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Comparison of the founders of religious traditions

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The below table is a comparison of the lives of the founders of religious traditions.[1]

Founder Precursor Event starting ministry First followers Period of solitude and doubt Break with previous religion Public declaration to rulers and religious leaders Promise of a future saviour Internal opposition External opposition Migration Death
The Báb Shaykh Ahmad [2] and Sayyid Kazim[3] Vision of the head of Imam Husayn [4] Eighteen Letters of the Living [5] Abolishing Islamic law (conference of Badasht) [6] Mohammad Shah Qajar, Persian religious leaders [7] He Whom God Shall Make Manifest [8] Group of three followers [1] [9] Religious leaders and the Persian state [7] Internal exile inside Persia [7] Execution (age 30) [10]


Bahá'u'lláh The Báb [11] Vision of the Maid of Heaven [12] Small group of followers in the Ridván Garden [13][14] Two years in the mountains of Sulaymaniyya [15] Abrogation of specific laws of previous religions in the Kitáb-i-Aqdas [16][17] Nasser-al-Din Shah, Sultan Abdülaziz, rulers of Europe, Pope Pius IX and other religious leaders [18] Future Manifestation of God [19] Subh-i-Azal [20] Religious leaders and the Persian and Ottoman states [21] Exile to Baghdad, Edirne and Akka [21] Natural death (age 74) [21]
Buddha Asita [22] Enlightenment under the Bodhi Tree [23] First group of monks 49 days of meditation before attaining enlightenment, temptation by Mara [24] King Śuddhodana (his father), and many brahmins [25] Maitreya Buddha [26] Devadatta (Buddha's cousin) [27] Wandering with monks [28] Natural death (age c. 80) [29]
Moses The burning bush [30] Aaron [31] Pharaoh [32] Messiah [33] Making of the golden calf [34] Pharaoh [35] The Exodus from Egypt [36] Natural death (age c. 120) [37]
Jesus John the Baptist [38][39] The descent of the dove [40] Twelve disciples [41] 40 days in the wilderness, temptation by the devil [42] Breaking the Sabbath [43] Pontius Pilate, Jewish religious leaders [44] Return of Jesus [45] Judas Iscariot [46] Jewish religious leaders [47] Crucifixion (age c. 33) [48][49][50]
Muhammad Bahira [51][52] Vision of Angel Gabriel [53] Khadija, Ali, Abu Bakr [54] Period of doubt [55] Change of the Qibla, the direction of prayer, from Jerusalem to Mecca [56] Emperors of Persia and Byzantium [57] Mahdi and the return of Jesus [58] Ibn Ubayy, and the Munafiqun [59] Leaders of Mecca [60] The Hegira, migration from Mecca to Medina [61] Natural death (age c. 62) [62]
Joseph Smith Peter before the Great Apostasy First Vision, where God the Father and the Son appeared to Smith as a young boy. 30 members when the church was established in April, 6 1830 4 years of following God's commandments prior to retrieving the Golden Plates for future translation. Annual visitation to the Hill Cumorah for 4 years and further edification from Moroni. Protestant Christianity before revelations revealed that all denominations were corrupt. Smith revealed the first revelation to religious clergymen and was scolded and told that revelations are irrelevant in this day and age. Charles Anthon, shown reformed Egyptian by Martin Harris, rejects the translation's validity. Second Coming of Christ Growing dissidence following the Kirtland Safety Society fiasco and many members discouraged by Smith's leadership style. Persecution from Missourians during the 1838 Mormon War. Westward migration under the authority of Smith's successor Brigham Young, first governor of Utah, to avoid additional persecution. Shot by an unruly mob displeased with Smith's unconstitutional destruction of a newspaper company, his polygamous relationships, and his theocratic aspirations.



See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 The main part of the table is based on Momen, Moojan (2009) [Originally published as The Phenomenon of Religion in 1999]. Understanding Religion: A Thematic Approach. Oxford, UK: Oneworld Publications. pp. 310–316. ISBN 978-1-85168-599-8. Search this book on Amazon.com Logo.png Momen writes that because the lives of the more ancient figures are "shrouded in legend", he focused on the more recent historical figures.
  2. Corbin, Henry. Spiritual Body and Celestial Earth: From Mazdean Iran to Shi'ite Iran, Trans. Nancy Pearson, Bollingen Series XCI:2, Princeton University Press.
  3. Smith, Peter (2000). "Kázim Rashti, Sayyid". A concise encyclopedia of the Bahá'í Faith. Oxford: Oneworld Publications. pp. 217–217. ISBN 1-85168-184-1.
  4. Hatcher, John S. (2010). The Face of God Among Us. Baha'i Publishing Trust. pp. 120–121. ISBN 978-1-931847-70-4. Search this book on Amazon.com Logo.png
  5. Editors (2009). "Letters of the Living (Hurúf-i-Hayy)". Bahá’í Encyclopedia Project. Evanston, IL: National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of the United States.
  6. Smith, Peter (2000). "Badasht". A concise encyclopedia of the Bahá'í Faith. Oxford: Oneworld Publications. pp. 64–65. ISBN 1-85168-184-1.
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 Smith, Peter (2000). "Báb". A Concise Encyclopedia of the Bahá'í Faith. Oxford: Oneworld Publications. pp. 55–59. ISBN 1-85168-184-1.
  8. Smith, Peter (2000). "He whom God shall make Manifest". A concise encyclopedia of the Bahá'í Faith. Oxford: Oneworld Publications. pp. 180–181. ISBN 1-85168-184-1.
  9. Nabíl-i-Zarandí (1932). Shoghi Effendi (translator), ed. The Dawn-Breakers: Nabíl’s Narrative. Wilmette, Illinois, USA: Bahá'í Publishing Trust. pp. 161–162. ISBN 0-900125-22-5. Search this book on Amazon.com Logo.png
  10. MacEoin, Denis (1989). "Bāb, Sayyed `Ali Mohammad Sirazi". Encyclopædia Iranica.
  11. Buck, Christopher (2004). "The eschatology of Globalization: The multiple-messiahship of Bahā'u'llāh revisited". In Sharon, Moshe. Studies in Modern Religions, Religious Movements and the Bābī-Bahā'ī Faiths. Boston: Brill. pp. 143–178. ISBN 90-04-13904-4. Search this book on Amazon.com Logo.png
  12. Smith, Peter (2000). "Maid of Heaven". A concise encyclopedia of the Bahá'í Faith. Oxford: Oneworld Publications. p. 230. ISBN 1-85168-184-1.
  13. Walbridge, John (2005). "Ridvan". Sacred Acts, Sacred Space, Sacred Time. Oxford, UK: George Ronald. ISBN 0-85398-406-9. Search this book on Amazon.com Logo.png
  14. Taherzadeh, Adib (1976). The Revelation of Bahá'u'lláh, Volume 1. Oxford, UK: George Ronald. p. 259. ISBN 0-85398-270-8. Search this book on Amazon.com Logo.png)
  15. Smith, Peter (2008). An Introduction to the Baha'i Faith. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 17. ISBN 0-521-86251-5. Search this book on Amazon.com Logo.png
  16. Walbridge, John (1999). Kitab-i Aqdas, the Most Holy Book.
  17. Saiedi, Nader (2000). "Chapter 7: The Kitab-i-Aqdas: Date and Constitutive Principles". Logos and Civilization - Spirit, History, and Order in the Writings of Bahá'u'lláh. USA: University Press of Maryland and Association for Baha'i Studies. pp. 213–293. ISBN 1883053609. Search this book on Amazon.com Logo.png
  18. Smith, Peter (2008). An Introduction to the Baha'i Faith. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 24–31. ISBN 0-521-86251-5. Search this book on Amazon.com Logo.png
  19. Smith, Peter (2000). "Manifestations of God". A concise encyclopedia of the Bahá'í Faith. Oxford: Oneworld Publications. p. 278. ISBN 1-85168-184-1.
  20. MacEoin, Denis (1989). "Azali Babism". Encyclopædia Iranica.
  21. 21.0 21.1 21.2 Smith, Peter (2000). "Bahá'u'lláh". A Concise Encyclopedia of the Bahá'í Faith. Oxford: Oneworld Publications. pp. 73–79. ISBN 1-85168-184-1.
  22. Narada (2006). The Buddha and His Teachings. Jaico Publishing House. p. 3-4. ISBN 978-81-7992-617-8. Search this book on Amazon.com Logo.png
  23. Gopal, Madan (1990). K.S. Gautam, ed. India through the ages. Publication Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Government of India. p. 176. Search this book on Amazon.com Logo.png
  24. Buswell, Robert Jr; Lopez, Donald S. Jr., eds. (2013). Princeton Dictionary of Buddhism. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. pp. 530–531. ISBN 9780691157863. Search this book on Amazon.com Logo.png
  25. Schumann, Hans Wolfgang (2004). The Historical Buddha: The Times, Life, and Teachings of the Founder of Buddhism. Motilal Banarsidass Publishing. ISBN 978-81-208-1817-0. Search this book on Amazon.com Logo.png
  26. Buswell Jr., RE; Lopez Jr., DS (2014). The Princeton Dictionary of Buddhism (1st ed.). Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. pp. 517–518. ISBN 978-0-691-15786-3. Search this book on Amazon.com Logo.png
  27. Boucher, Daniel (2008). Bodhisattvas of the Forest and the Formation of the Mahayana. University of Hawaii Press. pp. 46–49. ISBN 978-0-8248-2881-3. Search this book on Amazon.com Logo.png
  28. Powers, John (2013). "Introduction". A Concise Encyclopedia of Buddhism. Oneworld Publications. ISBN 978-1-78074-476-6. Search this book on Amazon.com Logo.png
  29. Powers, John (2013). "Siddharta Gautama". A Concise Encyclopedia of Buddhism. Oneworld Publications. ISBN 978-1-78074-476-6. Search this book on Amazon.com Logo.png
  30. Elhadary, Osman (2016). Moses in the Holy Scriptures of Judaism, Christianity and Islam. BookBaby. ISBN 978-1-4835-6303-9. Search this book on Amazon.com Logo.png
  31. McCurdy, J. Frederic (1906). Singer, Isidore, ed. Aaron - Biblical Data (Death). The Jewish Encyclopedia: A Descriptive Record of the History, Religion, Literature, and Customs of the Jewish People from Earliest Times: Complete in Twelve Volumes. Ktav Publishing House. ASIN B000B68W5S. Search this book on Amazon.com Logo.png
  32. Ginzberg, Louis (1909). The Legends of the Jews Vol III : Chapter I (Translated by Henrietta Szold) Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society.
  33. Blidstein, Prof. Dr. Gerald J. "Messiah in Rabbinic Thought". MESSIAH. Jewish Virtual Library and Encyclopaedia Judaica 2008 The Gale Group.
  34. Coogan, M. A Brief Introduction to the Old Testament: The Hebrew Bible in its Context. Oxford University Press: Oxford, 2009. p.115.
  35. Pasachoff, Naomi E.; Littman, Robert J. [1995] (2005). A Concise History of the Jewish People, Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 4-6.
  36. Redmount, Carol A. (2001). "Bitter Lives: Israel In And Out of Egypt". In Coogan, Michael D. The Oxford History of the Biblical World. OUP. pp. 59–60. ISBN 9780199881482. Search this book on Amazon.com Logo.png
  37. Scott, James M. (2005). On Earth As In Heaven: The Restoration Of Sacred Time And Sacred Space In The Book Of Jubilees. BRILL. p. 114. ISBN 90-04-13796-3. Search this book on Amazon.com Logo.png
  38. Funk, Robert W. & the Jesus Seminar (1998). The Acts of Jesus: the search for the authentic deeds of Jesus.San Francisco: Harper; "Mark," pp. 51–161.
  39. Meier, John (1994). Mentor, Message, and Miracles (A Marginal Jew: Rethinking the Historical Jesus, Vol. 2). 2. Anchor Bible. ISBN 0-385-46992-6. Search this book on Amazon.com Logo.png
  40. Dapaah, Daniel S. (2005). The Relationship Between John the Baptist and Jesus of Nazareth: A Critical Study. University Press of America. pp. 90–91. ISBN 978-0-7618-3109-9. Search this book on Amazon.com Logo.png
  41. "Catholy Encyclopedia: Apostles".
  42. Gigot, Francis. "Temptation of Christ." The Catholic Encyclopedia Vol. 14. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1912.
  43. Sanders, Ed P. (1993). The Historical Figure of Jesus. Allen Lane Penguin Press. ISBN 9780141928227. Search this book on Amazon.com Logo.png
  44. Niswonger, Richard L. (1992). New Testament History. Zondervan. ISBN 978-0-310-31201-7. Search this book on Amazon.com Logo.png
  45. Burkett, Delbert (2002). An Introduction to the New Testament and the Origins of Christianity. Cambridge University Press. pp. 162–163. ISBN 978-0-521-00720-7. Search this book on Amazon.com Logo.png
  46. Judas Iscariot: Catholic Encyclopedia article (1910)
  47. Boring, M. Eugene; Craddock, Fred B. (2004). The people's New Testament commentary. Westminster John Knox Press. pp. 256–258. ISBN 978-0-664-22754-8. Search this book on Amazon.com Logo.png
  48. Maier, Paul L. (1989). "The Date of the Nativity and Chronology of Jesus" in Chronos, kairos, Christos: nativity and chronological studies by Jerry Vardaman, Edwin M. Yamauchi ISBN 0-931464-50-1 Search this book on Amazon.com Logo.png. pp. 113–129.
  49. Köstenberger, Andreas J.; Kellum, L. Scott (2009). The Cradle, the Cross, and the Crown: An Introduction to the New Testament. ISBN 978-0-8054-4365-3 Search this book on Amazon.com Logo.png. p. 114.
  50. Barnett, Paul (2002). Jesus & the Rise of Early Christianity: A History of New Testament Times. ISBN 0-8308-2699-8 Search this book on Amazon.com Logo.png. pp. 19–21.
  51. Abel, A. "Baḥīrā". Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second edition. Brill. Brill Online, 2007 [1986].
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  53. Muhammad Mustafa Al-A'zami (2003), The History of The Qur'anic Text: From Revelation to Compilation: A Comparative Study with the Old and New Testaments, pp. 25, 47–8. UK Islamic Academy. ISBN 978-1872531656 Search this book on Amazon.com Logo.png..
  54. Watt, W. Montgomery (1953). Muhammad at Mecca. Oxford University Press. p. 86. ISBN 0-19-577277-6. ASIN: B000IUA52A. Search this book on Amazon.com Logo.png
  55. Rodinson, Maxime (2002). Muhammad: Prophet of Islam. Tauris Parke Paperbacks. p. 71. ISBN 978-1-86064-827-4. Search this book on Amazon.com Logo.png
  56. William Montgomery Watt (1974). Muhammad: prophet and statesman. Oxford University Press. pp. 112–113. ISBN 978-0-19-881078-0. Search this book on Amazon.com Logo.png
  57. Buhl, F.; Welch, A.T. (1993). "Muḥammad". Encyclopaedia of Islam. 7 (2nd ed.). Brill. pp. 360–376. ISBN 90-04-09419-9.
  58. Martin, Richard C., ed. (2004), "Mahdi", Encyclopedia of Islam and the Muslim world, Thompson Gale, p. 421
  59. Rodinson, Maxime (2002). Muhammad: Prophet of Islam. Tauris Parke Paperbacks. ISBN 1-86064-827-4. Search this book on Amazon.com Logo.png
  60. McAuliffe, Jane Dammen (2006). The Cambridge Companion to the Qur'ān. Cambridge University Press. pp. 25–26. ISBN 978-0-521-53934-0. Search this book on Amazon.com Logo.png
  61. Robinson, Chase F. (2010). The New Cambridge History of Islam: Volume 1, The Formation of the Islamic World, Sixth to Eleventh Centuries. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1-316-18430-1. Search this book on Amazon.com Logo.png
  62. Campo, Juan Eduardo (2009). "Muhammad". Encyclopedia of Islam. Infobase Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4381-2696-8. Search this book on Amazon.com Logo.png


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