List of self-driving car fatalities
Since 2013, when self-driving cars first began appearing in large numbers on public roadways, a primary goal of manufacturers has been to create an autonomous car system that is clearly and demonstrably safer than an average human-controlled car. Whether that will be possible in the real world without sacrificing even more human lives is a controversial topic, especially in light of accidents and fatalities resulting from system glitches.
There are currently five levels of automated driving, of which two are considered autonomous (or self) driving (Level 4 and Level 5). Tesla Autopilot is a Level 2 automated driving system.
One of the key metrics for comparing the safety levels for autonomously controlled car systems versus human controlled car systems is the number of fatalities per 100,000,000 miles (160,000,000 kilometres) driven. Cars driven under traditional human control are currently involved in approximately 1.18 fatalities for every 100,000,000 mi (160,000,000 km) driven. According to many automotive safety experts, much more data is yet required before any such clear and demonstrably higher levels of safety can be convincingly provided.
To demonstrate reliability in terms of fatalities and injuries, autonomous vehicles have to be driven hundreds of millions more miles in full autonomous mode. As of February 2018[update], autonomous vehicles from Waymo (the Google Self-Driving Car Project) have covered 5 million miles (8 million kilometres) with the presence of a human driver who monitors and overrides the autonomous mode to improve safety. According to reports, human intervention for autonomous vehicles was needed every 13 to 5,600 miles (21 to 9,000 km) on average.
On December 20, 2018, Uber returned self-driving cars to the roads in public testing in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, following the pedestrian fatality on March 18. Uber said that it received authorization from the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation. Uber said that it was also pursuing deploying cars on roads in San Francisco, California and Toronto, Ontario.
The NTSB is currently still investigating accidents caused by Tesla's Autopilot.
Level 2 fatalities
Level 2 is considered automated driving, but not autonomous driving. A Level 2 driving system expects a driver to be fully aware at all times of the driving and traffic situation and be ready to take over any moment. As of September 19, 2019, there are five (5) confirmed Level 2 fatalities, four of which involved Tesla's Autopilot and one involved one of Uber's experimental robotaxis.
|Date||Incident no.||Country||City||State/county/province||No. of fatalities||System manufacturer||Vehicle Type||Victim gender||Victim role|
|20 January 2016||1||China||Handan||Hebei||1||Tesla (Autopilot)||Model S ||Male||Driver|
|7 May 2016||2||United States of America (USA)||Williston||Florida||1||Tesla (Autopilot)||Model S||Male||Driver|
|18 March 2018||3||United States of America (USA)||Tempe||Arizona||1||Uber||'Refitted Volvo' ||Female||Pedestrian|
|23 March 2018||4||United States of America (USA)||Mountain View||California||1||Tesla (Autopilot)||Model X||Male||Driver|
|1 March 2019||5||United States of America (USA)||Delray Beach||Florida||1||Tesla (Autopilot)||Model 3||Male||Driver|
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