Sheikh Mohammad Iqbal<br/>شیخ محمد اقبال

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Sheikh Mohammad Iqbal
شیخ محمد اقبال
Dr Sheikh Mohammad Iqbal.jpg Dr Sheikh Mohammad Iqbal.jpg
BornSheikh Mohammad Iqbal
Sialkot, Punjab, British India (now Pakistan)
🏡 ResidenceSrinagar, Kashmir
🏫 EducationB. A. Honours., M. A., L.L.B, Ph.D.
🎓 Alma materUniversity of the Punjab (Lahore), Aligarh Muslim University, I.S.I.S.
💼 Occupation
Author, Historian, Scholar
Notable workThe Mission of Islam, History of Islam & Muslims, Islamic Toleration and Justice, Emeralds in the Crown of Islam, Islam and Christianity in Balance
👩 Spouse(s)Jana Bibi (1946-53)
Bashirah Akhtar (m. 1955)
👶 Children6

Sheikh Mohammad Iqbal is a Kashmiri[1][2] author,[3][4] historian,[5][6] Islamic scholar,[7] intellectual,[8] educationist,[7] academician,[9] researcher,[4] writer, publisher[10] and former archaeologist.[5] A globally acknowledged scholar on Islamic History and Arab-Islamic issues,[11] Iqbal is considered an authority on Saudi Arabia.[12] Being a prolific writer, he has written over forty seven books[13] and numerous research papers and articles published in the local,[14] national,[11] and international journals.[15] He was a visiting Asian Professor and Fulbright-Hays Senior Scholar to United States[14][12][16] and a visiting scholar to King Abdulaziz University.[7] He served in Kashmir for almost three decades, holding, besides others, the posts of a Lecturer,[17] Professor,[2] Head of Department,[15] Principal[18] and Director.[14]

Early years[edit]

Iqbal was born in 1929 at Sialkot, Punjab (now in Pakistan).[19] His parents used to go to the British Resident's Office to Srinagar for arranging civil supplies. He was 15 days old when his mother died at the age of 28 years during an epidemic. He (along with his elder brother)[lower-alpha 1] was taken immediately to Srinagar and brought up by his maternal grandmother who managed his early education.[17] He studied at Tyndale Biscoe School in Habba Kadal for basic education.[21]

Education and career[edit]

Iqbal obtained his F.A. from S. P. College[22] and graduated with Honours in Arabic from the University of Punjab, Lahore, in 1946. He did his Master's degree in History and Political Science and LL.B. in 1949 at the Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh. He joined the School of International Studies, Sapru House, New Delhi in 1956, for a course of Ph. D,[23] taking up 'Political Development in Najd and Hejaz-1901-1934' as the subject of his research.[19][24][25] He was qualified for the award of Doctor of Philosophy in July, 1963.[17] His fields of specialisation are Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, early Islamic History, and Arab-Islamic Issues of the 20th Century and after.[26][21]

Iqbal was appointed as Deputy Custodian, Evacuees' Property at Jammu in 1949. He later joined the Department of Education (J&K) in 1951 as Lecturer at S. P. College where he taught for 20 years.[22]

Iqbal taught and lectured[27] in American Universities as a Visiting Asian Professor and Fulbright-Hays Senior Scholar.[14][12][28] With assignments of teaching and addressing public audiences, he created deep impression among the faculty members and the Post-Graduate classes at the American institutions of higher learning.[26] He gave addresses on subjects like Islamic History, Islamic Toleration and Middle-East. His lectures earned him an offer to settle in the United States permanently which he declined.[22][21]

As the Principal of the Islamia College, he brought the Students' Unrest under control and ensured discipline within the college and created a conducive atmosphere for education.[22]

Dr Iqbal with Justice Javed Iqbal, the son of Sir Muhammad Iqbal at Lahore.

As the Director of the Department of Libraries, Research, Museums and Archives, "his contributions in reorganising the department are extraordinary" (sic). He left "no stone unturned in giving name and fame to the Museum movement by submitting notes proposal to the government for its recognition of Museums" (sic).[29] He opposed Sheikh Abdullah's idea of handing over the Hari Parbat Fort to the Archaeological Survey of India. He preferred that the Fort should be kept under the administration of the State Government. He also did not favour the Government's move to demolish the gateways of Cheshma Shahi and Nishat gardens.[22]

Iqbal was being considered to be appointed as the Vice-Chancellor of the University of Kashmir by Mir Qasim and Sheikh Abdullah. However, the proposal did not pan out for "his young age" (sic).[7]

In 1978, Iqbal was invited to an International Islamic Seminar held at Sri Lanka where he read out a paper on Islam and Education.[7]

Iqbal attended the Third Islamic Summit Conference of Islamic States at Makkah/Ta'if in 1981. He was invited by King Faisal,[30][31] to be a visiting scholar to King Abdulaziz University and participated in numerous International Conferences and Seminars in the Gulf. He has been frequently visiting Middle-Eastern countries especially Saudi Arabia along with Egypt and Pakistan since 1958 in connection with his research.[7] There, he also became a close associate of Late King Faisal bin Abd al-Aziz.[12]

Iqbal has written on a wide range of subjects including Islamic History, British History, American History, Gulf History,[32] political and social history of the Middle-East and Indian subcontinent, issues concerning the Muslim Ummah, Pakistan and its leaders,[32] the issue of Jammu & Kashmir, the issue of Palestine, among others.[21] His work and contribution has been richly commented upon by eminent scholars and statesmen of the East and West. His two publications, 'Memoirs' and 'Selected Correspondence' "reveal his multi-dimensional administrative duties, personal exchanges, the range of relations, and, his yearning for a reformed and a confederate Islamic system free from issues, whether imported or created" (sic).[26]


Even though Iqbal did not participate in political affairs conspicuously, he has worked with important political figures. Under different pseudonyms, he wrote extensively for different publications of the Plebiscite Front during its 20 years' tenure. He also wrote the addresses for Sheikh Abdullah which the latter read out in Islamic as well as academic conferences in India. At the behest of Mirza Afzal Beg, he wrote a 52-page memorandum which was submitted to the Gajandargadkar Commission wherein he highlighted the historical, geographical and political allegiance of Doda District to the Kashmir Valley. The memorandum was appreciated by the likes of Badruddin Tayyabji, a member of the Commission.[22] The Working Committee of the Plebiscite Front had proposed his name, along with 3 others, for Ministers of State in the cabinet of Sheikh Abdullah but the latter went back on this decision. After the Sheikh-Indira Accord of 1975, Iqbal distanced himself from politics.[22]


  1. His brother, Khwaja Sheikh Rahmatullah, passed away on 28 March 2015.[20]


  1. "ڈاکٹر شیخ اقبال بنامِ مفتی محمد سعید" (Vol. 13, Issue 192). Kashmir Uzma. GK Communications Pvt. Ltd. 11 July 2015. Retrieved 19 August 2015.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Thomas, Christopher (2000). Faultline Kashmir. Delhi, India: Minerva Press India (p) Ltd. (rubicon). pp. 120–121. ISBN 9781858453163. Search this book on Logo.png
  3. Mirani, Haroon (7 November 2017). "Islam and Christianity in Balance Released" (Vol 30, No. 308). Rashid Makhdoomi. GK Communications Pvt. Ltd. Retrieved 10 November 2017.
  4. 4.0 4.1 "اقبال انسٹی ٹیوٹ میں یومِاقبال پر سمینار منعقد" (Vol. 48). Shadab Bashir & Saahil Yousuf Soofi. Daily Srinagar Times. 10 November 2017.
  5. 5.0 5.1 "Dir museums receives Gaurav Samman award". Kashmir Reader. Helpline Group. Retrieved 5 July 2018.
  6. "Attackers of religious places can't be Muslims: Malik". Fayaz Ahmad Kalloo. GK Communications Pvt. Ltd. July 7, 2012.
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 "Introduction". The Official Website of Dr Sheikh Mohammad Iqbal. Retrieved 3 February 2018.
  8. Ahad, Dr Abdul (13 November 2017). "ڈاکٹر شیخ اقبال کی گراں قدر تحقیقی تصنیف" (Vol. 15, No. 314). Rashid Makhdoomi. GK Communication Pvt. Ltd. Retrieved 13 November 2017.
  9. "Asiya proposes Rapid Action Force against social evils". Fayaz Ahmad Kalloo. GK Communications Pvt. Ltd. June 13, 2006. Retrieved 11 September 2018.
  10. "Iqbal Makes it to Saudia After 22 Months Struggle for Passport". GK Communications Pvt. Ltd. Daily Greater Kashmir. 17 March 1999.
  11. 11.0 11.1 "Islamophobia Springs from Myths". The Pioneer. 30 July 2005.
  12. 12.0 12.1 12.2 12.3 "Kashmiri Educator Arrives". Illinois State Journal. 30 September 1965.
  13. Peer, Mansoor (November 7, 2017). "Scholars Pitch for Inter, Intra-Faith Dialogue To Redress Societal Problems" (Vol. 11, No 296). Syed Rafi-ud-Din Bukhari. Daily Rising Kashmir. Retrieved 10 November 2017.
  14. 14.0 14.1 14.2 14.3 "Allama Iqbal- and The Arab World". GK Communications Pvt. Ltd. Greater Kashmir. 18 June 2008. Retrieved 1 September 2015.
  15. 15.0 15.1 Iqbal, Dr Sheikh Mohammad (June 1970). "Was the Prophet harsh to the Jews?" (PDF). The Islamic Review.
  16. Haque, Abdul, ed. (September 2018). "میرا پیام". Mera Payam (in Urdu). CISRS House, 14-B Jangpura, Mathura Road, New Delhi-110014: Iqbal Academy India (8): 110–11.CS1 maint: Unrecognized language (link)
  17. 17.0 17.1 17.2 Focus: Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (1st ed.). Saudiyah, Barzullah, Srinagar, Kashmir: Shajarat. September 23, 2000. pp. 97–112. Search this book on Logo.png
  18. "Administrative Head". Islamia College of Science and Commerce. Retrieved 26 January 2016.
  19. 19.0 19.1 Nehvi, Bashir Ahmad (10 October 2012). "پروفیسر شیخ محمد-عالمی شہرت یافتہ موّرخ" (Vol. 10, Issue 282). GK Communications Pvt Ltd. Kashmir Uzma. Retrieved 1 September 2015.
  20. "Condolence". GK Communications Pvt. Ltd. 30 March 2015.
  21. 21.0 21.1 21.2 21.3 Ahanger, Tauseef Hussain (August 2017). "مشکلیں اُمَّتِ مرحوم کی آسان کردے". Payam-e-Talaba. 1 (12): 15–18. Retrieved 22 August 2017.
  22. 22.0 22.1 22.2 22.3 22.4 22.5 22.6 Kareem, Inayat (3 November 2003). "کشمیری قوم میں وسعت نظر کا فقدان" (Vol. 1, No. 5). Fayaz Ahmad Kalloo. Weekly Kashmir Uzma.
  23. Iqbal, Dr Sheikh Mohammad (December 2005). "Lucid and Brief". Islamic Voice.
  24. "Political development in Najd and the Hijaz: 1900-1934" (PDF). INFLIBNET's Institutional Repository.
  25. "Political development in Najd and the Hijaz: 1900-1934" (PDF). INFLIBNET's Institutional Repository.
  26. 26.0 26.1 26.2 Islam and Christianity in Balance (1st ed.). 1542, Pataudi House, Darya Gunj, New Delhi-110002: Adam Publishers & Distributers. 2017. p. 543. ISBN 978-81-7435-754-0. Search this book on Logo.png
  27. "Discuss Arabia". The Rambler. Illinois College, Jascksonville, Illinois, USA. 15 October 1965.
  28. Ganai, Dr Mushtaq Ahmad, ed. (December 29, 2017). "Applications of Iqbal's Love for the Prophet (s)". Iqbaliyat (in English and Urdu). University of Kashmir, Hazratbal, Srinagar: Iqbal Institute of Culture & Philosophy. 24: 17. ISSN 0975-6604.CS1 maint: Unrecognized language (link)
  29. Zahid, M. S. (19 May 2017). J&K Museums Speak: History, Culture and Ethos (1st ed.). Srinagar: Department of Archives, Archaeology and Museums (J&K Govt). pp. 18–22. Search this book on Logo.png
  30. "Reviews & Comments". Official Website of Dr Sheikh Mohammad Iqbal. Sheikh Talal. Retrieved 28 January 2017.
  31. Selected Correspondence of Dr S. M. Iqbal (Vol II). Saudiyah, Barzulla, Srinagar, Kashmir: Dr Sheikh Mohammad Iqbal. 23 September 2012. pp. 37–47. ISBN 978-81-7435-710-6. Search this book on Logo.png
  32. 32.0 32.1 "Dr Iqbal's Book Released". (Vol. 07, No. 303). Kashmir Reader. Kashmir Reader Srinagar. 7 November 2017. Retrieved 10 November 2017.

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