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Delhi Jat Rulers

Delhi (दिल्ली/ देहली) is the capital of India and is also the country's third largest city.



Delhi was the site of the magnificent and opulent Indraprastha, capital of the Pandavas in the Indian epic Mahabharata, founded around 5000 BC. Hindu texts state that the city of Delhi used to be referred to in Sanskrit as Hastinapur, which means "elephant-city". A village called Indraprast existed in Delhi until the beginning of the 19th century. The British demolished the ancient village to make way for the construction of New Delhi in the late 19th century. Archaeological evidence suggests that Indraprastha once stood where the Old Fort is today. Excavations have unearthed shards of the grey painted ware (c. 1000 BC) that some archaeologists associate with the age of the Mahabharata, but no coherent settlement traces have been found.

The earliest architectural relics date back to the Maurya Period (c. 300 BC); since then, the site has seen continuous settlement. In 1966, an inscription of the Mauryan Emperor Ashoka (273-236 BC) was discovered near Srinivaspuri. Two sandstone pillars inscribed with the edicts of Ashoka were later brought to the city by Firuz Shah Tughluq in the 14th century. The famous Iron pillar near the Qutub Minar was commissioned by the emperor Kumara Gupta I of the Gupta dynasty (320-540) and transplanted to Delhi during the 10th century.


Prof. B.S. Dhillon[1] writes that Delhi: As the capital of India, it is also the country's third largest founded hundreds of years ago, Professor Qanungo[2] wrote, "It is not unlikely that this famous city derives its name from the Dhillon Jats, who are still found in large numbers in Delhi district". Bhim Singh Dahiya [3] supports Qanungo's assertion by adding, "Its (Delhi's) old name was Dhillika (ढिल्लिका) as is recorded in the inscription of Someswara Chauhan, in 1169 A.D. Later on the suffix "ka" was deleted and the city was named Dhilli". A well known Indian historian, Romila Thapar [4], indirectly said that Delhi in the earlier times was called "Dhillika". However, she wrote, "The city of Dhillika (Delhi) was founded by the Tomaras in 736 A.D. The Tomaras were overthrown by the Chauhans". In order to point out that Tomar and Chauhans are also the clan names of the Jats, Bhim Singh Dahiya [5] remarked, "For example, let us take the clan name Dahiya. Dahiyas in Haryana, Uttar Pradesh and Bhilwara area of Rajasthan (Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, and Rajasthan are the names of Indian Provinces) call themselves Jats. However, Dahiyas in Jodhpur area (Rajasthan) call themselves Rajputs (historical records show that some of the Rajputs also belong to the Jat background), and Dahiya is also the clan name of Gujars (these people are also related to the Jats). The same is true of other clan names like Tomar, Pawars, Dhanikhads, Bhattis, Johiyas, and so on".

As per Ferishta [6], a Persian writer of the early seventeenth century; "Dehloo (Dhillon in Punjabi is pronounced as "Dhilon" or "Dhilo") the uncle of the young king, aided by the nobles, having deposed him, ascended the musnud. This prince, as famous for his

History and study of the Jats:End of Page 103

justice as for his valour devoted his time to the good of his subjects, and built the city of Dehly". On the naming of the city of Delhi General Sir A. Cunningham [7] Director General of the Archeological Survey of India, conducted a comprehensive study in 1860s and published his report in the Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. Sir Cunningham wrote, "According to a popular and well known tradition, Dilli or Dhilli (Delhi) was built by Rajah (king) Dilu or Dhilu, whose date is quite uncertain. This tradition was adopted by Ferishta [8] I confess, however, that I have but little faith in the dates of any Hindu untraditional stories, unless they can be supported by other testimony. That the city Dhilli was founded by a Rajah of similar name is probable enough, for it is the common custom in India, even at the present day, to name places after their founders". Taking all of the above factors into consideration, and being aware of the fact that in India, non-Jats never have clan names such as Dhilu, Dhilo, or Dhillon, it is probably safe to conclude that the city of Delhi was built by a Dhillon Jat king and also Dhillon Jats claim their origin from a king as per Rose [9].

Kumbhalgarh Inscription 1460 AD tells us about Dhilli as under:

"आलोडयासु सपादलक्षमखिलं जालान्धरान् कम्पयन्
ढिल्ली शंकितनायकां व्यरचयन्नादाय शाकम्भरी ।
पीरोजं स महामदं शरशतैरापात्य य: प्रोल्लसत्
कुंतव्रात निपात दीर्ण ह्रदयां तस्यवधीद् दंतिन:। "[10][11] [12]

Jat rulers of Delhi[edit]

According to Thakur Deshraj the descendants of Maharaja Yudhisthira have ruled here for many generations. ‘Satyarth Prakash’ has mentioned the chronology of rulers of Indraprastha. The author of ‘Rajtarangini’ and editor of ‘Haripriya’ have published this list in their books. In this list there appears the name a king a ‘Jiwan’ descended from ‘Virmaha’. ‘Waqyat panch hajar risala’ has mentioned him as ‘Jiwan Jat’. Maharaja Jiwan ascended to the thrown of Delhi prior to 481 BC. He ruled for about 26 years.

Chronology of Jat rulers of Delhi[edit]

Satyarth Prakash by Swami Dayanand Saraswati has published a list of Aryan kings of Delhi. [13]Raja Virsalsen was killed by Raja Virmaha. His 16 generations ruled Delhi for 445 years, 5 months and 3 days. Thakur Deshraj has given the details of thse Pandavavanshi Jat rulers.[14] The chronology of these Jat rulers is as under:

  • Raja Vir Maha (817 BC - 800 BC)
  • Raja Mahabal or Swarupbal (800 BC-744 BC)
  • Sarvdutt or Swarupdatt (744 BC-708 BC)
  • Virsen (708 BC-668 BC)
  • Singdaman or Mahipal (668BC-624 BC)
  • Kalink or Sanghraj (624 BC-595 BC)
  • Jitmal or Tejpal (595 BC-515 BC)
  • Kaldahan or Kamsen (515 BC-506 BC)
  • Shtrumardan (506 BC-481 BC)
  • Raja Jiwan (481 BC-455 BC)
  • Virbhujang or Hari Rao (455 BC- 424 BC)
  • Virsen II (424 BC- 389 BC)
  • Udaybhat or Adityaketu (389 BC - 372 BC)

According to Risala their period has been prescribed as under – Mahabal ascended to the throne of Delhi in 800 BC. At that time the ruler of Ujjain city in India was Buddha and Bahmanshah was ruler in Persia. After Mahabal, Sarvdutt or Swarupdatt ascended to the throne of Delhi in 744 BC. During this period Tamisang was born to Ladkun in Khata. Maharaja Virsen became the ruler in 708 BC when Darashah I was ruler of Iran. In 668 BC Maharaja Mahipal ascended to the throne of Delhi. He was so brave that he was popular as Singhdaman. During his regime Kastap had become the ruler of Iran. After death of Singhdaman, Kalink or Sanghraj sat on the throne in 624 BC. Raja Jitmal ascended to throne of Delhi in 595 BC. Kaldahan or Kamsen became ruler of Delhi in 515 BC. His rule extended up to Brahmpur which was known as Kamyvan (Kaman) after Kamsen. In 506 Strumardan became the ruler of Delhi after Kamsen. Thakur Deshraj has worked out the year 481 BC, when Raja Jiwan ascended to the throne of delhi. Maharaja Jiwan became the ruler of Delhi in 478 BC. During the rule of Maharaja Jiwan, one Persian delegation had come to India which studied the conditions of India by visiting various places. After Maharaja Jiwan, Virbhujang or Hari Rao, Virsen II, Udaybhat or Adityaketu were three Jat rulers of Delhi till 372 BC. Adityaketu lost his throne to his own Chieftain Dharandar or Dhaniswar due to conspiracy.

Thus Jats ruled Delhi for about 445 years.Raja Jiwan and his descendents were Pandav vansi. The rule of Delhi went to other people after 27 generations of Yudhidthira. After them Jogi, Kayastha, Pahadi and Vairagi people ruled Delhi. Vikramaditya was also a ruler of Delhi during this period.

Delhi (Siwalik) pillar inscriptions of Visaladeva-Vigraharaja of A.D. 1114[edit]

James Tod (Annals of Haravati) [15] writes that In the first place, it is of no small moment to be enabled to adjust the date of Beesildeo, the most important name in the annals of the Chohans from Manik Rae to Pirthi Raj, and a slip from the genealogical tree will elucidate our remarks.

[p.417]: The name of Beesildeo (Visaladeva) heads the inscription on the celebrated column erected in the centre of Feroz Shah's palace at Delhi. This column, alluded to by Chund, as "telling the fame of "the Chohan," was " placed at Nigumbode," a place of pilgrimage on the Jumna, a few miles below Dehli, whence it must have been removed to its present singular position. *

The inscription commences and ends with the same date, viz,, 15th of the month Bysakh, S. 1220. If correctly copied, it can have no reference to Beesildeo, excepting as the ancestor of Prativa Chahmana tilaca Sacambhari bhulpati; or 'Pirthi Raj Chohan, the anointed of Sambhur, Lord of the earth' who ruled at Dehli in S. 1220, and was slain in S. 1249, retaining the ancient epithet of 'Lord of Sambhur,' one of the early seats of their power. brought away an inscription of this, the last Chohan emperor, from the ruins of his palace at Hasi or Hansi, dated S. 1224. See comments thereon, Transactions of the Royal Asiatic Society, Vol I, p. 133. The second stanza, however, tells us we must distrust the first of the two dates, and read 1120 (instead of 1220), when Visaladeva "exterminated the barbarians" from Aryaverta. The numerals 1 and 2, in Sanscrit, are easily mistaken. If, however, it is decidedly 1220, then the whole inscription belongs to Prativa Chahmana, between whom and Visala no less than six princes intervene, and the opening is merely to introduce Pirthi Raj's lineage, in which the sculptor has foisted in the date.

I feel inclined to assign the first stanza to Visaladeva (Beesildeo), and what follows to his descendant Pirthi Raj, who by a conceit may have availed himself of the anniversary of the victory of his ancestor, to record his own exploits. These exploits were precisely of the same nature, — successful war against the Islamite, in which

[p.418]: each drove him from Aryavevia; for even the Mooslem writers acknowledge that Shahbudin was often ignominiously defeated before be finally succeeded in making a conquest of northern India.

If, as I surmise, the first stanza belongs to Beesildeo, the date is S. 1120, or A.D. 1064, and this grand confederation described by the Chohan bard was assembled under his banner, preparatory to the very success, to commemorate which the inscription was recorded.

Capture of Delhi by Suraj Mal (10 May 1753)[edit]

Maharaja Suraj Mal fortified the city by building a massive wall around the city. He started living in Bharatpur in year 1753. Maharaja Suraj Mal attacked Delhi on May 9, 1753. He defeated Nawab of Delhi Ghazi-ud-din (second) on May 10, 1753 and captured Delhi. The attack of Jats in Old Delhi and nearby areas frightened the people and started running to New Delhi for the protection of life and property. The army of Badsah could not protect them. On 13 May samrat removed Safdarjang from the post of wajir and appointed Intijam as new wajir along with Imad as Mirbakshi. On the advise of Suraj Mal Safdarjang, in counter action, appointed Akbar Ādilshāh, said to be grandson of Kāmbaksh, as samrat of Delhi. On 14 May Jats sacked Chārbāg, Bāg-e-kultāt and Hakīm Munīm Bridge. They sacked Jaisinghpura on 15 May and burnt many areas. On 16 May Jats attacked Delhi ferociously and defeated Sādil Khan and Raja Devidatta in a severe war. On 17 May their army could capture Firojshah Kotla. In a severe war with Ruhelas Najib was wounded and 400 Ruhela soldiers were killed.[16]

The Nawab of Delhi, in revenge of the defeat, instigated Marathas to attack Suraj Mal. The Marathas laid siege over the Kumher fort on January 1, 1754. Suraj Mal fought with bravery and gave strong resistance. The Marathas could not conquer the Kumher fort.


विजयेन्द्र कुमार माथुर[17] ने लेख किया है कि....खांडवप्रस्थ (AS, p.255) हस्तिनापुर के पास एक प्राचीन नगर था जहां महाभारतकाल से पूर्व पुरुरवा, आयु, नहुष तथा ययाति की राजधानी थी. कुरु की यह प्राचीन राजधानी बुधपुत्र के लोभ के कारण मुनियों द्वारा नष्ट कर दी गई. युधिष्ठिर को, जब प्रारंभ में, द्यूत-क्रीडा से पूर्व, आधा राज्य मिला तो धृतराष्ट्र ने पांडवों से खांडवप्रस्थ में अपनी राजधानी बनाने तथा फिर से उस प्राचीन नगर को बसाने के लिए कहा था. (महाभारत आदि पर्व, 206 दक्षिणात्य पाठ) तत्पश्चात पांडवों ने खांडवप्रस्थ पहुंच कर उस प्राचीन नगर के स्थान पर एक घोर वन देखा. (आदि पर्व: 206, 26-27). खांडवप्रस्थ के स्थान पर ही इंद्रप्रस्थ नामक नया नगर बसाया गया जो भावी दिल्ली का केंद्र बना. खांडवप्रस्थ के निकट ही खांडववन स्थित था जिसे श्रीकृष्ण और अर्जुन ने अग्निदेव की प्रेरणा से भस्म कर दिया. खांडवप्रस्थ का उल्लेख अन्यत्र भी है. पंचविंशब्राह्मण 25,3,6 में राजा अभिप्रतारिन् के पुरोहित द्दति खांडवप्रस्थ में किए गए यज्ञ का उल्लेख है. अभिप्रतारिन् जनमेजय का वंशज था. जैसा पूर्व उद्धरणों से स्पष्ट है, खांडवप्रस्थ पांडवों के पुराने किले के निकट बसा हुआ था. (दे. इंद्रप्रस्थ, हस्तिनापुर)


विजयेन्द्र कुमार माथुर[18] ने लेख किया है कि....खांडवप्रस्थ के स्थान पर पांडवों की इंद्रप्रस्थ नामक नई राजधानी बनने के पश्चात अग्नि ने कृष्ण और अर्जुन की सहायता से खांडववन को भस्म कर दिया था. इसमें कुछ अनार्य जातियाँ जैसे नाग और दानव लोगों का निवास था जो पांडवों की नई राजधानी के लिए भय उपस्थित कर सकते थे. तक्षकनाग इसी वन में रहता था और यहीं मयदानव नामक महान यांत्रिक का निवास था जो बाद में पांडवों का मित्र बन गया और जिसने इंद्रप्रस्थ में युधिष्ठिर का अद्भुत सभा भवन बनाया. खांडववन-दाह का प्रसंग महाभारत आदि पर्व 221 से 226 में सविस्तर वर्णित है. कहा जाता है कि मयदानव का घर वर्तमान मेरठ (मयराष्ट्र) के निकट था और खांडववन का विस्तार मेरठ से दिल्ली तक, 45 मील के लगभग था. महाभारत में जलते हुए खांडववन का बड़ा ही रोमांचकारी वर्णन है. (आदि पर्व 224,35-36-37). खांडववन के जलते समय इंद्र ने उसकी रक्षा के लिए घोर वृष्टि की किन्तु अर्जुन और क़ृष्ण ने अपने शस्त्रास्त्रों की सहायता से उसे विफल कर दिया.


विजयेन्द्र कुमार माथुर[19] ने लेख किया है कि....इंद्रप्रस्थ वर्तमान नई दिल्ली के निकट पांडवों की बसाई हुई राजधानी थी. महाभारत आदि पर्व में वर्णित कथा के अनुसार प्रारंभ में धृतराष्ट्र से आधा राज्य प्राप्त करने के पश्चात पांडवों ने इंद्रप्रस्थ में अपनी राजधानी बनाई थी. दुर्योधन की राजधानी लगभग 45 मील दूर हस्तिनापुर में ही रही. इंद्रप्रस्थ नगर कोरवों की प्राचीन राजधानी खांडवप्रस्थ के स्थान पर बसाया गया था--

'तस्मातत्वं खांडवप्रस्थं पुरं राष्ट्रं च वर्धय, ब्राह्मणा: क्षत्रिया वैश्या: शूद्राश्च कृत निश्चया:। त्वदभ्क्त्या जंतग्श्चान्ये भजन्त्वेव पुरं शुभम्' महाभारत आदि पर्व 206

अर्थात धृतराष्ट्र ने पांडवों को आधा राज्य देते समय उन्हें कौरवों के प्राचीन नगर वह राष्ट्र खांडवप्रस्थ को विवर्धित करके चारों वर्णों के सहयोग से नई राजधानी बनाने का आदेश दिया. तब पांडवों ने श्री कृष्ण सहित खांडवप्रस्थ पहुंचकर इंद्र की सहायता से इंद्रप्रस्थ नामक नगर विश्वकर्मा द्वारा निर्मित करवाया--'विश्वकर्मन् महाप्राज्ञ अद्यप्रभृति तत् पुरम्, इंद्रप्रस्थमिति ख्यातं दिव्यं रम्य भविष्यति' महाभारत आदि पर्व 206.

इस नगर के चारों ओर समुद्र की भांति जल से पूर्ण खाइयाँ बनी हुई थी जो उस नगर की शोभा बढ़ाती थीं. श्वेत बादलों तथा चंद्रमा के समान उज्ज्वल परकोटा नगर के चारों ओर खींचा हुआ था. इसकी ऊंचाई आकाश को छूती मालूम होती थी--

[पृ.76]: इस नगर को सुंदर और रमणीक बनाने के साथ ही साथ इसकी सुरक्षा का भी पूरा प्रबंध किया गया था तीखे अंकुश और शतघ्नियों और अन्यान्य शास्त्रों से वह नगर सुशोभित था. सब प्रकार की शिल्प कलाओं को जानने वाले लोग भी वहां आकर बस गए थे. नगर के चारों ओर रमणीय उद्यान थे. मनोहर चित्रशालाओं तथा कृत्रिम पर्वतों से तथा जल से भरी-पूरी नदियों और रमणीय झीलों से वह नगर शोभित था.

युधिष्ठिर ने राजसूय यज्ञ इंद्रप्रस्थ में ही किया था. महाभारत युद्ध के पश्चात इंद्रप्रस्थ और हस्तिनापुर दोनों ही नगरों पर युधिष्ठिर का शासन स्थापित हो गया. हस्तिनापुर के गंगा की बाढ़ से बह जाने के बाद 900 ई. पू. के लगभग जब पांडवों के वंशज कौशांबी चले गए तो इंद्रप्रस्थ का महत्व भी प्राय समाप्त हो गया. विदुर पंडित जातक में इंद्रप्रस्थ को केवल 7 क्रोश के अंदर घिरा हुआ बताया गया है जबकि बनारस का विस्तार 12 क्रोश तक था. धूमकारी जातक के अनुसार इंद्रप्रस्थ या कुरूप्रदेश में युधिष्ठिर-गोत्र के राजाओं का राज्य था. महाभारत, उद्योगपर्व में इंद्रप्रस्थ को शक्रपुरी भी कहा गया है. विष्णु पुराण में भी इंद्रप्रस्थ का उल्लेख है.

आजकल नई दिल्ली में जहाँ पांडवों का पुराना किला स्थित है उसी स्थान के परवर्ती प्रदेश में इंद्रप्रस्थ की स्थिति मानी गई है. पुराने किले के भीतर कई स्थानों का संबंध पांडवों से बताया जाता है. दिल्ली का सर्वप्रचीन भाग यही है. दिल्ली के निकट इंद्रपत नामक ग्राम अभी तक इंद्रप्रस्थ की स्मृति के अवशेष रूप में स्थित है.

दिल्ली में जाट महासभा का जलसा[edit]

गणेश बेरवाल[20] ने लिखा है.... वर्ष 1930 में जाट महासभा का जलसा दिल्ली में हुआ। इसमें उत्तर प्रदेश के जाट नेता भी जलसे में पहुंचे। उन्होने उन नेताओं से भी निवेदन किया कि शेखावाटी में भी जागृति व शिक्षा का प्रचार-प्रसार करने हमारा साथ दो तो उन्होने कहा कि कोई बहुत बड़ा जलसा रखो, हम सब वहाँ आएंगे तब वहाँ भी जागृति आएगी। यह तय किया गया कि बसंत पंचमी वर्ष 1932 में झुंझुनू में जाट सभा का बड़ा जलसा रखा जावे। इधर आर्य समाज भी सक्रिय था।

Jat villages in Delhi[edit]

File:Jatland of Delhi.jpg
The Jatland of capital Delhi

Auchandi, Adhchini, Alipur, Ambarhai, Asalatpur, Azadpur, Bajitpur, Bakargarh, Bakkarwala, Bakhtawar Pur, Bakner, Bamdoli, Baprola, Bawana, Ber Sarai, Budh Pur Bhalswa, Bharthal, Bijwasan, Bindapur, Budhpur, Budhela, Chandpur, Chhawla Chirag Delhi, Dabri Delhi, Dariyapur Kalan, Deenpur, Devli, Dhansa, Dhul Siras, Dichau, Galib Pur, Gheora, Ghitorni, Haiderpur, Hamidpur, Hareveli, Hastsal, Hauz Khas, Hiran Kudna, Hirnki, Holambi Khurd, Humayun Pur, Issapur, Jaffarpur Delhi, Jatkhod, Jatwada Delhi, Jhangola, Jharoda Kalan, Jhimarpura, Jia Sarai, Jindpur, Jonti, Kadipur Delhi, Kair, Kakrola, Kamrudin Nagar, Kanjhawla, Kapashera, Karala, Katewara, Katwaria Sarai, Khanpur, Khera Kalan, Khera Khurd, Kishan Garh, Khidki, Kutabgarh, Ladosarai, Ladpur Kanjhawla, Lampur, Luharheri, Madangir, Madanpur, Madipur, Mahipal pur, Maidan Garhi, Majra Dabas, Mangolpur Kalan, Mangolpur Khurd, Masoodpur Delhi, Matiala, Mehram Nagar, Mehrauli, Mirzapur, Mitraon, Mohammadpur, Mubarak Pur, Mukhmail Pur, Mundka, Mungesh Pur, Munirka, Naankhedi, Najafgarh, Nangal Dewat, Nangal Raya, Nangal Razapur, Nangal Thakran, Nangli Jalib, Nangli Poona, Nangloi Jat, Naraina, Narhaula, Nasirpur Delhi, Narela, Nawada Nayabans, Neb Sarai, Neelwal, Neemsera, New Roshanpura, Nilothi, Nithari, Nizampur, Palam, Pehladpur Banger, Peeragarhi, Peethopuraa, Pitampura, Pochan Pur, Pooth Kalan, Pooth Khurd, Punjab Khor, Putti Tomarpur, Rajpura Tonk, Ramjanpur, Rang Puri, Ranikhera, Rasoolpur, Rawata, Rithala, Sahipur, Samaspur, Shabaad Daulatpur, Shabad Mohmadpur, Shadipur, Shahpur Garhi, Shahpur Jat, Shalimaar, Singhola, Singhpur, Singhu, Siraspur, Sultanpur Dabas, Sultanpur Majra, Tajpur, Tatesar, Tiggipur, Tikri Kalan, Tikri Khrud, Tilangpur Kotla, Tilwal, Toganpur, Ujawaa, Yoginipura,

Notable persons[edit]

  • Navdeep Chahar: DANICS, Presently Director Residential & Institutional Land DDA Delhi, M: 09717787033
  • Rishi Pal (): IPS 2005, AGMUT, DCP, Land and Building Cell, Delhi, from Delhi, M: 9868170730
  • Ajay Singh Tomar: IAS (CSE-2011), Rank 88, Cadre Assam Meghalaya, From:Delhi


  • Thakur Deshraj: Jat Itihas (Hindi), Maharaja Suraj Mal Smarak Shiksha Sansthan, Delhi, 1934.
  • Dhillon, B. S., History and Study of the Jats, Beta Publishers, Canada, 1994.
  • Bhim Singh Dahiya : Jats the Ancient Rulers, Dahinam Publishers, Sonepat, Haryana
  • Bhim Singh Dahiya: History of Hindustan: Dahinam Publishers, Sonepat, Haryana, (Translated from Persian by Alexander Dow, ESQ. Edited by B.S.Dahiya)
  • History of the Jats : Contribution to the History of Northern India (Upto the Death of Mirza Najaf Khan, 1782)/Kalika Ranjan Qanungo. Edited and annotated by Vir Singh. Delhi, Originals, 2003, xiv, 226 p., $12. ISBN 81-7536-299-5.

External links[edit]


  1. History and study of the Jats/Chapter 7,pp.103-104
  2. Qanungo, K.R., History of the Jats, reprinted by the Sunita Publications, Delhi, India, 1987, pp. 173, first published in 1925.
  3. Jats: The Ancient Rulers, Sterling Publishers Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi, India, 1980, pp. 253, 71-72.
  4. Thapar, R., A History of India, Penguin Books, London, 1969, pp. 228-229, 70-71, 95-96, 337-339, 29.
  5. Jats: The Ancient Rulers, Sterling Publishers Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi, India, 1980, pp. 253, 71-72.
  6. Ferishta, M.K. (1612 A.D.), History of the Rise of the Mahomedan Power in India, translated by Lt. Col. Briggs, J. Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown, and Green, London, 1829, pp. 1xxiii (Vol. I).
  7. Cunningham, A. (General and Sir), Archaeological Survey Report for 1863-64 (Communicated by the Government of India): Delhi, Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, Supplementary Number, Vol. XXXIII, 1864, pp. vii-viii.
  8. Ferishta, M.K. (1612 A.D.), History of the Rise of the Mahomedan Power in India, translated by Lt. Col. Briggs, J. Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown, and Green, London, 1829, pp. 1xxiii (Vol. I).
  9. Rose, H.A., A Glossary of the Tribes and Castes of the Punjab and North-West Frontier Province, Vol. II, reprinted by Languages Department, Patiala, Punjab, 1970, pp. 237, first published in 1883.
  10. Epigraphia Indiaca, Vol.21,p278
  11. Kumbhalgarh Inscription 1460
  12. रतन लाल मिश्र:शेखावाटी का नवीन इतिहास, कुटीर प्रकाशन मंडावा, 1998, पृ. 101
  13. Swami Dayanand Saraswati: Satyartha Prakash, Arsha Sahitya Prachar Trust, Delhi,2004
  14. Thakur Deshraj: Jat Itihas (Hindi), Maharaja Suraj Mal Smarak Shiksha Sansthan, Delhi, 1934, 2nd edition 1992 (Page 716-718)
  15. Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Volume II, Higginbotham and Co. 1873. pp.416-418
  16. Dr. Prakash Chandra Chandawat: Maharaja Suraj Mal aur unka yug, Jaypal Agencies Agra, 1982, Page 90-92
  17. Aitihasik Sthanavali by Vijayendra Kumar Mathur, p.255
  18. Aitihasik Sthanavali by Vijayendra Kumar Mathur, p.256
  19. Aitihasik Sthanavali by Vijayendra Kumar Mathur, p.75-76
  20. Ganesh Berwal: 'Jan Jagaran Ke Jan Nayak Kamred Mohar Singh', 2016, ISBN 978.81.926510.7.1, p.43

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