You can edit almost every page by Creating an account. Otherwise, see the FAQ.

Russia–United States proxy conflict

From EverybodyWiki Bios & Wiki

Script error: No such module "Draft topics". Script error: No such module "AfC topic".

Russia–United States proxy conflict
Part of the Post-Soviet conflicts

     Russia     United States     Major proxy conflict locations
Date26 December 1991 – present
(32 years and 2 months)
Location
Global
Status

Ongoing:

Belligerents

Yugoslav Wars (1991–2001)

Syrian Civil War (2011–present)


 Syrian opposition (2011–17)[10]
Free Syrian Army (2011–17)
Army of Conquest (2015–17)

Russo-Ukrainian War (2014–present)

Yemeni Civil War (2015–present)

Commanders and leaders

Vladimir Putin
(President of Russia)
Mikhail Mishustin
(Prime Minister of Russia)
Sergey Shoygu
(Ministry of Defence)
Bashar al-Assad
(President of Syria)
Hassan Nasrallah
(Secretary-General of Hezbollah)
Hadi Al-Amiri
(Leader of the Badr Organization)
Abdul-Malik Badreddin al-Houthi
(Leader of Ansar Allah)
Qais al-Khazali
(Secretary-General of Asa'ib Ahl al-Haq)[40]
Akram al-Kaabi
(Secretary-General of Harakat Hezbollah al-Nujaba)[41]
Iraq Nouri al-Maliki (Vice President of Iraq)
Abu Mahdi al-Muhandis (Deputy Chairman of Popular Mobilization Committee)[42]
Abu Ala al-Walai (Secretary-General of Kata'ib Sayyid al-Shuhada)[43]
Nicolás Maduro
(President of Venezuela)

Joe Biden
(President of the United States)
Kamala Harris
(Vice President of the United States)
Lloyd Austin
(Secretary of Defense)
Abdrabbuh Mansur Hadi
(President of Yemen)
Juan Guaidó
(Acting President of Venezuela)
Volodymyr Zelenskyy
(President of Ukraine)

Units involved
  • United States Armed Forces
  • Armed Forces of Saudi Arabia
  • Peninsula Shield Force
  • Bahrain Defence Force
  • Free Syrian Army
  • Yemen Armed Forces (pro-Hadi)
  • National Bolivarian Armed Forces of Venezuela (pro-Guaidó)
  • The Russia–United States proxy conflict, sometimes also referred to as the Russia–United States Cold War[47][48] and the Second Cold War[49] is the ongoing period of struggle for world influence between the Russian Federation and the United States of America. The two countries have provided varying degrees of support to opposing sides in world conflicts, most visibly the current wars in Syria, the Russo-Ukrainian War, and disputes in the Persian Gulf, Levant, Venezuela and Iran.[50]

    Background[edit]

    Cold War[edit]

    History[edit]

    1990s[edit]

    On 31 March 1991 the Yugoslav Wars started and resulted in the Breakup of Yugoslavia. Russia supported Yugoslavia.[citation needed]

    2000s[edit]

    2010s[edit]

    After the US withdrawal from Syria in late 2019, Russia moved forces into the area, and mediated various arrangements and agreements between various parties to the conflict.

    Involved parties[edit]

    Russian supporters and proxies[edit]

    Iran[edit]

    Russia has been aligned with Iran for years. It intervened in Syria to provide support for the Assad government and to target rebel groups, working together with Iran and using Iranian air bases to stage air strikes.[51] It also joined Iran, Iraq, and Syria in forming a joint intelligence-sharing coalition as part of the fight against ISIL.[52] The alliance coincided with the US-led coalition created a year earlier to fight ISIL. The competing military actions were seen as part of a larger proxy conflict between the United States and Russia.[53][54][55] However, Russia's tie with Saudi Arabia has become increasingly warmed since 2010s despite numerous differences, thus sometimes affected Iran's stance on relations with Russia.[56]

    Syria[edit]

    Russia has been a military ally of Syria since 1956, and during the Syrian Civil War it continued supplying Syria's government with arms, sending military and technical advisers to train Syrian soldiers to use the Russian-made weapons, and helping to repair and maintain Syrian weapons.[57] Investigations by reporters suggest that Russia is helping to keep the Syrian economy afloat by transporting hundreds of tonnes of banknotes into the country by airplane.[58]

    Donetsk People's Republic[edit]

    Luhansk People's Republic[edit]

    North Korea[edit]

    Yugoslavia and Serbia[edit]

    Houthis[edit]

    Iran and its allies, along with Russia, have been allegedly been support the Houthis. (including Hezbollah, Qatar, North Korea, Iraq, Venezuela, and Oman (even though Oman claims to be neutral)[59] However, it has almost never been at 'official' support.[60][61][62]

    Hezbollah[edit]

    Russia does not consider Hezbollah to be a terrorist organization and allegedly supplies the group with weapons.[63] Hezbollah has long been an ally of the Ba'ath Party government of Syria, led by the Al-Assad family and helped the Syrian government in its fight against the armed Syrian opposition. As early as November 2011, The Jerusalem Post reported that protesters in Syria, enraged at Hezbollah's support for the Syrian government, burnt Hezbollah flags and images of Nasrallah,[64] while pro-government protesters have carried posters of Nasrallah.[65]

    In August 2012, the United States sanctioned Hezbollah for its alleged role in the war.[66] Hezbollah leader Hassan Nasrallah denied Hezbollah had been fighting on behalf of the Syrian government, stating in a 12 October 2012 speech that "right from the start the Syrian opposition has been telling the media that Hezbollah sent 3,000 fighters to Syria, which we have denied".[67] However, he said that Hezbollah fighters have gone to Syria independently and died there doing their "jihadist duties".[68] Hezbollah states it supports a process of reforms in Syria and is against what it calls US plots to destabilize and interfere in Syria.[69]

    In January–February 2012, Hezbollah fighters were reported to have helped the government fight the rebels in Damascus and in the Battle of Zabadani.[70] Later that year, Hezbollah fighters crossed the border from Lebanon and took over eight villages in the Al-Qusayr District of Syria.[71] According to the Lebanese Daily Star newspaper, Nasrallah said that Hezbollah fighters helped the Syrian government "retain control of some 23 strategically located villages [in Syria] inhabited by Shiites of Lebanese citizenship".[68] In September 2012, Hezbollah's commander in Syria, Ali Hussein Nassif, was killed along with several other Hezbollah militants in an ambush by the Free Syrian Army (FSA) near Al-Qusayr.[72]

    Iraqi militias[edit]

    Various Iraqi groups, many of them as part of the Popular Mobilization Forces, have been described as Iranian proxies while garnishing large support from Russia.[73][74]

    Maduro supporters in Venezuela[edit]

    American supporters and proxies[edit]

    NATO[edit]

    Saudi Arabia[edit]

    Georgia[edit]

    Others[edit]

    Other involved parties[edit]

    Turkey[edit]

    United Arab Emirates and other GCC countries[edit]

    India[edit]

    Pakistan[edit]

    Involvement in World conflicts[edit]

    Syrian Civil War[edit]

    From early stages of the Syrian conflict, Russia, under its contractual obligations, delivered ammunition and weapons to the Syrian government;[75] in early 2012 Russia's contracts with Syria for arms were unofficially estimated to be worth 1.5 billion US dollars, comprising 10% of Russia's global arms sales.[75] The arms sales to the Syrian government provoked criticism on the part of Western as well as some Arab nations.[75] The Russian government dismissed criticism noting that the arms sales to Syria did not violate any standing arms embargoes.[75]

    After the US withdrawal from Syria in late 2019, Russia moved forces into the area, and mediated various arrangements and agreements between various parties to the conflict.

    Yemeni Civil War[edit]

    Yugoslav Wars[edit]

    Russo-Georgian War[edit]

    Russo-Ukrainian War[edit]

    War in Donbas[edit]

    Crimea[edit]

    2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine[edit]

    Venezuelan crisis[edit]

    See also[edit]


    Other articles of the topic United States : Public figure, Hazbin Hotel, The Adventures of Jimmy Neutron, Boy Genius, MTV, New York's congressional districts, Zoot (Software)

    Other articles of the topic Asia : AJC Play

    References[edit]

    1. Doder, Dusko. "Yugoslavia: New War, Old Hatreds". Foreign Policy.
    2. Nizameddin, Talal (2008). "Squaring the Middle East Triangle in Lebanon: Russia and the Iran-Syria-Hezbollah Nexus". The Slavonic and East European Review. 86 (3): 475–500. JSTOR 25479213 – via JSTOR.
    3. "الحشد الشعبي العراقي (يقاتل) إلى جانب الأسد في سوريا". دنيا الوطن.
    4. Jansen, Michael (23 August 2016). "China enters fray in Syria on Bashar al-Assad's side". The Irish Times. Retrieved 3 August 2018.
    5. Kelley, Michael (6 March 2013). "It Looks Like Iraq Has Joined Assad's Side In The Syrian War". Business Insider. Retrieved 4 February 2019.
    6. See:
    7. "تحليل: ما هي الأسباب الكامنة وراء دعم الجزائر لنظام بشار الأسد؟". CNN Arabic. 7 May 2016.
    8. "سي إن إن :مصر تدعم نظام بشار الأسد بالتعاون مع إيران". مصرس.
    9. "كوبا تنفي إرسال قوات لسوريا". Elaph – إيلاف. 18 October 2015.
    10. Chulov, Martin (31 August 2017). "Victory for Assad looks increasingly likely as world loses interest in Syria". The Guardian. Retrieved 4 February 2019.
    11. Maclean, William; Finn, Tom (26 November 2016). "Qatar will help Syrian rebels even if Trump ends U.S. role". Reuters. Retrieved 14 February 2018.
    12. 12.0 12.1 "UPDATE: PACE officially recognizes occupied areas in Donbas as 'effectively controlled' by Russia". unian.info. 24 April 2018. Retrieved 27 April 2018.
    13. 13.0 13.1 "Ukraine vs Russia: The ICJ's Court Decision, Examined". en.hromadske.ua. 24 April 2017. Retrieved 27 April 2018.
    14. 14.0 14.1 "Ukraine: Breaking Bodies: Torture and Summary Killings in Eastern Ukraine". Amnesty International. 22 May 2015. p. 10. Retrieved 20 May 2018. Sustained fighting erupted in eastern Ukraine that summer, amidst compelling evidence of Russian military involvement.
    15. Miller, Christopher (May 2018). "U.S. Confirms Delivery Of Javelin Antitank Missiles To Ukraine". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty.
    16. "Estonia at War: Special Forces with Ukrainian Combat Troops in Donbass | Donbass International News Agency". Dninews.com. 2016-08-25. Retrieved 2018-07-03.
    17. "Lithuania says it supplies ammunition to Ukraine for first time in two years". Reuters. 3 September 2016. Retrieved 31 July 2017.
    18. Ramani, Samuel (August 19, 2019). "How Russia manuevers between Saudi Arabia, UAE in Yemen". Al-Monitor.
    19. "Russia comprehends our vision more than ever: Abdulsalam - YemenExtra". 24 July 2019.
    20. "As US Beefs Up Military Presence in the Gulf, Yemen's Houthis Turn to Russia for Support". July 26, 2019.
    21. "North Korea Likely Supplied Scud Missiles Fired at Saudi Arabia by Yemen's Houthi Rebels". Vice News. 29 July 2015. Retrieved 14 May 2018.
    22. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Hezbollah
    23. الحوثيين, مأرب برس-الحكومة العراقية تعد معسكرات لتدريب. "الحكومة العراقية تعد معسكرات لتدريب الحوثيين". مأرب برس.
    24. "السفير اليمني السابق في سوريا: النظام السوري درب الحوثيين". Elnashra News.
    25. شحادة, راغب (4 August 2018). "بيونغ يانغ دعمت الحوثيين بالأسلحة عبر النظام السوري".
    26. "قيادي حوثي منشق أرتمى في أحضان السعودية يهاجم سلطنة عمان: مسقط العربية تحولت إلى مشهد الإيرانية!". 16 August 2018.
    27. "اتهام قطر بالضلوع في تمويل أعمال الحوثيين للإضرار بالسعودية". مصراوي.كوم.
    28. https://www.noonpost.org/content/6533
    29. 29.0 29.1 29.2 29.3 29.4 29.5 29.6 Al-Haj, Ahmed (26 March 2015). "Saudi Arabia launches airstrikes in Yemen, targeting rebel-held military installations". Associated Press. Retrieved 4 April 2018.
    30. "Child soldiers from Darfur fighting at front line of war in Yemen, returned soldiers say". The Independent. 29 December 2018.
    31. "Senegal to send 2,100 troops to join Saudi-led alliance". Reuters. 4 May 2015. Retrieved 4 May 2015.
    32. "US special forces secretly deployed to assist Saudi Arabia in Yemen conflict". The Independent. 3 May 2018.
    33. "In Yemen's "60 minutes" moment, no mention that the U.S. is fueling the conflict". The Intercept. 20 November 2017.
    34. "Report: Saudi-UAE coalition 'cut deals' with al-Qaeda in Yemen". Al Jazeera. 6 August 2018.
    35. "US allies, Al Qaeda battle rebels in Yemen". Fox News. 7 August 2018.
    36. "Allies cut deals with al Qaeda in Yemen to serve larger fight with Iran". San Francisco Chronicle. 6 August 2018.
    37. "SOMALIA: Somalia finally pledges support to Saudi-led coalition in Yemen – Raxanreeb Online". RBC Radio. 7 April 2015. Archived from the original on 7 April 2015. Retrieved 7 April 2015. Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
    38. Ricks, Thomas E. (11 January 2016). "What Would a Saudi-Iran War Look Like? Don't look now, but it is already here". Foreign Policy. Retrieved 5 October 2016.
    39. "Dışişleri Bakanlığı, Husi terörüne karşı Yemen'e destek verdi". Türkiye (in Türkçe). 26 March 2013. Retrieved 14 April 2017.
    40. Bowen, Jeremy (7 July 2014). "The fearsome Iraqi militia vowing to vanquish Isis". BBC News. Retrieved 3 August 2018.
    41. http://www.alkawthartv.com/news/102095
    42. http://www.alkawthartv.com/news/86262
    43. "الولائي يدين الاعتداءات الجبانة من ال سعود على اطفال اليمن ويعلن تطوعه مرة اخرى لنصرة اهل اليمن". www.ansaar-alwalaey.com (in العربية). Archived from the original on 2018-10-11.
    44. Al Saeri, Muqbil (March 2011). "A talk with Peninsula Shield force commander Mutlaq bin Salem Al Azima". Asharq Al-Awsat. Archived from the original on 29 March 2011. Retrieved 29 March 2011. Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
    45. Bronner, Ethan; Slackman, Michael (14 March 2011). "Saudi Troops Enter Bahrain to Help Put Down Unrest". The New York Times. Retrieved 12 March 2018.
    46. "Banned Military Cooperation Between North Korea and Syria Continues, Says UN Report". Haaretz. Reuters. 6 August 2018. Retrieved 4 February 2019.
    47. Crane, Robert D. (12 February 2015). "Psychostrategic Warfare and a New U.S.-Russian Cold War". The American Muslim (Tam). Archived from the original on 16 March 2015. Retrieved 1 April 2018. Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
    48. Vatanka, Alex (16 August 2016). "Russian Bombers in Iran and Tehran's Internal Power Struggle". The National Interest. Archived from the original on 1 April 2018. Retrieved 1 April 2018. Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
    49. Cohen, Stephen F. (14 February 2018). "If America 'Won the Cold War,' Why Is There Now a 'Second Cold War with Russia'?". The Nation. Archived from the original on 1 April 2018. Retrieved 1 April 2018. Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
    50. England, Andrew; Bozorgmehr, Najmeh (2022-03-06). "Russia demands US guarantees over revival of Iran nuclear accord". Financial Times. Retrieved 2022-03-15.
    51. "Syrian conflict: Russian bombers use Iran bases for air strikes". BBC News. 16 August 2016. Retrieved 6 October 2016.
    52. Mullen, Jethro; Basil, Yousuf (28 September 2015). "Iraq agrees to share intelligence with Russia, Iran and Syria". CNN. Retrieved 9 March 2018.
    53. Barnard, Anne; Shoumali, Karam (12 October 2015). "U.S. Weaponry Is Turning Syria Into a Proxy War With Russia". The New York Times. Retrieved 9 March 2018.
    54. Pengelly, Martin (4 October 2015). "John McCain says US is engaged in proxy war with Russia in Syria". The Guardian. Retrieved 9 March 2018.
    55. Tilghman, Andrew; Pawlyk, Oriana (4 October 2015). "U.S. vs. Russia: What a war would look like between the world's most fearsome militaries". Military Times. Retrieved 9 March 2018.
    56. "Growing ties with Russia could strain Saudi-US relations". Middle East Institute.
    57. "French direct aid a dubious break for Syria rebels". London. The Guardian. 7 September 2012. Archived from the original on 31 August 2013. Retrieved 5 October 2012. Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
    58. "Syria's crisis: Bashar bashed – After months of slow progress, Bashar Assad's opponents have the upper hand". The Economist. 1 December 2012. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 5 October 2015. Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
    59. "Oman is a mediator in Yemen. Can it play the same role in Qatar?". The Washington Post. 22 July 2017. Archived from the original on 18 October 2018. Retrieved 17 October 2018. Oman is a mediator in Yemen. Can it play the same role in Qatar? Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
    60. "North Korea's Balancing Act in the Persian Gulf". HuffPost. 17 August 2015. Archived from the original on 17 August 2015. Retrieved 17 August 2015. North Korea's military support for Houthi rebels in Yemen is the latest manifestation of its support for anti-American forces. Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
    61. "The September 14 drone attack on Saudi oil fields: North Korea's potential role | NK News". 30 September 2019. Archived from the original on 11 October 2019. Retrieved 11 October 2019. Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
    62. "Secret UN report reveals North Korea attempts to supply Houthis with weapons". Al-Arabiya. 4 August 2018. Retrieved 4 August 2018. The report said that experts were investigating efforts by the North Korean Ministry of Military Equipment and Korea Mining Development Trading Corporation (KOMID) to supply conventional arms and ballistic missiles to Yemen’s Houthi group.
    63. Jesse Rosenfeld: Russia Is Arming Hezbollah, Say Two of the Group’s Field Commanders, thedailybeast.com 11 January 2016.
    64. Navon, Emmanuel. "Syria uprising stirs old divisions in neighboring Lebanon". Jerusalem Post. Archived from the original on 16 August 2011. Retrieved 13 November 2011. Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
    65. "Hezbollah has no role at Syria's crackdown on protesters". Dp-news.com. 28 July 2011. Archived from the original on 14 November 2012. Retrieved 13 November 2011. Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
    66. "US adds Hezbollah to Syria sanctions list". Al Jazeera. 10 August 2012. Archived from the original on 12 August 2012. Retrieved 27 February 2013. Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
    67. "Drone flight over Israel: Nasrallah's latest surprise". arabamericannews.com. 10 January 2009. Archived from the original on 10 March 2016. Retrieved 27 February 2013. Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
    68. 68.0 68.1 Hirst, David (23 October 2012). "Hezbollah uses its military power in a contradictory manner". The Daily Star. Beirut. Archived from the original on 2 November 2012. Retrieved 27 February 2013. Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
    69. "WikiLeaks: U.S. secretly backed Syria opposition". CBS News. Archived from the original on 20 May 2012. Retrieved 19 August 2012. Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
    70. Wright, Nate; Hider, James (17 February 2012). "Syrian regime 'importing snipers' for protests". The Australian. Archived from the original on 20 June 2012. Retrieved 17 May 2012. Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
    71. "Hezbollah fighters, Syrian rebels killed in border fighting" Archived 18 February 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Al Arabiya, 17 February 2013. Retrieved 18 February 2013.
    72. "BBC News – Hezbollah military commander 'killed in Syria'". Bbc.co.uk. 2 October 2012. Archived from the original on 5 October 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2012. Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
    73. "Who can rein in Iran-aligned Shiite militias in Iraq after Soleimani". 29 July 2021.
    74. "Iraq insurgent groups form one council". Yahoo!.
    75. 75.0 75.1 75.2 75.3 Galpin, Richard (10 January 2012). "Russian arms shipments bolster Syria's embattled Assad". BBC News. Archived from the original on 22 May 2019. Retrieved 4 February 2012. Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)

    {{Russia–United States proxy conflict}}


    This article "Russia–United States proxy conflict" is from Wikipedia. The list of its authors can be seen in its historical and/or the page Edithistory:Russia–United States proxy conflict. Articles copied from Draft Namespace on Wikipedia could be seen on the Draft Namespace of Wikipedia and not main one.