Sekala Brak

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Kepaksian Sekala Brak Kuno is a kingdom characterized by Hinduism and animism, known as the Ancient Brak Sekala Kingdom. It is narrated that after the arrival of the Four Umpu from Pagaruyung who spread Islam, the Ancient Scale Brak Kingdom later changed to Kepaksian Sekala Brak, located at the foot of Mount Pesagi (Hematang Sulang), the highest mountain in Lampung, Pesagi Lunik height 2.262 MDPL and Pesagi Balak height 3.221 MDPL. didirikan pada tahun 260 Masehi oleh Suku Tumi. Narrated in Tambo four sons of King Pagaruyung Umpu Ngegalang Paksi arrived at Sekala Brak to spread Islam in Lampung in the 13th century 1289 AD, 29 Rajab 688 Hijriyah. This phase is the most important part of the existence of the people of Lampung. With the arrival of these four umpu, it is a setback from the ancient Sekala Brak or Tumi tribe which is a Bairawa Hindu pattern that adheres to Animism and is at the same time a milestone in the founding of Kepaksian Sekala Brak or in terminologically the Kerajaan Adat Paksi Pak Sekala Brak which is based on Islamic religious values ​​today[1][2]. Didalam buku yang berjudul Paksi Pak Sekala Brak dituliskan secara sistematis about Kerajaan Adat Paksi Pak Sekala Brak. History descriptionHistory description kepaksian These are arranged based on the geographical location of each fanatic, starting from the west, namely Kepaksian Nyerupa Tapak Siring Lamban Pakuon, Kepaksian Bejalan Diway Kembahang Lamban Dalom, Kepaksian Pernong Batu brak Istana Gedung Dalom dan Gedung Pakuon, Kepaksian Belunguh Kenali Lamban Gedung [3]. Ancient Brak Sekala's mischief with the last king queen sekeghummong, in the current era of independence, sekala brak is known as the Kerajaan Adat Paksi Pak Sekala Brak Indigenous Kingdom. Margasira 919 Caka found in Bunuk Tenuar, yellow hakha village, Balik Bukit sub-district, has the name of a king in Lampung engraved. This inscription is related to the ancient Sekala Brak Kingdom of Raja Di Sekala Brak Punku Sri Haridewa which is still controlled by Buay Tumi. Prof. Dr. Louis-Charles Damais in the book "Epigraphy and History of the Archipelago" published by the National Archaeological Research Center, Jakarta, 1995, pages 26-45, it is known that the name of the King listed on the Hujung Langit Inscription on the 7th line of 16 lines is Sultan Punku Sri Haridewa, the writing is estimated to be around 1,021 years old in 2021 at this time. The ancient Sekala Brak powerlessness which was still controlled by the Tumi tribe at that time was familiar with writing as evidenced by the presence of the script contained in the Prasasti Hujung Langit Inscription, the writing contained 16 lines and above the writing there was an image resembling the Semar Raja Heirloom Sarong Handle located in Bunuk Tenuar Pekon Hakha. yellow and to this day the existence of the Hujung Langit Inscription is maintained and well maintained. The Hujung Langit Inscription is estimated to have existed around before the 10th century AD. Thus, judging from the historical heritage of the Brak stone site and the end of the sky, at the time of the tribes of the Sekala Brak country they could have believed that the forerunner of the Malay language was from the Ancient Sekala Brak Kepaksian which was controlled by the Tumi tribe at that time. Then as we know that Indonesian is a development of the ancient Malay language. The development of ethnic groups in Indonesia comes from Assam which is located in southern India, north of Burma. The ancient Malays or Proto Malayan Tribes from South India, in their refuge, moved across the Andamen Sea to then disperse into several groups. Thus the theory put forward by J. R. Logan in the 19th century AD who conducted research from 1848 to 1900.

  1. The first group, moving east through Java and Kalimantan and some continuing north in the Philippines, which later gave birth to the Igorot ethnic group and others.
  2. The second group reached the northern tip of Sumatra along the west coast and landed in Singkel, Barus and Sibolga, then gave birth to the forerunners of the Karo Batak, Toba Batak, Dairi and Alas tribes.
  3. The third group continued their voyage along the West Coast of Sumatra to the south which eventually led to the highest mountain areas which were inactive, returning as People on the Tengkuk Humatang Sulang Bukit Barisan.

However, the experience of their ancestors who moved across the vast ocean in carrying out large-scale evacuations formed a "dual face" character as mountain people and knew the meaning of the sea. Because of that, they then spread out from the Humatang Sulang Sulang Bukit Barisan through the Hamakha rivers Way Tippon and Way Semaka spread so that Semaka to the coast of Banten, even Palembang. The study has a common thread based on William Marsden's writings through the history of Sumatra, Explaining, "when the Lampung people are asked about where they come from, they answer from the highlands and point towards a wide high mountain" (Marsden 2008). The mountain in question is the nape of Mount Pesagi, Bukit Barisan. Haji Yuwa Rajya Punku Sri Haridewa is one of the figures mentioned in the Hujung Langit Inscription. Judging from the title attached to his name, that's Punku, which means my lord, as a title that considers that Punku Sri Haridewa is a person who helps protect and maintain sacred places. Pun or Pu is an honorary title for one's nobility as many families in the San-fo-ts'i Kingdom have the title "Pu". Likewise, the title of Pu which is side by side with the word DAPUNTA, the title of Dapunta Hyang must be reserved for people of very high position. This very high honor is indicated by the affixes of da-, -ta, and the title "Hyang". Thus the explanation of the meaning of the title Pu in the Sriwijaya book written by Prof. Dr. Slamet Muljana. Furthermore, the title Haji (Aji) is a common meaning for “king”, used to refer to a person in relation to his/her territory (Ayatrohaedi, 1979: p. 79). Zoetmulder (1995: p. 327) states that Hajj can be interpreted as a Sultan, a king, a royal family, a prince, Seri Your Majesty, Your Majesty Your Majesty. And there is also the title Yuwa Rajya (Yuwa Raja) for the king of Sri Haridewa, the title was once listed in an inscription originating from Sumatra, namely the Telaga Batu inscription which is estimated to be from the 7th Century AD in 686 AD. This inscription mentions three categories of princes, namely: yuwaraja (Crown Prince), pratiyuwaraja (second Crown Prince), and Rajakumara (another Crown Prince) (De Casparis, 1956: p. 17; 1976: p. 69; Kulke, 1991: p. 9). Usually this viceroy before becoming king in full power is given the position of king in an area or region (Soemadio (ed), 1993: p. 410). In addition to the name of Sri Haridewa which is written in the Hujung Langit Inscription, there are also officials who accompanied him in the determination of the sima, such as Hulun (a person who serves the King / Hulun Haji). Ruhanan (Supervisor of Officials), Pramukha Kabayan (Leader associated with holy places), Juru Redap (Information Section Officer), Juru Pajabat (Officers Welcoming the King), Juru samya (people in power at a lower level (village), deputy officials or heads, Juru Natalan (Writing Section / Clerk), Juru Mabwaŋ (Officers Handling Manpower), and Banwa level officials who attended including Rama.

And now, even though the inscription is centuries old, the designations contained in the inscription are still maintained by the Kepaksian Sekala Brak community, such as the Pun title is still maintained as a call of honor for the eldest son of the Sultan's lineage in the region. Sekala Brak's Kepaksian which is now manifesting into the Pak Sekala Brak Indigenous Kingdom or as it is known as the Sekala Brak Indigenous Kingdom. In addition, the position of interpreter as in the inscription is still maintained by the Indigenous people, especially in Sekala Brak for people who have special duties in customs, which are now called Jukuan Lamban. The Indigenous Title of Khadin's Wife, the Customary Apparatus of the title of Raden, the wife of Minak, the Indigenous Apparatus of the title of Minak, the wife of Kimas, the Customary Apparatus of the Title of Kimas, the wife of Mas, and others.

Based on research that has been carried out by archaeologists, the nape of Mount Pesagi is a place of residence for a tribe called the Tumi Tribe which has a Hindu pattern and adheres to animism, which is the forerunner of the ancient Kepaksian Sekala Brak which was estimated to have been around before the 3rd century AD. The Sekala Brak Kingdom is the oldest Kingdom in the Land of Lampung, the people who are under the rule of the Sekala Brak Kingdom are the ancestors of the Lampung tribe[4][5].

  • Footsteps Kepaksian Sekala Brak

Uwais Inspiration Indonesia Joko Darmawan and Rita Wigira Astuti are the authors of a book entitled Sandyakala, the Glory and Fame of the Kingdom of the Archipelago, pages 5 (five) to 6 (six) according to Drs. Paulus Wahana, M.Hum, an observer from Sanata Dharma University, Yogyakarta Special Region, said that before Hindu culture was influential in Indonesian society in all its aspects and it was not just animism, in Kepaksian Sekala Ancient Brak is the same as in Kalimantan the belief in glorifying the worship of trees A large group called Belasa Kepappang is highly purified by the Sekala Brak Nation Tribe. This tree has two branches, namely a jackfruit branch and a sebukau branch, both of which contain sap (R. Sudradjat, et al., Lampung Dialect Compounding System Abung, 1991). If exposed to sebukau branch sap, people can get skin diseases and dangerous if left alone. However, it turns out that there is a cure, namely the sap from the jackfruit branch. The existence of two branches with two opposite saps in one tree is what makes Belasa Kepappang the deity of the Sekala Brak Nation Tribe at that time. On January 1, 2021, the customary apparatus of the Kutabesi village found a large tree that had been cut down around Mount Pesagi, there were 2 (two) large and long pieces of wood called Pepaduan. The conquest of the Kepaksian Sekala of Ancient Brak was AL-Mujahid from the land of pasai, his arrival in Pagaruyung, Tanjung Emas, Tanah Datar, then after the establishment of one of the in the area Kerajaan Pagaruyung, from Pagaruyung Empat Umpu from the descendants of the King's children moved to Muko-Muko to spread Islam . Then enter the Ancient Brak Sekala Kingdom to see a country that is Animist, there is a dialogue process when they arrive at the Ancient Brak Sekala Kingdom they occupy a place which there is also a community that is not part of the Tumi tribe but is also a group of people. the group that could be influenced earlier to convert to Islam here is their dislocation in history whose name is "Ranji Pasai" in Lampung language "Sikam Jamma Pasai" (We are Pasai people), after the dialogue from 13 to 17 August 1289 then did not get a meeting point finally climbed to the top of Mount Pesagi on August 24, 1289 so that there was a war several stories in the month of Bakha, the incident of the moon Bakha during a performance rather than a ceremony on the night of the full moon at that time was attacked by Sekala Brak in a battle which was very fierce was finally defeated, overthrown through the starting point of the Islamic Kingdom am With the last king of Kepaksian Sekala Brak Ancient who was animist, a man called Ratu Sekaghummong who was the son of Ratu Sangkan and grandson of Ratu Mucah Bawok. At this time quoted from @indozone Kaaba at the Haram Mosque in the holy city of Mecca in 983 there was a dispute between the Bani Abad and the Bani Abid and in 1257 the Hijaz population and all Muslims in Lampung were prohibited from making the pilgrimage. The distribution of the tribes of Negeri Sekala Brak follows the flow of water (river) Way Semaka spreading to Semaka.

Politically, the power of the Ancient Brak Sekala Kepaksian who adhered to the belief in Animism was successfully conquered, this was marked by the killing of a man, namely Ratu Sekaghummong, using a keris with a symbol after the killing of queen sekegkhummong, the name of the keris changed to "Rakiyan Istinja Blood" on the Pesagi Mountain Peak ( Hamatang Sulang) by descendants of AL-Mujahid who came from Pasai Coastal North Sumatra, where the big tree they worship was cut down into 2 (two), its name is a combination of the big tree of belala and its kepappang made a place for Islamic rituals in a tambo It is clear that 29 Rajab 688 Hijriyah Mujarah Rasulullah is estimated to have been on Wednesday, August 24, 1289 AD the Fourth Umpu They made an agreement on Mount Pesagi to make Kepaksian Sekala Ancient Brak as a country which was divided into four parts, which later became known as the Four to the Caliphate, starting from the establishment of the Sekala Bkha . Pact k (read Brak) the flag of Al-Liwa Panji Syahadatain was planted above the peak of Mount Pesagi, starting to become the Sekala Brak Poverty, in addition to dividing their territory they also divided the people, dividing the looted heirlooms from the Ancient Sekala Brak Pledge, the symbol of the Fourth Sekala Brak Pledge This testimony is Cambai Mak Bejunjungan with cicca not allied, separated, not divorced in the year around 1501 AD to 1659 AD there was an attack from the Palembang kingdom without any notification, as if there was a conflict that suddenly attacked Up in the span of resistance, the Palembang troops were finally repulsed and returned. From around 1684 to 1690 there was a relationship between Sekala Brak and the Portuguese, it continued at that time in 1701 to 1824 Sekala Brak with the British, at this time also around 1823 until local intellectuals began to develop the concept of Indonesia as a state and nation and set a movement independence at the beginning of the 20th century AD Sekala Brak with the Dutch East Indies was formed from the nationalization of the VOC Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie colonies, in about 1824 then an exchange took place between England and the Netherlands, namely Singapore and the Bengkulen Residency, the Dutch got Bengkulu and the British left Bengkulu to get Singapore, one thing is certain that the British never colonized the Kepaksian Sekala Brak. There are several good agreements in the similar Paksi, the Pernong Paksi, the Bejalan Kepaksian in Way and the Belunguh Paksi, the British Company agreement not to attack each other, then what agreement if the enemy attacks from the sea then the British Company will face it, if the enemy comes from the land then Kepaksian Sekala Brak was the one who faced. But at the time of the handover between the Residency of Bengkulen and Singapore, the Dutch were indeed treacherous and then claimed to state to Paksi Pak (Kepaksian Sekala Brak) that in this agreement we had a mandate from Britain which was already under British control, then the Dutch made a statement of conquest that the rank of Maharaja Sultan and fourthly, the Kepaksian Sekala Brak should not be used anymore, it is forbidden, after being conquered how to break it down, so that the Kepaksian Penong Sekala Brak split into 10 (ten) clans, the Buay Kenyangan clan, the Suoh clan, the Way Sindi clan, the La'ai clan, the Bandakh clan, the Pedada clan, the Ulu krui/mountain kemala clan, the way napal clan, the tenumbang clan, the bengkunat clan were made the heads of a clan called Pasirah but the clans outside the Kepaksian Sekala Brak were not Sultan (Saibatin), Saibatin This (Sultan) remains the fourth Kepaksian Sekala Brak which defeated by the Dutch and forced by the Dutch to join the clan government, but the Kepaksian Sekala Brak (kesaibatinan) tradition is still intact, why are there still many upstream balangs of Kepaksian Sekala Brak still fighting in the forest. In Kepaksian Pernong Sekala Brak, which was made their clan status, they received a hereditary position. Meanwhile, in other places, which have been split into their clans, the electoral system is once every 5 (five) years, the electoral system that goes up to become a long-standing desertion, 5 (five) years from now, the election is like the current era, but for They do not dare to treat the electoral system and until now what if the Pernong Sekala Brak Kepaksian appears then the face of the entire community that used to have links with the Pernong Sekala Brak Pact appears, to enforce the Payung Agung instead of Sekala. Brake. There are only 4 (four) differences between Paksian, Marga, Bandakh, Jukku, Sumbai, Kebbu, Papanese Building Dalom Paksian because Paksian is a form of a kingdom. This kepaksian also became the forerunner of the existence of the name Paksi Pak. Pak Kepaksian's Indigenous Kingdom Pernong Sekala Brak is the same as the big kingdoms in the archipelago. The presence of the Kingdom has a red line of Conquest where Paksi Pak (Kepaksian Sekala Brak) appears after conquering the Ancient Brak Sekala Kingdom. After that there was no further conquest, the spread of the descendants of Kepaksian Sekala Brak who founded new countries originating from Sekala Brak in bringing nobility, because it is impossible for titles to appear if there is no Kingdom, traditional titles that arise Sultan, Raja / Dipati, Batin, Radin, Minak, Kimas, Mas / inton. In fact, each level of title has "rukun pedandan", holding tools, jujjokh or separate customary provisions that are prohibited from being used by other titles, attached to him the customary order regarding "tools in the slow, bodily tools and tools in the field". Seeing the order that someone wears, it is easy to know the position and adok (title) this proves that there is a structure of a kingdom which is a reference that in Lampung, if there is no Kepaksian Sekala Brak then all titles are just empty titles, but in the land of Lampung appeared a kingdom based on conquest, the spread of Islam in the land of Lampung and so on. Indeed, in the past, the name was not a kingdom, but Kepaksian today is what is called a kingdom, then in subsequent relations the clan emerged after the Dutch era and in the 19th century in 1824 AD in order to dismantle various ruses carried out to divide the kingdom so that it is not strong and not united anymore. Even the titles of Kepaksian, Sultan's title, Maharaja and so on in the Dutch era were no longer banned but FORBIDDEN. The Dutch only implemented a system of government, namely Kepasirahan, by the Dutch, the Kepaksian was split, for the Pernong Sekala Brak Kepaksian, the land was divided into 10 (ten) clans. which is very large, after the special formation of Kepaksian Pernong Sekala Brak was given the mandate to hold 2 (two) clans but which are passed down from generation to generation, while in other places they have been divided into their clans. election system every 5 (five) years, if he becomes Pasirah 3 (three) times then he is appointed by the Dutch to become Depati and if he becomes 4 (four) times, gets the title of prince from the Netherlands but the title of prince is only for him not to be passed down to their descendants. Then he found that in the Pre-History of the Balanced Society, the structure is more democratic in nature but this is the Lampung Structure which has noble values in Lampung society because the people who hold this democratic nuance maintain the values of life procedures that exist in the Balancing system.

For Sekala Brak, the word Kingdom is added. The Paksi Customary Kingdom of Pak Kepaksian Pernong Sekala Brak, the Indigenous Kingdom of Kepaksian Pernong Sekala Brak. At that time, Kepaksian could be interpreted as a Kingdom in today's terminology, considering that the customary organizational structure in Paksian is the same as the structure of the Kingdom that includes History, especially the history of conquest which is owned by all Kingdoms that have been or are still standing today. The history of conquest is important for a Kingdom to show the strength and superiority of an established community, just as Sekala Brak conquered the Ancient Sekala Brak Kepaksian. The territory, the original territory of the Kepaksian Customary Kingdom of Pernong Sekala Brak, covers 2 (two) regencies at this time, namely West Lampung Regency and West Pesisir Regency as well as the Ranau area which is part of the Komering area. The people of Sekala Brak at that time were a community that was not part of the Tumi Tribe who had surrendered and declared submission to Paksi Pak 4 (four) sons of Umpu Ngegalang Paksi The title of Sultan Ratu Ngegalang Paksi, then they were divided into 4 (four) parts to become followers. Paksi Pak Sekala Brak' The four sons of Umpu Ngegalang Paksi have the title of Sultan Ratu Ngegalang Paksi, and the troops of the followers of Kepaksian Sekala Brak, the four sons of Umpu Ngegalang Paksi who came from their previous area, including the followers of the sultan who was in charge. The structure of the kingdom, where there is the highest leader in 4 (four) Sekala Brak Kepaksians, namely the four sons of Umpu Ngegalang Paksi, the title of Sultan Ratu Ngegalang Paksi. The four sons of Umpu Ngegalang Paksi were appointed as First Sultans in their respective territories, which are currently better known as SaiBatin (Sultan), then from generation to generation there is the coronation of a previous Sultan with a sacred traditional event called the Tayuh traditional event. Doubtful Paksi, this tayuhan special tayuhan sultan (saibatin traditional king dikepaksian) at this time. Sekala Brak has relatives who inhabit along the coast of Lampung land from Ranau to Pesisir Barat Regency, from Tanjung Sakti on the west coast to Tanjung Tuha Pesisr Kalianda, South Lampung and starting along Way Suluh, the west coast through Cape China, continuing through the Semaka coast, Tanggamus through the District. Tanggamus, Pringsewu Regency, Pesawaran Regency and entering, Teluk Coast and entering Kaliandak Coast which is now called Tanah Way Handak which is held by five Saibatin Makhga Relatives of Sekala Brak in Way Handak, South Lampung[6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24].


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  1. file:///C:/Users/ASUS/AppData/Local/Temp/1637-3337-1-PB-2.pdf
  6. Joko Darmawan, dan Rita Wigira Astuti (2018). Sandiakala Kejayaan dan Kemashyuran Kerajaan Nusantara. Ponorogo Jawa Timur: Uawis Inspirasi Indonesia. pp. 5–6. ISBN 9786025891847. Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help) Search this book on Logo.png
  7. Sultan, Kurniawan A.B (1 January 2021). Kerajaan Jambulipo. Mabgunharjo, Depok, Seleman Yogyakarat: IKAPI (062/DIY/08). pp. 7–8. Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help) Search this book on Logo.png
  8. DR.Sujjarwo, Prof (2018). Kerajaan adat paksi pak sekala brak kepaksian pernong menjawab sejarah. Bandar Lampung: PT Karya cipta mandiri. pp. 10–16. ISBN 9786025270529. Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help) Search this book on Logo.png
  10. "Digital Batavia - - - Tentang Batavia". Retrieved 2021-04-28.
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  13. Prof.DR.H.A Fauzie, Nurdin,MS (2018). Cerita rakyat sumatra selatan dari waktu ke waktu. Bantul Yogyakarta: Thapa Media. pp. ix–xiii. ISBN 9786021351673. Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help) Search this book on Logo.png
  14. Dedy, Tisna Amijaya (2011). Mencari Jejak Mata Rantai Sejarah Sekala Brak di Nusantara. Bandar Lampung: Fhesagi jaya. pp. 880–881. ISBN 9786021484173. Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help) Search this book on Logo.png
  17. DR. Sudjarwo, Prof (2018). Paksi Pak Sekala Brak Kepaksian Pernong Menjawab Sejarah. Bandar Lampung: PT Karya Cipta Mandiri. pp. 19–27. ISBN 9786025270529. Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help) Search this book on Logo.png
  19. file:///C:/Users/ASUS/AppData/Local/Temp/430-878-1-SM.pdf