List of governments supporting trap–neuter–return

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Governments with laws and/or policies supporting trap–neuter–return for community cats (free-roaming cats not belonging to individuals, including feral cats), are listed below. References are provided for each government body named, with start dates if they are known. The list is not expected to be complete, and may change over time.

Canada[edit]

British Columbia[edit]

  • Delta - The city animal services agency, the Delta Community Animal Shelter, states that it promotes humane treatment of animals in part "by practicing our Trap–Neuter/Spay–Return program for feral cats".[1] In 2014, shelter manager Sarah Jones advised the public that she "would like residents to call if they see feral cats in their neighbourhood. The shelter's Trap, Sterilize and Release program will humanely trap the cats, spay or neuter, tag, vaccinate and then make them available for adoption. Adult cats that are not tame are released back into the area they were living or placed in barns as mousers".[2] Delta is considered a no kill community, where no healthy or treatable animals are put to death.
  • Langley City and Langley Township (since 2003) - The local animal services agency, Langley Animal Protection Society, "advocates “Trap, Neuter, Release” programs when dealing with feral cat colonies" and offers 240 cat spay and neuter certificates each year".[3] LAPS is a no-kill shelter[4] which took over animal control for the area in 2003.[5]
  • Maple Ridge - In Nov. 2012, the District of Maple Ridge committed $35,000 for three years to help with cat spay/neuter costs; the need for a TNR plan was discussed.[6]
  • New Westminster - The city animal services department[7] cooperates with rescue agencies and does not put feral cats at risk. Save rates for cats in 2013 were 96%. New Westminster is considered a no kill community.
  • Richmond (since 2007) - The local animal services agency, Richmond Animal Protection Society (RAPS), was originally a TNR organization when it was founded in 1989 as Richmond Homeless Cats.[8] It continues TNR for the city since taking on the city contract in 2007, and operates a large cat sanctuary that supports its TNR efforts.[9] RAPS is a no kill organization.[8]
  • Surrey, British Columbia (since 2014) - In October 2014, the city joined a newly formed Surrey Community Cat Coalition.[10] The coalition, which will use TNR, was formed in time for National Feral Cat Day.[10]

Alberta[edit]

  • Cochrane (since 1998) - The Cochrane & Area Humane Society, the animal services agency for the town, uses TNR and offers a Barn Buddies program for feral cats needing relocation.[11] Since opening in 1998, the humane society reports a save rate of over 90% of animal in its care, and euthanizes only as a last resort for humane or public safety reasons.[12] Norman, one of the first cats trapped in 1998, died in 2014 after serving many years as the shelter cat.[13]
  • Edmonton (trial in 2012) - Little Cats Lost Society worked with the city on a TNR pilot project in 2012, as an alternative to the city's approach of lending traps and euthanizing feral cats.[14] The city discussed the pilot results and asked for feedback.[15]

Ontario[edit]

  • Dryden - The city animal services agency, Second Chance Pet Network, describes ongoing TNR of 8 colonies on its website.[16] The agency partnered with a local school to build winter shelters for feral cats.[17][18] Second Chance Pet Network is a no kill organization.[19]
  • Innisfil (pilot project in 2014) - "The town's animal control officer, Sherri Hall, estimated that by early June, about 50% to 60% of the feral, wild-breeding cats living in three colonies in Innisfil had been trapped, neutered or spayed, before being released back into the wild or adopted out."[20] The town was looking for Barn Buddies for feral cats needing relocation, and foster homes for the many kittens taken in.[20] Locus, a feral cat suffering a head injury during the TNR process, was given extensive nursing care, physiotherapy and a wheeled mobility cart; before being adopted by a TNR volunteer.[21]
  • Kingston - "The City and Spay Neuter Kingston Initiative are partnering on a Trap/Neuter/Vaccinate/Return program aimed at reducing Kingston's feral cat population."[22]
  • Lanark County (since 2011) - The local animal services agency, Lanark Animal Welfare Society, includes TNR in its services as a no kill facility.[23] The organization was established in 1980, and took on animal control contracts for the county in 2011.
  • London - The city states that a "Trap Neuter Return (TNR) program has been developed to assist neighbourhoods within the geographic boundaries of the City of London cope with the increasing number of feral cats."[24]
  • Markham (limited support) - The city participated in a TNR project involving one colony in March 2014.[25] Outcomes at the city shelter, the Newmarket branch of the Ontario SPCA, were still quite negative for cats from January to August 2014, with 50% euthanized.[26]
  • Prince Edward County (since 1999) - This island community's no kill shelter, the Loyalist Humane Society, installed a new patio for its feral residents in 2014.[27] The shelter has been in operation since 1999.
  • St. Thomas - The city's animal service agency, City Animal Services, advises residents: "If you see a cat outside with part of its left ear removed or altered this indicates that the cat is a free-living cat that has been spayed/neutered to control population. This is part of a TNR (trap, neuter, return) program. Please do not re-trap these cats and bring them into the shelter." The city also seeks barns for feral cats in need of relocation.[28] The city bylaw defines "feral cat" in s. 1.0; and exempts a cat colony program from anti-roaming requirements (s. 2.25).[29] "City Animal Services is a no-kill shelter".[30]
  • Toronto (mixed support) - City bylaws provide broad authorization for the city to operate a TNR program.[31] The city's comprehensive TNR program includes sterilization clinics and membership in the Toronto Feral Cat Coalition.[32][33] Free sterilization for feral cats is offered to people who attend a workshop and register their colony with Toronto Animal Services.[34] Free sterilization is also offered to low income cat owners.[35] Nevertheless, Toronto Animal Services reported euthanizing 228 cats for being feral in 2013, as well as 512 cats for behaviour/temperament issues, and 213 cats for being orphaned.[36] Toronto's mayor proclaimed a Feral Cat Awareness Day in 2013.[37]
  • Windsor (limited support) - Vouchers were given for discounted sterilization of 325 feral cats in 2014.[38][39] One TNR volunteer commented, “The city gives thousands of dollars to the humane society to kill cats every year,” he said. “If they gave that to one of our animal groups, we could solve this whole problem.”[40]

Quebec[edit]

  • Côte Saint-Luc (since 2010) - The city began a TNR program in 2010.[41] The Côte Saint-Luc Cats Committee is led by Councillor Mike Cohen.[42] The local animal services agency, the Montreal SPCA,[43] also has a TNR program.[44]
  • Sainte-Agathe-des-Monts (since 2012) - In the fall of 2012, the city began TNR efforts in partnership with its no kill shelter, the SPCA Laurentides Labelle.[45]
  • Verdun (mixed support; since 2010) - TNR efforts began in 2010.[46] The local animal services agency, the Montreal SPCA,[43] continues to have a TNR program.[44] Nevertheless, the Montreal SPCA euthanizes high numbers of cats, reporting a live release rate of about 66%.[47]
  • Ville Saint-Laurent (mixed support; since 2005) - In 2010, the city had been paying about $5,000 a year for TNR work done by volunteers.[46] Local bylaws prohibit feeding of stray animals except in accordance with a trap–neuter–release program, using a fixed feeding schedule rather than leaving food out.[48] The local animal services agency, the Montreal SPCA,[43] also has a TNR program,[44] although it continues to euthanize high numbers of cats, reporting a live release rate of about 66%.[47]

New Brunswick[edit]

  • Saint John (limited support) – In January 2013, the city's animal services agency, Saint John SPCA Animal Rescue, planned to send 34 feral cats to Prince Edward Island to be sterilized.[49] The final "Operation Catnip" included 33 stray cats and 2 belonging to low income people.[50]

Nova Scotia[edit]

  • Province of Nova Scotia - The Nova Scotia SPCA, the animal services agency for much of the province of Nova Scotia, offers TNR services, including sterilization surgery and ear-tipping, at its low-cost, high-volume clinic.[51] The organization's vision is "that Nova Scotia be a no-kill province and a safe place for all animals with zero tolerance for animal cruelty";[52] the agency's save rate was 91.3% for the first half of 2013, when no healthy or treatable animals were euthanized.[53]
  • Cape Breton Regional Municipality (since 2012) - In Nov. 2012, a committee of Cape Breton regional council voted to give the Feral and Abandoned Cat Society about $25,000 a year toward its costs.[54]
  • Digby (town) and Digby County (since 2003) - Both the town and county of Digby have been supporting volunteer TNR efforts since 2003.[55]
  • Halifax Regional Municipality - In 2013, the council of Halifax Regional Municipality voted to grant $40,000 for a low cost, high volume clinic directed toward helping feral cats.[56] The clinic opened in the same month.[57]

Prince Edward Island[edit]

  • Prince Edward Island (mixed support) - Since 2001, TNR has been carried out by the Cat Action Team (CAT), a non-profit organization without government funding.[58] Cats which are TNR'd have identification tattoos.[58] If a tattooed cat is received by the province's animal services agency, the PEI Humane Society, the cat is returned to the Cat Action Team.[58] However, other feral cats are admitted to its shelter[59] and are euthanized.[58][60]

Italy[edit]

  • Country of Italy (since 1991) - Since August 1991, feral cats have been protected throughout Italy, when a no kill policy was introduced for both cats and dogs. Feral cats have the right to live free and cannot be moved from their colony; cat caretakers can be formally registered; and TNR methods are outlined in the national law on the management of pets.[61]
  • Latium region, including Rome (since 1988) - Since 1988, killing feral cats has been illegal in the Latium Region, which includes Rome.[61]

Singapore[edit]

  • Chong Pang (since 2011) - A designated feeding station was set up in October 2011: "The station is the first in Singapore and was set up jointly by the Sembawang-Nee Soon Town Council, National Environment Agency, Agri-Food & Veterinary Authority, Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, Mutts and Mittens Foundation and Cat Welfare Society (CWS). About 40 such stations will be set up in the estate by the end of next month."[62]
  • St. John's Island (since 2010) - A team of volunteers from the Singapore Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals returned for the sixth time since 2010 to TNR about 40 cats.[63]

United States[edit]

Arizona[edit]

  • Pima County (since 2014) - In August 2014, Pima County approved a three-year TNR program involving a $1.5 million grant from Best Friends Animal Society and PetSmart Charities.[64] "The project will sterilize 5,000 community cats per year over the 3-year grant period and will decrease the euthanasia of cats at Pima Animal Care Center by nearly 30 percent."[64]
  • Tucson (since 2014) - Tucson is served by Pima County Animal Care Centre, which approved a TNR program in August 2014.[64]

California[edit]

  • Antioch (mixed support) - The city provides a link on its website on feral cat resources, including low cost sterilization programs.[65] However, in 2014, the city voted to ban the feeding of feral cats on public property.[66]
  • Arcadia - The city mentions on its website that animal control services, provided by the Pasadena Humane Society & SPCA, include feral cat trap–neuter–return.[67] The Pasadena Humane Society & SPCA offers free spay/neuter, vaccinations (FVRCP and rabies), and ear-tipping for feral cats throughout the cities it serves: Arcadia, Bradbury, Glendale, La Cañada Flintridge, Monrovia, Pasadena, South Pasadena, San Marino and Sierra Madre.[68]
  • Berkeley - The city supports TNR as enhancing public safety and humanely controlling cat populations.[69] However, in 2004, feral cats were declared a "public nuisance", and spaying/neutering is required if taking care of them.[70]
  • Chico - The city's animal services agency, the Chico Animal Shelter, promotes TNR as the most effective way of dealing with neighborhood cats, and discourage people from relocating cats outside their "natural range (200 feet or 2/3rds of a city block)".[71] As of February 2013, the city shelter stopped taking in healthy cats, favoring TNR instead.[72]
  • Citrus Heights (since 2013) - In September 2013, the city animal services agency began a TNR program.[73]
  • County of Lake - The city provides a Feral Cat program; surgery, vaccines and ear-tipping is provided for free if the cat will be released to the same location where found.[74]
  • Cupertino - The city's animal services agency, Animal Care & Services of San Jose, promotes TNR as having "proven to be the most humane and effective method of managing feral cat populations."[75] and provides a Feral Program for $25 including spay/neuter, vaccinations, eat-tipping, flea and ear mite treatment if needed, and microchipping.[76]
  • Foster City (since 2004) - Since 2004, the city has participated in Project Bay Cat,[77] a TNR initiative of the Homeless Cat Network along the Levee Pedway in the San Francisco Bay area.[78] The city's animal services agency, the Peninsula Humane Society & SPCA, offers a "Feral Cat Package” including sterilization, vaccines, ear tipping, FIV/FeLV testing.[79]
  • Glendale - The Pasadena Humane Society & SPCA offers free spay/neuter, vaccinations (FVRCP and rabies), and ear-tipping for feral cats throughout the cities it serves: Arcadia, Bradbury, Glendale, La Cañada Flintridge, Monrovia, Pasadena, South Pasadena, San Marino and Sierra Madre.[68]
  • La Cañada Flintridge - The Pasadena Humane Society & SPCA offers free spay/neuter, vaccinations (FVRCP and rabies), and ear-tipping for feral cats throughout the cities it serves: Arcadia, Bradbury, Glendale, La Cañada Flintridge, Monrovia, Pasadena, South Pasadena, San Marino and Sierra Madre.[68]
  • Los Gatos - Los Gatos "strongly encourages residents to use the City of San Jose’s low-cost spay/neuter program for feral and domestic cats."[80] The city's animal services agency, Animal Care & Services of San Jose, promotes TNR as having "proven to be the most humane and effective method of managing feral cat populations."[75] and provides a Feral Program for $25 including spay/neuter, vaccinations, eat-tipping, flea and ear mite treatment if needed, and microchipping.[76]
  • Marina (mixed support) - The local ordinance makes it unlawful to feed "feral or abandoned nonspayed/nonneutered cats, except to trap such cat for purposes of having spayed or neutered or for proper disposal. Any person feeding any feral or abandoned cat shall be responsible for such cat in the same manner as though such person owns such cat."[81] Animal control services are handled by the City of Salinas Animal services, which has a similar policy.[82]
  • Milpitas - The city's local ordinance sets out a minimum level of care for feral cats, and exempts feral cats from licensing requirements.[83] The city's animal services agency, Animal Care & Services of San Jose, promotes TNR as having "proven to be the most humane and effective method of managing feral cat populations."[75] and provides a Feral Program for $25 including spay/neuter, vaccinations, eat-tipping, flea and ear mite treatment if needed, and microchipping.[76]
  • Monrovia - The Pasadena Humane Society & SPCA offers free spay/neuter, vaccinations (FVRCP and rabies), and ear-tipping for feral cats throughout the cities it serves: Arcadia, Bradbury, Glendale, La Cañada Flintridge, Monrovia, Pasadena, South Pasadena, San Marino and Sierra Madre.[68]
  • Oakland - The city's animal services agency, Oakland Animal Services, "supports trap, neuter, return as a means of controlling the feral cat population."[84]
  • Orange County (mixed support) - The county's Animal Services Department reported fewer complaints about cats, fewer cat admissions to the shelter, and reduced operating costs after implementing a TNR program offering free sterilization.[85]:1358 In August 2014, the shelter director said that the program resulted in a lower euthanasia rate in 2013.[86] Nevertheless, the euthanasia rate remained very high (50%, many considered "too young"), including 160 cats considered ineligible for TNR.[87] OC Animal Care provides animal control services to 17 cities and all unincorporated areas within Orange County.[88]
  • Pasadena - The Pasadena Humane Society & SPCA offers free spay/neuter, vaccinations (FVRCP and rabies), and ear-tipping for feral cats throughout the cities it serves: Arcadia, Bradbury, Glendale, La Cañada Flintridge, Monrovia, Pasadena, South Pasadena, San Marino and Sierra Madre.[68]
  • Petaluma (mixed support) - A local ordinance allowing TNR is considered too onerous for caregivers, and sets stringent limits where cats can be fed.[89][90]
  • Sacramento - "The City of Sacramento recognizes that feral cat colony caregivers are providing a tremendous service to the shelter by managing colonies, altering the cats, and generally reducing the need to house, feed, and euthanize these cats."[91]
  • Sacramento County - Sacramento County's Animal Care and Regulation department provides information about TNR, including a spay/neuter voucher program.[92]
  • Salinas (mixed support) - The local ordinance only allows feeding feral cats if the caretaker takes responsibility via TNR.[93] Spay/neuter vouchers are offered as for any owned pet.[94] Anyone can trap an unwanted cat and take the cat to the local shelter.[93] In 2010, many healthy and treatable animals were euthanized at Salinas Animal Services.[95]
  • San Francisco - In 1993, the San Francisco SPCA started a Feral Cat Assistance Program, offering free sterilization, advice and supplies to cat caretakers.[96]:44 The city was not directly involved until later, although benefited by animal control officers taking in fewer stray cats and receiving fewer complaints.[97]:87 The city now provides information on TNR, and refers people concerned about feral cats to the San Francisco SPCA's Feral Cat Assistance Program, as well as its Feral Fix Program for free spaying, neutering and vaccinations.[98] In 2013, combined statistics for the San Francisco SPCA and animal control reported a live release rate of 90.4%.[99]
  • San Jose - The city's animal services agency, Animal Care & Services, promotes TNR as having "proven to be the most humane and effective method of managing feral cat populations."[75] and provides a Feral Program for $25 including spay/neuter, vaccinations, eat-tipping, flea and ear mite treatment if needed, and microchipping.[76] The program is also offered to residents of all cities the agency serves, including San Jose, Cupertino, Los Gatos, Milpitas and Saratoga.[76]
  • San Mateo County - The county animal services agency, the Peninsula Humane Society & SPCA, offers a "Feral Cat Package” including sterilization, vaccines, ear tipping, FIV/FeLV testing.[79]
  • San Marino - The Pasadena Humane Society & SPCA offers free spay/neuter, vaccinations (FVRCP and rabies), and ear-tipping for feral cats throughout the cities it serves: Arcadia, Bradbury, Glendale, La Cañada Flintridge, Monrovia, Pasadena, South Pasadena, San Marino and Sierra Madre.[68]
  • Santa Clara County (since 2011) - In 2011, the Santa Clara County's Animal Care & Control Division initiated a TNR program.[100] A press release in 2012 said that "Thanks to this program, the shelter saw a 15% reduction in cat intake and an amazing 65% reduction in cat euthanasia."[100] Subsidized feral cat surgeries are provided.[101]
  • Saratoga - The city's animal services agency, Animal Care & Services of San Jose, promotes TNR as having "proven to be the most humane and effective method of managing feral cat populations."[75] and provides a Feral Program for $25 including spay/neuter, vaccinations, eat-tipping, flea and ear mite treatment if needed, and microchipping.[76]
  • Sierra Madre - The Pasadena Humane Society & SPCA offers free spay/neuter, vaccinations (FVRCP and rabies), and ear-tipping for feral cats throughout the cities it serves: Arcadia, Bradbury, Glendale, La Cañada Flintridge, Monrovia, Pasadena, South Pasadena, San Marino and Sierra Madre.[68][102]
  • Sonoma County - "In Sonoma County, cats are part of our landscape.... We love Community Cats by having them spayed or neutered and letting them stay in the environment they call home."[103]
  • South Pasadena - The Pasadena Humane Society & SPCA offers free spay/neuter, vaccinations (FVRCP and rabies), and ear-tipping for feral cats throughout the cities it serves: Arcadia, Bradbury, Glendale, La Cañada Flintridge, Monrovia, Pasadena, South Pasadena, San Marino and Sierra Madre.[68]

Colorado[edit]

  • Pueblo (since 2011) - In September 2011, Pueblo Animal Services supported a change to the Pueblo Municipal Code to allow for the feeding of feral cats, if a person is a permitted Feral Cat Colony Manager.[104] Pueblo Animal Services' website takes a motivational approach, thanking volunteer caregivers, and asking that they apply to become a Feral Cat Colony Manager.[104] Benefits of having a permit include free or low cost vaccinations and sterilizations, and free loans of humane traps.[104]

Connecticut[edit]

  • Connecticut (State) - A Connecticut statute "permits municipalities to adopt ordinances requiring registration of feral cat 'keepers,' defined as anyone who harbors or regularly feeds a feral cat. If a municipality enacts such an ordinance, the ordinance must require the keeper to sterilize the cat and have it vaccinated against rabies. The statute also enables municipalities to adopt ordinances holding cat owners and keepers responsible if their cats cause significant property damage or severe health violations."[105][106] In October 2014, the state announced a $175,000 grant to the Northeastern Connecticut Council of Governments for a new TNR program.[107]
  • Quiet Corner (since 2014) - In October 2014, the state announced a $175,000 grant to the Northeastern Connecticut Council of Governments for a new TNR program.[107] Volunteers from a nine-town area would be asked to join the effort.[107]

Delaware[edit]

  • Delaware state - The Delaware Code allows for the work of feral cat caretakers: "There is no county, city or town in Delaware that has a ban on feeding feral cats."[108] Since 2006, Delaware has had a state-funded spay/neuter program that provides low-cost certificates that can be used for feral cats.[108][109]
  • Delaware City (since 2014) - In January 2014, the city adopted an ordinance allowing TNR.[110]
  • Dewey Beach - TNR was included in local ordinances at some point prior to 2014.[110] The local ordinance outlines detailed feline care provisions, including trapping procedures.[111] The Dewey Beach Feral Cat Society and other listed organizations are exempted from getting a permit (s. 60-3).[111]
  • Harrington - "Harrington is partnering with the Delaware SPCA, The Humane Society of the United States, Alley Cat Allies, and volunteers from the community to implement a feral cat management program."[112] TNR was included in local ordinances at some point prior to 2014.[110]
  • Milford - TNR was included in local ordinances at some point prior to 2014.[110]
  • Milton (mixed support) - TNR was included in local ordinances at some point prior to 2014.[110] The local ordinance give people who trap a feral cat the option to deliver the cat to the Delaware SPCA or to TNR the cat (s. 63-19).[113] Trapping of a feral cat requires specific authorization from Town Council for trapping off one's own property, except for the "Cat Snippers of Milton" (s. 63-20).[113] Delivery of a feral cat to the local SPCA will likely result in euthanasia.[114]
  • Rehoboth Beach - TNR was included in local ordinances at some point prior to 2014.[110]

District of Columbia[edit]

  • Washington, aka District of Columbia - TNR has long been included in the local ordinance: "The Animal Care and Control Agency shall promote: (1) The reduction of euthanasia of animals for which medical treatment or adoption is possible; and (2) The utilization of trap, spay or neuter, and return practices as a means of controlling the feral cat population; provided, that all efforts shall be made to adopt out a trapped, tamable kitten."[115] The local animal services agency, the Washington Humane Society, has a Cat Neighborhood Partnership Program (CatNiPP) providing free spay/neuter, vaccinations and ear-tipping for any local community cats, as well as providing low cost services for cats from out of the area.[116]

Florida[edit]

  • Broward County - "Through a responsible sterilization program, Broward County Animal Care and Adoption seeks to control the number of feral cats in our community, so that the existing population can thrive and age naturally."[117]
  • DeLand (since 2013) - The city's ordinance provides for registration of designated cat colony caregivers.[118] Colony caregivers sign an agreement, provide consent of the property owner at the colony location, and agree to various terms, such as sterilizing the cats and keeping records.[118] Animal control retains the right to remove any cat posing a health/safety threat or nuisance.[118]
  • Deltona (pilot in 2014) - In October 2014, city commissioners approved a pilot TNR program to be developed by the city.[119] The ordinance approving the pilot suspends enforcement of existing provisions that might conflict with the program.[119]
  • Duval County - A Feral Freedom ordinance was passed in Dec. 2010 for a trial period.[120] Duval Cat Fix offers free surgeries to feral and owned cats in the county, a program of First Coast No More Homeless Pets.[121]
  • Flagler Beach (since 2013) -The Flagler Beach City Commission partnered with the local humane society on TNR in July 2013, and amended local ordinances accordingly in April 2014.[122]
  • Jacksonville - A "Feral Freedom" program implemented in August 2008 has become a model for other communities.[123] The local ordinance states that "The City shall establish a program for the handling and disposition of feral animals with no requirement for a holding period before disposition. All dogs and cats that are so unsocialized as to pose a threat to the safety and welfare of employees or the public shall be expeditiously and humanely euthanized (excluding any cat that qualifies for a community cat management program established by the City)."[124]
  • Miami-Dade County (includes city of Miami) (since 2012) - The local animal services agency, Miami-Dade County Animal Services, offers sterilization, vaccinations, and delivery of the cat back to the community free of charge.[125] Director Alex Munoz said that the program was a great success in increasing the save rate for cats.[126]
  • Nassau County (since 2013) - In October 2013, Nassau County received funding for spay/neuter of feral cats and other animals, over two years.[127] First Coast No More Homeless Pets also offered low cost packages and transportation to county residents.[128]
  • Orange County (mixed support) - "Animal Services works in conjunction with CARE Feline TNR, a non-profit organization committed to reducing the population of feral (wild) and abandoned cats through its Trap–Neuter–Return (TNR) program."[129] However, if a resident finds the cats are a nuisance and wishes to remove them, trapping options are provided.[129]
  • Ormond Beach (mixed support) - The city ordinance prohibits feeding of feral cats unless as part of a feral cat colony approved in writing by the police chief or designate.[130] The ordinance was described as loosening previous restrictions on people who feed feral cat colonies.[131] The city is involved in a TNR program, which it says "has proven to be of great benefit to community areas where feral cat populations once existed."[132]
  • Palm Beach County (mixed support) - A feral cat package is offered for spay/neuter and related services.[133] The local ordinance requires annual registration of feral cat caregivers, with a notarized statement from property owners and written notification to the neighbours of a colony location.[134] Otherwise feeding is prohibited, per s. 4.8(c).[134] Feral cats are exempt from the local anti-roaming law, per s. 4.4(d).[134]
  • Pinellas County (pilot began 2014) - A TNR pilot project was approved in October 2014.[135][136] To assess the pilot, animal services staff will track numbers of complaints, impounded cats, and colony cats reduced/stabilized in target areas.[136]
  • Ponce Inlet (mixed support) - The local ordinance prohibits feeding of feral cats except by designated caregivers, for feral cat colonies approved in writing by the police department or its designate.[137] The ordinance was described as loosening previous restrictions on people who feed feral cat colonies.[131]
  • Port Orange (since 2011) - The city adopted an ordinance permitting TNR in 2011.[131] In June 2012, the city became involved in a TNR program,[138] which was later expanded to residential communities.[139] In 2014, officials reported that the city’s cost of taking cats to the local humane society, where feral cats were usually euthanized, had declined significantly since adopting the TNR ordinance.[131]

Georgia[edit]

  • Athens (mixed support; since 2010) - The Athens-Clarke County Commission approved TNR in March 2010.[140] Only registered feral cat caretakers can feed and care for feral cats; registrations must be renewed annually.[141] Vouchers were made available to help fund feral cat surgeries, but the voucher program was dropped in 2013 due to low demand.[142] The coordinator of Campus Cats, a local TNR organization, said there continued to be many low cost clinics in the community.[142] The county Animal Control agency will not pick up trapped cats, but operates a cat shelter and will receive cats brought in by residents.[143]
  • Atlanta (since 2013) - The local animal services agency, Fulton County Animal Services (FCAS), "saves feral cats through our trap–neuter–return program."[144] Lifeline Animal Project (LAP) has managed FCAS since March 2013; after one year, reporting that adoptions had doubled and euthanasia was cut in half.[145] In 2014, LAP's website said that its "Catlanta" project had neutered 22,520 feral cats over the years.[146]
  • Columbus (since 2013) - In 2013, "lifesaving has reached a record high for Columbus cats, thanks to the new Community Free-Roaming Cat (CFRC) Program. The program utilizes Trap, Neuter, Release (TNR) methods to reduce free roaming cat populations, and has been made possible because of a Life Saving PetSmart Grant, which was awarded to Columbus in September of last year."[147] In August 2014, the program was to be expanded: "Best Friends and PetSmart Charities will invest approximately $600,000 that will cover one full-time staff member to run the program, a transport van, spay/neuter surgeries and other vet costs, TNR program supplies, marketing support and staff training."[148]
  • DeKalb County (since 2011) - In August 2011, DeKalb County began a Feral Freedom program, "and we’re amazed at how quickly we’ve seen a turnaround. Last year, we were inundated with cats and kittens, and now we might have one or two in our cat area."[149] The county shelter offers TNR advice and low cost spay/neutering for feral cats.[150]
  • Fayette County (trial period in 2014) - In April 2014, the Fayette County Commission approved a six-month trial of a TNR program.[151]
  • Fulton County (since 2013) - The county animal services agency, Fulton County Animal Services (FCAS), "saves feral cats through our trap–neuter–return program."[144] Lifeline Animal Project (LAP) has managed FCAS since March 2013; after one year, reporting that adoptions had doubled and euthanasia was cut in half.[145] In 2014, LAP's website said that its "Catlanta" project had neutered 22,520 feral cats over the years.[146]
  • Madison - The city ordinance provides for the managed care of feral cats.[152] A humane society can act as sponsor; who maintains records, reports annually to the city, and approves feral cat colony caretakers.[152] Caretakers report the sponsor semi-annually.[152] Animal control officers undertake to notify the sponsor if ear-tipped or otherwise identified colony cats are received; the sponsor notifies the caretaker for return of the cat to the colony.[152]

Illinois[edit]

  • Cook County (includes Chicago) (since 2007) - "About 12,000 cats have been spayed or neutered and vaccinated under the county's privately funded trap–neuter–release program since 2007".[153]

Indiana[edit]

  • Indianapolis - The city/county offers a Community Cat Package including spay/neuter, pain meds, ear-tip, vaccinations, medical treatment and TNR help.[154]
  • Johnson County (since 2013) - In September 2013, the county adopted a Feral Freedom ordinance: "Not long ago, Johnson County killed hundreds of healthy cats just because they didn't have homes. This year, these strays are instead being captured, neutered and returned to their colonies."[155]
  • Marion County - The city/county offers a Community Cat Package including spay/neuter, pain medication, ear-tipping, vaccinations, medical treatment and TNR help.[154]

Illinois[edit]

  • Cook County (includesChicago) (since 2007) - In October 2007, the county adopted an ordinance outlining a system that allowed TNR, including having colony caretakers register their colony with an approved sponsor.[156] Any animal humane society agreeing to comply with the requirements can act as a sponsor.[156] Sponsors maintain records on numbers of cats and other details, report annually to the city, and help to resolve complaints.[156] The system was appreciated by a cat caretaker who had TNRd 153 cats over 7 years in a single city block.[157] Chicago's 47th ward area was starting a pilot TNR program in 2012, "putting area feral cats to work battling its rat problem."[158]

Kentucky[edit]

  • Louisville (since 2007) - In 2007, Louisville Metro Animal Services (LMAS) partnered with a local TNR group, Alley Cat Advocates, and stopped euthanizing feral cats that the organization had neutered.[159] In 2010, the organizations secured a grant to spay and neuter cats in a targeted area, resulting in a 51% decrease in intakes from that area.[159] Following this, the city ordinance was amended from requiring "unowned cats to be rounded up and euthanized if inside homes were not found for them"[159] to allowing the LMAS to develop a TNR program, and exempt community cat caretakers from licensing and other requirements of owned cats.[160] Caretakers are permitted to provide food, water, and medical care, and seek help from LMAS if needed to prevent the suffering of a community cat.[160] In 2012, the efforts were bolstered by an ASPCA partnership providing grants and guidance to LMAS, Alley Cat Advocates, and the Kentucky Humane Society.[161]

Louisiana[edit]

  • Baton Rouge (since 2014) - In September 2014, Baton Rouge Metro Council approved a TNR program "to reduce the number of stray cats in the community. Under the new measure, the Companion Animal Alliance will pick up stray cats and neuter them and return them from where they were picked up."[162]
  • Lafayette (since 2014) - In November 2014, the city council approved a TNR ordinance.[163] "The ordinance encourages residents to register as colony caretakers, trap feral or stray cats and take them to Almost Home Humane Society to have them neutered, ear-tipped and vaccinated. The cats will then be returned to the area where they were trapped."[163] Fines may apply for unregistered caregivers.[163]

Maryland[edit]

  • Baltimore (since 2009) - In November 2007, the city ordinance was amended to allow TNR.[164] Alley Cat Allies considered the ordinance a model for other jurisdictions, as it defined feral cats correctly; distinguished caregivers from owners; and distinguished "return" from abandonment.[165] The law appears to have come into effect in 2009.[166][167] In 2013, the city joined the TNR effort with the Baltimore Community Cat Project, aided by Best Friends Animal Society and PetSmart Charities.[167] In February 2014, the city joined multiple organizations in a three-day effort sterilizing, vaccinating and providing medical help to 110 community cats in a low income community.[168]

Nebraska[edit]

  • Bellevue (since 2014) - A local ordinance passed in January 2014 provides for TNR, exempting feral cats from leash laws and ownership, and requiring sterilization of 80% of colony cats.[169]
  • Omaha (mixed support) - The Nebraska Humane Society was involved in an 18-month TNR trial, noting that the numbers of stray cats declined over that period.[170] The society continues to offer free sterilization to colony caretakers, and explains the city's somewhat onerous ordinance to potential caregivers.[170] Cat caretakers must apply for a permit every two years, providing proof of vaccinations and sterilization.[171] No public property locations are permitted.[171] Failure to relocate cats can be grounds for losing a permit.[171]

Nevada[edit]

  • Clark County (since 2008) - "On October 1, 2008, the Managed Care of Feral Cats ordinance went into effect in the unincorporated Clark County. This program is designed to assist Feral cat caretakers to connect to better manage feral cat colonies."[172]
  • Fernley - Fernley does not pick up feral cats, but will provide a trap so the feral cat can be brought to the Nevada Humane Society or other rescue group.[173] The Nevada Humane Society is a no kill organization, and advertises barn cats for relocation on its website.[174]
  • Las Vegas (since 2008) - The city is served by Clark County animal services, which implemented a TNR program in 2008.[172] In 2012, the city's ordinance was made less onerous, allowing caretakers to register with a private sponsor, rather than reporting to animal control; and providing cat descriptions rather than two photos of each cat.[175]

New Jersey[edit]

  • Atlantic City (since 2000) - "Atlantic City's chapter of Alley Cat Allies is celebrating its 10-year anniversary, having worked with the government since 2000 to keep feral colonies under control".[176]
  • Kearney (trial starting in 2014) - In October 2014, Kearny Town Council approved a TNR trial, to be reassessed at the end of 2015.[177]
  • Maplewood (pilot starting in 2014) - In October 2014, the township approved a three-year pilot TNR program beginning in December 2014.[178] The program permits care of feral cat colonies only in accordance with a program registering caretakers; supervised by a sponsor, a newly formed organization, Furry Hearts.[178] Persons in violation of the ordinance are subject to fines.[179]

New Mexico[edit]

  • Albuquerque - "Cat euthanasia rates have dropped drastically due to a large, community-based effort to use Trap/Neuter/Return (TNR) to control the Albuquerque feral cat population."[180] The city provides information about community cats and TNR on its Web site,[181][182] and pays for surgery of feral cats.[180] They no longer rent traps to people concerned about nuisance cats, but provide contact information for TNR organizations and information about cat deterrents.[180][181] They will not pick up a cat unless the cat has bitten a person or the cat is injured.[181] The local ordinance was revised from treating caregivers as owners who were expected to register the cats and keep them from roaming.[180][183] TNR in Albuquerque has proved ineffective at preventing property damage: community cats overran Albuquerque's Kirtland neighborhood, preventing residents from being able to run their air conditioners in the summer.[184] Concerns about the welfare of feral cats in Albuquerque's TNR program also caused an animal rights activist, Marcy Britton, to sue the City of Albuquerque for its use of TNR.[185]

New York[edit]

  • Amherst (since 2014) - In October, 2014, the Town Board approved a TNR plan: "Under the new plan, a group of volunteers will trap the cats, spay or neuter them and then vaccinate the felines before releasing them back into nature. Council members said the plan will help reduce the feral cat population with no cost to taxpayers."[186]
  • Buffalo (since 2014) - In June 2014, the city passed an ordinance "which recognizes the right of free roaming cats to exist and be properly cared for. The City has also budgeted $50,000 for Trap Neuter Vaccinate and Release activity in the coming fiscal year."[187]
  • Canandaigua (since 2012) - In 2012, the city ordinance was changed to allow specific TNR efforts by an organization, The Colony Caregivers.[188] Colonies must be registered with the City Manager, which can be done by email.[189] The City retains the power to declare a colony a public nuisance.[189]
  • New York City (mixed support; since 2011) - In April 2014, a New York Times article said that three years ago the city shifted to TNR as a new approach to control stray cats.[190] Animal Care and Control of NYC provides information about TNR on its website.[191]

Oklahoma[edit]

  • Oklahoma City (since 2007; expanded in 2012) - "Since March 2007 more than 8,000 cats have been TNR’d in Oklahoma City, directly impacting the city’s euthanasia rate, and saving taxpayer dollars that previously funded the euthanasia of animals."[192] In May 2012, a Feral Freedom or Community Cats Program expanded the TNR effort.[193] The program "allows Shelter staff to sterilize and vaccinate stray, feral and free roaming cats without an ID and return them to their neighborhoods of origin a day or two later. The cat’s ear will be notched to identify that it has been sterilized."[193]

Pennsylvania[edit]

  • Derry (since 2012) - The township was involved in the creation of Derry Township Community Cats, a TNR program launched in 2012.[194]
  • Emmaus (since 2013) - Emmaus Council has contracted with local sanctuary for TNR at $15 per cat.[195]
  • Hummelstown (since 2014) - Hummelstown Borough Council approved a TNR program in May 2014.[196]
  • Philadelphia (since 2014) - A new Community Cats Project was announced in August 2014.[197] With funding from PetSmart Charities and Best Friends Animal Society, the three-year program "will furnish staff and equipment to neuter 4,000 cats the first year and 12,000 in three years, focusing on low-income neighborhoods across the city."[197] The City Shelter is updating its website to include information about the program.[198]
  • Steelton (since 2010) - When Councilwoman "Maria Marcinko took office in 2010, faced with high costs for the "trap and kill" approach, the community opted for TNR."[199]
  • Swatara Township, Dauphin County (since 2012) - A TNR program was launched in June 2012 with the help of the Steelton Borough Community Cat Program.[200] The program is free to township residents, and is "full-service. Volunteers trap the cats, take them to the Steelton facility until spay/neuter day, provide the surgery, vaccines and other medical care, and then provide three days of convalescence before returning the cats to their original location."[200] In October 2013, Commissioner Jeff Varner said "the township used to get a lot of complaints about feral cats, but not so much any more."[201]

South Carolina[edit]

  • Charleston (since 2012) - A free-roaming cat program was planned for a two-year trial period, despite the city's misgivings "that free roaming cats may be in violation of law and constitute a public safety and health threat" to citizens.[202] After being sterilized, vaccinated, microchipped, ear-tipped, and deemed healthy, "A free roaming cat shall be returned to the area where it was trapped, unless a request from the property owner or the caretaker of the property where the cat is trapped, requests that the cat be relocated to a location other than where it was trapped." Further, "Free roaming cats shall only be allowed as long as they do not create a nuisance."[202] The free-roaming cat program was evaluated as successful and continued beyond the two-year trial period.[203] The TNR program is part of the community's plan to become no kill.[204]
  • Spartanburg (since 2013) - The city received a grant from PetSmart Charities for a one-year TNR program beginning in January 2013.[205] In May, the city had seen some success, with over 180 cats in the program.[205] The city planned to reapply for another grant if the program was successful.[205]

Tennessee[edit]

  • Chattanooga - The city's 2012 ordinance defines feral cat and community cat,[206]:7-2 and exempts them from requirements that animals not be at large.[206]:7–36 The city's animal services agency promotes TNR as cost-effective.[207] The city's animal services agency holds feral cat clinics in October to celebration National Feral Cat Day.[208]

Texas[edit]

  • Austin - The city's website states: "Austin Humane Society in partnership with Austin Animal Center has an exciting new program called Community Cats. This program uses a method called Trap–Neuter–Return or TNR. TNR with the Community Cats Program provides free sterilization, rabies vaccinations, and a place for cats to recover after surgery."[209] Austin was recognized for saving all healthy and treatable pets in 2012 with a 94% save rate.[210] The city planned to work together with partners to continue to grow animal welfare programs including TNR.[210]
  • Dallas (mixed support) - Dallas Animal Services provides information about TNR and the local ordinance providing for TNR on its website.[211] "Section 7-3.1 of the city ordinance makes it a defense to prosecution that the animal is: 'A feral cat participating in a trap, neuter and return program approved by the Code Compliance director.'"[211] Cat caretakers need to apply to the Feral Friends Community Cat Alliance to become colony managers; who are then responsible for getting the cats sterilized, vaccinated, evaluated and ear-tipped.[211] Local agencies will help by providing or referring low cost sterilizations, vaccinations and microchips.[211] Ear-tipped cats brought to the shelter may be released back into the colony, but other feral cats brought in are impounded and likely euthanized.[211]
  • Garland (pilot in 2014) - A city-wide pilot TNR project was approved on October 6, 2014, and launched on National Feral Cat Day ten days later.[212] Local organization Garland Pawsibilities will offer training to residents and low cost spay/neuter services for feral cats.[212][213] The program involves certification of colony managers.[214] Most residents weighing in on the program on a local news site expressed support for it.[215] The city has information about TNR on its website, but also offers traps for citizens to trap nuisance animals including feral cats to bring into the animal shelter.[216]
  • Houston - "The city of Houston promotes TNR for the management of our city's feral cats, and citizens are encouraged to feed and care for feral cats as long as they are in accordance with the following three requirements. Any citizen feeding feral cats must be actively working towards getting all cats in the colony spayed and neutered (i.e. accomplishing the TNR of the colony), must be feeding in a way that does not attract raccoons or possums, and must have the permission of the property owner/manager to be feeding the cats if the colony location is not on either their own property or on city property. As long as citizens are in accordance with these requirements, they are encouraged to feed and care for the feral cats within their colony and can submit an application to become an official colony manager."[217]
  • Fort Worth - "The City of Fort Worth endorses Trap–Neuter–Return (TNR) as a humane method of controlling feral cat populations and as a means of establishing a coalition of community-based resources. The Fort Worth program focuses on coordinating the efforts of compassionate members of the community who serve as feral cat colony sponsors and feral cat colony caretakers."[218]
  • San Antonio (since 2012) - In 2012, the city endorsed TNR as "a lot more humane, progressive and innovative than simply trapping and euthanizing. That's what we've done for 40-plus years, and there are still a lot of cats out there; it didn't work."[219] In May 2014, San Antonio's Animal Care Services reported a 90% live release rate for cats, stating that the success was "built on increased spay/neuter, community cat programs and feline placement."[220]
  • Waco - The city's website explained that community cats were exceptions to animal ordinances, effective January 1, 2014: "In addition to the state-mandatory rabies vaccination, outside cats, both owned and unowned, must be spayed or neutered. No microchip required for community cats with the Trap–Neuter–Return (TNR) left ear tip, performed during spay/neuter surgery."[221] Community cats within a certain zip code qualify for free TNR services, including spay/neuter, rabies vaccination, and ear-tipping.[221]

Utah[edit]

  • Utah State - Extensive state legislation exists, known as the "Community Cat Act".[222] Community cats are exempt from licensing and feeding bans, and may be released prior to the 5 day holding period for other animals received by a shelter.[223] Caretakers do not have custody of a cat.[223]
  • St. George (since 2004) - In 2009, the city was named as one of the supporters of One More Chance Animal Rescue Program, which had TNRd more than 1100 animals in 5 years.[224] In January 2013, the city expanded their involvement by partnering with Best Friends Animal Society on a Feral Freedom program diverting cats from shelters and into the community.[225] As a result, the save rate for cats was increased from 44% in 2012, to 98% in 2013.[225]
  • Salt Lake City (since 2006) - The city provided a TNR process in its animal ordinance in 2006.[226] In 2012, the requirements to register a colony were removed.[227] Now a Feral Freedom program is in place: an impounded feral cat is held for the mandatory holding period; then sterilized, ear-tipped, vaccinated, and released near the original location where the cat was found.[228] Working with Best Friends Animal Society, Salt Lake County Animal Services officials are seeking caretakers for feral cat colonies.[229]

Virginia[edit]

  • Fairfax County (since 2008) - "Working with hundreds of feral cat colony caretakers, the Shelter provides free spay or neuter surgery and basic medical care to feral cats. Since 2008, over 3,000 feral cats have been spayed or neutered through the Shelter's Trap–Neuter–Return program .... The Shelter has seen a significant reduction in the number of kittens entering our facility and Foster Program since our TNR program was established in 2008."[230]
  • Hampton (mixed support) - The local ordinance includes a section on the unlawful care of feral cats, and requires annual registration for feral cat caregivers; feral cats in registered colonies are exempted from cat licensing requirements.[231]
  • Isle of Wight County (mixed support) - The local ordinance includes a section on the unlawful care of feral cats, and requires annual registration of feral cat caregivers; feral cats in registered colonies are exempted from cat licensing requirements.[232]
  • Newport News (mixed support) - The local ordinance includes a section on the unlawful care of feral cats, and requires annual registration for feral cat caregivers; feral cats in registered colonies are exempted from cat licensing requirements.[233] The city's Animal Services Division provides assistance with "Feral cat abatement" including trap rentals,[234] after which feral cats brought in are euthanized.[235]
  • West Point (mixed support) - Feral cat caregivers are required to be responsible for sterilization, keeping medical records, and regular feeding, but do not have to be registered.[236] The Town Council suspended actively trapping feral cats, but provides traps on request, and there is concern that feral cats are being killed.[237]

Washington[edit]

  • King County - Regional Animal Services offers a barn cat program to rehome feral cats.[238]

Wisconsin[edit]

  • Oconto - The local ordinance provides: "Feral cat communities may be licensed under a program that provides health checks and spay and neuter services for these animals. Cats in such a colony should be microchipped when they are captured for health checks." Cat licensing is voluntary.[239]

See also[edit]

  • Trap–neuter–return
  • No Kill Equation
  • Alley Cat Allies
  • Best Friends Animal Society

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