Pasismanua, Arawe, West Arawe Papua New Guinea West New Britain province: Ambonge, Asepsep, Ayuvet, and Melenglo villages; south coast area islands between Andru and Johanna rivers 1,200 (2000 census) 6a (Vigorous) Apalik, Palik None known. Lexical similarity: 90% with neighboring villages; 64% with Aiklep [mwg] (most similar).
gip Gimi Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Southwest New Britain, Arawe-Pasismanua, Arawe, West Arawe Papua New Guinea West New Britain province: southwest coast and inland, Anu to Johanna rivers 3,700 (1982 SIL) 5* (Developing) Loko Dialect continuum with Aiklep [mwg] and Ambul [apo].
aaw Solong Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Southwest New Britain, Arawe-Pasismanua, Arawe, West Arawe Papua New Guinea West New Britain province: southwest coast 2,200 (Wurm and Hattori 1981) 4 (Educational) Arawe, Arove, Pililo Solong Arawe. Dialect subgroup. Understood by all along the coast.
aix Aighon Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Southwest New Britain, Arawe-Pasismanua, Pasismanua Papua New Guinea West New Britain province: Gasmata and Mosa rural LLGs, Akolet and Avau inland, between Avio and Amgen rivers, to north side of Whiteman range 2,000 (2003 SIL), increasing. 100 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 2,500 6a (Vigorous) Aigon, Eighon Bao (Do), Apsokok (Psohoh, Psokhok, Psokok, Sokhok), Aighon. In the Kaulong [pss] (Pasismanua) dialect subgroup. Aighon considered a dialect of Kaulong [pss] (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Lexical similarity: 83% with Aighon and Bao dialects.
pss Kaulong Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Southwest New Britain, Arawe-Pasismanua, Pasismanua Papua New Guinea West New Britain province: Kandrian district, southwest 4,000 (2000 D. Tryon) 5* (Developing) Kowlong, Pasismanua Kaulong Kaulong, East Inland Kaulong. Miu [mpo], Aighon [aix], and Senseng [ssz] may be dialects (Wurm and Hattori 1981).
mpo Miu Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Southwest New Britain, Arawe-Pasismanua, Pasismanua Papua New Guinea West New Britain province: Gimi Rauto district, southwest interior 395 (2000 D. Tryon). Ethnic population: 1,250 7 (Shifting) Myu Miu treated as a dialect of Kaulong [pss] by Wurm and Hattori.
ssz Sengseng Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Southwest New Britain, Arawe-Pasismanua, Pasismanua Papua New Guinea West New Britain province: southwest interior 1,750 (2003 SIL) 6b (Threatened) Asengseng Senseng treated as a dialect of Kaulong [pss] by Wurm and Hattori.
xkx Karore Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Southwest New Britain, Arawe-Pasismanua, Pasismanua Papua New Guinea West New Britain province: Kandrian district, between Andru and Johanna rivers 550 (2003 SIL). Ethnic population: 930 (2000 census) 6b* (Threatened) None known. In a chain of related varieties with Kaulong [pss].
lmg Lamogai Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Southwest New Britain, Bibling Papua New Guinea West New Britain province: northwest interior, 2 regions on south coast 3,650 (Johnston 1980) 5* (Developing) Akiuru, Mulakaino Ibanga (Ivanga), Pulie-Rauto (Rauto, Roto), Lomogai, Musen, Paret.
mwh Mouk-Aria Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Southwest New Britain, Bibling Papua New Guinea West New Britain province: Kandrian district southeast coast to northwest coast 630 (1982 SIL) 5* (Developing) Aria-Mouk Mouk (Mok), Tourai.
tmy Tami Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Tami Papua New Guinea Morobe province: Tami Islands and mainland villages south of Finschhafen 2,100 (2010 SIL), increasing. 1,000 in each dialect 5* (Developing) Wanam, Taemi.
kzu Kayupulau Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Sarmi-Jayapura Bay, Jayapura Bay Indonesia Papua province: Kota Jayapura city and island in Jayapura harbor 50 (Wurm 2000). Used by under 10% of the ethnic group (Wurm 2007) 8a (Moribund) Kajupulau Not a dialect of Tobati (Yotafa) [tti].
orz Ormu Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Sarmi-Jayapura Bay, Jayapura Bay Indonesia Papua province: Jayapura regency north coast, Ormu Besar and Ormu Kecil villages 500 (Wurm 2000) 7 (Shifting)
tti Tobati Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Sarmi-Jayapura Bay, Jayapura Bay Indonesia Papua province: Enggros, Entrop, Kota Raja, Tanah Hitam, and Tobati villages on Jayapura bay 100 (Wurm 2007) 8b (Nearly extinct) Enggros, Humboldt Jotafa, Jayapura, Jotafa, Tobwadic, Yautefa, Yotafa None known. Formerly classified as Papuan.
kbi Kaptiau Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Sarmi-Jayapura Bay, Sarmi Indonesia Papua province: Sarmi regency, Bonggo sub-district, Kaptiau village 230 (2006 SIL) 8a (Moribund) Kapitiauw, Kaptiauw, Sobei None known. Lexical similarity: with Tarpia [tpf] and Bonggo [bpg] (most).
tpf Tarpia Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Sarmi-Jayapura Bay, Sarmi Indonesia Papua province: Jayapura regency, Demta sub-district, Tarfia village on north coast 630 (2006 SIL) 8a (Moribund) Sufrai, Tarfia None known. Reportedly most similar to Kaptiau [kbi] and Bonggo [bpg].
auq Anus Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Sarmi-Jayapura Bay, Sarmi Indonesia Papua province: Sarmi regency, Pulau Anus and Podena islands off north coast; coastal area east of Biri river 320 (2005 SIL) 7 (Shifting) Koroernoes, Korur None known. Reportedly similar to Podena [pdn].
bpg Bonggo Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Sarmi-Jayapura Bay, Sarmi Indonesia Papua province: Sarmi regency, Bonggo sub-district 790 (2006 SIL) 8a (Moribund) Armopa, Bgu, Bogu, Bongo
pdn Fedan Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Sarmi-Jayapura Bay, Sarmi Indonesia Papua province: Sarmi regency, Bonggo sub-district, coastline and island off north coast of Biri river area 280 (2005 SIL) 7 (Shifting) Fandanus, Podena None known. Reportedly similar to Anus [auq].
lio Liki Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Sarmi-Jayapura Bay, Sarmi Indonesia Papua province: Sarmi regency, Sarmi sub-district, Liki and Nirumoar islands 11 (2005 SIL), decreasing. Ethnic population: 320 8a (Moribund) Moar None known. Reportedly similar to Sobei [sob].
ism Masimasi Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Sarmi-Jayapura Bay, Sarmi Indonesia Papua province: Sarmi regency, Pantai Timur sub-district, Masi-Masi island off north coast 10 (2005 SIL) 8b (Nearly extinct)
wkd Mo Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Sarmi-Jayapura Bay, Sarmi Indonesia Papua province: Sarmi regency, Pantai Timur sub-district; Wakde island, and north coastal area 550 (2005 SIL) 7 (Shifting) Wakde
sob Sobei Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Sarmi-Jayapura Bay, Sarmi Indonesia Papua province: Sarmi regency, Sarmi sub-district, north coast area, Bagaiserwar, Sarmi, and Sawar villages 1,000 (Wurm 2000). Ethnic population: 1,850 (2000 D. Tryon) 7 (Shifting) Biga, Imasi, Liki None known. Reported comprehension of Liki [lio].
ymn Sunum Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Sarmi-Jayapura Bay, Sarmi Indonesia Papua province: Sarmi regency, Pantai Timur sub-district, coastal area and Nirumoar island 560 (2005 SIL) 8a (Moribund) Yamna Sunum
yrs Yarsun Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Sarmi-Jayapura Bay, Sarmi Indonesia Papua province: Sarmi regency, Bonggo sub-district 200 (1991 SIL) 8a (Moribund)
kbw Kaiep Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Schouten, Kairiru-Manam, Kairiru Papua New Guinea East Sepik province: Kep and Taul coast area 200 (Wurm 2007). Ethnic population: 650 (2000 census) 6b (Threatened) Samap
kxa Kairiru Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Schouten, Kairiru-Manam, Kairiru Papua New Guinea East Sepik province: Wewak district, Kairiru, Karesau, and Yuo islands; mainland coastal villages between Cape Karawop and Cape Samein; north and west Mushu island 3,200 (2000 census) 6a* (Vigorous) Kairiru None known. Reportedly similar to Kaiep [kbw].
trb Terebu Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Schouten, Kairiru-Manam, Kairiru Papua New Guinea East Sepik province: Taul coast southeast of Wewak, Turubu village 130 (1990 SIL). Ethnic population: 470 (2000 census) 6b (Threatened) Terepu, Turubu, Turupu
bmc Biem Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Schouten, Kairiru-Manam, Manam Papua New Guinea East Sepik province: Bam, Blupblup, Kadovar, and Viai islands east of Wewak 2,200 (2000 census) 6a* (Vigorous) Bam
kis Kis Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Schouten, Kairiru-Manam, Manam Papua New Guinea East Sepik province: south southeast of Samap, inland from the coast 220 (2000 D. Tryon) 6b* (Threatened)
mva Manam Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Schouten, Kairiru-Manam, Manam Papua New Guinea Madang province: Bogia district, Boesa and Manam islands, Sepa and Wanami on adjacent mainland 7,950 (2003 SIL) 5* (Developing) Manum Wanami. Related to Wogeo [woc], Biem [bmc], Sepa [spe], and Medebur [mjm].
mjm Medebur Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Schouten, Kairiru-Manam, Manam Papua New Guinea Madang province: coast just north of Sikor at Medebur 510 (2003 SIL). Ethnic population: 510 6a (Vigorous) None known. Related to Wogeo [woc], Biem [bmc], Sepa [spe], and Manam [mva].
spe Sepa Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Schouten, Kairiru-Manam, Manam Papua New Guinea Madang province: Manam island south coast, Bogia area 700 (2003 SIL) 6b* (Threatened)
woc Wogeo Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Schouten, Kairiru-Manam, Manam Papua New Guinea East Sepik province: Koil islands and Vokeo islands 1,620 (2003 SIL) 6a* (Vigorous) Uageo
aps Arop-Sissano Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Schouten, Siau Papua New Guinea Sandaun province: Aitape district, Arop village 1,150 (1998 SIL) 5* (Developing) Arop None known. Related to Sissano [sso], Malol [mbk], and Sera [sry].
ykm Kap Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Schouten, Siau Papua New Guinea Sandaun province: between Paup and Yakamul coast; Ali, Angel, and Seleo islands 3,460 (2003 SIL), decreasing 6b (Threatened) Ali, Yakamul Ali, Yakamul, Yigel.
mbk Malol Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Schouten, Siau Papua New Guinea Sandaun province: Malol village area 3330 6a* (Vigorous) Malolo, Malon
sry Sera Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Schouten, Siau Papua New Guinea Sandaun province: Sera area. 1 village 510 (2000 census) 7 (Shifting) Serra, Ssia
sso Sissano Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Schouten, Siau Papua New Guinea Sandaun province: Aitape district, Sissano area 300 (Wurm 2000). In 1990, 4,780 speakers were reported and language use was vigorous. The 1998 tsunami almost completely annihilated the population. Number of surviving speakers unlikely to exceed a few hundred (Wurm 2007) 6b* (Threatened) Sinama, Sinano, Sisano
tmq Tumleo Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Schouten, Siau Papua New Guinea Sandaun province: Tumleo island, Aitape coast area 790 (2003 SIL) 6a* (Vigorous)
svb Ulau-Suain Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Schouten, Siau Papua New Guinea Sandaun province: Suain coastal area, Ulau 1, Ulau 2 2,800 (2003 SIL), decreasing 6b (Threatened) Suain
mbq Maisin Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, Maisin Papua New Guinea Oro province: Ijivitari district, Collingwood bay and Kosirava swamp coast villages 2,610 (2000 census). 600 in Kosirava dialect 5 (Developing) Maisan Kosirava, Maisin. No closely related languages. Lexical similarity: 73% among dialects, but little interaction between users.
aui Anuki Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D’Entrecasteaux, Anuki Papua New Guinea Milne Bay province: north coast, Cape Vogel 890 (2001 SIL) 6b (Threatened) Gabobora None known. Lexical similarity: 49%–57% with Gapapaiwa [pwg] (most similar).
mwc Are Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D’Entrecasteaux, Are-Taupota, Are Papua New Guinea Milne Bay province: Cape Vogel tip 1,230 (1973 SIL) 5* (Developing) Mukawa None known. Reportedly similar to Gapapaiwa [pwg]. Lexical similarity: 47%–55% with Doga [dgg] (most similar).
dgg Doga Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D’Entrecasteaux, Are-Taupota, Are Papua New Guinea Milne Bay province: Cape Vogel north coast 200 (Wurm 2000). Ethnic population: 410 (2000 census) 6b (Threatened) Magabara None known. Lexical similarity: 47%–55% with Are [mwc] (most similar).
pwg Gapapaiwa Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D’Entrecasteaux, Are-Taupota, Are Papua New Guinea Milne Bay province: Makamaka district, Cape Vogel south coast, inland on Ruaba river 3,000 (2007 SIL), increasing 5 (Developing) Manape Gapapaiwa Gapa, Paiwa. The Gapa dialect is spoken in the eastern part of the language area and the Paiwa dialect is spoken in the western part. They are mutually intelligible. Lexical similarity: 73% with Ghayavi [bmk] (Boyanai dialect most similar).
bmk Ghayavi Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D’Entrecasteaux, Are-Taupota, Are Papua New Guinea Milne Bay province: Alotau district, Weraura LLG, north coast Goodenough bay, Uga west to Wadobuna east, including Rabaraba 2,810 (2000 census) 5* (Developing) Boanai, Boanaki, Boianaki, Boinaki, Galavi None known. Lexical similarity: 76% with Gapapaiwa [pwg] (most similar), 46% with Wedau [wed].
wat Kaninuwa Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D’Entrecasteaux, Are-Taupota, Are Papua New Guinea Milne Bay province: Sivesive village and 1 other; 2 villages north of Goodenough island 360 (2001). 40 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 510 6a (Vigorous) Kaokao, Wataluma None known. Lexical similarity: 51% with Iduna [viv] (most similar).
ubr Ubir Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D’Entrecasteaux, Are-Taupota, Are Papua New Guinea Milne Bay province: Alotau district, Makamaka RLLG; Oro province: Afore district, Tufi RLLG, Collingwood Bay coast, Kwagila river; Milne Bay provincial border area 2,560 (2000 census) 5* (Developing) Kubiri, Ubiri Lexical similarity: 27% with Miniafia dialect of Arifama-Miniafia [aai] (most similar).
aai Miniafia Oyan Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D’Entrecasteaux, Are-Taupota, Are Papua New Guinea Oro province: Tufi district, Cape Nelson and Collingwood Bay, 4 coastal locations. 20 to 25 villages 3,470 (2000) 5* (Developing) Arifama-Miniafia, Miniafia-Arifama Arifama, Miniafia. Lexical similarity: 39% with Ubir [ubr].
tpa Taupota Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D’Entrecasteaux, Are-Taupota, Taupota Papua New Guinea Milne Bay province: Alotau district, Maramatana LGA, East Cape, Garuwahi to Wamawamana, includes Taupota village 1,280 (2001 SIL) 6a (Vigorous) Probably part of a chain of related varieties with Wa’ema [wag] south and Wedau [wed] west. Lexical similarity: 81% with Topura dialect of Wedau [wed], 69% with central Wedau [wed], 76% with Wa’ema [wag], 56% with Tawala [tbo], 53% with Maiwala [mum].
ykk Yakaikeke Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D’Entrecasteaux, Are-Taupota, Taupota Papua New Guinea Milne Bay province: Alotau district, Weraura local government area, Goodenough Bay between Wedau and Radava, Diruna near Manubada 100 (1998 SIL). Ethnic population: 240 (2000 census) 6b (Threatened) Iakaikeke Lexical similarity: 65% with Wedau [wed] (most similar), 58% with Kwamana dialect of Wedau [wed], 48% with Ghayavi [bmk] (at Radava).
grw Gweda Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D’Entrecasteaux, Are-Taupota, Taupota Papua New Guinea Milne Bay province: Alotau district, Maramatana local council area, Garuwahi village 26 (2001 SIL) 8a (Moribund) Garuwahi Naura dialect and Gweda [grw] users agree that Gweda is most similar to Haigwai. Lexical similarity: 71% with Wa’ema [wag], 69% with Taupota [tpa], 68% with Naura dialect of Haigwai [hgw], 67% with Kapulika dialect of Haigwai, 64% with Topura dialect of Wedau [wed], 63% with Tawala [tbo], 53% with Wedau.
hgw Haigwai Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D’Entrecasteaux, Are-Taupota, Taupota Papua New Guinea Milne Bay province: Alotau district, Huhu local government area, inland from Milne Bay head between Hagita and Waigani estates and mountains west 1,060 (2000 census). 160 monolinguals 6a (Vigorous) Garaghwaghi, Kapulika, Naura Naura, Kapulika. Naura dialect and Gweda [grw] users agree that Gweda is most similar to Haigwai. Lexical similarity: 68% between the Naura dialect and Gweda, 65% between Kapulika dialect and Taupota [tpa], 52% with Wedau [wed], 48% with Maiwala [mum].
mum Maiwala Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D’Entrecasteaux, Are-Taupota, Taupota Papua New Guinea Milne Bay province: Alotau district, Huhu LGA, Milne bay head 2,450 (2000 census) 6a (Vigorous) Maiwala. Lexical similarity: 67% with Tawala [tbo] at Diwala village (most similar).
mvn Minaveha Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D’Entrecasteaux, Are-Taupota, Taupota Papua New Guinea Milne Bay province: Bolubolu district, southwest Fergusson island near Mapamoiwa station 2,300 (2007 SIL), increasing. 600 monolinguals 5 (Developing) Kukuya, Minavega None known. Lexical similarity: 60% with Iamalele [yml] (most similar), Koluwawa [klx], and Bwaidoka [bwd].
wag Wa’ema Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D’Entrecasteaux, Are-Taupota, Taupota Papua New Guinea Milne Bay province: Alotau district, Huhu local government area, Giligili estates to Turnbull war memorial, Milne Bay area north up to East Cape coastal range 1,020 (2000 census) 6a* (Vigorous) Waiema None known. Wa’ema seems to be part of a chain of related varieties with Taupota [tpa]. Tawala [tbo] not intelligible to Wa’ema. Lexical similarity: 76% with Taupota [tpa], 69% with Maiwala [mum], 54% with Tawala [tbo].
tbo Tawala Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D’Entrecasteaux, Are-Taupota, Taupota Papua New Guinea Milne Bay province: Alotau district, Awaiama to East Cape, Milne Bay north and south shores, Basilaki and Sideia islands 20,000 (2000 census) 5* (Developing) Tavara, Tawara Awayama (Awaiama, Awalama), Huhuna, Kehelala (East Cape, Keherara), Lelehudi, Diwinai (Divinai), Labe (Rabe), Yaleba (Ealeba, Gwavili, Gwawili, Wagawaga), Bohilai (Basilaki, Bohira’i), Sideya (Sideia).
wed Wedau Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D’Entrecasteaux, Are-Taupota, Taupota Papua New Guinea Milne Bay province: Rabaraba district, Weraura local government area, mainland from Kuvira Bay to Dogura along north coast 2,200 (2000 D. Tryon). 900 monolinguals 5 (Developing) Wedaun, Wedawan Topura, Yapoa, Lavora, Kwamana.
bwd Bwaidoka Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D’Entrecasteaux, Bwaidoga Papua New Guinea Milne Bay province: Bolubolu district, west Fergusson island, south tip of Goodenough island 6,500 (2000 SIL). 3,250 monolinguals 5 (Developing) Bwaidoga Mataitai, Wagifa, Kilia, Lauwela, Bwaidoga, Faiyava, Belebele I, Bebebele Ii, Kalauna, Kiliva. Lexical similarity: 72% with Iduna [viv] (most similar).
ddi Goodenough, West Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D’Entrecasteaux, Bwaidoga Papua New Guinea Milne Bay province: Goodenough island west coast 2,650 (2000 census). 440 monolinguals 6a (Vigorous) Diodio Iauiaula, Utalo, Awale, Central Diodio, Molata, Giwau, Miyalabi. Lexical similarity: 66% with Bwaidoka [bwd] (most similar).
yml Iamalele Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D’Entrecasteaux, Bwaidoga Papua New Guinea Milne Bay province: Bwaidoka district, west Fergusson island 2,800 (1987 SIL). 1,120 monolinguals 5* (Developing) Yamalele Didigavu, Gwabegwabe, Masimasi, Central Yamalele, Southern Yamalele. Lexical similarity: 64% with Koluwawa [klx] (most similar).
viv Iduna Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D’Entrecasteaux, Bwaidoga Papua New Guinea Milne Bay province: Esa’ala district, north coast, Goodenough island 6,000 (1984 SIL) 5* (Developing) Vivigana, Vivigani Waibula, Ufaufa, Idakamenai, Belebele, Kalauna, Goiala, Ufufu, Central Vivigani. Lexical similarity: 72% with Bwaidoka [bwd] (most similar).
klx Koluwawa Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D’Entrecasteaux, Bwaidoga Papua New Guinea Milne Bay province: Fergusson island northwest tip 900 (1998 SIL) 5 (Developing) Kalokalo None known. Lexical similarity: 64% with Iamalele [yml] (most similar), and then Bwaidoka [bwd].
mzz Maiadomu Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D’Entrecasteaux, Bwaidoga Papua New Guinea Milne Bay province: Bwaidoka district, east Fergusson island 900 (2000 SIL), increasing 5* (Developing) Maiadom Lexical similarity: 62% with Iamalele [yml], 35% with Boselewa [bwf], 32% with Gameta dialect of Galeya [gar], 20% with Dobu [dob].
mox Molima Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D’Entrecasteaux, Bwaidoga Papua New Guinea Milne Bay province: Esa’ala district, Ebadidi, Ni’ubuo, and Salakahadi area inland villages on west Fergusson island; central west coast, Fagululu; central south coast, Molima 4,010 (2000 census), increasing 5 (Developing) Ebadidi, Fagululu, Morima, Salakahadi Tola’ai, Ai’alu, Tosila’ai. Tola’ai most prominent; Ai’alu mainly spoken in Fagululu; Tosila’ai is from remote mountains and is shifting to Tola’ai. Lexical similarity: 56% with Dobu [dob].
bwf Boselewa Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D’Entrecasteaux, Dobu-Duau Papua New Guinea Milne Bay province: Fergusson island north shore 610 (1999 SIL). Ethnic population: 1,530 6b* (Threatened) Bosalewa, Bosilewa, Mwani’u None known. Lexical similarity: 61% with Galeya [gar] (most similar).
bdd Bunama Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D’Entrecasteaux, Dobu-Duau Papua New Guinea Milne Bay province: Esa’ala district, south Normanby island 4,000 (1993 SIL) 5* (Developing) Kelelegeia Bunama, Barabara, Sawatupwa, Lomitawa, Sipupu, Weyoko, Meudana, Kerorogea, Kumalahu, Kasikasi, Sawabwala. Lexical similarity: 66% with Mwatebu [mwa], 75% with most Dobu [dob] dialects.
dob Dobu Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D’Entrecasteaux, Dobu-Duau Papua New Guinea Milne Bay province: Esa’ala district, Dobu, parts of Fergusson, Normanby, and Sanaroa islands. 500 villages 110,000, all users. L1 users: 10,000 (1998 SIL). L2 users: 100,000 (1987 SIL). 6,000 monolinguals 3 (Wider communication). Lingua franca in D’Entrecasteaux Islands Dobuan Dobu Galubwa, Sanaroa, Ubuia, Central Dobu, Loboda (Dawada-Siausi, Roboda). Lexical similarity: 56% with Molima [mox] (most similar).
gar Galeya Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D’Entrecasteaux, Dobu-Duau Papua New Guinea Milne Bay province: Fergusson island, Esa’ala district, Duduna, Gameta, Lau’oya, Momo’awa, Sebutuya, and Ulua wards 2,620 (2000 census). 790 monolinguals 6a (Vigorous) Garea Wadalei, Gameta, Urua, Basima, Sebutuia, Garea (Galeya). Lexical similarity: 61% with Boselewa [bwf] (most similar), 80% with Garea and Basima dialects.
mwa Mwatebu Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D’Entrecasteaux, Dobu-Duau Papua New Guinea Milne Bay province: Normanby island, north central coast. 1 village 120 (Wurm 2000). 10 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 270 (2000 census) 6b (Threatened) None known. Lexical similarity: 49% with Dobu [dob] (most similar).
sew Sewa Bay Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D’Entrecasteaux, Dobu-Duau Papua New Guinea Milne Bay province: center of Normanby island, Sewa Bay area 1,520 (1972 census). 300 monolinguals 6a* (Vigorous) Duau Pwata Miadeba, Bwakera, Maiabare, Darubia, Sewataitai, Sibonai, Central Sewa Bay. Very diverse dialects. Lexical similarity: 45% with Dobu [dob] (most similar).
dva Duau Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D’Entrecasteaux, Dobu-Duau Papua New Guinea Milne Bay province: Normanby and Sawabwala islands 3,550 (1991 SIL). 710 monolinguals 6a* (Vigorous) Mwalukwasia, Somwadina, Guleguleu (Guragureu), Dawada, Siausi. Diverse dialects. No central or dominant dialect. Lexical similarity: 75% with Bunama [bdd], 52% with Mwatebu [mwa], Auhelawa [kud], and Bwanabwana [tte].
gvs Gumawana Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D’Entrecasteaux, Gumawana Papua New Guinea Milne Bay province: Esa’ala district, Amphlett Islands, about 25 islands north of Fergusson. 7 villages 470 (2000 census), increasing. 50 monolinguals 5 (Developing) Domdom, Gumasi, Gumasila Kotoita, Nubogeta, Gumawana. Lexical similarity: 48% with Galeya [gar], 47% with Dobu [dob] (most similar).
dww Dawawa Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D’Entrecasteaux, Kakabai Papua New Guinea Milne Bay province: Rabaraba district, west and inland from Wedau 2,500 (1994 SIL). 500 monolinguals 5 (Developing) Dawana Mountian Dawawa, Coastal Dawawa. Lexical similarity: 58% with Kakabai [kqf].
kqf Kakabai Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D’Entrecasteaux, Kakabai Papua New Guinea Milne Bay province: Alotau district, Suau and Weraura LLGs, inland villages, Papua eastern tip 900 (2003 SIL). 135 monolinguals 5* (Developing) Igora North Kakabai, South Kakabai.
kud ’Auhelawa Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, Suauic Papua New Guinea Milne Bay province: Sehuleya district, Normanby island 1,200 (1998 SIL). 360 monolinguals 5* (Developing) ’Urada, Kurada, Nuakata, Ulada None known. Lexical similarity: 52% with Duau [dva] (most similar).
bxh Buhutu Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, Suauic Papua New Guinea Milne Bay province: Alotau district, Sagarai valley, East tip of Papua 1,350 (2003 SIL), increasing. 270 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 1,350 5 (Developing) Bohutu, Buhulu, Siasiada, Yaleba Buhutu None known. Reportedly similar to Unubahe [unu] and Oye’oye [oyy]. Lexical similarity: 68% with Suau [swp].
tte Bwanabwana Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, Suauic Papua New Guinea Milne Bay province: Bwanabwana district, southeast Basilaki island, Engineer islands, Kitai island, Laseinie islands, Ware island 2,400 (2007 SIL), increasing. 720 monolinguals 5* (Developing) Tubetube Wale (Ware, Wari), Kwalaiwa, Kitai, Naluwaluwali, Tewatewa, Koyagaugau, Ole, Anagusa. Lexical similarity: 52% with Duau [dva] (most similar).
unu Unubahe Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, Suauic Papua New Guinea Milne Bay province: Gumini village 7 (2012 SIL). Ethnic population: 59 (2001 SIL) 8b (Nearly extinct) Unoba’i None known. Reportedly similar to Buhutu [bxh] and Oya’oya [oyy].
wgb Wagawaga Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, Suauic Papua New Guinea Milne Bay province: Upper and Lower Dawadawa wards, along Tawala river and east of Wagawaga village, in the middle of Tawala [tbo] language area 600 (2000 census). 60 monolinguals 6a (Vigorous) Baeaula, Beauli, Ealeba, Gamadoudou, Gibara, Kilikilana Wagawaga, Wagawaga Inland. Reportedly similar to Yaleba [ylb]. Lexical similarity: 61% with Oya’oya [oyy], 31% with Tawala [tbo], 55% with Buhutu [bxh].
oyy Oya’oya Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, Suauic Papua New Guinea Milne Bay province: Samarai-Murua district, Bwanabwana local government area, southeast tip of Papuan mainland facing China strait 380 (2005 SIL) 6b (Threatened) Daiomuni, Kuiaro, Loani, Simagahi Dialect subgroup. Reportedly similar to Unubahe [unu]. Lexical similarity: 61% with Wagawaga [wgb], 46% with Saliba [sbe], 31% with Tawala [tbo], 48% with Buhutu [bxh].
sbe Saliba Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, Suauic Papua New Guinea Milne Bay province: China strait, Rogeia and Sariba islands, mainland across from Rogeia island 2,500 (2007 SIL), increasing. 1,000 monolinguals. Young children, elderly 5 (Developing) Saliba, Loga. Distinct from Suau [swp].
swp Suau Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, Suauic Papua New Guinea Milne Bay province: southeasternmost Papua mainland 20,800, all users. L1 users: 6,800 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). L2 users: 14,000. 680 monolinguals 3 (Wider communication). A lingua franca around the south-eastern tip of Papua New Guinea Iou Sinaki (Gadaisu, Gaidasu), Leileiafa, Bona Bona, Dahuni, Suau, Bonarua, Lausaha (Daui, Fife Bay).
ylb Yaleba Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, Suauic Papua New Guinea Milne Bay province: Huhu LGA, Dalidali, Gamadoudou, Gibara, Gwaugulina, Iwame, Kilakilana, and Wanabelo villages 1,330 (2005 SIL). Only 25 Sileba dialect speakers 6a (Vigorous) Aisana Gamadoudou, Sileba, Soma’a. Reportedly similar to Wagawaga [wgb].
oum Ouma Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Peripheral, Central Papuan, Oumic Papua New Guinea Central province: south coast around Labu No known L1 speakers. Last known speaker survived into the late 1980s (Wurm and Hattori 1981) 10 (Extinct)
bmn Bina Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Peripheral, Central Papuan, Oumic, Magoric Papua New Guinea Central province: north of Baibara No known L1 speakers. Extinct by late 20th century 10 (Extinct)
zgr Magori Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Peripheral, Central Papuan, Oumic, Magoric Papua New Guinea Central province: Table bay east end, Bailebo-Tavenei river lower reaches 100 (Wurm 2000) 8b (Nearly extinct) None known. Reportedly most similar to Suau [swp]. Vocabulary heavily influenced by Magi [mgu].
yob Yoba Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Peripheral, Central Papuan, Oumic, Magoric Papua New Guinea Central province: north of Magori No known L1 speakers. The last speaker probably survived into the 1980s (Dutton 1976) 10 (Extinct)
snc Sinaugoro Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Peripheral, Central Papuan, Sinagoro-Keapara Papua New Guinea Central province: Rigo district, south of Kwikila 18,000 (2000 census) 5* (Developing) Sinagoro Ikolu, Balawaia, Saroa, Babagarupu, Kwaibida, Taboro, Kwaibo, Alepa, Omene, Tubulamo, Ikega, Boku, Buaga, Wiga, Vora, Kubuli, Oruone. Saroa dialect may be most central for intelligibility. Lexical similarity: 70%–75% with Kalo [khz] (most similar), 65%–70% with Hula [hul].
hul Hula Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Peripheral, Central Papuan, Sinagoro-Keapara Papua New Guinea Central province: Hood peninsula 3,240 (2000 census) 5* (Developing) Vula’a, Vulaa
khz Keapara Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Peripheral, Central Papuan, Sinagoro-Keapara Papua New Guinea Central province: coast east of Hood peninsula to Lalaura west of Cape Rodney. 3 villages 19,400 (2000 D. Tryon) 5* (Developing) Keopara, Kerepunu Babaga, Kalo, Keapara (Keopara), Aroma (Aloma, Arona, Galoma), Maopa, Wanigela, Kapari, Lalaura. In a chain of related varieties extending to Hula [hul].
meu Motu Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Peripheral, Central Papuan, Sinagoro-Keapara Papua New Guinea Central province: Port Moresby area, coastal villages from Galley Reach and Manumanu to GabaGaba 39,000 (2008 A. Taylor) 5* (Developing) Pure Motu, True Motu Western Motu, Eastern Motu.
kbt Abadi Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Peripheral, Central Papuan, West Central Papuan, Gabadi Papua New Guinea Central province: Kairuku district, 5 main villages 2,900 (Kassell and Potter 2011), increasing 5 (Developing) Gabadi, Kabadi Abadi None known. Lexical similarity: 53% with Toura [don], 47% with Lala [nrz] (Kassell and Potter 2011).
mek Mekeo Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Peripheral, Central Papuan, West Central Papuan, Nuclear Papua New Guinea Central province: Kaiyuku district, inland, west boundary is Waima, east are Kuni [kse] and Kunimaipa [kup] language areas; into Gulf province 19,000 (2003 SIL) 5* (Developing) Mekeo-Kovio East Mekeo, West Mekeo, North Mekeo, Northwest Mekeo (Kovio), Ninikani. Dialects mutually unintelligible, except North and West Mekeo, but most Mekeo are reportedly familiar with neighboring dialects. Kovio not contiguous and is peripheral to other dialects. Lexical similarity: 81% between Kovio dialect and West Mekeo and North Mekeo dialects, 79% with East Mekeo, 87% between East and West Mekeo dialects.
rro Waima Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Peripheral, Central Papuan, West Central Papuan, Nuclear Papua New Guinea Central province: Bereina district, Hall Sound shores between Yule island and mainland, northwest of Port Moresby 12,000 (2002 SIL). Ethnic population: 15,000 (2000 census) 5 (Developing) Roro Waima, Paitana, Roro. Roro and Paitana populations smaller and scattered. Lexical similarity: 45% with Kuni [kse] (most similar), 99% among all 3 dialects. All agree Waima is the main dialect.
kse Kuni Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Peripheral, Central Papuan, West Central Papuan, Nuclear Papua New Guinea Central province: Kairuku and southwest Goilala districts, toward Port Moresby, south of Mekeo 2,400 (2000 census) 5* (Developing) None known. Lexical similarity: 52% with Lala [nrz], 47% with Mekeo [mek], 40% with Waima [rro], the most similar varieties.
nrz Lala Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Peripheral, Central Papuan, West Central Papuan, Nuclear Papua New Guinea Central province: between Kuni and Waima, inland from the coast, south of Yule Island 3,000 (2007 SIL) 5 (Developing) Nala, Nara, Pokau Ala’ala None known. Lexical similarity: 57% with Toura [don], 47% with Abadi [kbt].
don Toura Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Peripheral, Central Papuan, West Central Papuan, Nuclear Papua New Guinea Central province: Galley Reach area, 50 km northwest of Port Moresby 1,800 (2007 SIL) 5 (Developing) Doura Toura None known. Lexical similarity: 57% with Lala [nrz], 54% with Motu [meu].
myw Muyuw Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Peripheral, Kilivila-Louisiades, Kilivila Papua New Guinea Milne Bay province: Losuia district, Woodlark island 6,000 (1998). 1,000–1,200 Iwa. 3,000 monolinguals 5* (Developing) Egum, Murua, Murua Dukwayasi, Murua Kaulae, Muruwa, Muyu, Muyua, Muyuwa Yanaba, Lougaw (Gawa), Wamwan, Nawyem, Iwa. Iwa dialect is halfway between Muyuw [myw] and Kilivila [kij]. Lexical similarity: 68% with Kilivila [kij].
btp Budibud Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Peripheral, Kilivila-Louisiades, Kilivila Papua New Guinea Milne Bay province: Lachlan islands, east of Woodlark island 310 (2000). 50 monolinguals 6b (Threatened) None known. Lexical similarity: 65% with Muyuw [myw].
kij Kilivila Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Peripheral, Kilivila-Louisiades, Kilivila Papua New Guinea Milne Bay province: Trobriand Islands 20,000 (2000 D. Tryon). 12,000 monolinguals 5* (Developing) Kiriwina Kitava, Vakuta, Sinaketa. Lexical similarity: 68% with Muyuw [myw].
mpx Misima-Panaeati Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Peripheral, Kilivila-Louisiades, Misima Papua New Guinea Milne Bay province: Misima district, Calvados chain, Misima island, and Panaieti islands. 32 villages 18,000 (2002 SIL). 4,000 monolinguals 5* (Developing) Misima-Paneati, Misiman, Panaeati, Panaieti, Panayeti, Paneate, Paneyate Nasikwabw (Tokunu), Tewatewa. Lexical similarity: 33% with Rifao [nmw] and Dobu [dob] (most similar).
nmw Rifao Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Peripheral, Kilivila-Louisiades, Nimoa-Sudest Papua New Guinea Milne Bay province: Misima district, island group northwest of Sud-Est 1,100 (2000 census). 440 monolinguals 6a* (Vigorous) Nimoa, Nimowa Saisai, Sabal, Nimowa (Nimoa). Lexical similarity: 44% with Sudest [tgo] (most similar).
tgo Sudest Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Peripheral, Kilivila-Louisiades, Nimoa-Sudest Papua New Guinea Milne Bay province: Yama-Yele district, Tagula island, west of Rossel island, end of Calvados chain. 17 villages or hamlets 2,000 (1987 SIL), increasing. 400 monolinguals 5 (Developing) Sud-Est, Tagula, Vanatinai, Vanga Rambuso (Rewa), Eastern Point, Eastern Sudest (Rambuso, Rehuwo), Central Sudest (Araetha, Pamela), Western Sudest (Dtelha, Griffin Point, Jelewaga). Lexical similarity: 44% with Rifao [nmw] (most similar).
yap Yapese Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Yapese Micronesia Yap state: Yap island and 10 islands nearby 5,130 (2005 UNSD) 2 (Provincial)
irh Irarutu Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, South Halmahera Indonesia West Papua province: Fakfak, north Kaimana, and Teluk Bintani regencies on east Bomberai peninsula, Arguni bay north to Bintuni bay southwest, 44 villages 4,000 (1987 SIL) 6b* (Threatened) Arguni Bay, Irahutu, Irutu, Kaitero, Kasira 6 or 7 dialects. Lexical similarity: 90% with Kuri [nbn].
gzn Gane Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, South Halmahera, East Makian-Gane Indonesia North Maluku province: Halmahera island, south peninsula 2,900 (1982 D. Teljeur) 6b* (Threatened) Gani, Giman Reportedly similar to Kayoa, a dialect of East Makian [mky].
mky Makian, East Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, South Halmahera, East Makian-Gane Indonesia North Maluku province: Kota Tidore Kepaluan regency; Bacan, Halmahera west coast, Kayoa, south Mori, and Obi islands 20,000. 18,000 or more in East Makian, 2,000 or more in Kayoa (1983 SIL) 6b* (Threatened) Makian Dalam, Makian Timur East Makian, Kayoa (Kajoa). Similar to Gane [gzn].
bzq Buli Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, South Halmahera, Southeast Indonesia North Maluku province: central Halmahera, 3 villages on Buli bay north shore 2,520 (2000) 6b* (Threatened) Buli, Wayamli (Jawanli, Wajamli).
mqa Maba Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, South Halmahera, Southeast Indonesia North Maluku province: Halmahera island, Wasilei area on southeast peninsula, north coast facing Buli bay 6,620 (2000) 6a* (Vigorous) Bicoli, Bitjoli, Ingli
ptn Patani Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, South Halmahera, Southeast Indonesia North Maluku province: 9 villages on Halmahera island along the west coast 10,600 (2000) 6a* (Vigorous)
szw Sawai Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, South Halmahera, Southeast Indonesia North Maluku province, Halmahera Tengah and Halmahera Selatan regencies, Gane Timur and Weda districts;13 villages. Halmahera island, southeast peninsula, Weda bay, both coasts: 13 villages 12,000 (2000 SIL), increasing. Few monolinguals 6b (Threatened) Weda, Weda-Sawai, Were Weda, Sawai, Kobe, Faya-Mafa, Messa-Dote. Lexical similarity: 64% with North Nuaulu [nni].
bed Bedoanas Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Bomberai Indonesia West Papua province: Fakfak regency, Kokas sub-district; Bomberai peninsula 180 (Wurm 2000) 7 (Shifting)
erw Erokwanas Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Bomberai Indonesia West Papua province: Fakfak regency on Berau bay 200 (Wurm 2000) 6b (Threatened) Darembang. Subgroup Darembang may better be considered a separate language.
bhw Biak Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Biakic Indonesia Papua province: Biak Numfor regency, Biak and Numfor islands; Yapen Island regency, north coast area; West Papua province: Mapia islands; Raja Ampat regency, Bantanta and south Waigeo islands; numerous island communities, east, north, and west of Bird’s Head 70,000 (Van den Heuvel 2007) 6b* (Threatened) Bahasa Biak, Biak-Numfor, Mafoor, Mafoorsch, Mefoor, Myfoorsch, Noefoor, Noefoorsch, Nufoor Wós Kovedi, Wós Vyak Ariom, Bo’o, Dwar, Fairi, Jenures, Korim, Mandusir, Mofu, Opif, Padoa, Penasifu, Samberi, Sampori (Mokmer), Sor, Sorendidori, Sundei, Wari, Wadibu, Sorido, Bosnik, Korido, Warsa, Wardo, Kamer, Mapia, Mios Num, Rumberpon, Monoarfu, Yobi (Jobi). Some consider Biak and Numfor dialect 2 languages.
dsn Dusner Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Biakic Indonesia West Papua province: Teluk Wondama regency No known L1 speakers. Last known speakers survived into the 1980s (Wurm 2007) 9 (Dormant) Dusnir
mvx Meoswar Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Biakic Indonesia West Papua province: Meoswar island, west Cenderawasih bay 250 (1993 R. Doriot) 6b* (Threatened) War
ire Yeresiam Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Iresim Indonesia Papua province: Nabire regency, south Cenderawasih bay, Yamur lake area; West Papua province: Kaimana regency 70 (Wurm 2000) 7 (Shifting) Beduba, Iresim
mhz Mor Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Mor Indonesia Papua Barat province: Nabire regency, Mor islands, east Cenderawasih bay; coastal area northeast of Ruwianui point 700 (1987 SIL) 7 (Shifting) Austronesian Mor
wgo Ambel Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Raja Ampat Indonesia West Papua province: Raja Ampat regency, Waigeo Selatan sub-district, Go, Kabare, Kabilol, Nyandesawai, Selegop, Waifoi, and Warsanbin villages in north central Waigeo island off western Bird’s Head 1,000 (2017 L. Arnold) 7 (Shifting) Amber, Amberi, Waigeo, Waigiu Metnyo, Metsam.
asz As Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Raja Ampat Indonesia West Papua province: Sorong regency, Asbakin, Maklaumkarta, and Mega villages; West Bird’s Head area, north coast and inland toward Warsamson river 230 (Wurm 2000) 6b (Threatened) Lexical similarity: 60% with some dialects on Misool Island.
bhc Biga Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Raja Ampat Indonesia West Papua province: Sorong district, Biga village 300 (Remijsen 2001) 6b* (Threatened)
gei Gebe Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Raja Ampat Indonesia North Maluku province: Gag, Gebe, and Yoi’umiya islands, 4 villages; Special Region of West Papua province: Halmahera island 2,650 (2000) 6b (Threatened) Gebi Umera. Lexical similarity: 44% with Patani [ptn].
kgb Kawe Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Raja Ampat Indonesia West Papua province: Raja Ampat regency, Bird’s Head west coast, Bianci, Menyefun, Salio, and Selepele villages; Batangpele, Kawe, Minjaifuin, Waigeo, and nearby islands 600 (Remijsen 2001) 6b (Threatened) None known. Related to Maya [slz], Maden [xmx], and Matbat [xmt].
lcc Legenyem Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Raja Ampat Indonesia West Papua province: Raja Ampat Islands, Waigeo island, Beo, Lempintol, and Wawiai villages in northwest main bay and south coast 250 (Wurm 2000) 6a (Vigorous) Laganyan
slz Ma’ya Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Raja Ampat Indonesia West Papua province: Raja Ampat archipelago on east Bantanta and central Salawati islands 4,000 (Remijsen 2001) 6b* (Threatened) Sailolof, Salawati, Samate Ma’ya, Banlol, Batanta Island.
xmx Maden Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Raja Ampat Indonesia West Papua province: Raja Ampat regency, northwest Salawati island 600 (Remijsen 2001) 6b (Threatened) Palamul, Saparan, Sapran Kawait.
xmt Matbat Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Raja Ampat Indonesia West Papua province: Raja Ampat archipelago in Misool and Segaf islands 1,250 (Remijsen 2001) 6b (Threatened) Me Tomolol, Magey.
wuy Wauyai Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Raja Ampat Indonesia West Papua province: Raja Ampat regency, Wauyai village on southeast coast 300 (Remijsen 2001) 7 (Shifting)
tni Tandia Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Tandia Indonesia Papua province: Nabire regency, Bird’s Head neck area south of Wandamen peninsula and Wohsimi river; possibly Papua Barat province No known L1 speakers. Last known speaker survived into the 1990s (1991 SIL) 9 (Dormant)
wrp Waropen Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Waropen Indonesia Papua province: Mamberamo Raya and Waropen regencies; south Waropen bay area (Ambumi dialect), and southwest to Rombak river mouth 6,000 (1987 SIL) 7 (Shifting) Aropen, Wonti, Worpen Waropen Kai, Napan, Ambumi.
and Ansus Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Yapen, Central-Western Indonesia Papua province: Yapen Waropen regency, Yapen Barat sub-district, Aibondeni, Ansus, Kairawi, and Yenusi villages on Yapen island south coast 4,600 (1987 SIL) 6b* (Threatened) None known. Lexical similarity: 82% with Marau [mvr] and Papuma [ppm], 77% with Wandamen [wad].
mvr Marau Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Yapen, Central-Western Indonesia Papua province: 5 villages on east Yapen island, Cenderawasih bay 1,700 (1987 SIL) 6b* (Threatened) Warabori (Natabui, Warembori). Probably the same language as Munggui [mth] (96% lexically similar). Lexical similarity: 82% or more with Pom [pmo], Munggui [mth], Papuma [ppm], and Ansus [and].
amk Ambai Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Yapen, Central-Western Indonesia Papua province: Yapen Waropen regency, Yapen Selatan and Yapen Timur sub-districts, 10 villages on Ambai island, Cenderawasih bay, and Yapen island south coast 10,100 (2000) 6b* (Threatened) Ambai-Menawi Randawaya, Ambai (Wadapi-Laut), Manawi. Lexical similarity: 77% with Serui-Laut [seu], 71% with Wandamen [wad].
bsm Busami Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Yapen, Central-Western Indonesia Papua province: Yapen Waropen regency, Yapen Barat and Yapen Selatan sub-districts, Kamanap, Kaonda and Masiaroti villages on south and north coast of Yapen island 700 (1993 R. Doriot) 6b (Threatened) 3 dialects. Lexical similarity: 71% with Ansus [and], 63% with Serui-Laut [seu].
mth Munggui Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Yapen, Central-Western Indonesia Papua province: Yapen island north coast, 1 village 800 (1982 SIL) 6b* (Threatened) Natabui None known. Probably the same language as Marau [mvr], reportedly 96% lexically similar (Price and Donohue 2009). Lexical similarity: 82% with Papuma [ppm].
ppm Papuma Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Yapen, Central-Western Indonesia Papua province: Kepulauan Yapen regency, Papuma village on Yapen island south coast 600 (1982 SIL) 6b (Threatened) None known. Lexical similarity: 82% with Munggui [mth], Marau [mvr], and Ansus [and].
pmo Pom Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Yapen, Central-Western Indonesia Papua province: Kepulauan Yapen regency, Mias Endi, Pom, and Serewen villages on Yapen island, from Pon bay west to Woko point; some on east Num island 2,000 (1987 SIL) 6b (Threatened)
rnn Roon Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Yapen, Central-Western Indonesia West Papua province: Roon island west of Cenderawasih bay 1,100 (1993 R. Doriot) 6b* (Threatened) Ron
seu Serui-Laut Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Yapen, Central-Western Indonesia Papua province: Kepulauan Yapen regency, Serui town area on Yapen island south coast; west past Panduan point; Sareba bay on Nau island; 5 villages 1,200 (1987 SIL) 7 (Shifting) Arui None known. Lexical similarity: 82% with Ansus [and], 77% with Ambai [amk].
wad Wandamen Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Yapen, Central-Western Indonesia West Papua province: Manokwari, Wasior, Wandamen bay to Bintuni bay east end 5,000 (1993 R. Doriot) 6b* (Threatened) Wandamen-Windesi Wamesa, Wondama Windesi (Windessi), Bintuni (Bentoeni, Bentuni, Steenkool), Wandamen (Wamesa).
wbw Woi Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Yapen, Central-Western Indonesia Papua province: west Yapen island, Wooi and Wainap villages 1,800 (2012 Y. Sawaki) 6b (Threatened) Wo’oi None known. Lexical similarity: 77% with Pom [pmo], Marau [mvr], and Ansus [and].
kjr Kurudu Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Yapen, East Indonesia Papua province: Mamberamo Raya regency, Kaipuri and Poiwai villages; Kurudu islands 2,180 (1993 R. Doriot) 6b (Threatened) Lexical similarity: 71% with Wabo [wbb], 46% with Western Serui. Kaipuri dialect has highest lexical similarity with Yapen group.
wbb Wabo Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Yapen, East Indonesia Papua province: Kepulauan Yapen regency, 6 villages on Yapen island, north and south coast 1,500 (1987 SIL) 7 (Shifting) Berbai, Nusari, Woriasi None known. Lexical similarity: 71% with Kurudu [kjr], 46% with Serui-Laut [seu].
jau Yaur Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Yaur Indonesia Papua province: Nabire regency, west Cenderawasih bay, Manggua point south to Wororomi 350 (1978 SIL) 7 (Shifting) Jaur
gop Yeretuar Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Yeretuar Indonesia Papua province: Nabire regency, lower Kwatisore bay; West Papua province: south Teluk Wondama regency, Wandamen peninsula 350 (2000) 7 (Shifting) Goni, Umar, Umari
huw Hukumina Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Hukumina Indonesia Maluku province: Hukumina, Palumata, and Tomahu districts on northwest Buru island No known L1 speakers. Last known speaker survived into the early 1990s (1989 SIL) 10 (Extinct) Balamata, Bambaa, Palamata, Palumata
agf Arguni Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, North Bomberai Indonesia West Papua province: Fak-Fak district; Arguni island in Maccluer gulf off northwest coast, Bomberai peninsula 150 (Wurm 2000) 6b (Threatened) Argoeni
oni Onin Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, North Bomberai Indonesia West Papua province: Fakfak regency on north Bomberai peninsula in Berau bay south coast west to Wetin point, then southwest to Wirtopin bay; south coast facing Panjang island 500 (Wurm 2000) 6b (Threatened) Onim, Sepa Nikuda, Ogar, Patipi, Sepa.
skz Sekar Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, North Bomberai Indonesia West Papua province: Fakfak regency, Kokas area on northwest Bomberai peninsula coast; Ogar island 450 (Voegelin and Voegelin 1977) 6b (Threatened) Seka None known. Lexical similarity: highest with Arguni [agf].
urn Uruangnirin Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, North Bomberai Indonesia West Papua province: Fak-Fak regency, Faur and Tuburuasa islands; southwest Bomberai peninsula mainland; possibly Karas island 400 (1983 SIL) 6b (Threatened) Faur, Tubiruasa
kwh Kowiai Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Bomberai Indonesia West Papua province: Kaimana regency, Adijaya, Kayumerah, Keroi, and Namatota villages; Bomberai peninsula, Kamrau bay area, Kaimana, Namatote, and Adi islands, smaller islands in bay 600 (2000 SIL) 6b (Threatened) Adi, Aiduma, Kaiwai, Kajumerah, Kayumerah, Koiwai, Kuiwai, Namatota, Namatote Keroi, Adijaya, Namatota.
kei Kei Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Southeast Maluku, Kei-Tanimbar, Kei-Fordata Indonesia Maluku province: about 207 villages on 10 islands southeast; Besar, Kecil, and surrounding islands, Kei island group, and Kur islands northwest of Kei group 85,000 (2000 E. Travis). 4,500 monolinguals 6a (Vigorous) Kai, Keiese, Saumlaki, Veveu Evav Kei Kecil, Kei Besar, Tayando, Tanimbar Kei (Atnebar), Ta’am. Kei Kecil is the prestigious urban dialect. Kei Besar speakers usually also know Kei Kecil, but not vice versa. Kei Besar is reportedly more similar to Fordata [frd] than other Kei dialects. Tanimbar Kei is spoken in only one village. Lexical similarity: 60% with Fordata [frd].
frd Fordata Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Southeast Maluku, Kei-Tanimbar, Kei-Fordata Indonesia Maluku province: southeast, 30 villages; north archipelago on Fordata, Larat, and Molu-Maru islands; northwest, Yamdena island west coast, Seira island; also Jakarta, other cities 50,000 (Marshall 2000). 25,000 in the language area and 25,000 elsewhere (Marshall 2000). Decreasing use in mixed language towns. 500 monolinguals 6b* (Threatened) Larat, Vai Fordata, Vai Sera-Larat-Fordata, Vai Tnebar, Vaidida Fordata-Larat I, Fordata-Larat II, Molo (Molo-Maru), Sera (Seira). Sera is most divergent dialect. Lexical similarity: 68% with Kei [kei].
jmd Yamdena Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Southeast Maluku, Kei-Tanimbar, Yamdena Indonesia Maluku province: Tannembar islands, east coast Yamdena island, south to north tip of Selaru island, 35 villages; southwest Yamdena island, Latdalam village 25,000 (1991 SIL), decreasing. Ethnic population: 35,000 (1991 SIL) 5* (Developing) Jamden, Jamdena, Tanemprar lirin Tanempar Liriny North Yamdena (Nus Das), South Yamdena (Nus Bab). A chain of related varieties from north to south with 90% lexical similarity between extremes, but with morphological and phonological differences. Southern dialect thought more prestigious. Lexical similarity: 90% among the north and south dialects, 47% with Fordata [frd].
slu Selaru Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Southeast Maluku, Southern Indonesia Maluku province: Maluku Tenggara Barat regency, Tanimbar island group; at least 6 villages on Nuswotar, Selaru, and Yamdena islands; some in Ambon and Saumlaki 8,000 (2001 SIL) 6b* (Threatened) Salaru Kandar. Slight dialect differences. Not closely related to nearby languages. Lexical similarity: 56% with Seluwasan [sws].
sws Seluwasan Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Southeast Maluku, Southern Indonesia Maluku province: Maluku Tenggara Barat regency, Batu Putih, Makatian, Marantutu, and Wermatang villages in Tanimbar island group on Yamdena island southwest coast 2,840 (2005). 740 Makatian, 2,100 Seluwasan 6b (Threatened) Selvasa, Selwasa Seluwasan, Makatian. Makatian dialect quite different from others.
nfa Dhao Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Sumba-Hawu, Hawu-Dhao Indonesia East Nusa Tenggara province: Rote Ndao regency, Ndao island off western tip of Rote island; scattered settlements on Rote and Timor islands 5,000 (1997 A. Ranoh) 5* (Developing) Dao, Kahore, Ndao, Ndaonese, Ndaundau Lii Dhao None known. Related to Hawu [hvn]. Complex phonology.
hvn Hawu Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Sumba-Hawu, Hawu-Dhao Indonesia East Nusa Tenggara province: Flores island, Ende area; Raijua and Sawu islands, 3 enclaves; Sumba island, Waingapu and Melolo areas; Timor island, Kupang city 110,000 (1997). About 30,000 outside Sabu Island 5* (Developing) Havu, Havunese, Sabu, Savu, Savunese, Sawu, Sawunese Lii Hawu Seba (Heba), Timu (Dimu), Liae, Mesara (Mehara), Raijua (Raidjua).
akg Anakalangu Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Sumba-Hawu, Sumba Indonesia East Nusa Tenggara province: Sumba island, southwest coast 16,000 (2011 SIL) 6a* (Vigorous) Anakalang
xbr Kambera Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Sumba-Hawu, Sumba Indonesia East Nusa Tenggara province: east Sumba island 240,000 (2009) 5* (Developing) East Sumba, East Sumbanese, Humba, Kamberaas, Oost-Sumbaas, Sumba, Sumbaasch, Sumbaneesch, Sumbanese, Sumbasch Hilu Humba Kambera, Melolo, Uma Ratu Nggai (Umbu Ratu Nggai), Lewa, Kanatang, Mangili-Waijelo (Rindi, Wai Jilu, Waidjelu, Waijelo), Southern Sumba. Dialect network. Kambera dialect is widely understood. Lewa and Uma Ratu Nggai dialects have difficulty understanding those from Mangili.
kod Kodi Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Sumba-Hawu, Sumba Indonesia East Nusa Tenggara province: west Sumba 20000 6a* (Vigorous) Kudi Kodi Bokol, Kodi Bangedo, Nggaro (Nggaura). May be most similar to Wejewa [wew].
lmy Lamboya Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Sumba-Hawu, Sumba Indonesia East Nusa Tenggara province: Sumba island southwest coast 25,000 (Grimes et al 1997) 6a* (Vigorous) Lamboya, Nggaura.
lur Laura Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Sumba-Hawu, Sumba Indonesia East Nusa Tenggara province: Mamboru town west to Cape Karosso on northwest Sumba island 10,000 (Grimes et al 1997) 6a* (Vigorous) Laora Laura, Mbukambero (Bukambero). Not intelligible with Kodi [kod].
mvd Mamboru Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Sumba-Hawu, Sumba Indonesia East Nusa Tenggara province: northwest Sumba island, coastal Memboro town 10,000 (2007) 6a* (Vigorous) Memboro
wnk Wanukaka Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Sumba-Hawu, Sumba Indonesia East Nusa Tenggara province: west Sumba island, southwest coast 10,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981) 6a* (Vigorous) Wanokaka Wanukaka, Rua.
wew Wejewa Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Sumba-Hawu, Sumba Indonesia East Nusa Tenggara province: west Sumba island interior 55,000 (2011) 6a* (Vigorous) Veveva, Waidjewa, Wajewa, West Sumbanese, Wewewa, Wewjewa, Weyewa Weyewa, Lauli (Loli), Tana Righu.
kuv Kur Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Teor-Kur Indonesia Maluku province: west Kei Kecil district in Kur and surrounding islands southeast 3,180 (2000) 6b* (Threatened) Different from Kei [kei]. Boundaries of intelligibility with dialects north and the central dialect, and with Teor [tev] need further investigation. Lexical similarity: 47%–50% with Kei [kei], 71%–83% with Teor [tev], 41% with Watubela [wah], 38% with Geser [ges].
tev Teor Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Teor-Kur Indonesia Maluku province: Watubela archipelago, Teor and Ut islands 1,100 (1986 SIL) 6b* (Threatened) Tio’or Gaur Kristen, Ut. Self-report to understand Kur [kuv]. Lexical similarity: 79% with Gaur Kristen and Ut, 71%–83% with Kur [kuv], 41% with Watubela [wah], 38% with Geser [ges].
gal Galolen Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Timor-Babar, Nuclear Timor East Timor Aileu district: small border area southeast; Dili district: 2 enclaves on Atauro island, and Metinaro area; Manatuto district: coast inland to Laclubar area 13,000 in East Timor (2010 census). Total users in all countries: 13,680 6a* (Vigorous) Galole, Galolem, Galoli, Galolin Manatutu (Vila), Wetar (Iliwaki), Lakloo (Lacló), Laleia. Lexical similarity: 94%–98% with dialects, 57% with Aputai [apx], 52% with Tugun [tzn], 51% with Perai [wet] and Ili’uun [ilu].
idt Idaté Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Timor-Babar, Nuclear Timor East Timor Aileu district: southeast; Manatuto district: Laclubar mountains; Manufahi district: north 13,500 (2010 census) 6b* (Threatened) None known. Reportedly most similar to Lakalei [lka] and Galolen [gal].
kem Kemak Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Timor-Babar, Nuclear Timor East Timor Bobonaro municipality: Bobonaro town north to Lois river; Cova Lima municipality; Ermera municipality: Atsabe subdistrict 62,000 in East Timor (2010 census). Total users in all countries: 72,000 6a (Vigorous) Ema Marobo, Haubaa, Kailaku, Maliana, Atsabe (Ermera), Hatolia, Atabae. Most closely related to Mambae [mgm] and Tukudede [tkd].
gal Galolen Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Timor-Babar, Nuclear Timor Indonesia Maluku province: Maluku Barat Daya regency, Iliwaki village on Wetar island 680 in Indonesia (1990 SIL) 6b (Threatened) Galoleng, Iliwaki, Ilmedu, Ilwaki, Lir Talo Ilputih, Ilwaki (Iliwaki), Hiay.
hbu Habun Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Timor-Babar, Nuclear Timor East Timor Manatuto district: Laclubar subdistrict 2,700 (2010 census) 6b (Threatened) Habu, Sabu None known. Reportedly many loanwords from Trans-New Guinea languages similar to Makasae [mkz], but with Austronesian structure. Classification needs further investigation.
heg Helong Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Timor-Babar, Nuclear Timor Indonesia East Nusa Tenggara province: Semau island; Timor island west tip, and Kupang city 14,000 (Grimes et al 1997). Ethnic population: 18,000 (2015 S. Cameron) 5 (Developing) Helon, Kupang, Semau Helong Helong Pulau (Island Helong, Semau), Helong Darat (Bolok, Land Helong), Funai.
krd Kairui-Midiki Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Timor-Babar, Nuclear Timor East Timor Manatuto district: west central small mountainous area; Viqueque district: Lacluta area 15,000 (2010 census) 6b* (Threatened) Cairui, Midiki Kairui, Midiki (Midik). Vocabulary predominantly Trans-New Guinea, structure is Austronesian. Classification needs further investigation. May be co-dialect with Waima’a.
kem Kemak Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Timor-Babar, Nuclear Timor Indonesia East Nusa Tenggara province: Belu regency; north central Timor island, East Timor border area 10,000 in Indonesia (2010 census) 6a* (Vigorous) Ema Nogo (Nogo-Nogo), Kemak.
lka Lakalei Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Timor-Babar, Nuclear Timor East Timor Ainaro district: northeast; Manufahi district: north of Same; small border enclaves, Alieu and Manatuto districts 3,250 (2010 census) 6b (Threatened) None known. Reportedly similar to Idate [idt], Tetun [tet], and Galolen [gal].
lva Makuva Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Timor-Babar, Nuclear Timor East Timor Lautém district: Los Palos area on Timor island east tip 56 (2010 census) 8b (Nearly extinct) Lovaea, Lovaia, Lóvaia, Maku’a, Makua, Makuwa
mgm Mambae Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Timor-Babar, Nuclear Timor East Timor Aileu, Ainaro, and Ermera districts: central Timor mountains; Bobonaro, Dili, and Liquiçá districts: north coast; Cova Lima district: south coast; Manufahi district: Same subdistrict 131,000 (2010 census) 6a* (Vigorous) Mambai, Manbae Damata, Lolei, Manua, Mambae. North Mambae and South Mambae show significant differences.
nxa Nauete Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Timor-Babar, Nuclear Timor East Timor Baucau district: southeast; Lautém district: southwest; Viqueque district: west; all on Timor island south coast; Uato Lari is main town 15,000 (2010 census) 6a* (Vigorous) Naueti, Nauhete, Nauote, Nauoti, Naóti Naumik, Oso Moko. Not closely related to any other language. Loanwords from Trans-New Guinea languages like Makasae [mkz].
tet Tetun Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Timor-Babar, Nuclear Timor East Timor Manatuto, Manufahi, and Viqueque districts: Soibada to Suai to Ponta Beaco on East Timor south coast; Bobonaro and Cova Lima districts: separate enclaves west 63,500 in East Timor (2010 census) 5* (Developing). De facto language of national identity Belo, Belu, Fehan, Teto, Tettum, Tetu, Tetum, Tetun Belu, Tetun Loos, Tetun Terik, Tetung Eastern Tetun (Lakluta, Natarbora, Soibada, Tetun Loos, Tetun Los), Southern Tetun (Belu Selatan, Lia Fehan, Plain Tetun, South Belu, South Tetun, Tasi Mane), Northern Tetun (Belu Utara, Hill Tetun, Lia Foho, North Belu, Tasi Feto, Tetun Terik, Tetun Therik).
tet Tetun Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Timor-Babar, Nuclear Timor Indonesia East Nusa Tenggara province: central Timor island 400,000 in Indonesia (2011). Total users in all countries: 463,500 5* (Developing). De facto language of provincial identity in portions of Timor Island, East Nusa Tenggara province Belo, Belu, Fehan, Teto, Tettum, Tetu, Tetum, Tetun Belu, Tetung Tetun Eastern Tetun (Lakluta, Natarbora, Soibada, Tetun Loos, Tetun Los, Tetun Terik), Southern Tetun (Belu Selatan, Fehan, Lia Fehan, Plains Tetun, South Belu, South Tetun, Tasi Mane), Northern Tetun (Belu Utara, Foho, Hill Tetun, Lia Foho, North Belu, Tasi Feto, Tetun Terik, Tetun Therik).
tkd Tukudede Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Timor-Babar, Nuclear Timor East Timor Bobonaro, Ermera, and Liquiçá districts: Lois river to west of Ponta Acoilo, near Dili on Timor island north coast 39,500 (2010 census) 6a* (Vigorous) Tocod, Tokodede, Tokodé, Tukude Keha (Keia), Tukudede.
wmh Waima’a Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Timor-Babar, Nuclear Timor East Timor Baucau district: Baucau and Vemasse subdistricts on Timor island northeast coast 18,400 (2012 census) 6b* (Threatened) Uai Ma’a, Uaimo’a, Waimaha, Waimoa Many Trans-New Guinea loanwords reportedly similar to Makasae. Classification needs further investigation. May be a co-dialect with Kairui-Midiki.
dnk Dengka Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Timor-Babar, Nuclear Timor, Rote Indonesia East Nusa Tenggara province: Rote island northwest coast, Ba’a town west to Tasilo bay 20,000 (2002 UKAW) 6a (Vigorous) Rote, Rote Barat, Roti, Rotinese, Western Rote Western Dengka, Eastern Dengka, Lelain. Western Dengka dialect has marked intonation; some occurrences of, ngg, in Eastern Dengka dialect become, nd, in Western Dengka. Some vocabulary of Western Dengka is like Dhao [nfa]. Dengka and Dela-Oenale [row] are more divergent from other languages on Rote.
twu Termanu Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Timor-Babar, Nuclear Timor, Rote Indonesia East Nusa Tenggara province: Bokai, Keka, Korbafo, Talae, and Termanu areas on central Rote island 30,000 (2002 UKAW) 6a (Vigorous) Central Rote, Pa’da, Rote, Rote Tengah, Roti, Rotinese Pa’da (Termanu), Pa’da Kona (Keka-Talae, Southern Termanu), Korbafo (Korbaffo), Bokai. Reportedly seems more similar to Lole [llg] than to other varieties on Rote. Korbafo and Bokai may need to be separated for sociolinguistic reasons.
bpz Bilba Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Timor-Babar, Nuclear Timor, Rote Indonesia East Nusa Tenggara province: northeast Rote island; Semau island; Timor mainland near Kupang 7,000 (2002 UKAW). Ethnic population: 7,000 6a (Vigorous) Belubaa, Bilbaa, Eastern Rote, Rote, Rote Timur, Roti, Rotinese Bilba, Diu, Lelenuk.
row Dela-Oenale Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Timor-Babar, Nuclear Timor, Rote Indonesia East Nusa Tenggara province: Rote island west coast, Dela and Oe Nale areas 7,000 (2002 UKAW) 6a (Vigorous) Dela, Delha, Oe Nale, Rote, Rote Barat, Roti, Rotinese, Western Rote Dela (Delha), Oenale (Oe Nale).
llg Lole Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Timor-Babar, Nuclear Timor, Rote Indonesia East Nusa Tenggara province; west central Rote island, Ba’a town and north to south coast; north and central region (North Lole dialect) 20,000 (2002 UKAW). Ethnic population: 20,000 6a (Vigorous) Ba’a, Baä, Central Rote, Loleh, Rote, Rote Tengah, Roti, Rotinese North Lole, South Lole, Ba’a. North Lole, na-hina, becomes South Lole, ni-hina.
rgu Rikou Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Timor-Babar, Nuclear Timor, Rote Indonesia East Nusa Tenggara province: East Rote island, Landu, Oe Pao, and Rikou areas 12,000 (2011) 6a (Vigorous) Eastern Rote, Ringgou, Rote, Rote Timur, Roti, Rotinese Rikou, Landu, Oe Pao (Oepao).
txq Tii Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Timor-Babar, Nuclear Timor, Rote Indonesia East Nusa Tenggara province: southwest Rote island 20,000 (2002 UKAW) 6a (Vigorous) Rote, Rote Barat, Roti, Rotinese, Thie, Ti, Western Rote Minor variation, third singular verb prefix, na-fa’da, varies with, i-fa’da.
bkx Baikeno Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Timor-Babar, Nuclear Timor, Uab Meto East Timor Oecusse municipality: enclave separated from the rest of East Timor 72,000 (2011 Baikeno Language Council). Several thousand speakers in Dili and Indonesian west Timor. 15 clans of Nu’af (mountains); 3 clans of Amnesat (plains). 15 clans of Nu’af (mountains); 3 clans of Amnesat (plains). Many monolinguals 6a (Vigorous) Ambeno, Ambenu, Atoni, Baikenu, Biqueno, Laes Baikeno, Lais Meto, Molok Meto, Oe Cusi, Oecusse, Oecussi, Oekusi, Uab Atoni Pah Meto, Uab Pah Meto, Vaikenu, Vaikino, “Dawan” (pej.) Baikeno, Uab Metô Nu’af, Amnesat. Part of Uab Meto chain of closely related languages and dialects. Partial intelligibility of the Uab Meto [aoz] of Amfo’an, northern Mollo, and Insana. Significant differences with Amarasi [aaz] block intelligibility.
aaz Amarasi Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Timor-Babar, Nuclear Timor, Uab Meto Indonesia East Nusa Tenggara province: Kupang regency, Timor island southwest tip; Timur sea near Benini point east to Ela point, interior as far north as Oesa town; 80 villages. Dialects: central and east (Kotos dialect), west (Ro’is dialect), south (Ro’is Tais Nonof dialect), Kota Kupang area (Ro’is Hero dialect) 70,000 (2011 Unit Bahasa dan Budaya - Gereja Masehi Injili di Timor (UBB-GMIT)) 5* (Developing) Timor Amarasi, Uab Meto Amarasi Kotos, Ro’is, Ro’is Tais Nonof, Ro’is Hero (Kopa). Part of Uab Meto language chain. Reportedly similar to Uab Meto [aoz] but with differences in phonology, vocabulary, and discourse, with semantic shifts, structural differences, intelligibility problems. Ro’is Tais Nonof dialect has intonation like Ro’is dialect, vocabulary like Kotos dialect.
aoz Uab Meto Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Timor-Babar, Nuclear Timor, Uab Meto Indonesia East Nusa Tenggara province: most of west Timor island 700,000 (2009 census) 5* (Developing) Atoni, Meto, Orang Gunung, Timol, Timor, Timoreesch, Timoreezen, Timorese, Uab Atoni Pah Meto, Uab Pah Meto, “Dawan” (pej.), “Rawan” (pej.), “Timor Dawan” (pej.) Uab Meto Amfoan-Fatule’u-Amabi (Amabi, Amfoan, Amfuang, Fatule’u), Amanuban-Amanatun (Amanatun, Amanuban, Amanubang), Mollo-Miomafo (Miomafo, Mollo), Biboki-Insana (Biboki, Insanao), Kusa-Manlea (Kusa, Manea, Manlea). Much dialect variation. Ethnological and linguistic differences in nearly every valley. Same language chain as Amarasi [aaz] and Baikeno [bkx].
dmr Damar, East Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Timor-Babar, Southwest Maluku, East Damar Indonesia Maluku province: southeast, 6 villages; east Damar island 2,800 (1990 SIL) 6b* (Threatened) South Damar None known. Not intelligible of West Damar [drn].
kje Kisar Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Timor-Babar, Southwest Maluku, Kisar-Roma Indonesia Maluku province: south, over 20 villages; Kisar island, northeast of Timor island, 19 villages; Roma and Wetar islands, Amau, Hila, Hi’ai, Likagraha, and Naumatan villages; some in Ambon, Dili, and Kupang cities 20,000 (1995 SIL) 5* (Developing) Yotowawa Bahasa Meher Not related to Oirata [oia], which has sometimes been called a dialect.
rmm Roma Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Timor-Babar, Southwest Maluku, Kisar-Roma Indonesia Maluku province: Jerusu village on Roma island 1,700 (1991 SIL) 6b* (Threatened) Romang
lti Leti Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Timor-Babar, Southwest Maluku, Luang Indonesia Maluku province: Maluku regency, Leti island 7,500 (1995 SIL) 7 (Shifting) None known. Marginal intelligibility and difficulty with written Luang [lex]. Lexical similarity: 89% with Luang [lex].
lex Luang Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Timor-Babar, Southwest Maluku, Luang Indonesia Maluku province: Wetan island, and across Wetan strait to northwest Babar island 18,000 (1995 SIL). 200 monolinguals 5* (Developing) Leti, Letri Lgona, Lgona, Literi Lagona Lteri Lgona Luang, Wetan (Wetang), Moa, Lakor. Low comprehension of Leti [lti]. Lexical similarity: 89% with Leti [lti].
nil Nila Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Timor-Babar, Southwest Maluku, Teun-Nila-Serua, Nila-Serua Indonesia Maluku province: south central Seram island, 6 villages No known L1 speakers. The last speakers completely shifted to Ambon Malay [abs] by 1999 (Van Engelenhoven 2003) 10 (Extinct) None known. Reportedly similar to Serua [srw]. Not intelligible with Teun [tve].
srw Serua Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Timor-Babar, Southwest Maluku, Teun-Nila-Serua, Nila-Serua Indonesia Maluku province: south central Seram island, 4 villages No known L1 speakers. The last speakers completely shifted to Ambon Malay [abs] by 1999 (Van Engelenhoven 2003) 10 (Extinct) None known. Reportedly similar to Nila [nil]. Not intelligible with Teun [tve].
tve Te’un Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Timor-Babar, Southwest Maluku, Teun-Nila-Serua, Teun Indonesia Maluku province: 4 villages on central and south central Seram island No known L1 speakers. The last speakers completely shifted to Ambon Malay [abs] by 1999 (Van Engelenhoven 2003) 10 (Extinct)
apx Aputai Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Timor-Babar, Southwest Maluku, Wetar Indonesia Maluku province: Maluku Barat Daya regency; Wetar island, Banda Sea coast, Ilputih village; Wetar strait coast, Lurang village 150 (Hinton 2000) 8b (Nearly extinct) Ilputih, Opotai, Tutunohan Ilputih, Lurang, Welemur. Welemur dialect has no remaining speakers. Lexical similarity: 93% among dialects, 79% with Perai [wet], 74% with Tugun [tzn], 69% with Ili’uun [ilu], 57% with Galolen [gal].
ilu Ili’uun Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Timor-Babar, Southwest Maluku, Wetar Indonesia Maluku province: Erai, Esulit, Ilmaumau, Istutun, Karbubu, Klishatu, Nabar, and Telemar villages southwest; Lirang island; Wetar island southwest tip 1,400 (1990 SIL) 6b* (Threatened) Erai, Hahutan, Hahutau, Iliun, Ilmaumau, Limera Telemar, Karbubu, Ustutun, Klishatu, Ilmaumau, Eray, Nabar, Esulit. All also use the Ili’uun dialect. Lexical similarity: 93%–97% among dialects, 73% with Tugun [tzn], 69% with Aputai [apx], 67% with Perai [wet], 51% with Galolen [gal].
wet Perai Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Timor-Babar, Southwest Maluku, Wetar Indonesia Maluku province: Maluku Barat Daya regency, Moning and Uhak villages on Wetar island northeast coast 280 (Hinton 2000) 6b (Threatened) Tutunohan Moning, Uhak. Lexical similarity: 93% among dialects, 79% with Aputai [apx], 76% with Tugun [tzn], 67% with Ili’uun [ilu], 51% with Galolen [gal].
tzn Tugun Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Timor-Babar, Southwest Maluku, Wetar Indonesia Maluku province: southwest in Arwala, Ilpokil, Ilway, Kahailin, Mahuan, Masapun, and Tomliapat villages; southeast Wetar island 1,200 (1990 SIL). 10 monolinguals 6a (Vigorous) Mahuan, Tutunohan Tugun Mahuan, Masapua, Tomliapat, Ilpokil, Kahailin Ilway, Arwala. Lexical similarity: 92%–97% among dialects, 76% with Perai [wet], 74% with Aputai [apx], 73% with Ili’uun [ilu], 52% with Galolen [gal].
nbn Kuri Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Unclassified Indonesia West Papua province: Teluk Bintuni regency, 16 villages in southwest Bomberai peninsula 500 (1982 SIL) 7 (Shifting) Modan, Nabi None known. Lexical similarity: 90% with Irarutu [irh].
drn Damar, West Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, West Damar Indonesia Maluku province: southeast, 2 villages; north Damar island 800 (1987 SIL) 6b* (Threatened) North Damar None known. Not intelligible of East Damar [dmr].
cha Chamorro Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Chamorro Northern Mariana Islands Widespread 14,200 in Northern Mariana Islands (2005 UNSD). Very few monolinguals 3 (Wider communication). Statutory language of national identity (1978, Constitution, Article 22(3)), dominant indigenous language; co-official with English [eng] and Carolinian [cal] Chamorru, Tjamoro
cha Chamorro Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Chamorro Guam 30,300 in Guam (2015). Total users in all countries: 64,300 1 (National). Statutory national language (1974, Guam Code Annotated, Chapter 7, Section 706, amended) Tjamoro Chamorru Chamorro, Rotanese Chamorro.
cha Chamorro Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Chamorro United States Scattered 19,800 in United States (2015 census) 6b* (Threatened) Chamorru
apg Ampanang Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, Barito-Mahakam Indonesia East Kalimantan province: east of Jambu and Lamper towns west of Mahakam river delta 30,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981) 6a* (Vigorous)
tjg Tunjung Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, Barito-Mahakam Indonesia Central Kalimantan province: North Barito regency border area; East Kalimantan province: Kutai Barat and Kutai Kartanegara regencies between Adas, Dempar, and Melak towns, then down Mahakam river, east around Djempang lake 50,000 (Nikolic´ 2008) 6b* (Threatened) Tunjung Dayak Tunjung (Tunjung Tengah), Tunjung Londong, Tunjung Linggang, Pahu.
dun Dusun Deyah Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, East, Central-South, Central Indonesia South Kalimantan province: Tabalong river northeast of Bongkang town; into Central Kalimantan province 20,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981) 6a* (Vigorous) Deah, Dejah None known. Lexical similarity: 53% with Lawangan [lbx], 52% with Tawoyan [twy].
duq Dusun Malang Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, East, Central-South, South Indonesia Central Kalimantan province: North Barito regency, northeast and west of Muarainu town; East Kalimantan province: Kutai Barat regency, small border area 4,500 (2003). 2,000 Bayan 6b* (Threatened) Bayan, Dusun Malang. Lexical similarity: 90% with the 2 dialects.
duw Dusun Witu Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, East, Central-South, South Indonesia Central Kalimantan province: South Barito regency, near Pendang and Buntokecil towns 5,000 (2003) 6b* (Threatened) Dusun Pepas, Dusun Witu. Lexical similarity: 75% with Ma’anyan [mhy], 73% with Paku [pku].
mhy Ma’anyan Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, East, Central-South, South Indonesia Central Kalimantan province: Barito Selatan and Barito Timur regencies, Awang, Dusun Hilir, Dusun Selatan, Dusun Tengah, Dusun Utara, Gunung Bintang Awai, Karau Kuala, and Patangkep Tutui sub-districts, south Tamianglayang town area; South Kalimantan province: border area, and 2 areas near Damar and Tawahan 150,000 (2003) 6b* (Threatened) Ma’anjan, Maanyak Dayak Samihim (Buluh Kuning), Sihong (Siong), Dusun Balangan. Related to Malagasy languages in Madagascar. Lexical similarity: 77% with Paku [pku], 75% with Dusun Witu [duv].
pku Paku Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, East, Central-South, South Indonesia Central Kalimantan province: East Barito regency south of Ampah 3,500 (2003), decreasing. Few monolinguals 8a (Moribund) Bakau None known. Lexical similarity: 77% with Ma’anyan [mhy], 73% with Dusun Witu [duv].
plt Malagasy, Plateau Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, East, Malagasy Madagascar Antanarivo and Fianarantsoa provinces; Mahajanga province: Betsiboka region 7,520,000 in Madagascar (2011 SIL). Total users in all countries: 7,544,380 1 (National). Statutory national language (2010, Provisional Constitution, Article 6), use limited in higher education Ambaniandro, Borizany, Fiteny Malagasy, Hova, Malgache, Official Malagasy, Standard Malagasy, Teny ofisiealy Malagasy Merina, Betsileo, Sihanaka, Bezanozano, Tanala, Vakinankaritra, Zafimaniry. Reportedly the most similar language outside Madagascar is Ma’anyan [mhy] in south Borneo (Kalimantan, Indonesia). A member of macrolanguage Malagasy [mlg].
buc Bushi Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, East, Malagasy Mayotte West cost of Grande-Terre, the main island 47,900 (2012) 6b* (Threatened) Antalaotra, Kibuki, Sakalava, Shibushi Kibushi Kibushi-Kimaore (Shibushi Shimaore), Kiantalaotse.
plt Malagasy Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, East, Malagasy Comoros Scattered 1,900 in Comoros (2015 J. Leclerc) 5* (Dispersed) Ambaniandro, Borizany, Hova, Malagasy fiteny, Malgache, Teny ofisialy
xmv Malagasy, Antankarana Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, East, Malagasy Madagascar Antsiranana province: Diana and Sava regions; Mahajanga province: Sofia region, a small area 156,000 (2011 SIL) 6a (Vigorous) Antakarana Malagasy, Antekarana, Antekarana Malagasy, Tankarana, Tankarana Malagasy Antakarana Lexical similarity: 71% with the Merina dialect of Plateau Malagasy [plt]. A member of macrolanguage Malagasy [mlg].
bhr Malagasy, Bara Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, East, Malagasy Madagascar Antananarivo province: Vakinankaratra region; Fianarantsoa province: Amoron’i Mania, Ihorombe, and Haute Matsiatra regions; Toliara province 724,000 (2011 SIL) 6a (Vigorous) Bara Malagasy Lexical similarity: 69% with the Merina dialect of Plateau Malagasy [plt]. A member of macrolanguage Malagasy [mlg].
msh Malagasy, Masikoro Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, East, Malagasy Madagascar Toliara province: Atsimo-Andrefana region, Moromba south to Tollara; Menabe region, coast near Mangoky river, inland near Mozambique channel 550,000 (2011 SIL). Ethnic population: A quarter are Masikoro; the rest are Masikoro speakers from other ethnic groups 6a (Vigorous) Masikoro Malagasy Lexical similarity: 72% with the Merina dialect of Plateau Malagasy [plt]. A member of macrolanguage Malagasy [mlg].
bmm Malagasy, Northern Betsimisaraka Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, East, Malagasy Madagascar Antanarivo province: areas in Analamanga and Vakinankaratra regions; Antsiranana province: Sava region, south of Bemariva river; Mahajanga province: Sofia region, east and southeast; Toamasina province. East coast from Mahanoro north 1,270,000 (2011 SIL) 6a (Vigorous) Antavaratra Betsimisaraka A member of macrolanguage Malagasy [mlg].
skg Malagasy, Sakalava Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, East, Malagasy Madagascar Antananarivo province: western Bongolava and Vakinankaratra regions; Antsiranana province: Diana region; Fianarantsoa province: western Amoron’i Mania region; Mahajanga province; Toliara province: Atsimo-Andrefana and Menabe (coastline only) regions 1,210,000 (2014 SIL). Based on extrapolations of latest census figures to report on Malagasy people groups (2014 L. Bouwer) 6a (Vigorous) Vezo, Northern Sakalava Boeny, Southern Sakalava Boeny, Menabe. A member of macrolanguage Malagasy [mlg].
bzc Malagasy, Southern Betsimisaraka Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, East, Malagasy Madagascar Antananarivo province: Vakinankaratra region; Fianarantsoa province: Amoron’i Mania and Atsimo-Atsinanana regions; Vatovavy-Fitovinany region, Nosy Varika, Manakara Atsimo, and Mananjary districts; Toamasina province: Alaotra-Mangoro region, south border; Atsinanana region, Mahanoro district 2,000,000 (2011 SIL) 6a (Vigorous) Antatsimo, Betsimisaraka A member of macrolanguage Malagasy [mlg].
tdx Malagasy, Tandroy-Mahafaly Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, East, Malagasy Madagascar Toliara province: Androy region, Ambovombe, Bekily, Beloha, and Tsihombe districts; Anosy and Atsimo-Andrefana regions 1,300,000 (2011 SIL). Tandroy 865,000; Mahafaly 330,000; Karimbola 103,000 6a (Vigorous) Mahafaly, Tandroy Antandroy Lexical similarity: 62% with the Merina dialect of Plateau Malagasy [plt]. A member of macrolanguage Malagasy [mlg].
txy Malagasy, Tanosy Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, East, Malagasy Madagascar Fianarantsoa province: Atsimo-Atsinanana region, Mahafaly area and northeast; Toliara province: Androy, Anosy, and Atsimo-Andrefana regions, southeast coast 639,000 (2011 SIL) 6a (Vigorous) Lexical similarity: 75% with the Merina dialect of Plateau Malagasy [plt]. A member of macrolanguage Malagasy [mlg].
tkg Malagasy, Tesaka Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, East, Malagasy Madagascar Fianarantsoa province: Atsimo-Atsinanana and Ihorombe regions; Toliara province: Anosy region, migrating, particularly to western deltas 1,130,000 (2010 T. Bergman) 6a (Vigorous) Antaisaka, Antesaka, Atesaka Tesaka Malagasy A member of macrolanguage Malagasy [mlg].
xmw Malagasy, Tsimihety Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, East, Malagasy Madagascar Antsiranana province; Fianarantsoa province: Analanjirofo and Alaotra-Mangoro regions; Mahajanga province: Sofia region 1,615,000 (2011 SIL) 6a (Vigorous) Tsimihety Tsimihety Malagasy Lexical similarity: 68% with the Merina dialect of Plateau Malagasy [plt]. A member of macrolanguage Malagasy [mlg].
lbx Lawangan Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, East, North Indonesia Central Kalimantan province: North, East, and South Barito regencies; East Kalimantan province: Karau river area; South Kalimantan province: Balangan, Kotabaru, and Tabalong regencies 100,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981) 6a* (Vigorous) Luwangan, Northeast Barito Ajuh, Bakoi (Lampung), Bantian (Bentian), Banuwang, Bawu (Bawo), Kali, Karau (Beloh), Lawa, Lolang, Mantararen, Njumit, Purai, Purung, Tuwang, Pasir, Benua, Taboyan. At least 17 dialects. Tawoyan [twy] may be inherently intelligible. Lexical similarity: 77% with Tawoyan [twy], 53% with Dusun Deyah [dun]. Benua (population 25,000, six subdialects) may be distinct enough to be considered a separate language. (Nikolic´ 2008).
twy Tawoyan Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, East, North Indonesia Central Kalimantan province: Palori town area; East Kalimantan province: southeast border area 20,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981) 5* (Developing) Tabojan, Tabojan Tongka, Taboyan, Tabuyan, Tawoyan Dayak, Tewoyan None known. Lexical similarity: 77% with Lawangan [lbx], 52% with Dusun Deyah [dun].
yka Yakan Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, Sama-Bajaw Philippines Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao: Basilan and Sulu provinces and small surrounding islands, Sakol island; Zamboanga Peninsula region: Zamboanga east coast, concentrated inland 130,000 (2005 UNSD), increasing. 86,900 in Basilan Province. 35,000 monolinguals (1990) 4 (Educational). De facto language of provincial identity in Basilan province Yacan Yakan
abx Inabaknon Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, Sama-Bajaw, Abaknon Philippines Eastern Visayas region: Northern Samar province, San Bernardino strait, Capul island, east to San Isidro island; Manila 26,400 (2010 M. Jacobson). Population increases 300–500 yearly. About 500 leave annually to find opportunities elsewhere. 3,000 monolinguals. Almost all children 4 (Educational) Abaknon, Abaknon Sama, Capuleño, Kapul, Sama, Sama Abaknon Inabaknon
sjm Mapun Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, Sama-Bajaw, Sulu-Borneo, Borneo Coast Bajaw Philippines Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao: Tawi-Tawi province, Cagayan de Sulu (Mapun) island 43,000 in Philippines (2011 SIL). 4,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 43,000. Total users in all countries: 58,000 5 (Developing) Bajau Kagayan, Cagayan, Cagayan de Sulu, Cagayanen, Cagayano, Cagayanon, Kagayan, Orang, Sama Mapun Jama Mapun None known. Intelligibility of Central Sama [sml] 59%, intelligibility of Sama Pangutaran [slm] 61%.
bdr Bajau, West Coast Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, Sama-Bajaw, Sulu-Borneo, Borneo Coast Bajaw Malaysia Sabah: Kudat district, Banggi Island, Telutu’ village; Pitas district, south Marudu bay, mainly Dalima’, Jambangan, Kanibungan, Layag-Layag, Mapan-Mapan, Mausar, Mengkapon, Mengkubau Laut, Pantai Laut, and Sibayan Laut villages; west coast scattered from Kuala Penyu to Kudat districts, mainly Kota Belud and Tuaran towns Ethnic population: 210,000 (2010 census) 6b (Threatened) Bajau, Bajau Sama, Land Bajaw, West Coast Bajao, West Coast Bajaw Sama Kota Belud, Putatan, Papar, Banggi, Sandakan, Pitas, Kawang. More structural diversity than other Borneo languages. Related to but distinct from East Coast Bajau languages of Malaysia and the Philippines, and Indonesian Bajau [bdl] (1977 K. Pallesen). Less than 65% intelligibility with Southern Sama [ssb]. Papar dialect used in national broadcasting. May be more than 1 language.
bdl Bajau, Indonesian Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, Sama-Bajaw, Sulu-Borneo, Borneo Coast Bajaw Indonesia Sulawesi island: widespread throughout north central area; North Maluku province: on Bacan, Kayoa, Obi, and Sula islands 150,000 (Mead et al 2007). 5,000 or more in North Maluku (Grimes 1982), 8,000 to 10,000 in South Sulawesi (Grimes and Grimes 1987), 7,000 in North Sulawesi and Gorontalo, 36,000 in Central Sulawesi, 40,000 in Southeast Sulawesi (Mead et al 2007), and several thousand in Nusa Tenggara (Wurm and Hattori 1981, Verheijen 1986) 6b* (Threatened) Badjaw, Badjo, Bajao, Bajo, Bayo, Baʔong Sama, Gaj, Indonesian Bajaw, Orang Laut, Sama, Taurije’ne’ Jampea, Same’, Matalaang, Sulamu, Kajoa, Roti, Jaya Bakti, Poso, Togian 1, Togian 2, Wallace.
sjm Mapun Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, Sama-Bajaw, Sulu-Borneo, Borneo Coast Bajaw Malaysia Sabah: Kota Kinabalu district, Kota Kinabalu; Kota Marudu district, Kota Marudu; Kudat district, Banggi and Mantanani islands, Kudat; Sandakan district, Sandakan 15,000 in Malaysia (2015 M. Tanjul). Ethnic population: 30,000 (2015 M. Tanjul) 6b (Threatened) Bajau Kagayan, Cagayan de Sulu, Cagayanon, Jama Mapun, Kagayan, Orang Cagayan, Pellun Mapun, Sama Mapun
sml Sama, Central Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, Sama-Bajaw, Sulu-Borneo, Inner Sulu Sama Philippines Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao: Basilan province, Basilan island, Maluso municipality, Malamawi island; Sulu and Tawi-Tawi provinces, Cagayan de Sulu island, Siasi and Sitangkai municipalities, Bonggao and Tabawan; CALABARZON region: Batangas province; Central Visayas region: Cebu province; Bohol province, Tagbilaran; MIMAROPA region: Palawan province, Puerto Princesa; Northern Mindanao region: Misamis Oriental province, Cagayan de Oro; Negros Island region: Negros Occidental province, Sasa; Zamboanga Peninsula region: Zamboanga del Norte province, Olutangga; Zamboanga del Sur province, Batuan Lumbayaw; Rio Hondo, Sangali, and Taluk Sangay areas in Zamboanga City; Davao City, Isla Verde 90,000 in Philippines (2000). 30,000 monolinguals. Total users in all countries: 105,000 4 (Educational) Central Sinama, Orang Laut, Sama, Samal, “Bajaw” (pej.) Sinama Sama Deya, Sama Dilaut, Sama Siasi (Siasi Sama), Sama Laminusa, Sama Tabawan. Intelligibility of Bangingih Sama [sse] 79%. Lexical similarity: 47% with Inabaknon [abx], 62% with Yakan [yka], 76% with Pangutaran Sama [slm], 77% with Balangingi [sse], 72–78% with Southern Sama [ssb], 59% with West Coast Bajau [bdr], 66% with Mapun [sjm], 48–51% with Indonesian Bajau [bdl], 25% with Cebuano [ceb], 45% with Tausug [tsg] (Pallesen 1985).
ssb Sama, Southern Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, Sama-Bajaw, Sulu-Borneo, Inner Sulu Sama Philippines Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao: Tawi-Tawi province, Tawi-Tawi, Simunul, and Sibutu municipalities; other major islands 200,000 in Philippines (2007 SIL), increasing. 20,000 monolinguals. Total users in all countries: 260,000 5* (Developing) Sama, Sama Tawi-Tawi, Southern Sinama, Tawi-Tawi Sinama Sinama, Sinama Tawi-Tawi Sibutu’ (Sibutu), Simunul, Tandubas, Obian, Balimbing, Bongao, Sitangkai, Languyan, Sapa-Sapa, Sama Sibutu. Sibutu intelligibility of Sama Central [sml] 77%, of the Simunul dialect 89%. Simunul intelligibility of Sama Central [sml] 77%, of the Sibutu dialect 80%.
sse Sama, Balangingih Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, Sama-Bajaw, Sulu-Borneo, Inner Sulu Sama Philippines Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao: Sulu and Basilan provinces; Zamboanga Peninsula region: coast peninsula, islands. Central Luzon region: White Beach near Subic bay (Northern Sama dialect); Zamboanga Peninsula region: Zamboanga Sibugay province, Olutangga island (Lutangan dialect) 80,000 in Philippines (2007). Total users in all countries: 85,000 5 (Developing) Baangingi’, Balanguingui, Bangingi, Bangingih Sama, Northern Sama, Northern Sinama, Sama Baangingi, Samal, Sinama Baangingi Bangingih, Sama Bangingih Lutangan (Lutango), Sibuco-Vitali (Sibuku), Sibuguey (Batuan), Balangingi, Daongdung, Kabinga’an. Most Lutangan understand Bangingih Sama, the prestige dialect. Intelligibility of Central Sama [sml] 71%, 83% of Lutangan, 85% of Sibuco-Vitali. Lexical similarity: 77% with Lutangan, 75% with Sibuco-Vitali.
ssb Sama, Southern Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, Sama-Bajaw, Sulu-Borneo, Inner Sulu Sama Malaysia Sabah: some coastal regions of Kota Belud district; Kota Kinabalu district, including Gaya island; Kuala Penyu district; Kudat district, Banggi and Mantanani islands; Sandakan and Semporna districts 60,000 in Malaysia (2015 S. Hinayat, M. Miller), decreasing. No monolinguals. Ethnic population: 119,000 (2000 SIL). 61,000 Bajau Kubang (or Bajau Semporna), 15,000 Bajau Laut, 14,500 Bajau Simunul, 13,000 Bajau Ubian, 9,000 Sibutu, 6,000 Sikubung, 700 Bajau Banaran 6b (Threatened) Sinama, Southern Bajau, Tawi-Tawi Sinama Bajau Banaran (Benadan, Binadan), Bajau Darat, Bajau Laut (Mandelaut, Pala’au, “Pala’u” (pej.), Sama Dilaut, Sama Laut, Sama Mandelaut, Sama Pala’au, Sea Bajau, Sea Gypsies), Bajau Semporna (Bajau Asli, Bajau Kubang, Kubang, Sama Kubang), Laminusa (Laminusa Sinama), Sibutu (Sama Sibutu, Samah Lumbuh, Samah-Samah, Sibutuq), Simunul (Bajau Simunul, Sama Simunul), Sikubung (Kubung, Sama Kubung), Sama (A’a Sama, Sama’, Samah, Samal, Samar), Ubian (Bajau Ubian, Obian, Sama Ubian, Tau Ubian), Denawan. Lexical similarity: Binadan and Denawan dialects are 89% lexically similar; 80%–82% with Balangingih Sama [sse] (1999 SIL).
sse Sama, Balangingih Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, Sama-Bajaw, Sulu-Borneo, Inner Sulu Sama Malaysia Sabah: Lahad Datu coast, Semporna, and Tawau districts; some in Kota Belud district 5,000 in Malaysia (2013 SIL) 5* (Developing) Baangingi’, Balagnini, Balangingi, Balangingi Bajau, Balanian, Balanini, Balignini, Bangingih, Bangingih Sama, Northern Sinama, Sama, Sama Bangingih Bajau Balangingih.
sml Sama, Central Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, Sama-Bajaw, Sulu-Borneo, Inner Sulu Sama Malaysia Sabah: Kunak and Semporna districts, Bebeng, Bohe’an, Gaya, Karindingan, and Kallo’ islands; Halo, Hidayat, Mastra, Panji, Salamat, Siriyaman villages; Ampalling, Balimbing, Bangaw-Bangaw, Batu Ruwa, Danawan, Kabogang, Labuan Hadji, Mabul, Manam Pellit, Mataking Island, Tampe’-Tampe’, Timbun Mata, Tubu’-Tubu’, and Umaral settlements 15,000 in Malaysia (2000 C. Soderberg) 5* (Dispersed) Badjaw, Bajau Pela’u, Sama, Sama Dilaut, Sama Kabinga’an, Sama Mandelaut, Sama Pala’u, Sama Siasi, Sama Sitangkai, Sama Ubian, Sinama
slm Sama, Pangutaran Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, Sama-Bajaw, Sulu-Borneo, Western Sulu Sama Philippines Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao: west central Sulu province, Pangutaran island; Tawi-Tawi province, Cagayan de Tawi-Tawi island 35,200 (2000) 5* (Developing) Pangutaran, Sama Pangutaran, Siyama Siyama Pangutaran None known. Intelligibility of Central Sama [sml] 65%.
kkx Kohin Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, West, North Indonesia Central Kalimantan province: Kotawaringin Timur regency, 10 villages in central and north Seruyan river area 8,000 (2003) 6b* (Threatened) Bahasa Seruyan, Seruyan None known. Lexical similarity: 60%–65% with Ot Danum [otd], 50%–69% with Ngaju [nij].
otd Ot Danum Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, West, North Indonesia Central Kalimantan province: upper south Kapuas river, 7 villages; East Kalimantan province: Kutai Barat regency; West Kalimantan province: Melawi river watershed 78,800 (2007 SIL) 6a* (Vigorous) Dohoi, Malahoi, Uud Danum, Uut Danum Ot Balawan, Ot Banu’u, Ot Murung 1 (Murung 1, Punan Ratah), Ot Olang, Ot Tuhup, Sarawai (Melawi), Dohoi, Ulu Ai’ (Da’an), Sebaung, Kadorih, Kuhin. Lexical similarity: 70% with Siang [sya], 65% with Kohin [kkx], 60% with Katingan dialect of Ngaju [nij], 50% with Ngaju (main dialect) [nij].
sya Siang Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, West, North Indonesia Central Kalimantan province: Murung Raya regency, Barito river north along tributary 60,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981) 6a* (Vigorous) Ot Siang Siang, Murung 2.
bkr Bakumpai Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, West, South Indonesia Central Kalimantan province: Barito Selatan, and Barito Utara, and Kapuas regencies, Kapuas and Barito rivers; possibly southernmost Murung Raya regency 100,000 (2003) 3 (Wider communication). Used as a LWC in the market in central Kalimantan Province Bakambai, Bara-Jida Bakumpai, Mengkatip (Mangkatip, Oloh Mengkatip). Lexical similarity: 75% with Ngaju [nij], 45% with Banjar [bjn].
nij Ngaju Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, West, South Indonesia Central Kalimantan province: Gunung Mas, Kapuas, Katingan, Kota Palangkaraya, Kotawaringin Timur, and Pulang Pisau regencies; headwaters of Kahayan, Kapuas, Katingan, and Mentaya rivers 890,000 (2003) 3 (Wider communication). Widely used as LWC for trade in much of Kalimantan, from Barito to Sampit rivers. Used in many domains (church, school, village-level government, market, etc.) Biadju, Dayak Ngaju, Ngadju, Ngaja, Ngaju Dayak, Southwest Barito Ba’amang (Bara-Bare, Sampit), Katingan Ngaju, Katingan Ngawa, Kahayan, Kahayan Kapuas, Mantangai (Oloh Mangtangai), Pulopetak. Lexical similarity: 75% with Bakumpai [bkr], 62% with Kohin [kkx], 50% with Ot Danum [otd], 35% with Banjar [bjn].
mtw Binukidnon, Southern Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine Philippines Negros Island region: Negros Oriental province, Bayawan, Santa Catalina, Siaton, upper Tayaban, and Tanjag municipalities; Mount Arniyo near Bayawan 7,570 (2000) 6a* (Vigorous) Bukidnon, “Magahat” (pej.) None known. Reportedly similar to Northern Binukidnon [kyn]. Reportedly includes a heavy mixture of Cebuano [ceb] and Hiligaynon [hil].
atm Ata Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine Philippines Negros Island region: Negros Oriental province, Mabinay 3 (Lobel 2013a) 8b (Nearly extinct) Inata
ays Ayta, Sorsogon Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine Philippines Bicol region: Sorsogon province, Prieto Diaz municipality 15 (Wurm 2000). Ethnic population: 180 8b (Nearly extinct)
ayy Ayta, Tayabas Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine Philippines CALABARZON region: Quezon province, Tayabas area Unattested
kyn Binukidnon, Northern Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine Philippines Negros Island region: Negros Occidental province, Kabankalan 15,100 (2000) 6a* (Vigorous) Karolanos None known. Reportedly similar to Southern Binukidnon [mtw].
srg Sulod Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine Philippines Western Visayas region: Antique province, Valderrama, Panay; Capiz province, Tapaz; Iloilo province, Lambunao 1,990 (2005 UNSD) 6b* (Threatened) Bukidnon, Mondo
agk Agta, Isarog Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bikol, Coastal, Naga Philippines Bicol region: Camarines Sur province, Mount Isarog area 5 (Wurm 2000). Ethnic population: 1,000 (1984 SIL) 8b (Nearly extinct) Agta, Inagta Partido
atl Agta, Mt. Iraya Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bikol, Coastal, Naga Philippines Bicol region: Camarines Sur province, Buhi area 150 (Wurm 2000). Ethnic population: 380 6b (Threatened) Agta, Inagta of Mt. Iraya, Itbeg Rugnot, Lake Buhi, Rugnot of Lake Buhi East 54%–86% comprehension of Naga dialect of Central Bikol [bcl], 94% comprehension of Mt. Iriga Agta [agz], Iriga City dialect. Lexical similarity: 85%–90% with Bikol; 70% with Mt. Iriga Agta, Iriga City dialect, 93% among four dialects.
bcl Bikol, Central Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bikol, Coastal, Naga Philippines Bicol region: west Albay province, Legapi area; Camarines Norte province, Philippine Sea from east coast marshes to Mandao, San Miguel bay; Camarines Sur province, San Miguel bay area, Ragay gulf, Caramoan peninsula to Lagonay gulf; southwest third of Catanduanes province; Masbate province, Burias and Ticao islands; north Sorsogon province, Sorsogon bay mouth, inland; CALABARZON region: east tip of Quezon province 2,500,000 (1990 census), increasing. Speakers of all Bikol languages: 3,890,000 (2005 UNSD) 3 (Wider communication). Statutory language of provincial identity in Camarines Norte, 4 other provinces (1991, ACFLC Section 3(f)) Bikol, Central Bicolano Naga, Legazpi (Legapi), Daet, Partido. A member of macrolanguage Bikol [bik].
bln Bikol, Southern Catanduanes Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bikol, Coastal, Virac Philippines Bicol region: Catanduanes province, southern municipalities of Baras, Bato, Gigmoto, San Andres, San Miguel, and Virac 135,000 (2000 census). Speakers of all Bikol languages: 3,890,000 (2005 UNSD) 6a* (Vigorous) Southern Catanduanes Bikolano, Virac Samples had 85% comprehension of Central Bikol [bcl] and Filipino [fil] narrative. Intelligibility of Northern Catanduanes [cts] 91%. Prefer Virac dialect for literature. A member of macrolanguage Bikol [bik].
agz Agta, Mt. Iriga Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bikol, Inland Philippines Bicol region: Camarines Sur province, east of Iriga city 1,500 (1979 SIL) 6b* (Threatened) Agta, Lake Buhi West, Mount Iriga Negrito, San Ramon Inagta 86% intelligibility of Rinconada Bikol [bto], 82% of Mt. Iraya Agta [atl], 72% of Central Bikol [bcl] (Naga dialect). Intelligibility of Naga Bikol for Mt. Iriga Agta doubtful. Lexical similarity: 76% with Iriga City Bikol [bto], 66% with Mt. Iraya Agta [atl], 66% with Central Bikol [bcl] (Naga dialect).
ubl Bikol, Buhi’non Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bikol, Inland Philippines Bicol region: Camarines Sur province, Buhi town 73,600 (2009 SIL). Speakers of all Bikol languages: 3,890,000 (2005 UNSD). No monolinguals 6a* (Vigorous) Bikol Buhi, Boînan, Buhi, Buhi’non, Buhi-non Boie’nen None known. Reportedly similar to Rinconada Bikol [bto]. A member of macrolanguage Bikol [bik].
lbl Bikol, Libon Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bikol, Inland Philippines Bicol region: Albay province, Libon town 68,800 (2009 SIL). Speakers of all Bikol languages: 3,890,000 (2005 UNSD). No monolinguals 6a* (Vigorous) Libongeño None known. Reportedly similar to Rinconada Bikol [bto]. A member of macrolanguage Bikol [bik].
rbl Bikol, Miraya Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bikol, Inland Philippines Bicol region: Albay province, Camalig, Daraga, Guinobatan, and Jovellar towns; Sorsogon province, Donsol town 300,000 (2009 SIL). Speakers of all Bikol languages: 3,890,000 (2005 UNSD). No monolinguals 6a* (Vigorous) Bikol, Daraga None known. Reportedly similar to West Albay Bikol [fbl]. A member of macrolanguage Bikol [bik].
fbl Bikol, West Albay Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bikol, Inland Philippines Bicol region: Albay province, Ligao, Oas, Pio Duran, and Polangui towns 260,000 (2009 SIL). Speakers of all Bikol languages: 3,890,000 (2005 UNSD). No monolinguals 6a* (Vigorous) Bicol, Ligaoeño, Oasnun, Oasnün, Polanguinon Bikol None known. Reportedly similar to Miraya Bikol [rbl]. A member of macrolanguage Bikol [bik].
bto Bikol, Rinconada Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bikol, Inland, Iriga Philippines Bicol region: Camarines Sur province, Rinconada district, Baao, Balatan, Bato, Buhi, Bula, Iriga city, and Nabua municipalities 385,000 (2010 census), increasing. Speakers of all Bikol languages: 3,890,000 (2005 UNSD). 2,300 monolinguals. Monolingual speakers are elderly; boast of their identity as Rinconada 6a (Vigorous) Iriga Bicolano, Rinconada Bicolano, Rinconada Bikol A member of macrolanguage Bikol [bik].
cts Bikol, Northern Catanduanes Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bikol, Pandan Philippines Bicol region: Catanduanes province, Bato, Caramonan, Pandan, Panganiban, and Viga 77,500 (2000 census). Speakers of all Bikol languages: 3,890,000 (2005 UNSD) 6a (Vigorous) Northern Catanduanes Bicolano, Pandan 68% comprehension of Naga dialect of Central Bikol [bcl], 66% comprehension of Filipino [fil] narrative. A member of macrolanguage Bikol [bik].
bno Bantoanon Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, Banton Philippines MIMAROPA region: Romblon province 75,000 (2011 Governor’s Office, Romblon Province), decreasing. 500 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 75,000 5 (Developing) Asiq, Binisaya, Bisaya Asi, Bantoanon Banton, Calatravanhon, Odionganon, Sibalenhon (Sibale), Simaranhon. 63% intelligibility with Hiligaynon [hil]; 92% with Inonhan [loc]. Odionganon dialect preferred for literature. Lexical similarity: 83% with Romblomanon [rol] (Zorc 1977).
ceb Cebuano Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, Cebuan Philippines Widespread; Bicol region: south Masbate province; parts of Mindanao; throughout the Visayas regions 15,900,000 in Philippines (2005 UNSD). Total users in all countries: 15,942,480 3 (Wider communication). Statutory language of provincial identity in Cebu Province, 4 other areas (1991, ACFLC Section 3(f)) Bisaya, Sebuano, Sugbuanon, Sugbuhanon, Visayan Binisaya Cebu, Boholano (Boholang), Leyte, Mindanao Visayan. Boholano sometimes considered a separate language.
bfx Bantayanon Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, Central Philippines Central Visayas region: Cebu province, Bantayan and surrounding islands 71,600 (2007 J. Lobel) 6a* (Vigorous) None known. Reportedly similar to Hiligaynon [hil].
prh Porohanon Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, Central, Peripheral Philippines Central Visayas region: Cebu province, Camotes Islands (Pacijun, Ponsoon, Poro) between Cebu and Leyte 23000 6a* (Vigorous) Camotes None known. Barely intelligible with Cebuano [ceb] (1967 J. Wolff). Reportedly more similar to Masbatenyo [msb] and Hiligaynon [hil]. Lexical similarity: 87% with Cebuano [ceb] (1967 J. Wolff).
cps Capiznon Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, Central, Peripheral Philippines Western Visayas region: Capiz province on northeast Panay island; Iloilo province, Balasan 639,000 (2000) 6a* (Vigorous) Capisano, Capiseño, Capizeño None known. Sample had 91% comprehension of Hiligaynon [hil] narrative.
atk Ati Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, Central, Peripheral Philippines Western Visayas region: southwest Aklan, west central Capiz, and north and west Iloilo provinces; Antique province border areas east of San Remigio; Panay island 1,500 (1980 SIL) 6b* (Threatened) Inati Malay, Barotac Viejo Nagpana. Barotac Viejo Nagpana is the prestige dialect.
hil Hiligaynon Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, Central, Peripheral Philippines Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao: Maguindanao province, small border area south of Timbangan; Bicol region: Masbate province, Jintotolo peninsula, south of Panguiranan; Soccsksargen region: North Cotabato province west of Lake Buluan; South Cotabato province towards Bayabas; east and west central Sultan Kudarat province; Western Visayas region: west and central Capiz province, and Guimaras island; Iloilo province, Iloilo city northeast along Guimaras strait to Binon-an, nearby islands; Negros Island region: most of Negros Occidental province; Negros Oriental province, Basay, Bayawan, and Canlaon municipalities 6,240,000 in Philippines (2005 UNSD). Total users in all countries: 6,246,880 3 (Wider communication). Statutory language of provincial identity in Iloilo, 4 other provinces (1991, ACFLC Section 3(f)) Hiligainon, Illogo Hiligaynon, Ilonggo Hiligaynon, Kawayan, Kari.
msb Masbatenyo Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, Central, Peripheral Philippines Bicol region: Masbate province, 3 islands 724,000, all users. L1 users: 474,000 (2005 UNSD), increasing. L2 users: 250,000 (2002 SIL). 50,000 monolinguals. Mostly children. Ethnic population: 700,000 3 (Wider communication). Statutory language of provincial identity in Masbate Province (1991, ACFLC Section 3(f)) Masbateño, Minasbate Masbatenyo None known. Lexical similarity: 79% with Capiznon [cps], 76% with Hiligaynon [hil].
rol Romblomanon Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, Central, Romblon Philippines MIMAROPA region: Romblon province, Romblon island; Sibuyan Island north of Panay 94,000 (2011 SIL) 5* (Developing) Basi, Ini, Niromblon, Rombloanon, Romblon, Tiyad Ini Rumblumãnun Sibuyanon, Romblon, Bisaya’. Sibuyan Island has 70% intelligibility of Aklanon [akl], 73% of Hiligaynon [hil], 94% of the Romblon dialect.
bvy Baybayanon Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, Central, Warayan Philippines Eastern Visayas region: Leyte island, Baybay town in Pangasugan river area, Gabas, Guadalupe (Utod), Kilim, Pangasugan, and Patag villages 10,000 (2009 J. Lobel) 6a* (Vigorous) Leyte, Utudnon None known. Reportedly similar to Waray-Waray [war].
cbw Kinabalian Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, Central, Warayan Philippines Eastern Visayas region: Southern Leyte province, 6 villages in San Juan (Cabalian) town 14,000 (2009 J. Lobel) 6a* (Vigorous) Bisaya’, Cabalian, Cabalianon, Kinabalianon None known. Reportedly similar to Waray-Waray [war].
bks Sorsoganon, Northern Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, Central, Warayan Philippines Bicol region: Sorsogon province, Sorsogon city; Central Luzon region: Aurora province, Casiguran and Juban municipalities 85,000 (1975 census) 6a* (Vigorous) Masbate Sorsogon, Northern Sorsogon, Sorsogon Bicolano, Sursugúnun
srv Sorsoganon, Southern Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, Central, Warayan, Gubat Philippines Bicol region: south Sorsogon province 185,000 (1975 census) 6a* (Vigorous) Bikol Sorsogon, Gubat, Southern Sorsogon, Waray Sorsogon None known. Comprehension of Masbatenyo [msb] 63%–91%; of Central Bikol [bcl] (Naga) 71%–82%; of Filipino [fil] 85%–91%. Reportedly similar to Waray-Waray [war].
war Waray-Waray Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, Central, Warayan, Samar-Waray Philippines Eastern Visayas region: east Biliran, Eastern Samar and Northern Samar provinces, all of Samar and associated islands; Leyte province, Leyte town east, Carigara bay, south to Tacloban, Leyte gulf shore south, inland west to highlands 2,610,000 in Philippines (2005 UNSD). Total users in all countries: 2,611,110 3 (Wider communication). Statutory language of provincial identity in Samar, Leyte islands (1991, ACFLC Section 3(f)) Binisaya, Samaran, Samarenyo, Samareño, Winaray Waray, Waray-Waray Waray, Samar-Leyte, Northern Samar.
sgd Surigaonon Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, South Philippines Caraga region: Surigao del Norte, north Agusan del Norte, and north Surigao del Sur provinces 501,000 (2005 UNSD) 4 (Educational) Jaun-Jaun, Sinurigao, Waya-Waya None known. Reportedly similar to Tandaganon [tgn]. Lexical similarity: 82% with Dibabawon Manobo [mbd], 81% with Agusan Manobo [msm], 69% with Butuanon [btw].
tgn Tandaganon Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, South Philippines Caraga region: central Surigao del Sur province, Bayabas, Cagwait, Tago, and Tandag towns 100,000 (2009 B. Hall) 6a* (Vigorous) Naturalis, Tagon-on None known. Reportedly similar to Surigaonon [sgd].
btw Butuanon Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, South, Butuan-Tausug Philippines Caraga region: Agusan del Norte province, Butuan city 71,500 (2005 UNSD) 7 (Shifting) None known. Lexical similarity: 70% with Kamayo [kyk]; 69% with Surigaonon [sgd].
tsg Suluk Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, South, Butuan-Tausug Malaysia Sabah state: Beluran, Kudat, Lahad Datu, Sandakan, Semporna, and Tawau districts’ coasts; Kota Kinabalu, Labuan, and Papar coasts 150,000 in Malaysia (2000 SIL), increasing. No monolinguals (2015 N. Dino) 6b (Threatened) Joloano, Joloano Sulu, Jolohano, Pamung Sug, Sinug, Sooloo, Sug, Sulu, Taosug, Tausog, Tausug, Taw Sug, “Moro” (pej.)
tsg Tausug Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, South, Butuan-Tausug Indonesia North Kalimantan province: scattered coastal settlements; immigrants from Sulu Archipelago in the Philippines 12,000 in Indonesia (Wurm and Hattori 1981) 5* (Dispersed) Joloano Sulu, Jolohano, Moro Joloano, Sinug Tausug, Sooloo, Sulu, Suluk, Taosug, Tausog, Taw Sug
tsg Tausug Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, South, Butuan-Tausug Philippines Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao: Sulu province, Jolo, in Sulu archipelago; Basilan province, Basilan island; MIMAROPA region: Palawan province on Palawan island; Zamboanga Peninsula region: Zamboanga city and environs 784,000 in Philippines (2005 UNSD), increasing. 250,000 monolinguals. Total users in all countries: 946,000 3 (Wider communication). De facto language of provincial identity in Sulu and Tawi-Tawi provinces Jolohano, Moro Joloano, Sinug, Sinug Tausug, Sulu, Suluk, Tausog, Taw Sug بَهَسَ سُوگ‎ (Bahasa Sūg)
clu Caluyanun Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, West Philippines Western Visayas region: Aklan province, Caluya Islands northwest 30,000 (1994 SIL). Very few monolinguals 5 (Developing) Caluyanen, Caluyanhon, Caluyanon Semirara. 69% comprehension of Hiligaynon [hil], 62% of Cuyonon [cyo].
akl Aklanon Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, West, Aklan Philippines Western Visayas region: Aklan province, north Panay island; Antique province, Libertad and Pandan municipalities far north; northwest Capiz province border 502,000 in Philippines (2005 UNSD). Total users in all countries: 525,600 4 (Educational). De facto language of provincial identity in Aklan and Capiz provinces Akeanon, Aklan, Aklano, Aklanon-Bisayan, Panay Inakeanon None known. 66% intelligibility with Hiligaynon [hil]. Lexical similarity: 68% with Hiligaynon [hil].
mlz Malaynon Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, West, Aklan Philippines Western Visayas region: northwest Aklan province, Malay municipality, lowland 8,500 (1973 SIL) 6a* (Vigorous) None known. Lexical similarity: 93% with Aklanon [akl].
krj Kinaray-a Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, West, Kinarayan Philippines Western Visayas region: scattered in Aklan, most of Antique, west Iloilo, and west Capiz provinces 433,000 (2005 UNSD), increasing. 1,000 monolinguals 4 (Educational) Antiqueño, Ati, Binisaya nga Karay-a, Bisaya nga Kinaray-a, Hamtikanon, Hamtiknon, Hinaray-a, Hiniraya, Karay-a, Kiniray-a, Panayano, Sulud Kinaray-a Pandan, Hamtik, Anini-y, Pototan, Lambunao, Miag-Ao, Guimaras Island (Gimaras). Antique area has 75% comprehension of Filipino [fil]; 90% of Hiligaynon [hil]; Iloilo area, 95% of Hiligaynon; 90% of Antique.
cyo Cuyonon Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, West, Kuyan Philippines MIMAROPA region: Palawan coast, Cuyo Islands between Palawan and Panay 189,000 (2010 J. Leclerc) 5* (Developing) Cuyo, Cuyono, Cuyunon, Kuyonon, Kuyunon, Visayan Cuyonon None known. Reportedly similar to Ratagnon [btn].
btn Ratagnon Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, West, Kuyan Philippines MIMAROPA region: Mindoro Occidental province extreme south tip, including Ilin islands; Mindoro Oriental province south tip, Bulalacao municipality No known L1 speakers. Last known speaker may have survived into the 2010s. Ethnic population: 2,000 (1997 SIL) 9 (Dormant) Aradigi, Datagnon, Lactan, Latagnun, Latan Ratagnon, Santa Teresa. Reportedly similar to Cuyonon [cyo].
loc Inonhan Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, West, North Central Philippines MIMAROPA region: Mindoro Occidental and Mindoro Oriental provinces; Romblon province, south Tablas island 85,800 (2000) 5* (Developing) Bisaya-Inunhan, Loocnon, Looknon, Ohnhan, “Unhan” (pej.) Bulalakaw, Dispoholnon, Looknon, Alcantaranon. Lexical similarity: 70% with Odionganon [bno] (Bantuanon), 93% with Aklanon [akl], 86% with Caluyanun [clu].
mmn Mamanwa Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Mamanwa Philippines Caraga region: Agusan del Norte and Surigao del Norte provinces in Lake Mainit area 4,070 (2005 UNSD) 5* (Developing) Mamanwa Negrito Minamanwa
daw Davawenyo Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Mansakan, Davawenyo Philippines Davao region: Davao Oriental and Davao del Sur provinces 154,000 (2005 UNSD) 6a* (Vigorous) Davaoeño, Davaweño, Matino Synthesis of Filipino [fil], Cebuano [ceb], other Visayan dialects. Some Spanish [spa] words. Not a Spanish creole. Different from Davawenyo dialect of Chavacano [cbk]. 2 dialects: East Coast (90% of speakers), and Davao City area (Whinnom 1956). Lowland Davawenyo have 89% intelligibility of Kamayo [kyk].
mry Mandaya Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Mansakan, Eastern Philippines Davao region: Davao del Norte province; Davao Oriental province, Baganga, Caraga, Cateel, and Manay municipalities 82,000 (2005 UNSD). Ethnic population: 250,000 (2010 E. Arcenas) 6a (Vigorous) Davawenyo Carraga Mandaya, Cateelenyo, Manay Mandayan, Mandaya, Cataelano, Karaga, Sangab, Mangaragan Mandaya. 77% intelligibility of Mansaka [msk]. Lexical similarity: 89% with Mansaka [msk], 83% with Kalagan [kqe].
msk Mansaka Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Mansakan, Eastern Philippines Davao region: Davao Oriental province, west Baganga municipality; central west Compostela Valley province; Davao Oriental province, south to Pujada Bay 26,100 (2005 UNSD) 5* (Developing) Mandaya Mansaka Minansaka Lexical similarity: 80% with Bislig-Mati, 89% with Mandaya [mry], 84% with Mati, 74% with Piso dialect of Kalagan [kqe].
kyk Kamayo Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Mansakan, Northern Philippines Caraga region: Surigao del Sur province, between Marihatag and Lingig; Agusan del Sur province border areas; Davao region: Davao Oriental province, between Lingig and Boston 153,000 (2005 UNSD) 6a (Vigorous) Davawenyo, Davaweño, Kadi, Kinadi, Kinamayo, Mandaya North Kamayo, South Kamayo. Lexical similarity: 66% with Surigaonon [sgd], 70% with Butuanon [btw].
kll Kalagan, Kagan Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Mansakan, Western Philippines Davao region: Davao del Sur province, near Digos city 500 (2005 UNSD) 6b* (Threatened) Kaagan, Kagan, Kagan Kalagan 82% intelligibility with Kalagan [kqe] dialect.
kqe Kalagan Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Mansakan, Western Philippines Davao region: Davao del Sur province, southwest of Davao city, inland along coast; Compostela Valley and Davao del Norte provinces, Samal and nearby islands, and inland on Davao gulf easten shores; Davao Oriental province, highlands; Soccsksargen region: north Cotabato province. Davao region: Davao Oriental province (eastern and western dialects); Davao del Sur province, gulf to Hagonoy and Guihing (Lupon dialect); Samal Island (Isamal dialect) 48,900 (2005 UNSD), decreasing. 7,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 70,000 6b (Threatened) Kaagan, Kinalagan, Minuslim Kalagan Kalagan Isamal, Western Kalagan, Eastern Kalagan, Lupon. Lexical similarity: 72% with Kagan [kll], 74% with Mansaka [msk], 83% with Mandaya [mry].
klg Tagakaulo Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Mansakan, Western Philippines Davao region: Davao del Sur province, Digos south to Bugis and inland on Davao Gulf west shore; Soccsksargen region: South Cotabato province, Tampakan municipality; Sultan Kudarat province, Colombia municipality 69,900 (2005 UNSD). 40,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 100,000 4 (Educational) Tagakaolo, Tagakaulu Kalagan Tagakaulo None known. About 85% intelligibility with Mansaka [msk].
fil Filipino Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Tagalog Philippines Widespread 45,000,000 (2013), L2 users 1 (National). Statutory national language (1987, Constitution, Article 14(6)), not used in all official domains Pilipino, Wikang Filipino Filipino
tgl Tagalog Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Tagalog Canada Scattered, in Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, Northwest Territories, Saskatchewan, and Yukon 431,000 in Canada (2016 census) 5* (Dispersed)
tgl Tagalog Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Tagalog Philippines Widespread; Manila, most of Luzon, and Mindoro 20,000,000 in Philippines (2005 UNSD). Total users in all countries: 23,808,890 (as L1: 23,646,890; as L2: 162,000) 3 (Wider communication). De facto national working language Wikang Tagalog Tagalog Lubang, Manila, Marinduque, Bataan, Batangas, Bulacan, Puray, Tanay-Paete, Tayabas.
tgl Tagalog Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Tagalog United States Hawaii; scattered elsewhere 1,610,000 in United States (2015 census) 5* (Dispersed)
mdh Maguindanaon Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Danao, Magindanao Philippines Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao: Maguindanao province, Cotabato city southeast to Lake Buluan; Soccsksargen region: North Cotabato province, south central area from Dillian to Kayaga; South Cotabato province, northern tip; central Sultan Kudarat province west of Lake Buluan 1,100,000 (2010 SIL) 5 (Developing). Statutory language of provincial identity in North Cotabato and 3 other Mindanao provinces (1991, ACFLC Section 3(f)) Magindanao, Magindanaon, Magindanaw, Maguindanao, Maguindanaw Magindanawn Laya, Ilud, Biwangan, Sibugay, Tagakawanan. Intelligibility 60% of Maranao [mrw], 96% of Iranun [ilp].
ilm Iranun Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Danao, Maranao-Iranon Malaysia Sabah: Kota Belud district, 24 villages; Kudat district, Indarasan Laut village; Lahad Datu district, Tungku 22,000 (2015 I. Sidik). Ethnic population: 30,000 (Pugh-Kitingan and Mulia 1996) 6b (Threatened) Ilanun, Illanoan, Illanoon, Illanos, Illanun, Iranon Maranao, Iranum, Lanoon, Lanun, Ylanos None known. Iranun in Sabah is different from any of its related languages in the Philippines, including Iranun [ilp] and Maranao [mrw]. The most similar language to Iranun in Sabah [ilm] is Maranao [mrw]. But even between Iranun [ilm] and Maranao [mrw], there are substantial differences.
ilp Iranun Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Danao, Maranao-Iranon Philippines Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao: Maguindanao province, Barida, Buidon, Parang, Sultan Kudarat, and Sultan Mastera municipalities; Lanao del Sur province, southeast tip; Northern Mindanao region: Bukidnon province, Kalilangan municipality; Soccsksargen region: North Cotabato province, Alamada, Banasilan, Carmen, Libungan, and Pigcawayan municipalities 241,000 (2015 S. Conklin) 6a* (Vigorous) Ilanun, Illanun Iranun Ilanon, Ilanum, Illanon, Iranon. 85% intelligibility of Maranao [mrw] of the Philippines. Most closely related to Maranao. Related to, but distinct from, Maguindanaon [mdh]. Different from Lahanan [lhn] of Sarawak.
mrw Maranao Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Danao, Maranao-Iranon Philippines Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao: almost all Lanao del Sur province; northwest Maguindanao province, Bariya, Buldon, Matanog, and north Parang municipalities; Northern Mindanao region: west central Bukidnon province; south Lanao del Norte province, north of Lake Lano; Soccsksargen region: northwest North Cotabato province 866,000 (2005 UNSD) 4 (Educational). De facto language of provincial identity in Lanao del Sur Maranaw, Mëranaw, Ranao Maranao None known. Intelligibility of Iranun [ilp] 87%, of Maguindanaon [mdh] 52%.
bne Bintauna Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Gorontalo-Mongondow, Gorontalic Indonesia North Sulawesi province: Bolaang Mongondou Utara regency, Bintauna town and inland; Celebes Sea 11,200 (2000 census) 6b* (Threatened) Bintaoena, Bintawoena, Bitaoena
bld Bolango Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Gorontalo-Mongondow, Gorontalic Indonesia Gorontalo province: Gorontalo Utara regency, Atinggola town area; North Sulawesi province: Bolaang Mongondow Selantan regency, Molibagu area; Bolaang Mongondow Utara regency 23,000 (Sneddon and Usup 1986). Atinggola 16,000, Bolango 7,000 6b* (Threatened) Atinggola-Bolango, Bolaang Uki, Bolang-Banka, Bulanga, Bulanga-Uki Bolango (Uki), Atinggola (Andagile, Attingola, Diu, Kattinggola).
blf Buol Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Gorontalo-Mongondow, Gorontalic Indonesia Central Sulawesi province: Baolan, Biau, Bokat, Bunobogu, Momunu, and Paleleh sub-districts, 68 villages on north coast, near Gorontalo province border 96,000 (2000 census) 6b* (Threatened) Bual, Bwo’ol, Bwool, Dia Apadu Vuolo None known. Lexical similarity: 61% with Totoli [txe].
gor Gorontalo Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Gorontalo-Mongondow, Gorontalic Indonesia Gorontalo province: widespread along both coasts; North Sulawesi province: Bolaang Mongondon Utare regency, northeast of Gorontalo city 1,000,000 (2000 census) 6b* (Threatened) Gorongtalo, Guarantala, Gunongtello, Holontalo, Hulontalo East Gorontalo, Gorontalo Kota, West Gorontalo (Kwandang), Tilamuta, Limboto (Limbotto).
kzp Kaidipang Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Gorontalo-Mongondow, Gorontalic Indonesia North Sulawesi province: Bolaang Mongondo Utara regency, north coast 26,600 (2000 census). Kaidipang 8,900, Bolaang Itang 17,700 6b* (Threatened) Dio, Kaidipang-Bolangitang Kaidipang (Kaidipan, Kodipang), Bolaang Itang (Bolang-Hitam, Bolang-Itam).
llq Lolak Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Gorontalo-Mongondow, Gorontalic Indonesia North Sulawesi province: Bolaang Mongondow regency, Lolak sub-district, Lolak, Mongkoinit, and Motabang villages on lower Mongodow river 3,000 (2004 SIL) 8b (Nearly extinct) None known. Structurally related to Gorontalo [gor], but with heavy lexical borrowing from Mongondow [mog]. Lexical similarity: 79% with Mongondow [mog], 66% with Ponosakan [pns], 63% with Kaidipang [kzp].
swu Suwawa Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Gorontalo-Mongondow, Gorontalic Indonesia Gorontalo province: Bone Bolango regency, Bunda river valley; North Sulawesi province: Bolaang Mongondow, Bolaang Mongondow Selantan, and Bolaang Mongondow Utara regencies in Pinogu area inland 5,000 (2012 Y. Kitada) 7 (Shifting) Bonda, Bone, Bunda, Bune, Suvava, Toewawa
mog Mongondow Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Gorontalo-Mongondow, Mongondowic Indonesia North Sulawesi province: Bolaang Mongondow, Bolaang Mongondow Selatan, and Bolaang Mongondow Timur regencies; north peninsula, Nanasi town west to Bijaj river; south side, southwest of Rototok almost to Kombot town 230,000 (2000 census) 7 (Shifting) Bolaang Mongondow, Bolang-Mogondo, Minahassa, Mongondou Lolayan, Dumoga, Passi.
pns Ponosakan Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Gorontalo-Mongondow, Mongondowic Indonesia North Sulawesi province: Belang town area 10 (2016 SIL) 8a (Moribund) Ponasakan None known. Lexical similarity: 75% with Mongondow [mog], 66% with Lolak [llq].
mqk Manobo, Rajah Kabunsuwan Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Manobo, Central, East Philippines Caraga region: Agusan del Sur province southeast corner; south Surigao del Sur province, Cabungsuan, Lingig, and Rajah; Davao region: Davao Oriental province, northern border 7,560 (2000). 227,000 all Manobo (2005 UNSD) 6a* (Vigorous) Rajah Kabungsuan Manobo Intelligibility of Dibabawon Manobo [mbd] 80%, San Miguel Calatugan Agusan [msm] 81%. Lexical similarity: 82% with Dibabawon Manobo [mbd], 76% with Sagunto dialect of Agusan Manobo [msm] and San Miguel Calatugan dialect of Agusan Manobo.
msm Manobo, Agusan Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Manobo, Central, East Philippines Caraga region: Agusan del Norte province west; Agusan del Sur province, west area southeast of Lake Buluan; Surigao del Norte province south tip, inland; Surigao del Sur province southwest of Lanuza peninsula to Lianga bay; Davao region: Compostela Valley and Davao del Norte provinces’ north borders; Davao Oriental province scattered; Northern Mindanao region: Bukidnon province, scattered 60,000 (2002 SIL). 227,000 all Manobo (2005 UNSD) 5* (Developing) Agusan, Manobo Minanubu Umayam, Adgawan, Surigao, Omayamnon. 83% intelligibility of Dibabawon [mbd]. Lexical similarity: 80% with Omayamnon dialect and other dialects, 85% with Dibabawon Manobo [mbd].
mbd Manobo, Dibabawon Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Manobo, Central, East Philippines Davao region: north Compostela Valley province, upper Agusan river area; Davao del Norte province, Asuncion municipality, Manguagan; Davao Oriental province, Boston and Cateel municipalities 9,060 (2005 UNSD). 227,000 all Manobo (2005 UNSD) 5* (Developing) Debabaon, Dibabaon, Dibabauon, Mandaya Dibabawon
atd Manobo, Ata Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Manobo, Central, South, Ata-Tigwa Philippines Davao region: Compostela Valley, Davao del Norte, and Davao del Sur provinces, areas all northwest; Northern Mindanao region: southeast Bukidnon province 11,600 (2005 UNSD). 227,000 all Manobo (2005 UNSD) 5* (Developing) Ata of Davao, Atao Manobo, Langilan Minanobo
mbt Manobo, Matigsalug Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Manobo, Central, South, Ata-Tigwa Philippines Davao region: northwest Davao del Sur province; Northern Mindanao region: south-central Bukidnon province; Soccsksargen region: northeast North Cotabato region 50,000 (2010 SIL), increasing. 227,000 all Manobo (2005 UNSD). 5,000 monolinguals 5 (Developing) Matig-Salug Manobo, Salug-Tigwa Manobo, Tigwa, Tigwa Manobo Matigsalug Kulamanen. Tigwa has marginal intelligibility of Matigsalug. Tala Ingod may have adequate intelligibility of Matigsalug.
obo Manobo, Obo Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Manobo, Central, South, Obo Philippines Davao and Soccsksargen regions: northeast slope of Mount Apo, between Davao del Sur and North Cotabato provinces 60,000 (2007 SIL). 227,000 all Manobo (2005 UNSD). 20,000 monolinguals 4 (Educational) Bagobo, Kidapawan Manobo, Obo Bagobo Manobo Kidapawan Manobo, Magpet Manobo, Arakan Manobo, Marilog. 69% intelligibility of Tigwa (Matigsalug Manobo [mbt] reportedly most similar) and 60% of Tagabawa [bgs]. Lexical similarity: 63% with Tagabawa [bgs] and Ilianen Manobo [mbi], 35% with Cebuano [ceb].
mbi Manobo, Ilianen Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Manobo, Central, West Philippines Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao: Maguindanao province, Datu Montawal and north Kambutalan municipalities; Northern Mindanao region: Bukidnon province, Darnulong, Kandingilan, and Kibawe, municipalities; Soccsksargen region: North Cotabato province, north and central watershed of Mindanao river 14,600 (2000). 227,000 all Manobo (2005 UNSD). Few monolinguals 5* (Developing) Ilianen, Menuvù Arakan, Livunganen, Pulangiyan.
mbb Manobo, Western Bukidnon Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Manobo, Central, West Philippines Northern Mindanao region: south Bukidnon province, Dangcagan, Don Carlos, Kitaotao, and especially Maramag municipalities; Soccsksargen region: North Cotabato province, Banisilan municipality 15,000 (2008 SIL). 227,000 all Manobo (2005 UNSD). Ethnic population: 15,000 5 (Developing) Manobo, Menuvù, Western Bukidnon Ilentungen, Kiriyenteken, Pulangiyen.
mba Higaonon Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Manobo, North Philippines Caraga region: Agusan del Norte province, south of Butuan city; northwest Agusan del Sur province, Butuan river basin 30,000 (1996 NTM) 5* (Developing) Higaonon Manobo, Hinigaunon, Misamis Higaonon Manobo Higaunon None known. Related to Binukid [bkd] with 77%–81% intelligibility.
bkd Binukid Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Manobo, North Philippines Northern Mindanao region: north Bukidnon province and northeast Lanao del Norte provinces; Misamis Oriental province, Cagayan de Oro including southwest of Gingoog bay; Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao: Lanao del Sur province, small border strip 122,000 (2005 UNSD) 5* (Developing) Binokid, Binukid Manobo, Bukidnon Binukid Talaandig. Reportedly similar to Higaonon [mba].
cgc Kagayanen Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Manobo, North Philippines CALABARZON region: Quezon and Rizal provinces; MIMAROPA region: Palawan province, Cagayan island between Negros and Palawan; Palawan coastal communities; north Palawan, Busuanga and Coron municipalities; south Palawan, Balabac island; National Capital Region; Negros Island region: Negros Occidental province, Silay city; Western Visayas region: Iloilo province 30,000 (2007 SIL), increasing. Few monolinguals. Ethnic population: 30,000 (2007 SIL) 4 (Educational) Cagayano, Kagay-anen, Kinagayanen Kagayanen Calamian Kagayanen.
mkx Manobo, Kinamiging Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Manobo, North Philippines Northern Mindanao region: Camiguin province, entire island north of Mindanao 12,800 (2005 UNSD). 227,000 all Manobo (2005 UNSD) 6b* (Threatened) Cinamiguin, Cinamiguin Manobo, Kamigin, Kinamigin, Kinamiguin
bgs Tagabawa Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Manobo, South Philippines Davao region: Davao del Sur province; Soccsksargen region: North Cotabato province; Mount Apo slopes west of Davao city 43,000 (1998 SIL) 4 (Educational) Tagabawa Bagobo, Tagabawa Manobo Bagobo None known. Comprehension of Tigwa Manobo [mbt] 45%; low comprehension of Cebuano [ceb]. Lexical similarity: 62% with Sarangani Manobo [mbs]; 34% with Giangan [bgi].
mta Manobo, Cotabato Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Manobo, South Philippines Soccsksargen region: Sultan Kudarat province, Kalamansig, Ninoy Aquino, and Palimbang municipalities; South Cotabato province, T’Boli municipality 30,000 (2007 SIL), increasing. 227,000 all Manobo (2005 UNSD). 5,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 30,000 5 (Developing) Dulangan Manobo Menubù Tasaday, Blit.
mbs Manobo, Sarangani Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Manobo, South Philippines Davao region: Davao del Sur province, Jose Abad Santos municipality; Davao Oriental province, Governor Generoso municipality; Soccsksargen region: Sarangani province, Glan municipality 58,000 (2000 census). 227,000 all Manobo (2005 UNSD) 5* (Developing) Sarangani Menobò Governor Generoso Manobo.
plw Palawano, Brooke’s Point Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Palawanic Philippines MIMAROPA region: southeast Palawan island, south of Abu Abu to Bataraza, mostly along upland rivers, some along the coast 14,400 (2000). 44,800 all Palawano (2005 UNSD) 5* (Developing) Brooke’s Point Palawan, Palawan, Palawanun, Palaweño, Pelewan, Pinalawan, Pinelawan Palawano, Pelaꞌwan South Palawano (Bugsuk Palawano). Intelligibility of Central Palawano [plc] 76%; of Southwest Palawano [plv] 68%. Lexical similarity: 82% with Quezon Palawano [plc] (Central), 85% with Southwest Palawano [plv], 83% with South Palawano.
tgt Tagbanwa, Central Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Palawanic Philippines MIMAROPA region: northwest Palawan province, Taytay municipality, Malipu bay area on South China seacoast 2,000 (1985 SIL) 8b (Nearly extinct) None known. Intelligibility of Tagbanwa [tbw] (Lamane) 29%, of Calamian Tagbanwa 56%, of Cuyonon [cyo] 61%. Lexical similarity: 56% with Tagbanwa [tbw] (Lamane), 57% with Calamian Tagbanwa [tbk], 48% with Cuyonon [cyo], 40% with Filipino [fil].
bdg Bonggi Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Palawanic Malaysia Sabah: Kudat district, 15 villages on Balambangan and Banggi islands Ethnic population: 1,400 (1990 UBS) 6b (Threatened) Bangay, “Banggi” (pej.), “Banggi Dusun” (pej.) None known. Based on lexicostatistics, reported to be most similar to Molbog [pwm] of the Philippines (Smith 1984, Lobel 2013b). Based on shared innovations, considered more closely related to Ida’an [dbj] (Blust 2010).
pwm Molbog Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Palawanic Philippines MIMAROPA region: Palawan province, Balabac, Balambangam, Banggi, Bataraza, Palawan, and Ramos islands 7,940 in Philippines (2005 UNSD). Ethnic population: 13,400. Total users in all countries: 10,440 5 (Developing) Balabak, Molbog Palawan Molbog Balabac Island, Southern Palawan, Banggi Island. Intelligibility of Brooke’s Point Palawano [plw] is 27%, of South Palawano is 55%. Lexical similarity: 69% with Quezon Palawano [plc] (Central).
plv Palawano, Southwest Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Palawanic Philippines MIMAROPA region: southwest Palawan island, north of Rizal to the south tip, east side from Bataraza south, mostly along upland rivers, some along the coast 12,000 (2005 W. Davis). 44,800 all Palawano (2005 UNSD) 6a* (Vigorous) None known. Intelligibility of Central Palawano [plc] 75%, of Brooke’s Point Palawano [plw] 76%. Lexical similarity: 85% with Brooke’s Point Palawano [plw], 78% with Central Palawano [plc].
tbw Tagbanwa Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Palawanic Philippines MIMAROPA region: Palawan province, scattered communities from about 120 km south to 60 km north on both sides of Puerto Princesa island 17,200 (2005 UNSD). 500 monolinguals (2002) 5 (Developing) Aborlan Tagbanwa, Apurawnon, Tagbanua Tagbanwa None known. Intelligibility of Central Palawano [plc] 66%, of Cuyonon [cyo] 77%. Lexical similarity: 65% with Central Palawano [plc], 71% with Batak [bya], 54% with Cuyonon [cyo].
bya Batak Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Palawanic Philippines MIMAROPA region: Palawan province, central Palawan island, Sulu sea coast, southwest from Malcampo toward Puerto Princesa 360 (2005 UNSD), decreasing. Ethnic population: 2,040 (1990 census) 7 (Shifting) Babuyan, Palawan Batak, Tinitianes
pwm Molbog Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Palawanic Malaysia Sabah: Kudat district, Balambangan and Banggi islands 2,500 in Malaysia (2015 T. Imam Tuah). 250 monolinguals (2015 T. Imam Tuah). Ethnic population: 2,500 (2015 T. Imam Tuah) 5 (Developing)
plc Palawano, Central Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Palawanic Philippines MIMAROPA region: southwest Palawan island, north of Quezon to north of Rizal; east Abu Abu area, mostly along upland rivers, some along the coast 12,000 (1981 UBS). 44,800 all Palawano (2005 UNSD) 5* (Developing) Palawanen, Palaweño, Quezon Palawano None known. Lexical similarity: 82% with Brooke’s Point Palawano [plw], 78% with Southwest Palawano [plv].
bnj Tawbuid, Eastern Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, South Mangyan, Buhid-Taubuid Philippines MIMAROPA region: Mindoro Occidental province; Mindoro Oriental province border area 1,130 (2002 UNSD) 6b* (Threatened) Bangon, Barangan, Batangan, Binatangan, Fanawbuid, Suri, Tabuid, Taubuid, Tiron None known. Western Tawbuid [twb] is distinct.
twb Tawbuid, Western Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, South Mangyan, Buhid-Taubuid Philippines MIMAROPA region: Mindoro Occidental province, mainly Calintaan and Sablayan municipalities 6,810 (2000) 5 (Developing) Batangan Taubuid, Fanawbuid, Western Taubuid None known. Eastern Tawbuid [bnj] is distinct. Reportedly most similar to Buhid [bku].
bku Buhid Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, South Mangyan, Buhid-Taubuid Philippines MIMAROPA region: Mindoro Occidental and Mindoro Oriental provinces, remote central highlands 9,370 (2009 NCIP) 5* (Developing) Bangon, Batangan, Buhid-Mangyan, Bukil
hnn Hanunoo Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, South Mangyan, Hanunoo Philippines MIMAROPA region: Mindoro Occidental province, from Ilin island inland; Mindoro Oriental province, north from San Pedro 18,800 (2009 NCIP) 5* (Developing) Hanonoo, Hanunoo-Mangyan, Mangyan, minaŋyan Gubatnon (Gubat, Sorsogonon), Binli, Kagankan, Waigan, Wawan, Bulalakawnon.
suc Subanon, Western Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Subanon Philippines Zamboanga Peninsula region: Zamboanga del Norte province, Labason town to southern border, mostly inland on Zamboanga Peninsula western slopes; Zamboanga Sibugay province, Ipil, Rosseler T Lim, and Tungawan municipalities on eastern slopes of peninsula 125,000 (2011 SIL) 5 (Developing) Siocon Subanon Siocon, Western Kolibugan (Western Kalibugan). Lexical similarity: 89% between Siocon and Western Kolibugan dialects.
syb Subanen, Central Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Subanon, Eastern Philippines Zamboanga Peninsula region: Zamboanga del Norte province eastern half; Zamboanga del Sur province, west of Molave and Pagadian; Zamboanga Sibugay province, Diplahan, Kabasalan, and Siay municipalities 140,000 (2000), increasing 5 (Developing) Sindangan Subanun, Subaanen Sinubaanen, Subanen Eastern Kolibugan (Eastern Kalibugan). Intelligibility of Southern Subanen [laa] 71%. Lexical similarity: 79% with Western Subanen [suc].
laa Subanen, Southern Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Subanon, Eastern Philippines Zamboanga Peninsula region: Zamboanga del Sur province, peninsula west of Illana bay, Margosatubig city; Zamboanga Sibugay province, peninsula east of Sibuguey bay, Malangas city 25,000 (1978 SIL) 5* (Developing) Lapuyan Subanun, Lapuyen, Margosatubig, Subanen Sinubanen None known. Southern Subanen speakers understand Central Subanen [syb] (85%), but not vice versa.
sfe Subanen, Eastern Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Subanon, Eastern Philippines Zamboanga Peninsula region: Zamboanga del Norte province, Don Victoriano Chiongban municipality on Mount Malindang western slopes; northeast Zamboanga del Sur province; Northern Mindanao region: Misamis Occidental province, border area west of Mount Malindang 7,000 (2011 SIL) 6b* (Threatened) Guinselugnen, Salugnen
stb Subanen, Northern Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Subanon, Eastern Philippines CALABARZON region: Rizal province, Disoy; Siayan municipality, Dumugok; Negros Island region: Negros Oriental province, La Libertad; Northern Mindanao region: Misamis Occidental province, Jose Dalman Manukan (Linay and Pangandaw), Manuel A. Roxas, and Polanco municipalities; Zamboanga Peninsula region: Zamboanga del Norte province, Mutia and Sergio Osmeña, and Sibutad municipalities, inland from Dipolog and Dapitan cities 85,400 (2010 SIL), increasing. No monolinguals. Ethnic population: 85,400 5 (Developing) Northern Subaanen, Tuboy Subanon Dapitan, Salog (Salug), Dikayu, Miatan, Piyau. 63% intelligibility of Central Subanen [syb], 40% of Southern Subanen [laa]. Lexical similarity: 87% with Central Subanen [syb].
skn Subanon, Kolibugan Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Subanon, Eastern Philippines Zamboanga Peninsula region: Zamboanga del Norte province, Sulu Sea coast, Kanapun area to Liloy, also Sibuco to Siocon; Zamboanga del Sur province, Sibuguey bay head, Ipil and inland to Kabasalan; Zamboanga City, south from north provincial border to Curuan 25,100 (2005 UNSD) 6a (Vigorous) Calibugan, Kalibugan, Kolibugan None known. Reportedly similar to Western Subanon [suc], but limitations on inherent intelligibility between them. Lexical and grammatical differences.
dul Agta, Alabat Island Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Umiray Dumaget Philippines CALABARZON region: eastern Quezon province, Alabat and Lopez towns 10 (2018 Mangyan Heritage Center). Ethnic population: 150 (2018 Mangyan Heritage Center) 8a (Moribund) Agta, Alabat Island Dumagat, Inagta, Inagta Alabat
due Agta, Umiray Dumaget Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Umiray Dumaget Philippines Central Luzon and CALABARZON regions: Aurora and Quezon provinces along Philippine Sea coast; Central Luzon region: Bulacan and Nueva Ecija provinces in small border areas inland 3,000 (1994 SIL), decreasing 5 (Developing) Dumagat-Bulos, Dumaget-Bulus, Umiray Agta, Umirey Dumagat Polillo Island Agta, Anglat Agta.
abd Manide Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Umiray Dumaget Philippines Bicol region: Camarines Norte province, Labo and Santa Elena municipalities 3,800 (Lobel 2010) 6b (Threatened) Abiyan, Agta, Camarinas Norte Agta None known. Lexical similarity: 67% with Alabat Agta [dul], 35% with Mt. Iriga Agta [agz].
jvn Javanese, Suriname Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Javanese Suriname Commewijne, Para, Paramaribo, Saramacca, and Wanica districts; north coast 36,300 in Suriname (2016). Ethnic population: 71,900 (2004 census) 5 (Developing) Caribbean Javanese, Surinaams Javaans Jawa Suriname None known. Significantly different from Javanese [jav] of Indonesia.
tes Tengger Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Javanese Indonesia East Java province: south of Pasuran regency, near Mount Bromo 80,000 (2000 census) 6a* (Vigorous) Tenggerese None known. May be marginally intelligible with Javanese [jav] (Florey 2005).
jav Javanese Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Javanese Indonesia Banten, Central Java, and East Java provinces; Special Region of Yogyakarta; Sumatra island: Lampung province; resettlements in Kalimantan, Maluku, Papua, and Sulawesi 68,200,000 in Indonesia (2015 UNSD). Ethnic population: 95,200,000 (2011 census). Total users in all countries: 68,277,600 4 (Educational). De facto language of provincial identity in central and eastern Java Djawa Jawa Cirebon (Cheribon, Tjirebon), Tegal, Indramayu, Surakarta (Sawlaw, Solo), Tembung, Pasisir, Surabaya, Malang-Pasuruan, Banten, Manuk, Banyumas. High Javanese (Jawa Halus) is the language of religion, but users diminishing and mostly limited to Central Javanese speakers. Javanese varieties in Suriname and in New Caledonia now only partially intelligible with difficulty. Javanese in New Caledonia reportedly cannot use High Javanese (Koentjaraningrat 1971). Several dialects in Sabah.
jav Javanese Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Javanese Malaysia Kedah: Kota Setar and Kuala Munda districts; Perak: Kinta district; Sabah: scattered coastal areas; Selangor: Kuala Lumpur area Ethnic population: 300,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981) 8a (Moribund) Jawa
jav Javanese Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Javanese Singapore Scattered 35,500 in Singapore (2004 J. Leclerc). Ethnic population: 88,600 (2010 census) 7 (Shifting) Djawa, Jawa
jas Javanese, New Caledonian Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Javanese New Caledonia South province: Nouméa peninsula Ethnic population: 4,000 7 (Shifting)
jvn Javanese, Suriname Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Javanese French Guiana Awala-Yalimapo commune. Coastal area 5* (Developing) Caribbean Javanese
osi Osing Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Javanese Indonesia East Java province: Banyuwangi regency area on far east Java island facing Bali strait 300,000 (2000 census) 6a (Vigorous) Banyuwangi
agn Agutaynen Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Kalamian Philippines MIMAROPA region: Palawan province, Brooke’s Point, Roxas, and San Vicente municipalities on Agutaya and 5 surrounding islands; Linapacan, Manila, Mindoro, and Taytay 15,000 (2007 SIL) 5 (Developing) Agutayano, Agutayno, Agutaynon Agutaynen None known. Lexical similarity: 52% with Cuyonon [cyo], 71% with Calamian Tagbanwa [tbk].
tbk Tagbanwa, Calamian Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Kalamian Philippines MIMAROPA region: north Palawan province, Busuanga, Coron, Culion, and Linapacan municipalities (Calamian and Linapacan groups); Palawan Island northeast coast, 3 Tagbanwa communities 10,000 (2007 SIL), increasing. Ethnic population: 10,000 5 (Developing) Kalamian Tagbanwa, Kalamianon, “Unggoy” (pej.) Tinagbanwa Baras, Kinalamiananen (Kinaramiananen), Binuswanganen, Tinalaanen, Inawanwaanen, Lininipaknen, Binatuanen. Baras dialect on Palawan Island 94% intelligibility with Calamian Tagbanwa. Lexical similarity: 80% with Calamian and Baras dialects; typologically unusual phenomenon with regard to pronoun ordering and marking.
kge Komering Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Lampung Indonesia South Sumatra province: Ogan Komering Ulu Selatan, Ogan Komering Ulu Timur, Ogan Komering Ulu, and Ogan Ilir regencies; along Komering river from Ranaumeer to near Palembang city 470,000 (2000 census). 20,000 in Jakarta (1992) 6a (Vigorous) Kumoring Upstream Komering, Downstream Komering, Komering, Kayu Agung Asli, Kayu Agung. Lexical similarity: 70% with the Kalianda dialect of Lampung Api [ljp]; 74% with Sungkai dialect of Lampung Api (most similar).
ljp Lampung Api Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Lampung Indonesia Bengkulu province: Kaur regency; Lampung province: Lampung Barat and Tanggamus regencies in Semangko bay area; Way Kanan, north Lampung, and Pringsewu regencies on Lampung bay east coast; also Sebuku, Sebesi, Tabuan, and Legundi islands; South Sumatra province: Ogan Komering Ulu, Ogan Komering Ulu Selatan, and Ogan Komering Ulu Timur regencies, near Kanan river headwaters 827,000 (2000 census) 6a (Vigorous) Api, Lampong, Lampung, Lampung Pesisir Krui (Kroe, Kru’i, Njo, Western Lampung), Southern Pesisir, Pubian, Ranau, Sungkai, Daya.
abl Lampung Nyo Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Lampung Indonesia Lampung province: 3 enclaves east between Kanan and Seputih rivers 180,000 (2000 census) 6a (Vigorous) Abung, Lampong Abung, Tulangbawang, Sukadana, Melinting. Many differences in vocabulary and phonology with Lampung Api [ljp]. Lexical similarity: 72% between the Menggala dialect and the Kalianda dialect of Lampung Api [ljp], 77% among dialects.
byd Benyadu’ Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Land Dayak Indonesia West Kalimantan province: Bengkayang and Landak regencies; near Sarawak border 54,000 (2007 SIL) 6a* (Vigorous) Balantian, Balantiang, Njadu, Nyadu Pandu, Nyadu (Balantian, Balantiang, Njadu).
scg Sanggau Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Land Dayak Indonesia West Kalimantan province: Sanggau regency along Kapuas river 45,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981) 6a* (Vigorous) Dosan, Mayau, Sanggau. Very heterogenous dialects, probably more than 1 language in this group. Not all Sanggau isolects mutually intelligible. Koman and Semerawai could be in this group.
sre Bakati’, Sara Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Land Dayak, Bakati’ Indonesia West Kalimantan province: near Sanggau-Ledo 4,000 (2004 M. Connor) 6a* (Vigorous) Riok Some dialect differences. Unidirectional intelligibility of Rara-Bakati’ [lra] by Sara.
bei Bakati’ Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Land Dayak, Bakati’ Indonesia West Kalimantan province: Sambas regency; Sambas river headwaters 4,000 (1986 UBS) 6b* (Threatened) Bakati Nyam, Bakati Riok, Bakatik Dayak, Bakatiq, Bekati
lra Bakati’, Rara Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Land Dayak, Bakati’ Indonesia West Kalimantan province: Bengkayang regency, Pejampi and 2 other villages; Sanggau regency border area; upper Lundu and Sambas rivers 12,000 in Indonesia (2004 M. Connor) 5* (Developing) Bekati’ Kendayan, Bekati’ Nyam-Pelayo, Bekatiq, Lara’, Luru, Rara Bakati Bina’e.
lra Bakati’, Rara Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Land Dayak, Bakati’ Malaysia Sarawak: Kuching division, Lundu, Pasir Hili, Pasir Tengah, and Kandai villages on Pasir river 11,300 in Malaysia (2000). Total users in all countries: 23,300 6a (Vigorous) Luru, Rara Bakati Rara Bakati’ None known. Most closely related to other Bakati’ languages spoken in Kalimantan. Lexical similarity: 46%–50% with Bidayuh languages.
bth Bidayuh, Biatah Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Land Dayak, Bidayuh, Core, Central Indonesia West Kalimantan province: Sanggau regency, area near Sarawak border; possibly northeast Landak regency 8,480 in Indonesia (2000) 5* (Developing) Biatah, Bideyu, Landu, Lundu, Pueh, Siburan
bth Bidayuh, Biatah Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Land Dayak, Bidayuh, Core, Central Malaysia Sarawak: Kuching division, Kuching district, 10 villages 63,900 in Malaysia (2000 census). Total users in all countries: 72,380 6b (Threatened) Biatah, Bikuab, Kuap, Quop, Sentah, Siburan Siburan, Stang (Bisitaang, Sitaang), Tibia. Not intelligible with Bukar-Sadong Bidayuh [sdo], Salako [knx], or other Bidayuh varieties from Indonesia. Siburan is the prestige dialect. Lexical similarity: 71% with Singai dialect of Bau Bidayuh [sne].
trx Bidayuh, Tringgus-Sembaan Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Land Dayak, Bidayuh, Core, Sembaan Malaysia Sarawak: southwest of Kuching on Kalimantan border 850 in Malaysia (2007 Z. Akter) 6b (Threatened) Tringus Tringgus, Mbaan (Bimbaan, Sembaan). Each dialect has a few villages. Reportedly more similar to Biatah Bidayuh [bth] than to Bau Bidayuh [sne]. Gumbang [sne] may be a Tringgus-Sembaan Bidayuh [trx] dialect rather than a Bau Bidayuh [sne] dialect.
sne Bidayuh, Bau Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Land Dayak, Bidayuh, Core, Western Malaysia Sarawak: Kuching division, about 50 villages on Lundu, Sadong, and Samarahan Lundu rivers 29,200 (2000 census) 6b (Threatened) Bau-Jagoi, Jaggoi, Jagoi, Sarawak Dayak Grogo (Grogoh), Stenggang Jagoi, Krokong, Gumbang, Serambau (Serambo, Serambu), Empawa, Assem, Singai (Bisingai, Singgai, Singgi, Singgie, Singhi), Suti, Tengoh, Dongay, Taup (Tahup). Gumbang may be more closely related to Tringgus-Sembaan [trx]. Lexical similarity: 69% with Bukar Sadong [sdo], 53% between Bukar Sadong and Singai dialect.
sdo Bidayuh, Bukar-Sadong Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Land Dayak, Bidayuh, Eastern Indonesia West Kalimantan province: Sanggau and Sintang regencies; Mount Cemaru, near Sarawak border 6a* (Vigorous) Buka, Bukar, Bukar Sadong, Bukar Sadung Bidayah, Sabutan, Sadong, Serian, Tebakang Bukar Sadong, Bukar Bidayuh (Bidayah, Bidayuh).
sdo Bidayuh, Bukar-Sadong Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Land Dayak, Bidayuh, Eastern Malaysia Sarawak: Samarahan division, 30 or more villages 49,100 in Malaysia (2000 census) 6b (Threatened) Buka, Bukar, Bukar Sadung Bidayah, Sadung, Serian, Tebakang Bukar Bidayuh (Bidayah, Bidayuh, Bideyu), Bukar Sadong, Bukar Sadung Bidayuh, Mentuh Tapuh (Mentu). Lexical similarity: 57% with Standard Malay [zsm].
djo Jangkang Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Land Dayak, Southern Indonesia West Kalimantan province: central Sanggau regency, between Sanggau and Balai Sebut towns on Kapuas river tributary 37,000 (2007 SIL) 6a* (Vigorous) Jangkang proper, Pompang.
xem Kembayan Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Land Dayak, Southern Indonesia West Kalimantan province: Balaikarangan and Kembayan to Sarawak border area 11,000 (2007 SIL) 6a* (Vigorous) Karambai
rir Ribun Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Land Dayak, Southern Indonesia West Kalimantan province: Kapuas Hulu regency, Tayan Hulu sub-district, Landak river area 45,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981) 6a* (Vigorous) Ribun, Bekidoh.
sdm Semandang Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Land Dayak, Southern Indonesia West Kalimantan province: Ketapang regency in Kualan and Semandang river areas 20,000 (2004 M. Connor) 6a* (Vigorous) Kualan-Semandang Semandang, Gerai, Beginci, Bihak, Komi.
kkv Kangean Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Madurese Indonesia Java island, East Java province: sea coast; Kangean islands 110,000 (2000 census) 6a* (Vigorous) None known. Barely intelligible with East Madura [mad]. A separate language (Stevens 1968). Lexical similarity: 75% with Madura [mad].
mad Madura Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Madurese Indonesia East Java province: Java island coast south and west of Surabaja city, Bawean, Kangean, and Sapudi islands; South Kalimantan province: Java Sea area 7,790,000 in Indonesia (2015 UNSD), decreasing. Ethnic population: 7,180,000 (2011 census). Total users in all countries: 7,790,900 5 (Developing) Madhura, Madurese Basa Mathura Bawean (Babean, Bhebien, Boyanese), Bangkalan (Bangkalon), Pamekesan (Pamekasan), Sampang, Sapudi, Sumenep. Dialect continuum. Reports differ about inherent intelligibility among dialects: some Sumenep and Sampang report they cannot understand Pamekasan or Sumenep. Difficult intelligibility with Kangean [kkv]. Bawean may be a separate language. Lexical similarity: 75% with Kangean [kkv].
mad Madura Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Madurese Singapore Scattered 900 in Singapore (1985). Ethnic population: 19,900 (2004 J. Leclerc) 7 (Shifting) Basa Mathura, Madhura, Madurese Bawean (Boyanese).
ace Aceh Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Chamic, Acehnese Indonesia Aceh province: Aceh Barat, Aceh Barat Daya, Aceh Besar, Aceh Jaya, Aceh Selatan, Aceh Singkil, Aceh Tamiang, Aceh Timur, Aceh Utara, Bireuen, Kota Langsa, Kota Lhokseumawe, Nagan Raya, Pidie, and Pidie Jaya regencies, on Weh and neighboring islands; North Sumatra province: Tapanuli Tengah regency, south coast enclave 3,500,000 (2000 census) 6b (Threatened). De facto language of provincial identity in Aceh province Acehnese, Achehnese, Achinese, Atjehnese, Basa Acèh Aceh, Bahsa Acèh Banda Aceh, Baruh, Bueng, Daja, Pase, Pidie (Pedir, Timu), Tunong.
hro Haroi Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Chamic, Coastal Viet Nam Gia Lai and Phu Yen provinces 35,000 (Bradley 2007a). All Cham: 161,729 (2009 census) but as many as 250,000 (Bradley 2007a) 6a* (Vigorous). Language of recognized ethnic group: Cham Aroi, Bahnar Cham, Hoi, Hroi, Hroy, Hrway
cja Cham, Western Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Chamic, Coastal, Cham Cambodia Scattered, nearly half of the Cham in Cambodia live in Kampong Cham and Tbong Khmum provinces, where they are about 6% of the total population. Cham also live dispersed through all other provinces especially Kampong Chhnang and Kratié provinces 204,000 in Cambodia (2009 UNSD). No monolinguals. Ethnic population: 474,000 (2001 J. Leclerc). Total users in all countries: 246,000 6a (Vigorous) Cambodian Cham, New Cham, Tjam Cham None known. Cannot communicate with Eastern Cham [cjm] of central Viet Nam. Lexical similarity: 84% with Eastern Cham [cjm] of Viet Nam (Pawley and Pawley 2010), 69% with Jarai [jra] of northeast Cambodia.
cja Cham Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Chamic, Coastal, Cham Laos Viengchan Capital City: Chanthaburi district, Ban Pounsavath Tai; Savannahkhet province Ethnic population: 340 (Schliesinger 2003a) 8a (Moribund) Cam, Chiem, Khmer Islam, Tjam, Tscham, Tsiam
cjm Cham, Eastern Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Chamic, Coastal, Cham Viet Nam Binh Thuan, Dong Nai, and Ninh Thuan provinces: Ho Chi Minh city 72,900 (Bradley 2007a). All Cham: 161,729 (2009 census) but as many as 250,000 (Bradley 2007a) 6b* (Threatened). Language of recognized ethnic group: Cham Bhamam, Chiem, Chiem Thành, Tjam
cja Cham, Western Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Chamic, Coastal, Cham Thailand Krung Thep province: Ban Khrue section of city (Bangkok), otherwise scattered 4,000 in Thailand 6b* (Threatened) Cambodian Cham, Cham, New Cham, Tjam
cja Cham, Western Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Chamic, Coastal, Cham Viet Nam An Giang and Tay Ninh provinces; Ho Chi Minh city 25,000 in Viet Nam (2007). All Cham: 161,729 (2009 census) but as many as 250,000 (Bradley 2007a) 6b* (Threatened). Language of recognized ethnic group: Cham Cambodian Cham, Cham, Chiem, New Cham, Tjam
rad Rade Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Chamic, Highlands Viet Nam Dat Lak, Dak Nong, Gia Lai, Phu Yen and Khanh Hoa provinces, Banmethuot area 177,000 (Bradley 2007b). Ethnic population: 331,000 (2009 census) 5* (Developing). Language of recognized ethnic group: E De De, E-De, Edeh, Raday, Rde, Rhade, Ê Dê klei Êđê Adham (A-Dham), Blo, Kodrao (Kdrao), Krung, Ndhur (Mdhur), Rde Kpa (Kpa). Krung dialect is different from the Bahnaric language Krung [krr] in Cambodia. Other dialect or ethnic group names are: Ktul, Dlie, Rue, E-pan, Dong Kay, Arul, Kah.
ibh Bih Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Chamic, Highlands Viet Nam Dat Lak province: Krong Ana district, Buon Trap town 10 (2015 T. Nguyen). Ethnic population: 500 (Nguyen 2013) 8b (Nearly extinct)
jra Jarai Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Chamic, Highlands Cambodia Ratanakiri province: principally Andoung Meas, Bar Kaev, and Ou Ya Dav districts; northeast border near Viet Nam 20,800 in Cambodia (2009 UNSD) 5 (Developing) Cho-Rai, Chor, Chrai, Djarai, Gia-Rai, Gio-Rai, Jorai, Mthur
jra Jarai Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Chamic, Highlands Viet Nam Gia Lai, Kon Tum, and Binh Dinh provinces; some in Dat Lak province 242,000 in Viet Nam (Bradley 2007b). Ethnic population: 411,000 (2009 census). Total users in all countries: 262,800 5* (Developing). Language of recognized ethnic group: Gia Rai Cho Rai, Chor, Chrai, Djarai, Drai, Gia Rai, Gio Rai, Mthur, Zrai Jơrai Puan, Hodrung (Hdrung), Jhue, Aráp, Habau (Ho-Bau), To-Buan, Sesan, Chuty, Pleikly, Golar. Cambodian dialects are all very similar, all displaying some significant differences with dialects in Viet Nam.
cje Chru Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Chamic, Highlands, Chru-Northern Viet Nam Lam Dong province: Don Duong, Duc Trong, and Di Linh districts; Binh Thuan province: An Son and Duc Linh districts; Ninh Thuan province 19,300 (2009 census). Based on ethnicity 6b* (Threatened). Language of recognized ethnic group: Chu Ru Cadoe Loang, Cho Ru, Choru, Chrau Hma, Chu, Chu Ru, Churu, Cru, Kru, Seyu Rai, Noang (La-Dang).
rgs Roglai, Southern Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Chamic, Highlands, Chru-Northern, Northern Cham Viet Nam South, Binh Thuan, Khanh Hoa, and Ninh Thuan provinces 18,000 (2007 census). Ethnic population: 20,000 (Bradley 2007b) 6a* (Vigorous). Language of recognized ethnic group: Ra Glai Rai Rai. Reportedly similar to Chru [cje] and Northern Roglai [rog].
roc Roglai, Cacgia Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Chamic, Highlands, Chru-Northern, Northern Cham Viet Nam Ninh Thuan province, northeast of Phan Rang on the coast 3,000 (2002) 6a* (Vigorous). Language of recognized ethnic group: Ra Glai Ra-Glai None known. Considerably different from other Roglai varieties.
rog Roglai, Northern Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Chamic, Highlands, Chru-Northern, Northern Cham Viet Nam Ninh Thuan, Dat Lak, Binh Thuan, Khanh Hoa, and Lam Dong provinces, in the mountains west and south of Nhatrang; some near Dalat 52,900 (2002) 5* (Developing). Language of recognized ethnic group: Ra Glai Adlai, La-Oang, Noang, Ra-Glai, Rang Glai, Rayglay Radlai
huq Tsat Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Chamic, Highlands, Chru-Northern, Northern Cham China Qinghai province: Hainan Tibetan Autonomous prefecture, Yaxian (Sanya) county, Yanglan district, Huixin and Huihui villages 4,000 (Bradley 2007a). Ethnic population: 5,000 (2000 D. Bradley) 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: Hui Hainan Cham, Hui, Huihui, Poi Tsat, Sanya Hui, Utsat, Utset None known. Reportedly most similar to Northern Roglai [rog], but very different. Tsat is structurally changed to be like Chinese.
knx Kendayan Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic Indonesia West Kalimantan province: Bengkayang, Kota Singkawang, Kuba Raya, Landau, Sambas, and Sanggau regencies; northwest Kalimantan island, South China sea coast, and Madi and Papan jungle area 321,000 in Indonesia (2007 SIL). Total users in all countries: 331,700 3 (Wider communication). Used as LWC among non-Muslim Dayaks of northwest West Kalimantan province Baicit, Damea, Kanayatn, Kendayan Dayak, Kendayan-Ambawang, Salako Ambawang, Kendayan, Ahe, Selako.
knl Keninjal Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic Indonesia Central Kalimantan province; West Kalimantan province: Gelalak, Nangaella, Nangapinoh, and Nangasayan town areas, and along Melawi and Sayan rivers 32,000 (2007 SIL) 6a* (Vigorous) Dayak Kaninjal, Kaninjal, Kaninjal Dayak Kubing. Lexical similarity: more than 80% with other “Malayic Dayak” dialects in Melawi Basin like Barai, Nanga Nuak, Kebahan, Ransa, Kenyilu, Limbai and Kubin.
xdy Malayic Dayak Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic Indonesia Widely dispersed; Central Kalimantan province: Katingan, Kotawaringgin Barat, Koti Timur, Lamandau, and Sukamara regencies; West Kalimantan province: small area near Sintang, area near Putussibau, and Sandai area, all along Kapuas river; Ketapang city northeast towards Kotabaru. Sandai, Muarakayang, Pembuanghulu, Sukamara, and Sukaraja town areas (Kayung and Delang dialects); Sintang to Putus Sibau town areas (Semitau, Suhaid, and Mentebah-Suruk dialects); Singakawang, Bengkayang, Darit, and Sungairaya town areas (Banana’ and Tapitn dialects); Muarakayang, Pembuanghulu, Sandai, Sukamara, and Sukaraja town areas (Kayung and Delang dialects) 520,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). 300 Tapitn, 100,000 Banana’, 100,000 Kayung, 200,000 Delang, 10,000 Semitau, 10,000 Suhaid, 20,000 Mentebah-Suruk 6a* (Vigorous) Bamayo, Bumayoh Tapitn, Banana’, Kayung (Kayong), Delang, Semitau, Suhaid, Mentebah-Suruk, Arut (Sukarame), Lamandau (Landau Kantu), Sukamara (Kerta Mulya), Riam (Nibung Terjung), Belantikan (Sungkup), Tamuan, Tomun, Pangin, Sekakai, Silat, Melahui, Serawai, Tebidah, Payak, Undau. Listed dialects form a chain and may constitute 3 or more languages. Related to Keninjal [knl].
knx Salako Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic Malaysia Sarawak: Kuching division, Lundu district, Saak. 22 villages 10,700 in Malaysia (2000 census) 6a (Vigorous) Kenayatn, Kendayan, Salakau, Selakau, Selako, Silakau
urk Urak Lawoi’ Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic Thailand Southwest coastal islands, south of Phuket province; Krabi province: offshore islands, Phi Phi Don, Ha, Khlong Dao, Lang Sot and Thung; Satun province: Bu Tang, Ra Wi, and A Dang islands 5,000 (2012 S. Pattemore). Ethnic population: 3,000 (Bradley 2007b) 7 (Shifting) Chaw Talay, Chawnam, Lawoi, Lawta, Orak Lawoi’ Adang, Phuket Young Peoples, Phuket Old Peoples. Aboriginal Malays with a unique Malay language. A member of macrolanguage Malay [msa].
sbx Seberuang Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Ibanic Indonesia West Kalimantan province. Kapuas river area from Nanga Silat town to Selimbau town, on Belimbing, Lebang, Belitang, Seauk, Tempunak, Selimbau, and Silat rivers 37,000 (2007 SIL) 6a* (Vigorous) Quite similar to Desa, a dialect of Iban [iba] (2004 M. Connor).
blg Balau Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Ibanic Malaysia Sarawak: southeast of Simunjan 5,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981) 6b* (Threatened) Bala’u May be a dialect of Iban [iba].
iba Iban Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Ibanic Brunei Belait and Tutong districts: rural areas; Temburong district 17,300 in Brunei (2004 J. Leclerc) 5* (Dispersed) Sea Dayak Batang Lupar, Bugau.
iba Iban Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Ibanic Indonesia West Kalimantan province: Kapuas Hulu regency, Nanga Katungau north to Sarawak border on middle Kapuas river, east of Mount Betung to Udjungumbut, west to Sebangkung town; Sintang regency, lower Kapuas south bank 15,000 in Indonesia (Benjamin and Chou 2003) 5* (Dispersed) Sea Dayak Batang Lupar, Bugau, Kantu’, Ketungau (Air Tabun, Banjur, Demam, Maung, Sebaru’, Sekapat, Seklau, Sesat, Sigarau), Desa.
iba Iban Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Ibanic Malaysia Sabah: Tawau district; Sarawak: scattered 1,452,000 in Malaysia, all users. L1 users: 752,000 in Malaysia (2013 SIL). Including 2,300 in 2 villages in Sabah (2013 A. Maraining). L2 users: 700,000 (2013 SIL). Total users in all countries: 1,484,300 (as L1: 784,300; as L2: 700,000) 3 (Wider communication). Spoken from Sri Aman Division in the south west to Miri Division in the north east in the domains of market, church, business, and media Iban Sabah, Sea Dayak Jaku Iban Batang Lupar, Bugau, Skrang, Dau, Lemanak, Ulu Ai, Undup.
mtd Mualang Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Ibanic Indonesia West Kalimantan province: Belitang, Belitang Hilir, and Belitang Hulu Sekadau sub-districts along Ayak and Belitang rivers 40,000 (Tjia 2007) 5* (Developing) Mualang Mualang Ili’, Mualang Ulu. Reportedly similar to Iban [iba]; however only one-way intelligibility from Mualang to Iban.
lkj Remun Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Ibanic Malaysia Sarawak: Serian district, Kuching division, 13 villages, southeast of Serian to Balai Ringin 3,500 (2000 SIL) 6b (Threatened) Milikin, Millikin, Remun Iban
snb Sebuyau Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Ibanic Malaysia Sarawak: Kuching division, Lundu division 7,000 (2017 S. Anonby). Ethnic population: 9,000 (2017 S. Anonby) 6b (Threatened) Sabuyan, Sabuyau, Sibuian, Sibuyan, Sibuyau
jax Malay, Jambi Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Malay Indonesia Bengkulu province: small area south of Lake Dipatipan; Jambi province: widespread; Riau province: Indragiri Hulu and Indragiri Hilir regencies; South Sumatra province: northern border area; all on southeast West Sumatra province: Pessisir Selantan regency border enclave 1,000,000 (2000 census) 6a (Vigorous) Bahasa Melayu Jambi, Bahaso Daerah, Bahaso Dusun, Baso Jambi, Batin, Djambi, Jambi Downstream Jambi Malay, Upstream Jambi Malay. Forms a network of related varieties with Minangkabau [min] west, Riau Malay [zlm] north, and Musi [mui] south (Anderbeck 2008). A member of macrolanguage Malay [msa].
vkk Kaur Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Malay Indonesia Bengkulu province: south; South Sumatra province: northwest from Danay Panay; all on Sumatra island 40,000 (2000 census) 6a (Vigorous) Bintuhan, Ka’ur, Mulak Borrowings from Lampung Api [ljp]; reportedly difficult to understand for Central Malay [pse] speakers. Lexical similarity: 70% with Central Malay [pse] dialects Pasemah and Serawai. A member of macrolanguage Malay [msa].
kvr Kerinci Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Malay Indonesia Sumatra, Jambi province: Kerinci regency, Sungaipenuh area in western mountains; West Sumatra province: Solok Selatan regency 260,000 in Indonesia (2000 census). Total users in all countries: 285,000 6b* (Threatened) Kerinchi, Kinchai High dialect diversity in a small area, shading into Jambi Malay [zlm] east and Minangkabau [min] north. Distinct from Kerinci-Minangkabau dialect of Minangkabau. A member of macrolanguage Malay [msa].
lce Sekak Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Malay Indonesia Riau province; Riau Islands province; Bangka Belitung Islands province: Bangka Barat, Banka Tenga, and Bangka Selatan regencies, 2 coastal enclaves northern and southeast Bangka island; Belitung regency, western Belitung, Lepar, Liat, Mendanau, and other islands 420 (2000), decreasing 6b (Threatened) Lonchong, Loncong, Lontjong, Orang Laut, Orang Sawang, Sawang, Seka, Sekah Lexically and phonologically distinct from the Belitung dialect of Malay [zlm] and other Sea Tribe varieties. Lexically most similar to Bintan Orang Laut Malay [zlm] dialect. A member of macrolanguage Malay [msa].
zlm Malay Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Malay Malaysia Peninsular Malaysia: widespread; Sarawak: Betong, Kuching, Samarahan, and Sri Aman districts 13,500,000 in Malaysia, all users. L1 users: 10,500,000 in Malaysia (2004 census). 10 million in Peninsular Malaysia, 506,000 in Sarawak, and 30,000 in Labuan. L2 users: 3,000,000. Total users in all countries: 19,092,180 (as L1: 16,092,180; as L2: 3,000,000) 3 (Wider communication) Colloquial Malay, Informal Malay, Local Malay, Malayu Bahasa Melayu, ملايو‎ (Melayu) Coastal Terengganu, Inland Terengganu, Kelantan, Pahang, Southeast Island, Jugra-Muar-Melaka-Johor, Sarawak (Sarawak Malay), Tamiang, Deli, Riau Mainland, Akit, Sakai, Riau islands, Coastal Jambi, Belitung, Northwestern Kalimantan, Upstream Western Kalimantan, Southwestern Coastal Kalimantan. Kedah Malay [meo], Negeri Sembilan Malay [zmi], Jakun [jak], Orang Kanaq [orn], Orang Seletar [ors], Temuan [tmw], Sabah Malay [msi], and Brunei [kxd] are so closely related that they may one day be included as dialects of Malay. Coastal Terengganu, inland Terengganu, Kelantan most aberrant but evidently mutually intelligible with Pattani Malay [mfa]. A member of macrolanguage Malay [msa].
bvu Malay, Bukit Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Malay Indonesia South Kalimantan province: Sampanahan river area northwest of Limbungan town 59,000 (2007 SIL) 6a* (Vigorous) Bukat, Bukit, Meratus None known. A variant of Banjar Malay [bjn] (Collins 2001). A member of macrolanguage Malay [msa].
pse Malay, Central Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Malay Indonesia Bengkulu province: central Bukit Barisan highlands west to Indian Ocean along Bengkulu coast; Lampung province; South Sumatra province: Lematang and Ogan river valleys 1,590,000 (2000 census) 6a (Vigorous) Bengkulu, Besemah, Enim, Lintang, Melayu Tengah, Midden Maleisch, Ogan, Pasemah, Semendo, Serawai Serawai, Bengkulu, Semenda, Lintang, Benakat, Kisam, Pasemah, Kikim, Lematang Ulu, Ogan, Enim, Rambang. Lexical similarity: 75% with Kaur [vkk], 80% between Pekal [pel] and some dialects such as Pasemah and Bengkulu. A member of macrolanguage Malay [msa].
meo Malay, Kedah Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Malay Malaysia Kedah, Perak, Perlis, and Pulau Pinang states 2,600,000 in Malaysia (2004) 3 (Wider communication) Kedahan Malay, Satun Malay Pelat Utagha None known. Distinct from Pattani Malay [mfa] and Standard Malay [zsm]. A member of macrolanguage Malay [msa].
mfa Malay, Pattani Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Malay Thailand Narathiwat, Pattani, and Yala provinces; Songkhla province: Saba Yoi and Thepha districts 1,470,000 (2010 census) 5 (Developing) Jawi, Jawi-Malay, Yawi, oré Jawi ภาษายาวี‎ (Baso Jawi) None known. Different from Kedah Malay [meo] and Standard Malay [zsm]. Also different from Patani [ptn]. A member of macrolanguage Malay [msa].
min Minangkabau Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Malay Indonesia Bengkulu province: west coast Mukomuko area. Sumatra island, Indian Ocean coast, Padang is central area; South Sumatra province; West Sumatra province 4,240,000 (2015 UNSD). Ethnic population: 6,463,000 (2011 census) 5 (Developing) Minang, Padang Agam, Pajokumbuh, Tanah, Si Junjung, Batu Sangkar-Pariangan, Singkarak, Pancuang Soal (Muko-Muko), Orang Mamak, Ulu, Kerinci-Minangkabau, Aneuk Jamee (Jamee), Penghulu. Not intelligible with Indonesian [ind]. Pekal [pel] may be intelligible with Minangkabau. A member of macrolanguage Malay [msa].
pel Pekal Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Malay Indonesia Sumatera Selatan and Bengkulu provinces: northeast of Ipuh town to Tembesi river, to Argamakmur area south 30,000 (2000 census) 6a (Vigorous) None known. Related to Minangkabau [min] with Rejang influences [rej]. A member of macrolanguage Malay [msa].
mfb Bangka Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Malay Indonesia Bangka Belitung Islands province: widespread, Bangka island 340,000 (2000 census). 50 or less speakers of the Lom dialect (Wurm 2007) 6a* (Vigorous) North Bangka, South Bangka, Lom (Belom, Mapor), Central Bangka, Capital City Urban Bangka, Port Urban Bangka. A member of macrolanguage Malay [msa].
bjn Banjar Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Malay Indonesia Central Kalimantan province: Palangkaraya, Pangkalanbun, and Sampit; East Kalimantan province: Kutai, Pasir, and Pulau Laut coastal regions, north toward Samarinda city and Mahakan delta; South Kalimantan province: Banjarmasin area; West Kalimantan province: some in coastal Matua; Kalimantan south and southeastern coasts, Java Sea and Makassar Strait 3,650,000 in Indonesia (2015 UNSD), increasing. Total users in all countries: 3,655,000 3 (Wider communication). Banjar became a LWC through trade. LWC in the market, in business, and in media. Banjar, already dominant in South Kalimantan Province, is also growing rapidly in Central and Eastern Kalimantan provinces Bandjarese, Banjar Malay, Banjarese, Labuhan بنجر‎ (Banjar) Kuala, Hulu. Lexically influenced by Javanese [jav]. Lexical similarity: 73% with Indonesian [ind], 66% with Tamuan (Malayic Dayak) [xdy], 45% with Bakumpai [bkr], 35% with Ngaju [nij]. A member of macrolanguage Malay [msa].
bjn Banjar Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Malay Malaysia Sabah: Keningau, Sandakan, Tawau, Tenom districts, scattered coastal settlements 5,000 in Malaysia (2013 SIL) 7 (Shifting) Bandjarese, Banjar Malay, Banjar Melau, Banjarese, Benjar
kxd Brunei Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Malay Brunei Widespread 295,000 in Brunei (2004 J. Leclerc), increasing. Total users in all countries: 346,000 3 (Wider communication). De facto national working language Brunei-Kadayan, Orang Bukit Bahasa Melayu Brunei, بهاس ملايو بروني‎ (Bahasa Melayu Brunei) Brunei Malay, Kadayan (Kadaian, Kadian, Kadien, Kadyan, Karayan, Kedayan, Kedien, Kedyan, Kerayan), Kampong Ayer. Lexical similarity: 94%–95% between Brunei and the Kampong Ayer dialects, 80%–82% with Standard Malay [zsm]. A member of macrolanguage Malay [msa].
kxd Brunei Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Malay Malaysia Sabah: Kota Kinabalu southwest to Labuan Federal Territory and Brunei border; Sarawak: north Lawas district; Batang Baram river mouth to Bintulu town 51,000 in Malaysia (2013 SIL), decreasing. 35,000 monolinguals (2015 S. Damit). Ethnic population: 350,000 (2014 census) 6b (Threatened) Brunai, Brunei-Kadayan, “Orang Bukit” (pej.) Brunei, Kadayan (Kadaian, Kadian, Kadien, Kadyan, Karayan, Kedayan, Kedien, Kedyan, Kerayan).
liw Col Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Malay Indonesia Bengkulu and South Sumatra provinces: Lubuklinggau and Muaraklingi areas south, east, and north; small group east of Bengkulu city 145,000 (2000 census) 6a (Vigorous) Cul, Sindang Lembak Delapan, Sindang Kelingi, Beliti, Lubuk Linggau. A member of macrolanguage Malay [msa].
dup Duano Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Malay Indonesia Sumatra, Riau province: west archipelago and Daratan east coast; into Jambi province: northeast coast; Riau Province, Bengkalis, Kepulauan Meranti, and Pelawan regencies, offshore islands Rangsang, Mendol, and Bengkalis, 4 areas 15,000 in Indonesia (2006 SIL). Ethnic population: Total ethnic population all countries: 19,000 (2006 E. Seidlitz). Total users in all countries: 15,600 6a* (Vigorous) Desin Dolak, Desin Duano, Duano’, Orang Kuala A member of macrolanguage Malay [msa].
dup Duano Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Malay Malaysia Johor: Batu Pahat, Muar, and Pontian districts, Kuala Benut, Lenga, Minyak Beku, Pontian Besar, Rengit, Semerah, Senggarang, and Sungai Layau on west coast, Pontian Kecil area 600 in Malaysia (2007 SIL). No monolinguals. Ethnic population: 3,010 (2008 JHEOA) 8a (Moribund) Desin Dolak, Desin Duano, Orang Kuala, Orang Laut
hji Haji Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Malay Indonesia South Sumatra province: Ogan Komering Ulu Selatan regency, 2 areas on Sumatra 17,500 (2000 census). Very few monolinguals. Ethnic population: 17,500 (2007) 6a (Vigorous) Aji None known. Genetically Malay with approximately one-third Lampung vocabulary. A member of macrolanguage Malay [msa].
ind Indonesian Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Malay Indonesia Widespread 198,000,000 in Indonesia (2010 census), all users. L1 users: 42,800,000 (2015 UNSD), increasing. Total users in all countries: 198,733,600 (as L1: 43,364,600; as L2: 155,369,000) 1 (National). Statutory national language (1945, Constitution, Article 36) Bahasa Indonesia None known. Lexical similarity: over 80% with Standard Malay [zsm]. A member of macrolanguage Malay [msa].
jak Jakun Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Malay Malaysia Johor and Pahang: Pekan district south along east coast to south of Johor river Ethnic population: 25,000 (2008 JHEOA) 6b* (Threatened) Djakun, Jakoon, Jaku’d, Jakud’n, Orang Hulu A member of macrolanguage Malay [msa].
kvb Kubu Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Malay Indonesia Sumatra, Jambi province: Sarolangun and Batang Hari regencies, 2 enclaves, eastern swamp region; South Sumatra province: Musi Banyuasin regency 10,000 (1989). Ethnic population: 15,000 (Persoon 1989) 6b (Threatened) Anak Dalam, Orang Hutan, Orang Rimba Lalang, Bajat, Ulu Lako, Tungkal, Tungkal Ilir, Dawas, Supat, Jambi, Ridan, Nomadic Kubu. Related to Lubu [lcf]. A member of macrolanguage Malay [msa].
lcf Lubu Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Malay Indonesia North Sumatra province: south Sumatra, Kotanopan area 30,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981) 6a* (Vigorous) None known. Related to Kubu [kvb]. A member of macrolanguage Malay [msa].
zlm Malay Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Malay Indonesia Aceh, Bangka Belitung Islands, Central Kalimantan, Jambi, North Sumatra, Riau, Riau Islands, South Kalimantan, West Kalimantan, and West Sumatra; widespread in central and north Sumatra, areas of Kalimantan, and island provinces between 4,910,000 in Indonesia (2000 census). 3,970,000 in Sumatra (100,000 in Belitung, 1,830,000 in Riau, 2,000,000 Deli, Asahan, etc. in North Sumatra and 40,000 Tamiang in Aceh), and 940,000 in Kalimantan (primarily Pontianak, Sambas and Ketapang) 6a (Vigorous). De facto language of provincial identity in Sumatra Bahasa Daerah, Bahasa Melayu, Malayu Tamiang, Riau Mainland, Deli, Belitung, Akit, Sakai, Riau islands (Sea Tribe dialects), coastal Jambi, Sambas, Landak, Pontianak, Sukadana, Ketapang, Sanggau, Sintang, Sekadau, Kapuas Hulu.
zlm Malay Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Malay Singapore 602,000 in Singapore (2016 census) 1 (National). Statutory national language (1963, Constitution, Article 153A(2)), not dominant despite status Colloquial Malay, Local Malay, Malayu Jugra-Muar-Melaka-Johor.
btj Malay, Bacanese Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Malay Indonesia North Maluku province: at least 2 villages on Bacan and Mandioli islands 6 (2012 SIL) 8b (Nearly extinct) Bacan, Batjan A member of macrolanguage Malay [msa].
bve Malay, Berau Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Malay Indonesia East Kalimantan province: Cape Pandan, Tanjungreder, and Muaramalinau towns on lower Segah river; Celebes Sea coast and south past Sepinang town to Cape Batube area 11,200 (2007 SIL) 6a* (Vigorous) Berau, Merau Malay A member of macrolanguage Malay [msa].
mqg Malay, Kota Bangun Kutai Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Malay Indonesia East Kalimantan province: Lakes Semajang and Melintang areas, north along Belayen river and central Mahakam river basin 80,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981) 6a* (Vigorous) Not intelligible with mainstream Tenggarong Kutai Malay [vkt], but may be with one of its dialects (Northern Kutai). A member of macrolanguage Malay [msa].
mfp Malay, Makassar Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Malay Indonesia South Sulawesi province: Makassar port area 1,880,000, all users. L1 users: No known L1 speakers. L2 users: 1,880,000 (2000). Ethnic population: No ethnic community 9 (Second language only) Macassarese Malay, Makassarese Malay, Sulsel Indonesian, Ujung Pandang Indonesian
msi Malay, Sabah Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Malay Malaysia Sabah 3,000,000 (2013 SIL), all users. L1 users: Mostly second-language speakers, but growing number of L1 speakers (2015 J.K.L. Wong). Ethnic population: No ethnic community (2015 J.K.L. Wong) 3 (Wider communication). Used throughout the state of Sabah in virtually all non-formal domains. Estimated more than half (60%) of Sabah population, and almost all other language groups use Sabah Malay Bazaar Malay, Pasar Malay, Sabah Malay Dialect Bahasa Sabah A member of macrolanguage Malay [msa].
meo Malay, Satun Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Malay Thailand A few villages near Satun. Isolated 6a* (Vigorous) Kedah Malay
zsm Malay, Standard Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Malay Brunei Population: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1984, Constitution, Article 82(1)) Bahasa Malaysia, Formal Malay, Malay, Malayu, Melayu, Melayu Baku
zsm Malay, Standard Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Malay Malaysia Widespread Few L1 speakers. L2 includes most Malaysian population 1 (National). Statutory national language (1963, Constitution (amended), Article 153A(1)) Bahasa Malayu, Formal Malay, Malay, Malayu, Melayu, Melayu Baku Bahasa Malaysia None known. Lexical similarity: more than 80% with Indonesian [ind]. A member of macrolanguage Malay [msa].
zsm Malay, Standard Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Malay Singapore Widespread Few L1 speakers. L2 speakers include ethnic Malays and some others, particularly the older generation 6b* (Threatened) Bahasa Malaysia, Formal Malay, Malay, Malayu, Melayu, Melayu Baku
vkt Malay, Tenggarong Kutai Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Malay Indonesia East Kalimantan province: Mahakam river basin east to Celebes Sea coast, north from Cape Pandan along coast south to Samarinda city area 210,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). 100,000 in Tenggarong, 60,000 in Ancalong, 50,000 in Northern Kutai 6a* (Vigorous) Kutai, Tenggarong Tenggarong Kutai, Ancalong Kutai, Northern Kutai. Many dialects. Tenggarong and Kota Bangun (Malay, Kota Bangun Kutai [mqg]) are not inherently intelligible. Shares phonological innovations with Berau Malay [bve], Banjar [bjn], and Brunei [xkd]. A member of macrolanguage Malay [msa].
mui Musi Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Malay Indonesia South Sumatra province: widespread in northern 2 thirds of province from Musi river upstream to Bukit Barisan mountains, downstream to coastal swamplands; Lampung province: northeast; border areas in Jambi and Bengkulu provinces 3,105,000 (2000 census) 3 (Wider communication). Much of the population from other language groups in South Sumatra Province learn enough Urban Palembang dialect to use it as a trade language Baso Palembang, Palembang, Palembangnese, Sekayu Pegagan, Musi Sekayu, Penukal, Kelingi, Palembang Lama, Meranjat, Penesak, Belide, Burai, Lematang Ilir, Coastal Malay, Rawas. A mutually-intelligible dialect chain stretching along the Musi River with 2 subgroups: Musi and Palembang. A member of macrolanguage Malay [msa].
zmi Negeri Sembilan Malay Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Malay Malaysia Negeri Sembilan: Ulu Muar district Used as L1 by many inhabitants of Negeri Sembilan State (2011 K. Anderbeck). Ethnic population: 508,000 (2004) 6b* (Threatened) Malaysian Minangkabau, Orang Negeri, Ulu Muar Malay A member of macrolanguage Malay [msa].
orn Orang Kanaq Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Malay Malaysia Johor: east, northeast of Mawai (Kota Tinggi) Ethnic population: 160 (2008 JHEOA) 8b (Nearly extinct) Kanaq A member of macrolanguage Malay [msa].
ors Orang Seletar Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Malay Malaysia Johor: southeast coast, Kukuo area; Johore Bahru, east and north Ethnic population: 1,250 (2008 JHEOA). Total users in all countries: 790 6b* (Threatened) Orang Laut A member of macrolanguage Malay [msa].
ors Orang Seletar Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Malay Singapore North-Eastern Islands district, Johor strait area; scattered elsewhere 790 in Singapore (2004 J. Leclerc) 8a (Moribund)
tmw Temuan Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Malay Malaysia Johor, Negeri Sembilan, Putrajaya, and Selangor states: Kuala Langat and scattered settlements Ethnic population: 22,700 (2008 JHEOA) 6b* (Threatened) Benua, Niap Beduanda (Biduanda), Belanda (Belana, Belanas, Belandas, Blanda, Landa), Berembun (Birmun), Mantra (Mentera, Mintra), Temuan, Udai. A member of macrolanguage Malay [msa].
tnw Tonsawang Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Minahasan Indonesia North Sulawesi province: Minahasa, Minahasa Selatan, and Minahasa Tenggara regencies; highland area southwest of Lake Tondano, north area near Ronoketang town, south area between Tumani and Kotamobagu 20,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981), decreasing 7 (Shifting) Tombatu
tnt Tontemboan Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Minahasan, North Indonesia North Sulawesi province: Minahasa Selatan regency on Amurang bay inland; Minahasa and Minahasa Tenggara regencies, Lake Tondano southeast strip to coast 150,000 (1990 J. Merrifield) 6b* (Threatened) Pakewa, Tompakewa, Tountemboan Tompaso (Makelai, Makela’i-Maotow), Sonder (Matanai, Matana’i-Maore’).
tom Tombulu Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Minahasan, North, Northeast Indonesia North Sulawesi province: Minahasa regency, Kota Tomohon city 60,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981), decreasing 7 (Shifting) Minahasa, Minhasa, Tombalu, Tombula, Tombulu’, Toumbulu Taratara, Tomohon. Reportedly most similar to Tondano [tdn] and Tonsea [txs].
tdn Tondano Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Minahasan, North, Northeast Indonesia North Sulawesi province: Minahasa and Minahasa Utara regencies on north peninsula, Lake Tondano area 92,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981), decreasing 7 (Shifting) Tolou, Tolour, Tondanou, Toulour Tondano, Kakas (Ka’kas), Remboken. Reportedly most similar to Tombulu [tom] and Tonsea [txs].
txs Tonsea Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Minahasan, North, Northeast Indonesia North Sulawesi province: Minahasa Utara regency, Kota Bitung and Kota Manado cities 90,000 (1989), decreasing 6b* (Threatened) Tonsea’ Maumbi, Airmadidi, Likupang, Kauditan, Kalabat Atas.
mwt Moken Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Moklen Myanmar Tanintharyi region: widespread in Mergui archipelago islands 4,000 in Myanmar (Bradley 2007a). Total users in all countries: 6,000 6b (Threatened) Basing, Chau Ko’, Lawta, Mawken, Orang Laut, Salon, Salong, Selong, Selung Dung, Jait (Ja-It), Lebi (L’be), Niawi. Reportedly most similar to Moklen [mkm].
mwt Moken Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Moklen Thailand Ranong, Phangnga, Phuket (southernmost tip), and Krabi provinces: southwest coast, offshore islands, Andaman Sea and Straits of Malacca 2,000 in Thailand (Bradley 2007a) 6b* (Threatened) Basing, Chau Ko’, Mawken, Salon, Salong, Selong, Selung Kòʔ Surin (Northern Jadiak), Rawai (Southern Jadiak). Reportedly most similar to Moklen [mkm].
mkm Moklen Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Moklen Thailand Phangnga and Phuket provinces: west coast 1,500 (1984 D. Hogan), decreasing. Ethnic population: 4,000 (2000 D. Bradley) 6b* (Threatened) Chau Pok None known. Reportedly most similar to Moken [mwt].
nsy Nasal Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Nasal Indonesia Bengkulu province: Kaur regency, Gedung Menung, Tanjung Baru, and Tanjung Betuah villages in Nasal river area on Sumatra 3,000 (2008 K. Anderbeck). Very few monolinguals 6a (Vigorous) None known. Not closely related to surrounding languages, but heavy loans from Lampung [ljp].
bkn Bukitan Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Melanau-Kajang, Kajang Indonesia North Kalimantan province: Malinau regency on Sarawak border, 2 enclaves on Iwan river 570 in Indonesia (2000). Total users in all countries: 860 6b (Threatened) Bakatan, Bakitan, Beketan, Mangkettan, Manketa, Pakatan Punan Ukit, Punan Busang.
bkn Bukitan Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Melanau-Kajang, Kajang Malaysia Sarawak: small enclaves in Kapit and Tatau divisions 290 in Malaysia (2000) 6b (Threatened) Bakatan, Bakitan, Beketan, Mangkettan, Manketa, Pakatan
kag Kajaman Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Melanau-Kajang, Kajang Malaysia Sarawak: Kapit division near Belaga on Balui river 500 (Wurm and Hattori 1981) 6b (Threatened) Kayaman, Kejaman
lhn Lahanan Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Melanau-Kajang, Kajang Malaysia Sarawak: central, east of Belaga, southwest of Long Murum 350 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Ethnic population: 700 (Alexander and Alexander 2002) 6b (Threatened) Lanan, Lanun None known. Reportedly most similar to Kajaman [kag].
pnm Punan Batu Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Melanau-Kajang, Kajang Malaysia Sarawak: Marudi district, west of Long Geng, southeast of Belaga 30 (Wurm 2000) 6b (Threatened) Punan Batu 1
skp Sekapan Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Melanau-Kajang, Kajang Malaysia Sarawak: Kapit division, Belaga 750 (Wurm and Hattori 1981) 6b (Threatened) Sekepan
spg Sian Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Melanau-Kajang, Kajang Malaysia Sarawak state: Kapita division, Belaga 50 (Wurm 2000). Ethnic population: 100 (2000) 6b (Threatened) Sihan None known. May be intelligible of Bukitan [bkn], Ukit [umi], and Punan Batu [pnm].
umi Ukit Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Melanau-Kajang, Kajang Malaysia Sarawak state: Kapit division, Baleh on upper Rajom and Tatau rivers 120 (Wurm and Hattori 1981) 6b (Threatened)
mel Melanau, Central Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Melanau-Kajang, Melanau Brunei Kuala Belait town area 280 in Brunei (2006 SIL) 6a* (Vigorous) Belana’u, Melanau, Milanau, Milano Mukah-Oya (Muka, Mukah, Oga, Oya, Oya’).
mel Melanau, Central Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Melanau-Kajang, Melanau Malaysia Sarawak: Mukah division, Rejang delta coastal area to Balingian river 113,000 in Malaysia (2000 census). Total users in all countries: 113,280 6b* (Threatened) Belana’u, Milanau, Milano Mukah-Oya (Muka, Mukah, Oga, Oya, Oya’), Balingian, Bruit, Dalat (Dalad), Igan, Sarikei, Segahan, Prehan, Segalang, Siteng. Balingian dialect is linguistically quite distinct from others.
dro Melanau, Daro-Matu Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Melanau-Kajang, Melanau Malaysia Sarawak: Daro and Matu areas on Matu river from Rejang river north channel to the sea 7,600 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). 4,800 Matu, 2,800 Daro 6b* (Threatened) Daro, Matu (Langle-Tamtlaih, Ngaleng, Phaneng).
kxn Melanau, Kanowit-Tanjong Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Melanau-Kajang, Melanau Malaysia Sarawak: Sibu division, middle Rejang River. Kanowit dialect downstream from Tanjong dialect 200 (Wurm 2000). Ethnic population: 500 6b (Threatened) Kanowit, Tanjong.
sdx Melanau, Sibu Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Melanau-Kajang, Melanau Malaysia Sarawak: Sibu division, Rejang river 420 (Wurm and Hattori 1981) 7 (Shifting) Seduan-Banyok, Sibu, Siduan, Siduani Seduan, Banyok. May be intelligible with Central Melanau [mel].
szd Seru Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Melanau-Kajang, Melanau Malaysia Sarawak state Unattested
zbw Berawan, West Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Berawan-Lower Baram, Berawan Malaysia Sarawak: Mulu town, Long Terawan village 1,000 (2010 SIL) 6b (Threatened) Berawan, Long Terawan
zbc Berawan, Central Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Berawan-Lower Baram, Berawan, Central-East Berawan Malaysia Sarawak: Marudi district, Batu Belah (Tutoh river) and Long Teru (Tinjar river) villages 1,500 (2010 SIL) 8a (Moribund) Batu Belah, Long Teru, Melawan Batu Belah Berawan, Long Teru Berawan.
zbe Berawan, East Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Berawan-Lower Baram, Berawan, Central-East Berawan Malaysia Sarawak: Long Jegan, Long Takong, Long Taveng, and Long Teran Batu villages 1,100 (2010 SIL) 6b (Threatened) Long Jegan Berawan, Melawan
beg Belait Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Berawan-Lower Baram, Lower Baram, Central, A Brunei Belait district: scattered; Tutong district: Kampung Kiudang 1,240 (2004 J. Leclerc) 7 (Shifting) Balait Jati, Lemeting, Metting, Tau’ kitah None known. Lexical similarity: 54% with Tutong [ttg].
kyi Kiput Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Berawan-Lower Baram, Lower Baram, Central, A Malaysia Sarawak: south of Marudi, Benawa and Kuala Tutoh villages 450 (Blust 2002) 6b (Threatened) Long Kiput, Long Tutoh (Kuala Tutoh). Related to Narom [nrm], Lelak [llk], Tutong [ttg], Belait [beg], and Berawan languages.
llk Lelak Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Berawan-Lower Baram, Lower Baram, Central, B Malaysia Sarawak: Marudi district, Loagan Bunut lake area on Tinjar river No known L1 speakers. The last speaker either died or fully assimilated to Central Berawan [zbc] by the late 1970s 10 (Extinct) None known. Related to Narom [nrm].
ttg Tutong Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Berawan-Lower Baram, Lower Baram, Central, B Brunei Belait district; Tutong district: Tutong town coastal area 16,600 (2006 SIL) 6b (Threatened) Tutung None known. Lexical similarity: 54% with Belait [beg] in Malaysia.
nrm Narom Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Berawan-Lower Baram, Lower Baram, Central, B Malaysia Sarawak: Miri area and south; Kuala Nusah and Tanjung Beliput Niah area (Bakong dialect); Bekenu, Benkenu Asli, Jengalas, Menjelin, Rambai Asli, and Rancha-Rancha villages (Dali’ dialect); Bakam, Lopeng, Miri city, Pengkalan, and Pujut villages (Miri’ dialect) Ethnic population: 4,000. Population includes about 1,000 Bakong, 1,000 Dali’, and 1,000 Miri’ (2012 SIL) 6b* (Threatened) Narum Bakong, Miri’, Narom, Dali’. Bakong, Dali’, and Miri’ may be distinct languages.
bny Bintulu Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Bintulu Malaysia Sarawak: Bintulu area, and 2 enclaves west; Sibuti area on northeast coast 4,200 (Wurm and Hattori 1981) 6b* (Threatened) None known. Could also be classified as a Baram-Tinjar subgroup or as an isolate within the Rejang-Baram Group.
kzi Kelabit Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Dayic, Kelabitic Indonesia East Kalimantan province: Nunukan regency, 2 remote mountain enclaves, on Sarawak border 640 in Indonesia (2000) 6b (Threatened) Apo Duat, Kalabit, Kerabit Lon Bangag, Tring, Bareo (Bario), Pa’ Mada, Long Napir.
kzi Kelabit Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Dayic, Kelabitic Malaysia Sarawak: highest most remote Borneo mountains, Bario highlands 4,000 in Malaysia (2011 SIL). Ethnic population: 5,000. Total users in all countries: 4,640 6b* (Threatened) Kalabit, Kerabit Pa’ Umor (spoken in Bario), Pa’ Dalih, Long Peluan, Long Lellang, Brung, Libbung, Lepu Potong, Tabun.
lgi Lengilu Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Dayic, Kelabitic Indonesia East Kalimantan province: Benuang area in northeast corner No known L1 speakers. The last known speakers may have survived into the 2010s 9 (Dormant)
lnd Lun Bawang Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Dayic, Kelabitic Brunei Temburong district: Brunei Bay to Padas, then to Baram river headwaters. 7 villages 500 in Brunei (2006 SIL) 5* (Developing) Buri tau, Buri’ Lun Bawang, Buri’ Lun Dayeh, Lun Daya, Lun Dayah, Lun Daye, Lun Dayoh, Lundaya, Southern Murut Trusan, Long Iluk, Lun Ba.
lnd Lun Bawang Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Dayic, Kelabitic Indonesia North Kalimantan province: mountainous Sesayap river area 23,000 in Indonesia (2007 SIL). Total users in all countries: 47,500 5* (Developing) Buri tau, Lun Daya, Lun Dayah, Lun Daye, Lun Dayeh, Lun Dayoh, Lundaya Putuk, Lundayeh, Southern Murut Buri’ Lun Bawang, Buri’ Lun Dayeh Lun Daye, Papadi, Lun Bawang (Long Bawan, Sarawak Murut). Not Murutic, although sometimes called Southern Murut.
lnd Lundayeh Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Dayic, Kelabitic Malaysia Sabah: Keningau district, Kuala Puntih, and Saup Baru; Sipitang district, Bamban, Bahagia, Batu Tujuh, Kaban, Kawang Baru, Kawang Lama, Long Kinangan, Long Mio, Long Pasia, Mendulong, Pekiak, Ranau-Ranau, Samin, Seri Menanti, Solob, and Tunas Baru; Sarawak: Lawas and Limbang districts; Tawau district, Batu 18 Balung, Batu 22 Balung, Batu 32, Cinta Damai, Kalabakan, Kunak, Merotai, and Serudung; Tenom district, Baru Jumpa, Baru Jumpa Seberang, Belumbung, Kalibatang Baru, Kelanan, Meluyan Ulu, Mengkelias, Sapong, and Sugiang Baru 24,000 in Malaysia (1982 SIL), decreasing. Sarawak 21,000, Sabah 3,000–4,000 6b (Threatened) Buri tau, Buri’ Lun Bawang, Buri’ Lun Dayeh, Lun Bawang, Lun Daya, Lun Dayah, Lun Daye, Lun Dayeh, Lun Dayoh, Lun Lod, Lundaya, Lundayu, Southern Murut Lun Bawang (Sarawak Murut), Lun Dayah, Padas, Trusan (Lawas, Limbang), Lepu Potong.
put Putoh Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Dayic, Kelabitic Indonesia North Kalimantan province: Malinau and Nunukan regencies, Bangalan, Longberang, and Mensalong towns in Mentarang river area 6,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981) 6b* (Threatened) Putuk Pa Kembaloh, Abai. May be the same as Lun Bawang [lnd].
snv Sa’ban Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Dayic, Kelabitic Indonesia North Kalimantan province: Nunukan regency 850 in Indonesia (2000) 6b (Threatened) Merau
snv Sa’ban Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Dayic, Kelabitic Malaysia Sarawak: Miri division, Long Banga’, Upper Baram, Long Peluan, Long Puak on Kalimantan border 1,110 in Malaysia (2000). Ethnic population: 1,400 (2011). Total users in all countries: 1,960 6b (Threatened) Berau, Braow, “Merau” (pej.)
tgq Tring Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Dayic, Kelabitic Malaysia Sarawak state: Long Terawan on lower Tutoh river 550 (2000) 6b (Threatened)
bhv Bahau Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Kayan-Kenyah, Kayanic, Kayan Proper Indonesia East Kalimantan province: Kutai Barat regency, Long Apari, Long Bagun, and Long Hubung, and Long Pahangai sub-districts; Ratah and Mahakam rivers’ confluence area 19,000 (2007 SIL) 6a* (Vigorous)
xay Kayan Mahakam Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Kayan-Kenyah, Kayanic, Kayan Proper Indonesia East Kalimantan province: Malinau and West Kutai regencies; Muller Mountains from south border north almost to Malaysia 1,300 (Wurm and Hattori 1981) 6b* (Threatened)
kys Kayan, Baram Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Kayan-Kenyah, Kayanic, Kayan Proper Malaysia Sarawak: north, Baram river area 4,150 (Wurm and Hattori 1981) 6b (Threatened) Baram Kajan Long Atip, Long Akahsemuka.
bfg Kayan, Busang Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Kayan-Kenyah, Kayanic, Kayan Proper Indonesia Central Kalimantan province; East Kalimantan province: Muller Mountains, Belayan, upper Mahakam, and Oga river areas 3,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981) 6b* (Threatened) Busaang, Busang, Kajan, Kajang Mahakam Busang, Belayan, Long Bleh.
xkn Kayan, Kayan River Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Kayan-Kenyah, Kayanic, Kayan Proper Indonesia East Kalimantan province: Kayan river headwaters south, and downstream 2,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981) 6b* (Threatened) Kajang, Kayan River Kajan Uma Leken, Kayaniyut Kayan, Uma Laran.
xkd Kayan, Mendalam Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Kayan-Kenyah, Kayanic, Kayan Proper Indonesia West Kalimantan province: along Mendalam river 1,500 (Wurm and Hattori 1981) 6b* (Threatened) Mendalam Kajan
ree Kayan, Rejang Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Kayan-Kenyah, Kayanic, Kayan Proper Malaysia Sarawak: Balui and Rejang river areas 3,030 (Wurm and Hattori 1981) 6b (Threatened) Rejang Kajan Ma’aging, Long Badan, Uma Daro, Long Kehobo (Uma Poh), Uma Juman, Long Murun, Long Geng, Lemena, Lisum. Limited comprehension of Baram Kayan [kys].
whu Kayan, Wahau Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Kayan-Kenyah, Kayanic, Kayan Proper Indonesia East Kalimantan province: Kutai Timur regency, Telen river north tributary 500 (Wurm and Hattori 1981) 6b (Threatened) Wahau Kajan
mxd Modang Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Kayan-Kenyah, Kayanic, Modang Indonesia East Kalimantan province: 5 enclaves on upper reaches of Belayan, Kelinjau, Mahakam, and Segah rivers 15,300 (Wurm and Hattori 1981) 6a* (Vigorous) Kelingan (Long Wai, Long We), Long Glat, Long Bento’, Benehes, Nahes, Liah Bing.
sge Segai Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Kayan-Kenyah, Kayanic, Modang Indonesia East Kalimantan province, Berau regency. Kelai river area around Longlaai town 2,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981) 6b* (Threatened) Ga’ay, Menggae, Segayi Kelai, Segah. Called Segayi by the Berau, Ga’ay by the Kenyah and Kayan.
pni Aoheng Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Kayan-Kenyah, Kayanic, Muller-Schwaner ‘Punan’ Indonesia Central Kalimantan province: border areas; East Kalimantan province: Sarawak border area, upper reaches of Barito, Kapuas, and Mahakam rivers 2,630 (Wurm and Hattori 1981) 6b* (Threatened) Penihing None known. Lexical similarity: 69% with Kereho [xke], 67% with Hovongan [hov].
bvk Bukat Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Kayan-Kenyah, Kayanic, Muller-Schwaner ‘Punan’ Indonesia West Kalimantan province: northeast near Sarawak border, Kapuas river, 3 areas 400 (Wurm and Hattori 1981) 6b* (Threatened)
hov Hovongan Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Kayan-Kenyah, Kayanic, Muller-Schwaner ‘Punan’ Indonesia East Kalimantan province: border area northeast near Sarawak; West Kalimantan province: Kapuas Hulu regency 1,000 (1991 NTM) 6b* (Threatened) Hobongan, Punan Bungan Hovongan (Hobongan), Penyavung, Semukung Uheng. Lexical similarity: 69% with Kereho [xke], 67% with Aoheng [pni].
xke Kereho Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Kayan-Kenyah, Kayanic, Muller-Schwaner ‘Punan’ Indonesia Central Kalimantan province: Murung Raya regency; East Kalimantan province: Kutai Barat regency; West Kalimantan province: east Kapuas Hulu regency 500 (2003) 6b (Threatened) Keriau Punan Seputan, Uheng (Kereho-Uheng). Lexical similarity: 69% with Hovongan [hov], 69% with Aoheng [pni].
pud Punan Aput Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Kayan-Kenyah, Kayanic, Muller-Schwaner ‘Punan’ Indonesia North Kalimantan province: Malinau regency south of Kayan river 370 (Wurm and Hattori 1981) 6b (Threatened) Aput None known. Allegedly unintelligible of other Penan languages (Soriente 2003).
puf Punan Merah Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Kayan-Kenyah, Kayanic, Muller-Schwaner ‘Punan’ Indonesia East Kalimantan province: Kutai Barat regency on Mahakam river 140 (Wurm and Hattori 1981) 6b (Threatened)
mxr Murik Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Kayan-Kenyah, Kayanic, Murik Kayan Malaysia Sarawak: below Long Miri (Banyok dialect) and below Lio Mato (Semiang dialect) on Baram river 1,120 (Wurm and Hattori 1981) 7 (Shifting) Long Banyok (Banyok), Long Semiang (Semiang).
xkl Kenyah, Mainstream Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Kayan-Kenyah, Kenyah Indonesia East Kalimantan and North Kalimantan provinces: Batu Kajang, Long Belua, Long Setulang, Long Uli, and Pimping villages; Djempang area enclave, Melintang, and Semajang; on Bahau, upper Balui, upper Baram, Belayan, Kayan, Kelai, Mahakam, Malinau, Segah, and Telen rivers 12,000 in Indonesia (2007 A. Soriente), decreasing. No monolinguals. Total users in all countries: 52,000 6b* (Threatened) Highland Kenyah, Usun Apau Kenyah Lepo’ Tau, Lepo’ Bem, Uma’ Jalan, Uma’ Tukung, Lepo’ Ke, Lepo’ Kuda, Lepo’ Maut, Lepo’ Ndang, Badeng, Bakung, Lepo’ Tepu’.
xkl Kenyah, Mainstream Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Kayan-Kenyah, Kenyah Malaysia Sarawak: near Kalimantan border, villages along Balui and Baram rivers and some tributaries; 1 village on Kakus river; Sungai Asap area 40,000 in Malaysia (2013 SIL) 6b (Threatened) Bakong, Bakung, Bakung Kenya, Bakung Kenyah Leppo’ Aga, Leppo’ Ga, Leppo’ Jengan, Leppo’ La’ang, Leppo’ Tau, Uma’ Ake, Uma’ Jalan, Sambup, Leppo’ Ke’, Leppo’ Jamok, Badeng (Madeng), Bakung, Leppo’ Teppu’.
whk Kenyah, Wahau Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Kayan-Kenyah, Kenyah, Kayanic Kenyah Indonesia East Kalimantan province: Berau regency, Batu Majang, Buluk Sen, Kampung Baru, Muara Pedohon, Tabang Lama, Uma’ Bekuai, and Uma’ Dian villages on upper Mahakam river 8,000 in Indonesia (2007 A. Soriente), decreasing. No monolinguals. Total users in all countries: 9,000 6b* (Threatened) Lebu’ Kulit, Wahau Kenya Uma Timai, Lebu’ Kulit, Uma’ Ujok.
whk Kenyah, Wahau Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Kayan-Kenyah, Kenyah, Kayanic Kenyah Malaysia Sarawak: Belaga, Kapit, Marudi, and Tatau districts, Balang Baram, Baleh, Balul, and Belaga along interior rivers, including headwaters 1,000 in Malaysia (2007 A. Soriente) 6b* (Threatened)
ttw Long Wat Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Kayan-Kenyah, Kenyah, Kayanic Kenyah Malaysia Sarawak: northeast, Tutoh river 600 (Wurm and Hattori 1981) 6b (Threatened) Tutoh Kenya, Tutoh Kenyah Long Wat, Long Labid, Lugat. Not closely related to other languages.
sib Sebop Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Kayan-Kenyah, Kenyah, Kayanic Kenyah Malaysia Sarawak: Bintulu, Kapit, and Miri divisions junctures on upper Tinjar river 1,730 (Wurm and Hattori 1981) 6b (Threatened) Cebop, Sabup, Sebob, Sibop Tinjar Sibop, Lirong, Long Pokun, Bah Malei (Ba Mali), Long Atun, Long Ekang (Long Ikang), Long Luyang.
xky Uma’ Lasan Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Kayan-Kenyah, Kenyah, Upper Pujungan Indonesia East Kalimantan province: Malinau regency, Long Jelet Mesahan, Long Pejalin (Uma Alim dialect), and Long Pujungan villages 1,500 in Indonesia (Soriente 2005) 6b* (Threatened) Western Kenyah Uma’ Alim, Uma’ Lasan, Uma’ Baka.
xky Uma’ Lasan Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Kayan-Kenyah, Kenyah, Upper Pujungan Malaysia Sarawak state: Balui, Belaga, Kalua, Kemena rivers; Sungai Asap resettlement camp 1,250 in Malaysia (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Total users in all countries: 2,750 6b (Threatened) Kanyay, Kenja, Kindjin, Kinjin, Western Kenya, Western Kenyah Uma’ Alim, Uma’ Lasan, Uma’ Baka (Uma Baha). Lexical similarity: 80% with Badeng and Lepu Kulit dialects of Mainstream Kanyah [xkl].
ulu Uma’ Lung Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Kayan-Kenyah, Kenyah, Upper Pujungan Indonesia North Kalimantan province: Bulungan regency, small area; Malinau regency, Batu Kajang, Pimping, Long Belua, Long Setulang, Long Uli villages on middle Malinau river 3,000 (Soriente 2006), decreasing 6b (Threatened) Oma Longh None known. Marginally intelligible of Uma Lasan [xky].
pez Penan, Eastern Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Kayan-Kenyah, Penan Malaysia Sarawak: Apoh river district east of Baram river 10,000 in Malaysia (2011 SIL). Total users in all countries: 10,055 6b* (Threatened) Penan Apoh. Not intelligible of Western Penan [pne] and Uma Lasan [xky].
pez Penan, Eastern Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Kayan-Kenyah, Penan Brunei Belait district: west of Baram river 55 in Brunei (2003 P. Sercombe) 6b (Threatened) Nibong (Nibon, Penan Nibong), Bok Penan (Bok), Penan Silat, Penan Gang (Gang), Penan Lusong (Lusong), Sipeng (Speng), Penan Lanying, Jelalong Penan.
pne Penan, Western Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Kayan-Kenyah, Penan Malaysia Sarawak: Kapit division, Balui and upper Baram rivers, Mount Dulit area, 3 villages; Nibong branch of Lobong river 3,400 (2007 SIL) 6b (Threatened) Nibon, Nibong, “Punan” (pej.) Nibong, Bok Penan (Bok), Penan Silat, Penan Gang (Gang), Penan Lusong (Lusong), Penan Apo, Sipeng (Speng), Penan Lanying, Jelalong Penan. Not closely related to other languages.
puj Punan Tubu Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Punan Tubu Indonesia East Kalimantan province: Malinau, Mentarang, and Sembakung river areas 2,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981) 6b* (Threatened)
bdb Basap Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Rejang-Sajau Indonesia East Kalimantan and North Kalimantan provinces: Berau, Bulungan, Kutai Kartanegara, Penajam Paser Utara, and Kutai Timur regencies, scattered 15,000 (2007 SIL) 6b* (Threatened) Bosap Jembayan, Bulungan, Berau, Dumaring, Binatang, Karangan.
bqr Burusu Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Rejang-Sajau Indonesia East Kalimantan province: Bulungan regency, Sesayap sub-district, Sekatakbunyi town area 4,350 (2007 SIL) 6a* (Vigorous) Berusuh, Bulusu
pna Penan, Bah-Biau Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Rejang-Sajau Malaysia Sarawak: Kapit division, Merit and Rejang rivers areas 450 (Wurm and Hattori 1981) 6b (Threatened) Bah-Biau, Punan Punan Bah (Punan Ba), Punan Biau.
puc Punan Merap Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Rejang-Sajau Indonesia North Kalimantan province: Malinau regency on upper Malinau river 200 (Wurm and Hattori 1981) 6b (Threatened)
sjb Sajau Basap Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Rejang-Sajau Indonesia East Kalimantan province: Berau and Bulungan regencies 6,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981) 6a* (Vigorous) Sajau, Sujau Punan Sajau, Punan Basap, Punan Batu.
bsy Bisaya, Sabah Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Dusunic, Bisaya-Lotud Malaysia Sabah: Beaufort and Kuala Penyu districts, North Brunei Bay coast area, mainly along Padas and Klias rivers, south of Weston; Sarawak: Batu Danau, Limbang No monolinguals (2015 S.A. Luken). Ethnic population: 70,000 (2015 Sabah Bisaya Cultural Association) 6b (Threatened) Basaya, Besaya, Bisaia, Bisayah, Jilama Bawang, Jilama Sungai Klias Bisaya, Kuala Penyu Bisaya, Padas Bisaya, Beaufort Bisaya, Limbang Bisaya. 70% intelligibility of Bisaya Kuala Penyu with Tatana [txx], 50% intelligibility of other Sabah Bisaya dialects with Tatana [txx]. Lexical similarity: 53% with Brunei Bisaya (Sarawak dialect) [bsb], 52% with Brunei Bisaya [bsb] (Brunei dialect) (2010 Siti Aidah).
dtr Lotud Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Dusunic, Bisaya-Lotud Malaysia Sabah: Tuaran district, Kiulu, Telipok, Tuaran Ethnic population: 20,000 (2016 J. John-Baptist) 6b (Threatened) Dusun Lotud, Suang Lotud Suang Lotud, Suang Olung, Suang Sarayoh, Dusun Kadayan.
bsb Bisaya, Brunei Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Dusunic, Bisaya-Lotud, Southern Brunei Belait and Tutong districts: central and interior areas south of Tutong [ttg] language area; Seria town and villages near Sarawak border (Brunei dialect) 37,600 in Brunei (2007 SIL). Total users in all countries: 57,600 5* (Developing). De facto language of national identity Basaya, Bekiau, Besaya, Bisaia, Bisaya, Bisaya Bukit, Bisayah, Dusun, Jilama Bawang, Jilama Sungai, Lorang Bukit, Southern Bisaya, Tutong, Visayak Brunei Bisaya, Sarawak Bisaya, Tutong 1. Lexical similarity: 78% with dialects spoken in Brunei and Sarawak, lower with other Dusunic languages.
bsb Bisaya, Brunei Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Dusunic, Bisaya-Lotud, Southern Malaysia Sarawak: Limbang and Marudi districts 20,000 in Malaysia (2007 SIL) 6b* (Threatened) Bekiau, Bisaya, Bisaya Bukit, Bisayah, Lorang Bukit, Visayak Sarawak Bisaya (Bisaya’), Tutong 1.
tgb Tobilung Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Dusunic, Dusun Malaysia Sabah state: Kota Belud, Kota Marudu, and Kudat districts; Kota Kinabalu, Inanam and other towns 4,000 (2015 G. Buck), decreasing. 1,500 monolinguals (2015 G. Buck). Ethnic population: 10,000 (2015 G. Buck) 6b (Threatened) Momogun, Tabilong, Tebilung, Tobilang Tobilung Moderate intelligibility with the Central Dusun dialect of Kadazan Dusun [dtp], Kimaragang [kqr] and Rungus [drg].
kqt Kadazan, Klias River Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Dusunic, Dusun Malaysia Sabah: Beaufort district, Klias river area 800 (2015 E. Ampai), decreasing. Ethnic population: 2,000 (2015 E. Ampai) 6b (Threatened) Kuijou, Kuizou 80% intelligibility of Coastal Kadazan dialect of Kadazan Dusun [dtp], 80% of Tatana [txx], 80% of Sabah Bisaya [bsy]. Lexical similarity: 77% with Tatana [txx].
kqr Kimaragang Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Dusunic, Dusun Malaysia Sabah: Beluran, Kota Marudu, and Pitas districts 10,000 (Kroeger 2005), decreasing. Ethnic population: 25,000 (2007 SIL) 6b (Threatened) Kimaragan, Kimaragangan, Maragang, Marigang Kimaragang Tandek (Garo), Pitas Kimaragang, Sandayo, Sonsogon. Speakers of the Sonsogon dialect understand 67%–76% of a Kimaragang story (1986 P. Kroeger). Lexical similarity: 82% between Kimaragang and Sonsogon dialects.
grm Kota Marudu Talantang Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Dusunic, Dusun Malaysia Sabah: Kota Marudu district, Talantang 1 and Talantang 2 Ethnic population: 1,800 (2000) 6b* (Threatened)
dkr Kuijau Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Dusunic, Dusun Malaysia Sabah: Keningau district, Keningau town area north and west Ethnic population: 7,910 (2000 S. Maduli) 6b* (Threatened) Hill Dusun, Kijau, Koijoe, Kuiyow, Kujau, Kuliow, Kuriyo, Kwijau, Menindal, Menindaq, Minansut, Tidung, Tindal
drg Rungus Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Dusunic, Dusun Malaysia Sabah: Beluran, Kota Marudu, Kudat, and Pitas districts 55,000 (2009 PCS), decreasing. 10,000 monolinguals (2015 P. Porodong, F. Akiam). Ethnic population: 60,000 (2010 census) 6b (Threatened) Dayak Laut, Dusun Dayak, Kadazan, Melobong Rungus, Melubong Rungus, Memagun, Memogun, Roongas, Rungus Dusun Momogun Gandahon, Gonsomon, Nuluw, Pilapazan (Central Rungus, Rungus Tanga). Gonsomon and Nuluw most distinctive dialects. Gandahon is less distinct. Pilapazan uses elements of the other three dialects. Lexical similarity among dialects within 86%–96%.
mqq Minokok Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Dusunic, Dusun, Central Malaysia Sabah: Kinabatangan river headwaters 1,200 (2007 SIL) 6b (Threatened) None known. Reportedly most similar to Labuk-Kinabatangan Kadazan [dtb], Kimaragang [kqr] and Tobilung [tgb].
dtp Kadazan Dusun Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Dusunic, Dusun, Central Malaysia Sabah: West Coast division, Beaufort, Keningau, Kota Belud, Kota Kinabalu, Kota Marudu, Papar, Penampang, Ranau, Tambunan, and Tenom districts 264,000 (2010 census), increasing. Ethnic population: 556,000 (2010 census). Increasing 6b (Threatened) Central Kadazan, Dusan, Dusum, Dusun, Dusur, Idaan, Kadasan, Kadayan, Kadazandusun, Kedayan Kadazan Dusun Dusun Sinulihan (Sinulihan), Kadazan-Tagaro (Tagaro), Kiundu, Pahu’, Sokid, Menggatal (Kiulu, Telipok), Ranau, Bundu (Taginambur), Beaufort, Luba, Kuriyou, Liwan, Tambunan Dusun (Tambunan, Tinombunan), Tinagas Dusun (Dusun, Kota Marudu Tinagas, “Panansawa” (pej.), Talantang, Tinagas, Ulu Sugut Dusun), Tindal Dusun (Kadamaian Dusun, Tampasok, Tampassuk, Tempasok, Tempasuk, Tempasuk Dusun, Tindal), Coastal Kadazan (Kadazan, Kadazan Tangaa’, Membakut Kadazan, Papar Kadazan, Penampang Kadazan).
kzs Sugut Dusun Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Dusunic, Dusun, Central Malaysia Sabah state: Labuk-Sugut district on Sugut river headwaters Ethnic population: 12,200 (2000 SIL) 6b* (Threatened) Dusun, Kadayan, Sugut, Sugut Kadazan, Tanggal, Tilau-Ilau Tinagas, Talantang.
dtb Kadazan, Labuk-Kinabatangan Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Dusunic, Dusun, Eastern Malaysia Sabah: Beluran, Kinabatangan, and Sandakan districts Ethnic population: 20,600 (2000 SIL) 6a (Vigorous) Eastern Kadazan, Labuk Kadazan, Sogilitan, Sungai, Sungai Kinabatangan, Tindakon, Tompulung Tinangaran Kadajan Mangkaak (Mangkahak, Mangkak, Mangkok), Sukang, Labuk, Lamag Sungai (Sungei). Mangkaak and Sukang may be separate languages (2015 J. Lobel).
dmv Dumpas Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Dusunic, Unclassified Malaysia Sabah: Beluran district, Bakung-Bakung, Gana Jati, Perancangan, Rancangan Nangoh, Tarasak, and Tombidong-Bidong villages 2,400 (2015 A. Ismael). No monolinguals (2015 A. Ismael). Ethnic population: 4,000 (2015 A. Ismael) 7 (Shifting) Doompas 87% intelligibility of Tombonuo [txa], 57% of Labuk-Kinabatangan Kadazan [dtb], 44% of Coastal Kadazan dialect of Kadazan Dusun [dtp] (King 1984). Lexical similarity: 80% with Sugut Dusun [kzs] (Smith 1984: 26).
dbj Ida’an Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Ida’an Malaysia Sabah: Kinabatangan, Lahad Datu and Sandakan districts 10,000 (2013 SIL). Population includes 2,500 Begak. Ethnic population: 15,000 (2015 Pertubuhan Kebajikan Idahan Pewaris Madai, Lahad Datu (PEWARIS)) 6b (Threatened) Bulud Upi, Eraans, Idaan, Idahan, Idan, Idayan Begak (Bagahak, Begahak), Subpan (Sungai, Supan), Ida’an. Isolate within the Sabahan subgroup.
kxi Murut, Keningau Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Murutic, Murut Malaysia Sabah: Keningau district, east of Pegalan river down to Ansip village 3,000 (2015 A. Jampadin), decreasing. Ethnic population: 7,000 (2000 A. Jampadin) 7 (Shifting) Central Murut Keningau Murut Nabay (Nabai), Ambual. Reportedly similar to Bookan [bnb] and Timugon [tih].
kqv Murut, Kolod Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Murutic, Murut Malaysia Sabah: Sipitang district, Bamban, Iburu, Meligan, Sulob, and Ulu Bole villages; Tenom district, Bamban village; Sarawak: Lawas district, Long Tengoa 2,000 in Malaysia (2015 R. Ganang), decreasing. Less than 1,000 in Sarawak. More than 1,000 in Sabah 8a (Moribund) Kolod, Kolor, Kolour, Kolur, Okolod, Okolod Murut Lexical similarity: 82% with Okolod [kqv] in Sabah; 70% with Pensiangan Murut dialect of Tagal Murut [mvv]; 34% with Lun Bawang [lnd].
plz Murut, Paluan Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Murutic, Murut Malaysia Sabah: Keningau, Pensiangan, and Tenom districts, Padas river tributaries; Dalit, Keramatoi, Mesopo, Nabawan, and Pamentarian rivers; lower Sook river valley; Sapulut and Talankai rivers’ headwaters 5,500 (2000 SIL). 3,000 Paluan, 1,000 to 2,000 Pandewan 6b* (Threatened) Paluan Paluan (Peluan), Dalit Murut, Sook Murut, Takapan, Makaheeliga (Makialiga), Pandewan (Pandewan Murut). Reportedly most similar to Tagal Murut [mvv].
slg Murut, Selungai Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Murutic, Murut Indonesia East Kalimantan province: Nunukan regency on upper Sembakung river 640 in Indonesia (2000). Total users in all countries: 1,240 6b (Threatened) Murut
slg Murut, Selungai Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Murutic, Murut Malaysia Sabah: Nabawan district, 1 village in Pensiangan river basin south to Indonesia border 600 in Malaysia (2000 SIL). Ethnic population: 600 (2000 SIL) 6a (Vigorous)
mvv Murut, Tagal Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Murutic, Murut Indonesia North Kalimantan province: Nunukan regency, northwest valley east to Simalumung 2,000 in Indonesia 6b (Threatened) Semambu, Semembu, Sumambu, Sumambu-Tagal, Sumambuq Rundum (Arundum), Tagal (North Borneo Murut, Sabah Murut, Tagol), Sumambu (Semembu, Sumambuq), Tolokoson (Telekoson), Sapulot Murut (Sapulut Murut), Pensiangan Murut (Lagunan Murut, Pentjangan, Taggal, Tagul), Alumbis (Loembis, Lumbis), Tawan, Tomani (Tumaniq), Maligan (Bol Murut, Bole Murut, Mauligan, Meligan).
mvv Murut, Tahol Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Murutic, Murut Malaysia Sabah: Nabawan district, south Sipitang and Tenom districts, mainly along Maligan, Padas (Tomani), Salalir, Tahol, Tolokoson, and watersheds. Sarawak: Lawas district 20,000 in Malaysia (2015 L. Murang), decreasing. Ethnic population: 200,000 (2015 L. Murang). Largest Murutic group in Sabah (Harris 1991; Brewis 2004: 43). Total users in all countries: 22,000 6b (Threatened) Pensiangan, Sumambu, Tagal, Tagal Murut, Tagol Tahol Rundum (Arundum), Tagal (North Borneo Murut, Sabah Murut, Taggal, Tagol, Tagul), Sumambu (Semambu, Semembu, Sumambuq), Tolokoson (Telekoson), Sapulot Murut (Sapulut Murut), Pensiangan Murut (Lagunan Murut, Pentjangan), Salalir (Sadalir, Saralir, Sedálir), Alumbis (Loembis, Lumbis), Tawan, Tomani (Tumaniq), Maligan (Bol Murut, Bole Murut, Mauligan, Meligan). Reportedly most similar to Paluan [plz].
tih Murut, Timugon Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Murutic, Murut Malaysia Sabah: Beaufort district, Bukau and lower Padas rivers; Tenom district, Padas river from Melalap to Batu-Batu Ethnic population: 9,000 (2004 S. Majius) 6b (Threatened) Temogun, Timigan, Timigun, Timogon, Timogun, Tumugun, “Tenom Murut” (pej.) Timugon Kapagalan, Poros, Beaufort Murut (Binta’), Timugon, Sandiwar (Sandewar), Dabugus, Lower Murut, Murut Padas, Bukau (Bukow). Beaufort Murut may be a distinct language, though highly intelligible with Timugon (Spitzack 1984). Whether these two varieties are distinct languages requires further investigation.
kqv Okolod Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Murutic, Murut Indonesia East Kalimantan province: Sabah border area in northwest 3,390 in Indonesia (2000). Total users in all countries: 5,390 6a* (Vigorous) Kolod, Kolour, Kolur, Okolod Murut Lexical similarity: 82% with Okolod variety in Sabah, 70% with Pensiangan Murut dialect of Tagal Murut [mvv], 34% with Lun Bawang [lnd].
bnb Murut, Bookan Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Murutic, Northern Malaysia Sabah: Keningau and Kinabatangan districts, Kinabatangan and Sook rivers’ headwaters area Ethnic population: 2,400 (2017 SIL) 7 (Shifting) Baukan, Baukan Murut, Bookan Baukan (Baokan, Bokan, Boken, Bokon, Bokun, Bookan, Bukun, Pingas, Ulun-No-Bokan, Ulun-No-Bokon), Kokoroton Murut, Tengara (Kinabatangan Murut, Tangara’, Tanggaraq, Tenggaraq, Tingara, Tungara). Reportedly similar to Keningau Murut [kxi], Timugon [tih], and Tagal [mvv].
kve Murut, Kalabakan Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Murutic, Southern Malaysia Sabah: Tawau district, along Kalabakan river Ethnic population: 2,230 (2000 B. Lingki) 6b (Threatened) Kalabakan None known. Lexical similarity: 73% with Bookan Murut [bnb]; 70% with Serudung Murut [srk]; 67% with Tagal Murut [mvv] (Smith 1984:22).
sbr Murut, Sembakung Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Murutic, Southern Indonesia East Kalimantan province: Nunukan regency, Sembakung river mouth 3,180 in Indonesia (2000) 6b* (Threatened) Sembakoeng, Sembakong, Simbakong, Tingalun, Tinggalan, Tinggalum
sbr Murut, Sembakung Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Murutic, Southern Malaysia Sabah: Sembakung river area Ethnic population: 2,000 (2000 SIL) 6b* (Threatened) Sembakoeng, Sembakong, Simbakong, Tenggalan, Tidoeng, Tidong, Tidung, Tingalan, Tingalun, Tinggalan, Tinggalum
srk Murut, Serudung Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Murutic, Tidung Malaysia Sabah: Tawau district, along Serudung river, 1 village near Tawau town 400 (2015 J. Rushing), decreasing. Ethnic population: 1,000 (2015 J. Rushing) 6b (Threatened) Serudong, Suudung, Tawau Murut, Tawou Murut None known. Lexical similarity: 63% with Kalabakan Murut [kve], 52% with Selungai Murut [slg], and less than 60% with Tagal [mvv] and Sembakung [sbr] Murut languages. Very low intelligibility with Northern Tidung [ntd] (Moody and Walton 1984: 132).
ntd Tidung, Northern Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Murutic, Tidung Malaysia Sabah state: Beluran, Sandakan, and Tawau districts 5,000 (2015 J. Lobel). Ethnic population: 20,000 (2015 J. Lobel) 7 (Shifting) Camucones, Nonukan, Tedong, Tidoeng, Tidong, Tidung, Tiran, Tirones, Tiroon, Zedong Sesayap (Sesajap), Tarakan (Terakan). There is no inherent intelligibility between Southern Tidung [itd] and Northern Tidung according to speakers of varieties of both languages. Lexical similarity: 65% with Southern Tidung [itd].
itd Tidung, Southern Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Murutic, Tidung Indonesia North Kalimantan province: Atap, Malinau, Mensalong, Nunukan, Pembeliangan, Tarakan, and Tideng Pale towns 27,000 in Indonesia (2007 SIL) 6a* (Vigorous) Camucones, Tedong, Tidoeng, Tidong, Tidung, Tiran, Tirones, Tiroon, Zedong Nonukan (Nunukan), Penchangan, Sedalir (Sadalir, Salalir, Saralir, Selalir), Sesayap (Sesajap), Sibuku, Tarakan (Terakan), Tidung. There is also no inherent intelligibility between Northern Tidung [ntd] and Southern Tidung according to speakers of varieties of both languages. Lexical similarity: 65% with Northern Tidung [ntd].
itd Tidung, Southern Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Murutic, Tidung Malaysia Sabah state: Kalabakan and Tawau districts 7 (Shifting) Tidong, Tidung None known. There is also no inherent intelligibility between Northern Tidung [ntd] and Southern Tidung, according to speakers of varieties of both languages. Lexical similarity: 65% with Northern Tidung [ntd].
gnq Gana Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Murutic, Unclassified Malaysia Sabah: Keningau district, Kuangoh and Minansut in Bingkor, along Baiaya river, a tributary of Pegalan river 250 (Pugh-Kitingan 2013), decreasing. Ethnic population: 2,000 (Pugh-Kitingan 2013) 8a (Moribund) Gana’, Ganaq, Ganna, Keningau Dusun, Minansut
dpp Papar Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Murutic, Unclassified Malaysia Sabah: Kuala Penyu district, Jangkit, Linsuk, Tenambak, and Tidung-Bedungon 500 (2015 J. Saban), decreasing. No monolinguals (2015 J. Saban). Ethnic population: 1,900 (2015 J. Saban) 7 (Shifting) Bajau Bukit, Bajau Pa’par, Pa’par, Pappar, “Papar Hanyut” (pej.) None known. Lexical similarity: 30% with Tatana [txx].
abf Abai Sungai Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Paitanic Malaysia Sabah: Kinabatangan river lower reaches Ethnic population: 500 (2000 SIL) 7 (Shifting) None known. Distinct from other Paitanic languages (Upper Kinabatangan [dmg], Tombonuo [txa]).
txa Tombonuo Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Paitanic Malaysia Sabah state: Beluran, Kota Marudu, and Pitas districts Ethnic population: 10,000 (2000 SIL). 3,000 Lingkabau 6b (Threatened) Lobu, Paitan, Sungai, Sungei, Tambanua, Tambanuo, Tambanuva, Tambanwas, Tambenua, Tambunwas, Tembenua, Tombonuva, Tombonuwo, Tumbunwha, Tunbumohas, “Lobou nu Tindal” (pej.), “Pagan” (pej.) Tangar nu Tombonuo Lingkabau Sugut (Linkabau), Sugut (Sungoi).
dmg Kinabatangan, Upper Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Paitanic, Upper Kinabatangan Malaysia Sabah: Lahad Datu district; Tongod district, primarily upper reaches of Kinabatangan river Ethnic population: 15,000 (2015 L. Rose) 6b (Threatened) Orang Sungai, Sungai Milian Kalabuan (Kolobuan), Makiang, Sinabu’ (Sinobu’), Sinarupa, Kuamut. Dialects have approximately 87% mutual intelligibility. Lexical similarity: over 90% among all dialects, 80% between Makiang and Sinabu’ dialects.
ruu Lobu, Lanas Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Paitanic, Upper Kinabatangan Malaysia Sabah: Keningau district, Sook sub-district, Lalapakon, Lanas, Kilu, Kuit, Mampisas, Manggarimot, Mansiat, Minusu, Pinipi, Sesalungon, and Tuawon; possibly Kinabatangan district. Rumanau dialect in Masaum, near Pinangah 4,000 (2015 P. Porodong), decreasing. No monolinguals (2015 P. Porodong). Ethnic population: 5,000 (2015 P. Porodong). 3,500 Lobu, 1,500 Rumanau 6b (Threatened) Keningau Lobu, “Labou” (pej.) Lobu Lobu, Rumanau (Romanau, Roomarrows, Rumanau Alab). May be a dialect of Upper Kinabatangan [dmg].
low Lobu, Tampias Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Paitanic, Upper Kinabatangan Malaysia Sabah: Tampias area, Ranau, 3 villages Ethnic population: 1,800 (1985 SIL) 6b* (Threatened) None known. High intelligibility of Upper Kinabatangan [dmg]. Lexical similarity: 73% with Lanas Lobu [ruu].
txx Tatana Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Unclassified Malaysia Sabah state: Kuala Penyu district, Beaufort (Kg. Manamam, Kg. Takuli), Kelang Valley, Keningau, Klias Kecil, Kota Kinabalu, Labuan, and Membakut 10,000 (2015 KadazanDusun Cultural Association), decreasing. Ethnic population: 22,000 (2015 KadazanDusun Cultural Association) 6b (Threatened) Gia Tatana, Kadazan Tatana, Tatana’, Tatanaq Tatana
alj Alangan Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Mangyan Philippines MIMAROPA region: Mindoro Occidental province, Naujan, Sablayar, and Victoria municipalities 2,150 (2002 UNSD) 6b* (Threatened)
iry Iraya Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Mangyan Philippines MIMAROPA region: Mindoro Occidental province, Abra de Ilog, northern Mamburao, Paluan, and Santa Cruz municipalities; Mindoro Oriental province, Puerto Galera and San Teadoro municipalities 10,000 (1991 OMF) 5* (Developing) Iraya Mangyan Iraya Abra-De-Ilog, Alag-Bako, Pagbahan, Palauan-Calavite, Pambuhan, Santa Cruz.
tdy Tadyawan Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Mangyan Philippines MIMAROPA region: east central Mindoro Oriental province, Lake Naujan south 2,940 (2009 NCIP) 6a* (Vigorous) Balaban, Pula, Tadianan
atz Arta Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Luzon, Arta Philippines Cagayan Valley region: Quirino province, Aglipay municipality, Cagayan river area 11 (2013 Y. Kimoto). 35–45 have some knowledge of the language, but cannot speak properly (2013 Y. Kimoto). Ethnic population: 150 8a (Moribund) None known. Not similar to any other language (1992 L. Reid).
ilo Ilocano Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Luzon, Ilocano Philippines Widespread; Ilocos region: La Union and Ilocos provinces; Cagayan Valley region: Babuyan islands; Mindoro, Mindanao areas 6,370,000 in Philippines (2005 UNSD). Total users in all countries: 6,482,100 3 (Wider communication). Statutory language of provincial identity in northwest Luzon Island, other areas (1991, ACFLC Section 3(f)) Iloko Ilokano None known. A pidginized form is used in northern Luzon highlands.
aqn Alta, Northern Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, Alta Philippines Central Luzon region: Aurora province, San Luis municipality, Bayanihan area, Diteki river 200 (Wurm 2000). Ethnic population: 400 6b (Threatened) Alta, Baler Negrito, Ditaylin Alta, Ditaylin Dumagat, Edimala None known. Reportedly not similar to other languages (1992 L. Reid). Lexical similarity: 34% with Southern Alta [agy].
agy Alta, Southern Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, Alta Philippines CALABARZON region: Quezon province coastal areas; Central Luzon region: Nueva Ecija province, eastern towns, mostly in Gabaldon town; Bulacan province, In Sitio Bato, Kabayunan, Doña Remedios Trinidad town 1,000 (1982 SIL) 6b* (Threatened) Ita, Kaboloan, Kabulowan, Kabuluen, Kabuluwan, Kabuluwen Alta None known. Reportedly not similar to other languages. Lexical similarity: 34% with Northern Alta [aqn].
inn Isinay Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, Isinai Philippines Cagayan Valley region: Nueva Vizcaya province, Aritao, Bambang, and Dupax Del Sur municipalities 8,100 (2005 UNSD). Ethnic population: 12,500 (Reid and Salvador-Amores 2016). Ancestral Domain Areas Census Report 6b* (Threatened) Inmeas, Insinai, Isinai, Isnay Dupax del Sur, Aritao, Bambang. Not similar to other languages. Lexical similarity: 47% with Ilocano [ilo].
iti Itneg, Inlaod Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, North Central Cordilleran, Kalinga-Itneg, Itneg Philippines Cordillera Administrative Region: Abra province, a few villages in Danglas, Lagangilang, Langiden, and Penarubia municipalities 9,000 (2003 SIL). 61,500 in all Itneg varieties (2005 UNSD) 6b (Threatened) Inlaod, Tinggian, Tinguian None known. Lexical similarity: Inlaod of Langiden 73% with Ilocano [ilo]; Inlaod of Danglas 71% with Ilocano, 75%–77% with Binongan Itneg [itb], 75%–76% with Masadiit [tis] of Sallapadan, 74%–75% with Moyadan Itneg [ity]. Inlaod of Langiden and Inlaod of Danglas 86% with each other.
ity Itneg, Moyadan Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, North Central Cordilleran, Kalinga-Itneg, Itneg Philippines Cordillera Administrative Region: Abra province 12,000 (2003 SIL). 61,500 in all Itneg varieties (2005 UNSD) 6a (Vigorous) Tinggian, Tinguian None known. Lexical similarity: 68% with Ilocano [ilo], 85% with Masadiit Sallapadan [tis], 80% with Masadiit Boliney [tis], 76% with Binongan Itneg [itb], 75% with Inlaod Danglas [iti], 74% with Inlaod Langiden [iti], 73% with Maeng [itt] of Tubo.
itb Itneg, Binongan Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, North Central Cordilleran, Kalinga-Itneg, Itneg Philippines Cordillera Administrative Region: Abra province, Licuan-Baay 7,500 (2003 SIL). 61,500 in all Itneg varieties (2005 UNSD) 6a (Vigorous) Tingguian, Tinguian None known. Lexical similarity: 69% with Ilocano [ilo], 79% with Masadiit Itneg [tis].
itt Itneg, Maeng Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, North Central Cordilleran, Kalinga-Itneg, Itneg Philippines Cordillera Administrative Region: south Abra province, Luba, Tubo, and Villavisciosa municipalities 18,000 (2003 SIL). 61,500 in all Itneg varieties (2005 UNSD). Ethnic population: 18,000 6a (Vigorous) Luba-Tiempo Itneg, Southern Itneg None known. Lexical similarity: Tubo area 60% with Ilocano [ilo], 68% with Northern Kankanaey [kne]; Villavisciosa area 76% with Ilocano, 61% with Northern Kankanaey.
tis Itneg, Masadiit Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, North Central Cordilleran, Kalinga-Itneg, Itneg Philippines Cordillera Administrative Region: Abra province, Boliney, Bucloc, and Sallapadan municipalities; Kalinga province, western border 7,500. 61,500 in all Itneg varieties (2005 UNSD) 6a (Vigorous) Masadiit Boliney, Masadiit Sallapadan. Lexical similarity: 62% with Ilocano [ilo], 70% with Guinaang Kalinga [knb], 86% with Binongan Itneg [itb].
kmk Kalinga, Limos Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, North Central Cordilleran, Kalinga-Itneg, Kalinga Philippines Cordillera Administrative Region: Apayao province, Conner municipality; Kalinga province, Tabuk city, north to border 12,700 (2007 census), increasing. 113,000 all Kalinga (2005 UNSD) 4 (Educational) Limos-Liwan Kalinga, Northern Kalinga None known. Intelligibility: Lubuagan Kalinga [knb] 65%, Southern Kalinga [ksc] 66%, Tanudan Kalinga 67% [kml], Ilocano [ilo] 84%.
knb Kalinga, Lubuagan Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, North Central Cordilleran, Kalinga-Itneg, Kalinga Philippines Cordillera Administrative Region: Baguio city, Kalinga province, Lubuagan, Tabuk city; National Capital Region: Manila 30,000 (2008 V. Dumatog), increasing. 113,000 all Kalinga (2005 UNSD) 4 (Educational) Lubuagan Guinaang, Ableg-Salegseg, Balatok-Kalinga (Balatok-Itneg). Intelligibility of Balbalasang dialect 81%, Sumadel [ksc] 82%, Limos [kmk] 70%, 48% comprehension of Ilocano [ilo] narrative. Lexical similarity: 81% with Balbalasang and Limos.
ksc Kalinga, Southern Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, North Central Cordilleran, Kalinga-Itneg, Kalinga Philippines Cordillera Administrative Region: Kalinga province, Lubuagan municipality; Mountain province, Sadanga and Sagada municipalities, 13 villages; some in Tabuk city 13,000 (2000 SIL), increasing. 113,000 all Kalinga (2005 UNSD). 7,540 monolinguals 4 (Educational) Mallango (Madlango Kalinga), Sumadel, Bangad, Tinglayan (Tinglayan Kalinga). Intelligibility of Guinaang Kalinga [knb] 63%, Tanudan Kalinga [kml] 51%.
kmd Kalinga, Majukayang Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, North Central Cordilleran, Kalinga-Itneg, Kalinga Philippines Cordillera Administrative Region: southeast Kalinga province, Tabuk City; Mountain province, Paracelis municipality 1,500 (1990 SIL), increasing. 113,000 all Kalinga (2005 UNSD) 6a (Vigorous) Madukayang Kalinga, Majukayong None known. 83% intelligibility of Limos Kalinga [kmk] and Balangao [blw], 86% of Tanudan Kalinga [kml]; 68% of Ilocano [ilo]. Lexical similarity: 80% with Tanudan Kalinga [kml], 68% with Limos Kalinga [kmk], 65% with Balangao [blw].
bjx Itneg, Banao Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, North Central Cordilleran, Kalinga-Itneg, Kalinga Philippines Cordillera Administrative Region: Abra province, Daguioman and Malibcong municipalities; Kalinga province, Balbalan and Pasil municipalities 3,500 (2003 SIL). 61,500 in all Itneg varieties (2005 UNSD) 6a (Vigorous) Banao, Banaw, Bhanaw Tinggian, Itneg, Timggian, Tinguian Malibcong Banao, Banao Pikekj, Gubang Itneg. Lexical similarity: Malibcong Banao 58% with Ilocano [ilo], 81% with Lubuagan Kalinga [knb], 73% with Limos Kalinga [kmk]; Banao Pikek (Daguioman) dialect 62% with Ilocano, 83% with Masadiit and Boliney Itneg [tis], 79% with Masadiit and Sallapadan Itneg [tis], 78% with the Banao dialect of Malibcong, and 73% with Binongan Itneg [itb].
kyb Kalinga, Butbut Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, North Central Cordilleran, Kalinga-Itneg, Kalinga Philippines Cordillera Administrative Region: Kalinga province, Tinglayan municipality, Dinongsay, Bugnay, Buscalan, Butbut, Kataw, Loccong, Lucnang, Ngibat, Pakak, and Tabuk city; CALABARZON region: Rizal province, Andaraya, Annenang, Bua, and Malapiat 15,000 (2008), increasing. 113,000 all Kalinga (2005 UNSD). 1,000 monolinguals 4 (Educational) Butbut None known. 72% intelligibility of Limos Kalinga [kmk]; 44% of Ilocano [ilo]; 70% of Guinaang [knb], 47% of Tanudan [kml], 74% of Bangad (Southern) Kalinga [ksc]. Lexical similarity: 82% with Southern Kalinga, 78% with Guinaang and Tanudan.
kkg Kalinga, Mabaka Valley Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, North Central Cordilleran, Kalinga-Itneg, Kalinga Philippines Cordillera Administrative Region: Apayao province, Conner municipality; western Abra and northern Kalinga provinces 6a* (Vigorous) Kal-Uwan, Mabaka, Mabaka Itneg None known. 79% comprehension of Limos Kalinga [kmk].
kml Kalinga, Tanudan Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, North Central Cordilleran, Kalinga-Itneg, Kalinga Philippines Cordillera Administrative Region: south Kalinga province, south end of Tanudan valley 11,200 (1998 SIL), increasing. 113,000 all Kalinga (2005 UNSD). 1,120 monolinguals 5 (Developing) Lower Tanudan, Lower Tanudan Kalinga, Mangali Kalinga, Tanudan Minangali (Mangali), Tinaloctoc (Taluctoc), Pinangol (Pangul), Dacalan, Lubo. Intelligibility: 79% of Limos Kalinga [kmk], 66% of Guinaang dialect of Lubuagan Kalinga [knb]. Lexical similarity: 97% with Pinangol dialect, 80% with Madukayang Kalinga [kmd].
blw Balangao Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, North Central Cordilleran, Nuclear Cordilleran, Balangaw Philippines Cordillera Administrative Region: Kalinga province, Tanudan municipality; central Mountain province 11,500 (2005 UNSD), decreasing. No monolinguals 4 (Educational) Balangao Bontoc, Balangaw, Farangao Finarangao
ebk Bontok, Eastern Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, North Central Cordilleran, Nuclear Cordilleran, Bontok-Kankanay, Bontok Philippines Cordillera Administrative Region: east Mountain province, Barlig municipality, Barlig, Kadaklan, and Lias villages 6,170 (2007 census) 5 (Developing) Eastern Bontoc, Finallig, Southern Bontoc Finallig, Kinajakran, Liniyas. Reportedly similar to Central Bontok [lbk], Northern Bontok [rbk], Southwestern Bontok [vbk], and Southern Bontok [obk]; intelligibility of Ilocano [ilo] 53%, of Balangao [blw] 49%. A member of macrolanguage Bontok [bnc].
lbk Bontok, Central Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, North Central Cordilleran, Nuclear Cordilleran, Bontok-Kankanay, Bontok Philippines Cordillera Administrative Region: Mountain province, Bontoc municipality, Bontoc ili, Caluttit, Dalican, Guina-ang, Ma-init, Maligcong, Samoki, and Tocucan villages 19,600 (2007 census) 5* (Developing) Bontoc, Bontoc Igorot, Central Bontoc, Kali Khinina-ang, Finontok, Sinamoki, Jinallik, Minaligkhong, Tinokukan. Reportedly similar to Northern Bontok [rbk], Southwestern Bontok [vbk], Southern Bontok [obk], and Eastern Bontok [ebk]. A member of macrolanguage Bontok [bnc].
rbk Bontok, Northern Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, North Central Cordilleran, Nuclear Cordilleran, Bontok-Kankanay, Bontok Philippines Cordillera Administrative Region: north Mountain province, Sadanga municipality, Anabel, Bekigan, Belwang, Betwagan, Demang, Sacasacan, Saclit, and the municipal center, Sadanga Poblacion; some in south Kalinga province 9,700 (2007 census) 8a (Moribund) Bontoc, Central Bontoc, Northern Bontoc None known. Reportedly similar to Central Bontok [lbk], Eastern Bontok [ebk], Southwestern Bontok [vbk], and Southern Bontok [obk]. A member of macrolanguage Bontok [bnc].
obk Bontok, Southern Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, North Central Cordilleran, Nuclear Cordilleran, Bontok-Kankanay, Bontok Philippines Cordillera Administrative Region: Mountain province, south of Bontoc municipality, Bayyo, Can-eo, and Talubin towns 2,760 (2007 census) 6a* (Vigorous) Bontoc, Southern Bontoc Tinoveng, Kinan-ew. Reportedly similar to Northern Bontok [rbk], Central Bontok [lbk], Southwestern Bontok [vbk], and Eastern Bontok [ebk]. A member of macrolanguage Bontok [bnc].
vbk Bontok, Southwestern Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, North Central Cordilleran, Nuclear Cordilleran, Bontok-Kankanay, Bontok Philippines Cordillera Administrative Region: Mountain province, Bontoc municipality, Alab, Balili, Gonogon and villages in Chico river valley, southwest of Bontoc municipal capital 2,470 (2007 census) 8a (Moribund) Bontoc Ina-ab, Binalili, Ginonogon. Reportedly similar to Central Bontok [lbk], Northern Bontok [rbk], Southern Bontok [obk], and Eastern Bontok [ebk]. A member of macrolanguage Bontok [bnc].
kne Kankanaey Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, North Central Cordilleran, Nuclear Cordilleran, Bontok-Kankanay, Kankanay Philippines Cordillera Administrative Region: north Benguet and southwest Ifugao provinces, southwest Mountain province; Ilocos region: southeast Ilocos Sur province, northeast La Union province 167,000 (2005 UNSD). All Kankanai 261,000 (2005 UNSD) 5* (Developing) Central Kankanaey, Kankanai, Kankanay Kankanaey Mankayan-Buguias, Kapangan, Bakun-Kibungan, Guinzadan.
xnn Kankanay, Northern Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, North Central Cordilleran, Nuclear Cordilleran, Bontok-Kankanay, Kankanay Philippines Cordillera Administrative Region: Abra province, Tubo municipality, west Mountain province; Ilocos region: Ilocos Sur province, Cervantes, Gregorio del Pilar, Quirino, and San Emilio municipalities 94,100 (2005 UNSD) 5* (Developing) Kataugnan, Sagada Igorot, Western Bontoc
ifb Ifugao, Batad Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, North Central Cordilleran, Nuclear Cordilleran, Ifugaw Philippines Cordillera Administrative Region: central Ifugao province; Cagayan Valley region: Isabela province, Magat reservoir eastern shore 10,100 (2002 UNSD). 185,000 all Ifugao (2005 UNSD) 5* (Developing) Ayangan Ifugao, Batad, Ifugaw Ducligan Ifugao. Intelligibility of Ayangan Batad Ifugao: Mayoyao [ifu] 86%–94%. Lexical similarity: 89% with Ducligan dialect, 79% with Mayoyao [ifu].
ifa Ifugao, Amganad Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, North Central Cordilleran, Nuclear Cordilleran, Ifugaw Philippines Cordillera Administrative Region: Ifugao province, Banaue and Hungduan municipalities; southwest Mountain province 27,100 (2000 SIL). 185,000 all Ifugao (2005 UNSD). 10,000 monolinguals 5 (Developing) Amganad, Amganad Ifugao, Central Ifugao, Ifugao, Ifugao Mun’alyon, Ifugaw Burnay Ifugao (Munkalyon), Banaue Ifugao. Intelligibility of Burnay dialect 81%. Lexical similarity: 83% with Burnay dialect.
ifu Ifugao, Mayoyao Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, North Central Cordilleran, Nuclear Cordilleran, Ifugaw Philippines Cordillera Administrative Region: Ifugao province, Aguinaldo, Alfonso Lista, and north Mayoyao municipalities; Mountain province, 2 small border areas 30,000 (2007 SIL). 185,000 all Ifugao (2005 UNSD) 4 (Educational) Ifugaw, Mayaoyaw, Mayoyao Mayayao Ifugao None known. 86%–94% intelligibility of Batad Ifugao [ifb]. Grammatical markers are different. Lexical similarity: 54% with Batad Ifugao [ifb].
ifk Ifugao, Tuwali Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, North Central Cordilleran, Nuclear Cordilleran, Ifugaw Philippines Cordillera Administrative Region: south Ifugao province 30,000 (2000 SIL), increasing. 185,000 all Ifugao (2005 UNSD). Only those below grade-school age are monolingual 4 (Educational) Gilipanes, Ifugaw, Kiangan Ifugao, Quiangan Tuwali Hapao Ifugao, Hungduan Ifugao, Lagawe Ifugao. 77% intelligibility of Amganad Ifugao [ifa], 78% of Batad Ifugao [ifb]. Hapao dialect has 88% intelligibility of Hungduan dialect. Lexical similarity: 80% with Amganad Ifugao [ifa], 72% with Batad Ifugao [ifb], 78% with Hapao dialect, 86% with Hungduan dialect.
ilk Bogkalot Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, South-Central Cordilleran, Southern Cordilleran, Ilongot Philippines Cagayan Valley region: south Nueva Vizcaya province; Quirino province, Nagtipunan area 103,000 (2005 UNSD), decreasing 6b (Threatened) Bugkalut, Bukalot, Ilongot, Lingotes Bogkalot Abaka (Abaca), Egongot, Ibalao (Ibilao), Italon, Iyongut.
pag Pangasinan Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, South-Central Cordilleran, Southern Cordilleran, West Southern Cordilleran Philippines Ilocos region: Pangasinan province 1,240,000 in Philippines (2005 UNSD). Total users in all countries: 1,243,660 3 (Wider communication). Statutory language of provincial identity in Pangasinan Province (1991, ACFLC Section 3(f)) Pangasinan
pag Pangasinan Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, South-Central Cordilleran, Southern Cordilleran, West Southern Cordilleran United States California; Hawaii; Ohio; Washington 2,270 in United States (2015 census) 5* (Dispersed)
ibl Ibaloi Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, South-Central Cordilleran, Southern Cordilleran, West Southern Cordilleran, Nuclear Southern Cordilleran, Ibaloy Philippines Cagayan Valley region: west Nueva Vizcaya province; Cordillera Administrative Region: central and south Benguet province 116,000 (2005 UNSD) 5* (Developing) Benguet-Igorot, Ibadoy, Ibaloy, Igodor, Nabaloi Inibaloi Daklan, Kabayan, Bokod.
iwk I-wak Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, South-Central Cordilleran, Southern Cordilleran, West Southern Cordilleran, Nuclear Southern Cordilleran, Ibaloy Philippines Cordillera Administrative Region: Benguet province, east Itogon municipality, Bakes, Bujasjas, Domolpos, Kayo-ko, Lebeng, and Tojongan villages; Cagayan Valley region: Nueva Vizcaya province, Kayapa municipality, Salaksak village 2,570 (2005 UNSD) 6b* (Threatened) Iwaak None known. Related to Karao [kyj], Ibaloi [ibl], and Kalanguya [kak].
kak Kalanguya Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, South-Central Cordilleran, Southern Cordilleran, West Southern Cordilleran, Nuclear Southern Cordilleran, Kallahan Philippines Cagayan Valley region: Benguet province, Bokod municipality; western Nueva Vizcaya province; Cordillera Administrative Region: Ifugao province, Hungduan municipality; Ilocos region: northeast Pangasinan province, San Nicolas municipality 100,000 (2010), increasing. census 5 (Developing) Ikalahan, Kalangoya, Kalangoya-Ikalahan, Kayapa Kallahan Kalanguya Central Kalanguya (Kayapa), Northern Kalanguya (Ambaguio, Tinoc), Southern Kalanguya (Santa Fe), Western Kalanguya (Benguet).
ify Kallahan, Keley-i Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, South-Central Cordilleran, Southern Cordilleran, West Southern Cordilleran, Nuclear Southern Cordilleran, Kallahan Philippines Cordillera Administrative Region: Ifugao province, Aritao and Kiangan municipalities 8,000 (2000 SIL). Only children under 5 are monolingual 4 (Educational) Hanalulo, Keley-i, Keley-i Kalanguya, Keleyqiq Ifugao Antipolo Ifugao Bayninan, Ya-Tuka.
kyj Karao Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, South-Central Cordilleran, Southern Cordilleran, West Southern Cordilleran, Nuclear Southern Cordilleran, Karaw Philippines Cagayan Valley region: east Nueva Vizcaya province, Bokod, Ekip, and Karao areas; Cordillera Administrative Region: western Benguet and Ifugao provinces 2,000 (2011 SIL) 5 (Developing) Karaw Karao None known. Limited comprehension testing showed 85% comprehension of Kalanguya [kak]; 78% of Ilocano [ilo]. Lexical similarity: 90% with Ibaloi [ibl].
att Atta, Pamplona Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Luzon, Northern Cordilleran, Cagayan Valley, Ibanagic Philippines Cagayan Valley region: northwest Cagayan province 1,000 (1998 SIL) 6a (Vigorous) Northern Cagayan Negrito Atta None known. Comprehension of Ibanag North [ibg] 97%, of Itawit [itv] 52%. Lexical similarity: 91% with Ibanag North, 63% with Ilocano [ilo], 69% with Itawit.
ibg Ibanag Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Luzon, Northern Cordilleran, Cagayan Valley, Ibanagic Philippines Cagayan Valley region: Cagayan and Isabela provinces 277,000 (2005 UNSD) 4 (Educational). De facto language of provincial identity in Cagayan and Isabela provinces Ibanak, Ybanag Ibanag North Ibanag, South Ibanag. Intelligibility of Itawit [itv] 69%.
azt Atta, Faire Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Luzon, Northern Cordilleran, Cagayan Valley, Ibanagic Philippines Cagayan Valley region: Cagayan province, Santo Nino municipality, near Faire-Rizal 300 (Wurm 2000). Ethnic population: 600 6b (Threatened) Southern Atta None known. Lexical similarity: 81% with Pudtol Atta [atp], 60% with Isnag [isd], 66% with Central Cagayan Agta [agt], 82% with Pamplona Atta [att], 90% with Rizal Atta, 72% with Ibanag [ibg].
atp Atta, Pudtol Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Luzon, Northern Cordilleran, Cagayan Valley, Ibanagic Philippines Cordillera Administrative Region: Apayao province, Pudtol, and Abulog river south of Pamplona 710 (2000) 6b* (Threatened) None known. Lexical similarity: 86% with Pamplona Atta [att], 75% with Ibanag [ibg], 63% with Isnag [isd], 81% with Faire Atta [azt], 42% with Ilocano [ilo].
itv Itawit Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Luzon, Northern Cordilleran, Cagayan Valley, Ibanagic Philippines Cordillera Administrative Region: Apayao province, Conner municipality; Cagayan Valley region: south central Cagayan province 189,000 (2005 UNSD). 171,000 Itawis and 18,000 Malaueg (2005 UNSD) 5* (Developing) Itawes, Itawis, Tawit Itawit Malaweg (Malaueg), Itawis. Related to Ibanag languages; 72% intelligibility of South Ibanag [ibg]; 68% of Ilocano [ilo]. Lexical similarity: 53% with Ilocano [ilo].
yog Yogad Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Luzon, Northern Cordilleran, Cagayan Valley, Ibanagic Philippines Cagayan Valley region: Isabela province, Echague and nearby towns 17,900 (2005 UNSD) 6a* (Vigorous) None known. Lexical similarity: 52% with Ilocano [ilo], 66% with Itawit [itv], 63% with Ibanag [ibg].
agt Agta, Central Cagayan Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Luzon, Northern Cordilleran, Cagayan Valley, Ibanagic, Gaddangic Philippines Cagayan Valley region: Cagayan province inland area, east and northeast from Baggao 780 (2000). Ethnic population: 820 5 (Developing) Labin Agta Agta
gdg Ga’dang Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Luzon, Northern Cordilleran, Cagayan Valley, Ibanagic, Gaddangic Philippines Cordillera Administrative Region: Ifugao province, Potia; Kalinga province, Tabuk city; Mountain province, Paracelis 6,000 (2002 SIL). Very few monolinguals 5* (Developing) Baliwon, Gaddang, Ginabwal Ga’dang None known. Lexical similarity: 80% with Gaddang [gad].
gad Gaddang Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Luzon, Northern Cordilleran, Cagayan Valley, Ibanagic, Gaddangic Philippines Cordillera Administrative Region: Ifugao province, north of Magat reservoir; Cagayan Valley region: Isabela province, small group in Tuboc area on Cagayan river middle branch; Nueva Vizcaya province, Bagabag, Bayombong, and Solano municipalities 30,300 (2005 UNSD) 6a* (Vigorous) Cagayan None known. Less than 80% intelligibility of Ga’dang [gdg]. Lexical similarity: 80% with Ga’dang [gdg].
tiu Adasen Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Luzon, Northern Cordilleran, Cagayan Valley, Isnag Philippines Cordillera Administrative Region: northeast Abra province, west Apayao province 4,000 (NTM). Ethnic population: 5,720 5 (Developing) Addasen, Addasen Tinguian, Itneg Adasen Eastern Addasen, Western Addasen. Comprehension of Isnag [isd] 74%.
isd Isnag Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Luzon, Northern Cordilleran, Cagayan Valley, Isnag Philippines Cagayan Valley region: Cagayan province, Claveria and Santa Praxedes municipalites; Cordillera Administrative Region: Abra province, scattered along west Apayao province border; Apayao province northern two-thirds; Ilocos region: Ilocos Norte province, scattered along west Apayao border 32,600 (2005 UNSD) 4 (Educational) Apayao, Isneg, Maragat Isnag Bayag, Dibagat-Kabugao (Dibagat-Kabugao-Isneg), Calanasan, Karagawan (Daragawan), Talifugu-Ripang (Tawini). Calanasan dialect 94% intelligibility of Dibagat dialect, 88% of Ilocano [ilo]; Talifugu-Ripang 89% of Dibagat, 71% of Ilocano.
apf Agta, Pahanan Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Luzon, Northern Cordilleran, Northeastern Luzon Philippines Cagayan Valley region: Isabela province east coast, between Divilacan bay and Dinapigue town, inland to San Mariano 1,700 (2009 J. Lobel), increasing 5 (Developing) Palanan Agta Pahanan None known. Reportedly similar to Paranan [prf].
prf Paranan Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Luzon, Northern Cordilleran, Northeastern Luzon Philippines Cagayan Valley region: Isabela province east coast, between Divilacan bay and Dinapigue town and inland to San Mariano 15,000 (2009 J. Lobel) 4 (Educational) Palanan, Palanenyo Paranan None known. Reportedly similar to Pahanan Agta [apf].
duo Agta, Dupaninan Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Luzon, Northern Cordilleran, Northeastern Luzon, Northern Philippines Cagayan Valley region: Cagayan and Isabela provinces, south Divilacan bay north to Palaui island 1,200 (1986 SIL). Ethnic population: 1,500 (2007 L. Reid) 6b (Threatened) Dupaningan Agta, Eastern Cagayan Agta Yaga, Tanglagan, Santa Ana-Gonzaga, Barongagunay, Palaui Island, Camonayan, Valley Cove, Bolos Point, Peñablanca, Roso (Southeast Cagayan), Santa Margarita. Intelligibility of Yaga dialect 83%. Yaga and Central Cagayan Agta [agt] are 63% intelligible. Lexical similarity: 51% between Central Cagayan Agta [agt] and Tanglagan dialect, 66% between Central Cagayan Agta [agt] and Yaga dialect.
dgc Agta, Casiguran Dumagat Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Luzon, Northern Cordilleran, Northeastern Luzon, Northern Philippines Central Luzon region: Aurora province, past Casiguran city to Dipaculao municipality; Cagayan Valley region: Isabela province, Dinapigue municipality; Quirino province, border area. All on central Luzon east coast 610 (Headland 1989) 5 (Developing) Agta Casiguran, Casiguran Agta, Casiguran Dumagat Agta None known. Intelligibility: 83% of Paranan [prf].
duy Agta, Dicamay Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Luzon, Northern Cordilleran, Northeastern Luzon, Northern Philippines Cagayan Valley region: Isabela province, Jones municipality No known L1 speakers. The last speaker died in the 1960s (Headland 2010) 10 (Extinct) Dicamay Dumagat
ksn Kasiguranin Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Luzon, Northern Cordilleran, Northeastern Luzon, Northern Philippines Central Luzon region: Aurora province, Casiguran municipality 12,100 (2005 UNSD) 6a* (Vigorous) Casiguranin None known. 82% intelligibility of Paranan [prf]. Lexical similarity: 52% with Filipino [fil], 75% with Paranan [prf].
gay Gayo Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northwest Sumatra-Barrier Islands Indonesia Aceh province: Central Aceh, East Aceh, Gayo Lues, and Southeast Aceh regencies; Sumatra highland region near Mount Sembuang 300,000 (2000 census). Ethnic population: 337,000 (2015) 6b (Threatened) Gajo, Gayonese Deret, Serbejadi-Lukup, Lut, Lues. Not closely related to other languages. Some Gayo people consider Alas [btz] a distant Gayo dialect.
mwv Mentawai Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northwest Sumatra-Barrier Islands Indonesia West Sumatra province: Sumatra island; Mentawai islands, across from Padang city 58,000 (2000 census) 5* (Developing) Mentawei, Mentawi Mentawai Simalegi, Sakalagan, Silabu, Taikaku, Saumanganja, North Siberut, South Siberut, Sipura, Pagai.
smr Simeulue Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northwest Sumatra-Barrier Islands Indonesia Aceh province: east and west Simeulue island; Babi and Banyak islands 30000 6a (Vigorous) Defayan, Long Bano, Simalur, Simeuloë, Simulul
btx Batak Karo Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northwest Sumatra-Barrier Islands, Batak, Northern Indonesia Aceh province: Aceh Selatan, Aceh Singli, Aceh Tenggara, and Kota Subulussalam regencies; North Sumatra province: Dairi, Deli Serdang, Karo, and Langkat regencies; Tapanuli Tengah regency, south small border area 600,000 (1991 UBS) 6b (Threatened) Karo Batak, kalak Karo cakap Karo Lexical similarity: 81% with Batak Dairi [btd] (Pakpak dialect), 80% with Batak Similungun [bts], and 76% with Batak Alas-Kluet [btz] (Alas dialect) (Woollams 2005).
btz Batak Alas-Kluet Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northwest Sumatra-Barrier Islands, Batak, Northern Indonesia Aceh province: inland from Tapaktuan, and northwest towards Kutacane; into North Sumatra province 195,000 (2000 census). Includes 80,000 Alas, 50,000 Kluet, and 65,000 Singkil 6a* (Vigorous) Alas-Kluet Batak Alas, Kluet, Singkil (Kade-Kade). Alas dialect may be more similar to Karo Batak [btx], 81% cognate (Soravia 2002), while Kluet and Singkil may be more closely related to Pakpak Dairi [btd]. Lexical similarity: 76% with Batak Karo [btx] (Woollams 2005).
btd Batak Dairi Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northwest Sumatra-Barrier Islands, Batak, Northern Indonesia Aceh province: Aceh Singkil regency; North Sumatra province: Dairi, Humbang Hasundutan, Pakpak Barat, Samosir, and Tapanuli Tengah regencies, Sidikalang town area south to coast 1,200,000 (1991 UBS) 6b (Threatened) Pakpak Dairi Dairi, Pakpak. Dairi and Pakpak dialects are sociolinguistically distinct. Lexical similarity: 81% with Batak Karo [btx] (Pakpak dialect) (Woollams 2005).
bts Batak Simalungun Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northwest Sumatra-Barrier Islands, Batak, Simalungan Indonesia North Sumatra province: Deli Serdang, Kota Pematang Siantar, Serdang Bedagai, and Simalungun regencies 1,200,000 (2000) 5* (Developing) Simelungan, Timur Sahap Simalungun None known. Lexical similarity: 80% with Batak Karo [btx] (Woollams 2005).
akb Batak Angkola Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northwest Sumatra-Barrier Islands, Batak, Southern Indonesia North Sumatra province: Labuhan Batu, Labuhan Batu Selatan, Padang Lawas, Padang Lawas Utara, Tapanuli Selatan, Tapanuli Tengah, and Tapanuli Utara regencies; inland from Sibolga city area south, east to Binanga, northeast toward the Strait of Malacca 750,000 (1991 UBS) 6b (Threatened) Anakola, Angkola None known. Reportedly similar to Mandailing Batak [btm], but distinct sociolinguistically.
btm Batak Mandailing Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northwest Sumatra-Barrier Islands, Batak, Southern Indonesia North Sumatra province: south interior from Padang Sidempuan into Riau and West Sumatra provinces 1,100,000 (2000 census) 6b (Threatened) Batta, Mandailing Batak None known. Sociolinguistically different from Angkola Batak [akb].
bbc Batak Toba Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northwest Sumatra-Barrier Islands, Batak, Southern Indonesia North Sumatra province: Asahan, Humbang Hasundutan, Labuhan Batu Utara, Samosir, Simalungan, south Tapanuli Tengah, Tapanuli Utara, and Toba Samosir regencies; Samosir island; east, south, and west of Lake Toba 2,000,000 (1991 UBS) 6b (Threatened) Toba Batak Batta None known. Reportedly similar to Angkola Batak [akb].
nia Nias Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northwest Sumatra-Barrier Islands, Nias Indonesia North Sumatra province: Batu, Nias and Mursala islands. Alasa, Sirombu and Mandrehe (Northwest dialect); Gomo, and south in Teluk Dalam and Batu islands (Central dialect) 770,000 (2000 census). Ethnic population: 1,042,000 (2011 census) 5 (Developing) Batu, Niha Li Nias North Nias (Gunung Sitoli), South Nias (Nias Selatan), West Nias, Northwest Nias, Central Nias.
skh Sikule Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northwest Sumatra-Barrier Islands, Nias Indonesia Aceh province: central Simeulue island 20000 6b (Threatened) Salang, Sichule, Sigulai, Sikhule, Simeulue Barat, Wali Banuah Leukon (Lekon), Tapah. Closely related to Nias [nia].
pau Palauan Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Palauan Palau Widespread 14,000 in Palau (2015 World Factbook). Total users in all countries: 18,140 1 (National). Statutory national language (1979, Constitution, Article 13(1)) Belauan, Palau Tekoi ra Belau Little dialect variation.
rej Rejang Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Rejang Indonesia Bengkulu province: Arga Makmur, Curup, Kapahiang, and Muara Aman town areas in southwest highlands; South Sumatra province: Musi Rawas Ulu, west 350,000 (2000 census) 6a (Vigorous) Djang, Jang, Redjang Lebong, Kepahiang (Kebanagung), Pasisir, Musi (Curup), Rawas. Lebong recognized as central dialect.
snl Sangil Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Sangiric, Northern Philippines Davao region: Davao del Sur province, Balut island off extreme south tip 15,000 (1996 SIL) 5 (Developing) Sanggil, Sangihé, Sangirese Sangiré Sarangani, Mindanao. Lexical similarity: 90% with Sangir [sxn].
sxn Sangir Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Sangiric, Northern Indonesia North Sulawesi province: Great Sangir island east peninsula 200,000 in Indonesia (Maryott 1993), increasing. 50,000 Siau, 10,000 Tagulandang. Total users in all countries: 255,000 5* (Developing) Sangi, Sangih, Sangirese Sangihẹ̆ Siau (Sjauw), Manganitu (Tamako), Tabukang (Tabukan), Taruna (Tahuna), Tagulandang (Tahulandang).
sxn Sangir Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Sangiric, Northern Philippines Davao region: Davao del Sur province, Sarangani island off extreme south tip 55,000 in Philippines (1981 SIL) 5* (Developing) Sangihé, Sangirese
tld Talaud Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Sangiric, Northern Indonesia North Sulawesi province: Talaud islands 82,000 (2000 census) 6a* (Vigorous) Talaur, Talaut, Talodda Kaburuang, South Karakelong (Karakelang, Karakelong), Nenusa-Maingas, Essang, Arangka’a, Dapalan (Riung), Awit, Beo, Lirang (Salebabu, Salibabu).
bnq Bantik Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Sangiric, Southern Indonesia North Sulawesi province: Manado city area, 11 villages; north peninsula, northeast section 3,000 (Utsumi 2001), decreasing 8a (Moribund)
rth Ratahan Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Sangiric, Southern Indonesia North Sulawesi province: Minahasa regency on northeast peninsula and Tomini bay 500 (Himmelmann and Wolff 1999), decreasing. Ethnic population: 30,000 (1989) 8b (Nearly extinct) Bentenan, Pasan, Toratan, Toratán
bug Bugis Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, South Sulawesi, Bugis Indonesia Central Sulawesi province: Donggola, Oti, and Toaya, west; 3 Tolo bay enclaves east; South Sulawesi province: widespread in peninsular interior (except south and east of Makassar city) east to Bone bay; Southeast Sulawesi province: Kasiputih area, 3 interior enclaves near Sulawesi Tenggara, Lake Towuti, Bone bay east coast; West Sulawesi province: More, Pasangkayu on Mandar bay; possibly in Kalimantan, Maluku, Papua, and Sumatra provinces 4,010,000 in Indonesia, all users. L1 users: 3,510,000 in Indonesia (2015 UNSD), increasing. L2 users: 500,000. Total users in all countries: 4,027,800 (as L1: 3,527,800; as L2: 500,000) 3 (Wider communication) Boegineesche, Boeginezen, Bugi, Buginese, De’, Rappang Buginese, To Ugi Basa Ugi Bone (Dua Boccoe, Mare, Palakka), Pangkep (Pangkajene), Camba, Sidrap (Alitta, Pinrang Utara, Sidenrang), Pasangkayu (Ugi Riawa), Sinjai (Bulukumba, Enna, Palattae), Soppeng (Kessi), Wajo, Barru (Nepo, Pare-Pare, Soppeng Riaja, Tanete, Tompo), Sawitto (Pinrang), Luwu (Bua Ponrang, Luwu’, Malangke-Ussu, Wara). Bone and Soppeng dialects are central.
bug Bugis Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, South Sulawesi, Bugis Malaysia Sabah: Kota Kinabalu, Lahad Datu, Sandakan and Tawau districts, major cities but also scattered 17,800 in Malaysia (2000 SIL), decreasing. Ethnic population: 138,000 (2015 A. Supeno) 6b (Threatened) Basa Ugi, Buginese Bone, Enrekang, Mandar, Soppeng, Pinrang, Sinjai, Makasar, Duri.
cml Campalagian Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, South Sulawesi, Bugis Indonesia West Sulawesi province: Polewali Mandar regency on Mandar bay south coast 30,000 (Strømme 1987) 6a* (Vigorous) Tallumpanuae, Tasing, Tjampalagian Campalagian, Buku. Lexical similarity: 50%–58% with Mandar [mdr], 50%–62% with Bugis [bug], 55% with Bugis Bone [bug], 62% with Bugis Pangkajene [bug], Bugis Sidrap [bug].
emb Embaloh Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, South Sulawesi, Bugis, Tamanic Indonesia West Kalimantan province: northeast Kapuas Hulu regency, upper Kapuas river, Embaloh, Kalis, Lauh, Leboyan, Nyabau, and Palin tributaries; small area south of the Kapuas, Mandai river, and Batutenobong 10,000 (1991 NTM) 5* (Developing) Malo, Maloh, Matoh, Mbaloh, Memaloh, Palin, Pari, Sangau, Sanggau Kalis (Kalis Dayak, Kalis Maloh). Kalis may be a separate language.
tmn Taman Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, South Sulawesi, Bugis, Tamanic Indonesia West Kalimantan province: Kapuas Hulu regency; upper Kapuas river 30,000 (2007 SIL) 6a* (Vigorous) Dayak Taman, Taman Dayak
ley Lemolang Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, South Sulawesi, Lemolang Indonesia South Sulawesi province: Luwu Utara regency, Sassa and Salassa villages, in Bone bay and middle Rongko river area; scattered in Sabbang sub-district 2,000 (Vail 1991), decreasing 8a (Moribund) Baebunta, Limola, Limolang None known. Lexical similarity: 41% with Mori Bawah [xmz], 39% with Mori Atas [mzq], 38% with Bungku [bkz], 39% with Wolio [wlo], 31% with Seko Padang [skx], 30% with Rampi [lje], 29% with Toraja-Sa’dan [sda], 26% with Muna [mnb], 25% with Wotu [wtw], 24% with Bugis [bug].
bnu Bentong Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, South Sulawesi, Makassar Indonesia South Sulawesi province: Barru, Bone, Pangkep, and Maros regencies; highland areas northeast of Makassar city 25,000 (1987 SIL) 6b* (Threatened) Bentong-Dentong, Dentong None known. Reportedly most similar to Konjo [kjc].
kjc Konjo, Coastal Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, South Sulawesi, Makassar Indonesia South Sulawesi province: Bantaeng, Bulukumba, and Sinjai regencies; southeast peninsula on Salayer strait 125,000 (1990 SIL). 50,000 Kajang, 10,000 Tiro 6b* (Threatened) Kondjo, Tiro Konjo Pesisir (Ara, Bira), Tana Toa (Black Konjo, Kadjang, Kajang, Tana Towa), Bantaeng (Bonthain). Tana Toa is north end of dialect subgroup. Lexical similarity: 76% with Makassar [mak]; Tana Toa dialect: 10% with other coastal dialects.
kjk Konjo, Highland Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, South Sulawesi, Makassar Indonesia South Sulawesi province: Bone, Bulukumba, Gowa, and Sinjai regencies, south peninsula interior; Mount Lompobatang area northwest, past Makassar city 150,000 (1991 SIL) 6b* (Threatened) Konjo Pegunungan, Konyo None known. Lexical similarity: 75% with Coastal Konjo [kjc].
mak Makasar Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, South Sulawesi, Makassar Indonesia South Sulawesi province: Bantaeng, Gowa, Jeneponto, Maros, Pangkajene Dan Kepulauan, and Takalar regencies; southwest peninsula 2,530,000, all users. L1 users: 2,130,000 (2000 census). L2 users: 400,000 6b* (Threatened) Goa, Macassar, Macassarese, Makassa, Makassaarsche, Makassar, Makassarese, Mangasara, Mengkasara, Taena, Tena Basa Mangkásara Gowa (Goa, Lakiung), Turatea (Jeneponto), Maros-Pangkep. Gowa dialect is prestigious. Dialects form a chain.
sly Selayar Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, South Sulawesi, Makassar Indonesia South Sulawesi province: Selayar island 128,000 (2000 census) 6a (Vigorous) Salajar, Salayar, Salayer, Saleier, Siladja, Silajara None known. Lexical similarity: 69% with Makassar [mak].
mqx Mamuju Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, South Sulawesi, Northern, Mamuju Indonesia West Sulawesi province: Mamuju regency, Budong-Budong, Kalukku, and Mamuju sub-districts; Point Rangas north along Makassar strait coast to Limba town area 60,000 (1991 SIL). 50,000 in Mamuju dialect 6b* (Threatened) Mamoedjoe, Mamoedjoesch, Mamudju, Udai Mamuju, Sumare-Rangas, Padang, Sinyonyoi. Mamuju dialect is prestigious.
mdr Mandar Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, South Sulawesi, Northern, Mandar Indonesia South Sulawesi province: Pangkajene Islands regency, Pabbring islands near Makassar city, other areas; West Sulawesi province: Majene, Mamuju, and Polewali Mandar regencies, Cape Mandar and Majene city, and 3 coastal enclaves north; coastal area between Parangkayu and Simajo towns 475,000 (2000 census) 5* (Developing) Andian, Mandharsche, Manjar Majene, Balanipa (Napo-Tinambung), Malunda, Pamboang, Sendana (Cenrana, Tjendana). A complex dialect grouping. May be more dialects than those listed. Balanipa and Sendana may each be more than 1 dialect. Balanipa is prestige dialect. Mandar, Mamuju [mqx], and Bambam [ptu] are separate languages in a language chain.
mvp Duri Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, South Sulawesi, Northern, Masenrempulu Indonesia South Sulawesi province: north Enrekang regency; Makassar city and other communities 127,000 (2000 census) 5* (Developing) Masenrempulu, Massenrempulu Duri Cakke-Kalosi, Baraka, Benteng Alla.
ptt Enrekang Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, South Sulawesi, Northern, Masenrempulu Indonesia South Sulawesi province: Enrekang and Pinrang regencies, Enrekang town area, west toward Mandar bay head; West Sulawesi province: Polewali Mandar regency coastal area 50,000 (1986 SIL) 6a* (Vigorous) Endekan, Endekan Timur Enrekang, Ranga, Pattinjo (Letta-Batulappa-Kassa).
wmm Maiwa Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, South Sulawesi, Northern, Masenrempulu Indonesia South Sulawesi province: Enrekang and Sidenrang-Rappang regencies; Boya river area 50,000 (1990 SIL) 6a* (Vigorous) Masenrempulu
mli Malimpung Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, South Sulawesi, Northern, Masenrempulu Indonesia South Sulawesi province: Pinrang regency, Patampanua sub-district, Malimpung, Sulili (part), and Urung villages; north Sadang river 5,000 (1986 SIL) 6a* (Vigorous) None known. Lexical similarity: 80% with Maiwa [wmm], 70% with Enrekang [ptt].
atq Aralle-Tabulahan Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, South Sulawesi, Northern, Pitu Ulunna Salu Indonesia West Sulawesi province: Mamasa regency, Mambi sub-district, Aralle and Tabulalang towns, 2 separate areas 12,000 (1984 SIL) 5* (Developing) Aralle, Tabulahan, Mambi. Lexical similarity: 84%–89% with other dialects listed, 75%–80% with Bambam [ptu], Pannei [pnc], and Ulumandak [ulm] dialects.
dkk Dakka Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, South Sulawesi, Northern, Pitu Ulunna Salu Indonesia West Sulawesi province: Polewali-Mandar regency, Wonomulyo sub-district 1,500 (Strømme 1987) 7 (Shifting) None known. Lexical similarity: 72%–77% with Pannei [pnc] and Bambam [ptu].
ptu Bambam Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, South Sulawesi, Northern, Pitu Ulunna Salu Indonesia West Sulawesi province: Mamasa regency, Mambi sub-district, Maloso and Mapilli rivers watershed; into Majene and Mamuju regencies 22,000 (Strømme 1987) 5 (Developing) Pitu Uluna Salu, Pitu-Ulunna-Salu Basa Bambam Bambam Hulu, Salu Mokanam, Bumal, Mehalaan, Pattae’, Matangnga, Issilita’, Pakkau. Complex dialect chain. Lexical similarity: 83%–94% with Bumal; 85%–80% with dialects of Aralle-Tabulahan [atq], Pannei [pnc], and Ulumanda [ulm].
pnc Pannei Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, South Sulawesi, Northern, Pitu Ulunna Salu Indonesia West Sulawesi province: Polewali Mandar regency, Wonomulyo sub-district 9,000 (1983) 6a* (Vigorous) Tapango Tapango, Bulo. Lexical similarity: 87%–93% between the Bulo dialect and other varieties, 75%–80% with dialects of Ulumanda’ [ulm], Bambam [ptu], and Aralle-Tabulahan [atq].
ulm Ulumanda’ Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, South Sulawesi, Northern, Pitu Ulunna Salu Indonesia West Sulawesi province: Majene, Mamuju, and Polewali-Mandar regencies, mostly interior 30,000 (1986 SIL). 18,000 in Polmas and Majene 6a* (Vigorous) Awo-Sumakuyu, Botteng-Tappalang, Kado, Oeloemanda, Tubbi, Ulumandak, Ulunda Sondoang, Tappalang, Botteng. About 6 dialects. Lexical similarity: 75%–80% with dialect of Bambam [ptu], Aralle-Tabulahan [atq], and Pannei [pnc].
tln Talondo’ Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, South Sulawesi, Northern, Toraja-Sa’dan Indonesia West Sulawesi province: Mamuju regency, Bonehau sub-district, Bonehau village area 1,200 (2011 A. Tadollo), increasing 6a (Vigorous) Talondo Kondo None known. May be in the Seko subgroup (Padang [skx] or Tengah [sko]). Lexical similarity: 80% with Kalumpang [kli].
kli Kalumpang Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, South Sulawesi, Northern, Toraja-Sa’dan Indonesia South Sulawesi province; West Sulawesi province: southeast Mamuju regency, Kalumpang sub-district, Karama river headwaters 20,000 (2012 S. Samboy) 6a* (Vigorous) Galumpang, Ma’ki, Maki, Makki, Mangki, Mangkir Karataun (E’da, Makki), Bone Hau (Ta’da). Smaller dialects not listed. Lexical similarity: 78% with Mamasa [mqj], 78% with Tae’ [rob], 74% with Toraja-Sa’dan [sda]; 82% between Karataun and Bone Hau dialects.
mqj Mamasa Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, South Sulawesi, Northern, Toraja-Sa’dan Indonesia South Sulawesi province: north Pare-Pare area; West Sulawesi province: Mamasa regency, along Mamasa river 100,000 (1991 SIL) 6a* (Vigorous) Mamasa Toraja Northern Mamasa, Central Mamasa, Pattae’ (Binuang, Binuang-Paki-Batetanga-Anteapi, Patta’ Binuang, Southern Mamasa, Tae’). Lexical similarity: 78% with Toraja-Sa’dan [sda].
rob Tae’ Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, South Sulawesi, Northern, Toraja-Sa’dan Indonesia South Sulawesi province: Luwu and North Luwu regencies; northwest coast; Bone bay; Bastem sub-district, Rongkong river valley. East Luwu regency, Nuha sub-district (Rongkong dialect) 340,000 (2000 census), increasing 5* (Developing) East Toraja, Luwu’, Luwu-Rongkong, Rongkong, Rongkong-Luwu, Tae’ Tae’, Taeq, Toraja, Toraja Timur, Toware, “Toala’” (pej.) Tae’ Rongkong, Northeast Luwu (Bone-Bone, Masamba), South Luwu, Bua. Dialect chain throughout Tae’ area east into Toraja-Sa’dan [sda]. Lexical similarity: 82% or greater among dialects, 82% with Toraja-Sa’dan [sda].
sda Toraja-Sa’dan Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, South Sulawesi, Northern, Toraja-Sa’dan Indonesia South Sulawesi province: Luwu and Tana Toraja regencies; West Sulawesi province: Mamasa regency; possibly Makassar city, west coast 750,000 in Indonesia (2000 census), increasing 5 (Developing) Basa Toraya, Sa’dan, Sa’dansche, Sada, Sadan, Sadang, South Toraja, Tae’, Taeq, Toradja, Toraja Basa Tora’a Makale (Tallulembangna), Rantepao (Kesu’), Toraja Barat (Mappa-Pana, West Toraja). Rantepao is prestige dialect.
skx Seko Padang Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, South Sulawesi, Seko Indonesia Central Sulawesi Tengah province: Palolo valley; South Sulawesi province: North Luwu regency, northeast Limbong sub-district 5,000 (1985 SIL). 2,300 in the Seko area 6a* (Vigorous) Seko, Wono Sua Tu Padang Lodang, Hono’ (Wono).
sko Seko Tengah Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, South Sulawesi, Seko Indonesia South Sulawesi province: west Limbong sub-district along Betue river 2,500 (Laskowske and Laskowske 1987) 6b* (Threatened) Pewanean, Pewaneang, Pohoneang, Seko None known. Lexical similarity: 71% with Seko Padang [skx], 67% with Panasuan [psn].
bdx Budong-Budong Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, South Sulawesi, Seko, Panasuan Indonesia West Sulawesi province: Mamuju regency, Budong-Budong sub-district, Tongkou village; Makassar strait, Budong-Budong river area 70 (Friberg and Laskowske 1989) 8a (Moribund) Bubudong, Tangkou, Tongkou None known. Reportedly similar to Aralle-Tabulahan [atq] and Ulumandak [ulm]. Lexical similarity: 56% with Mamuju [mqx] and Seko Padang [skx], 61% with Seko Tengah [sko], 72% with Panasuan [psn].
psn Panasuan Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, South Sulawesi, Seko, Panasuan Indonesia South Sulawesi province: Luwu Utara regency northwest; West Sulawesi province: Mamuju regency, Kalumpang and Seko sub-districts, 2 villages 800 (2004 SIL). Ethnic population: 800 6a (Vigorous) To Pamosean, To Panasean None known. Lexical similarity: 67% with Seko Tengah [sko], 63% with Seko Padang [skx], 72% with Budong-Budong [bdx].
bac Badui Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Sundanese Indonesia Banten province: Rangkasbitung regency, Pandeglang town, on Ujung river; West Java province: Sukabumi city area, 1 village, and Cikajang city area 20,000 (2000 census). 12,000 in Kenekes village area 6a (Vigorous) Baduy, Bahasa Sunda, Gajebo Sometimes considered a dialect of Sunda [sun] (Florey 2005).
sun Sunda Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Sundanese Indonesia Banten and West Java provinces: western third of Java; Central Java province: Cilacap regency 32,400,000 (2015 UNSD). Ethnic population: 36,700,000 (2011 census) 5 (Developing). De facto language of provincial identity in western Java Basa Gumung, Priangan, Sundanese Basa Sunda Bogor (Krawang), Pringan, Cirebon.
goq Gorap Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Unclassified Indonesia North Maluku province: Halmahera Utara regency, Bobane and Igo villages; Pulau Morotai regency, Pilowo and Waringin villages on Morotai island 1,000 (1992 SIL) 7 (Shifting) None known. A mixed language, with Ternate [tft] and Malay [max] words and different word order from other languages of north Halmahera or Austronesian languages. Lexical similarity: 85% with Indonesian [ind], but comprehension is limited.
blj Bulungan Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Unclassified Indonesia East Kalimantan province: Tanjungselor town area, lower Kayan river 30,000 (Kawi et al 2002) 6a* (Vigorous) Bolongan May be a dialect of Southern Tidung [itd] or Segai [sge].
ktq Katabagan Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Unclassified Philippines CALABARZON region: Quezon province, Bondoc peninsula Unattested Katabaga

References[edit]

  • Eberhard, David M., Gary F. Simons, and Charles D. Fennig (eds.). 2019. Ethnologue: Languages of the World. Twenty-second edition. Dallas, Texas: SIL International.