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List of Afroasiatic languages

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Below is a list of Afroasiatic languages.

List[edit]

Code Language Classification Country Distribution Population Status Alternate names Autonym Dialects
auj Awjilah Afro-Asiatic, Berber, Eastern, Awjila-Sokna Libya Al Wahat district: east, Cyrenaica 2,470 (2016) 8a (Moribund) Aoudjila, Augila, Aujila, Awjila, Awjili
swn Sawknah Afro-Asiatic, Berber, Eastern, Awjila-Sokna Libya Al Jufrah district No known L1 speakers. The last speaker probably died in the 1950s (Basset 1969) 10 (Extinct) Sokna, Sokni, Sukna, Tasuknit
siz Siwi Afro-Asiatic, Berber, Eastern, Siwa Egypt Matruh governorate: northwest desert, Siwa oasis; several isolated villages in Gara oasis 20,000 in Egypt (2013) 6a* (Vigorous) Oasis Berber, Sioua, Siwa, Zenati, ijlaan n siwaan None known. Not closely related to other Berber languages.
siz Siwi Afro-Asiatic, Berber, Eastern, Siwa Libya Al Butnan district: Jaghbub town 6a* (Vigorous)
cnu Chenoua Afro-Asiatic, Berber, Northern Algeria Aïn Defla province: north of Khemis; Chlef province: Mount Bissa area; Tipasa province: generally Mount Chenoua area; Mount Chenoua area (Chenoui dialect), south and west (Beni Menacer dialect); Tacheta forest area, and Beni Haoua village (Djebel Bissa dialect) 76,300 (2004 J. Leclerc). Beni Menacer: 61,000; Chenoui: 15,300 (2004 J. Leclerc) 7 (Shifting) Chenoui Beni Menacer (Chleuh, Tachelhit, Tamenracit), Chenoui, Djebel Bissa, Tamazight de l’Atlas blidéen (Beni-Salah). Lexical similarity: 77% with Tachawit [shy], 76% with Kabyle [kab].
jbe Judeo-Berber Afro-Asiatic, Berber, Northern, Atlas Israel HaMerkaz district: between Hadera and Haifa 2,000 (1992 B. Podolsky) 8a (Moribund)
shi Tachelhit Afro-Asiatic, Berber, Northern, Atlas Algeria Béchar province: Tabelbala area sourth near the border 6,000 in Algeria (2014) 5* (Developing) Shilha, Southern Shilha, Tachilhit, Tashelhait, Tashelhayt, Tashelhit, Tasoussit Susiua (Sousse, Sus).
shi Tachelhit Afro-Asiatic, Berber, Northern, Atlas Morocco Guelmim-Es Semara, Marrakesh-Tensift-Al Haouz, Souss-Massa-Drâa, and Tadla-Azilal regions: coast south to Ifni, north to near Agadir, northeast to Marrakech outskirts, east to Drâa, including Sous valley, and south near the border 7,060,000 in Morocco (2016). Total users in all countries: 7,066,000 5* (Developing) Shilha, Soussiya, Southern Shilha, Susiya, Tachelheit, Tachilhit, Tashelheit, Tashelheyt, Tashelhit, Tashilheet, Tashlhiyt, Tasoussit Tachelhit
tzm Tamazight, Central Atlas Afro-Asiatic, Berber, Northern, Atlas Morocco Widespread, especially Middle and east High Atlas Mountains, adjacent valleys to Taza, Rabat area 4,590,000 in Morocco (2016). 936,000 monolinguals. Total users in all countries: 4,740,000 6b (Threatened) Central Shilha, Middle Atlas Berber, Moroccan Amazigh, Shilha, Tachelhit, Tamazight, Tmazight Tmaziɣt, ⵜⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵖⵜ‎ (Tamazight) Much dialect variety. May be more than 1 language.
zgh Tamazight, Standard Moroccan Afro-Asiatic, Berber, Northern, Atlas Morocco Widespread 1 (National). Statutory national language (2011, Constitution, Article 5) Amazighe standard marocain ⵜⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵖⵜ‎ (tamaziɣt), ⵜⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵖⵜ ⵜⴰⵏⴰⵡⴰⵢⵜ‎ (tamaziɣt tanawayt)
kab Kabyle Afro-Asiatic, Berber, Northern, Kabyle Algeria Bouira, Béjaïa, Tizi Ouzou, Bordj Bou Arréridj, Sétif, M’Sila, Jijel, Boumerdès, Mila, and Médéa provinces; Mediterranean coast east of Algiers; from Thenia to Béjaïa (Grande Kabylie dialect); coast and inland between Tichy and Ziama Mansouria, Aokas and Tizi n Berber (Lesser Kabyle dialect) 5,000,000 in Algeria (2012). Total users in all countries: 5,599,200 5 (Developing). Statutory language of national identity (2002, Constitutional Revision, Law No. 02-03) Amazigh, Kabyl, Kabylia, Tamazight Taqbaylit Greater Kabyle, Lesser Kabyle (Tasahlit). Lesser Kabyle (Tasahlit) may be a separate language.
gha Ghadamès Afro-Asiatic, Berber, Northern, Zenati, East Libya Nalut district: Ghadamès, a small oasis near Algeria-Tunisia border 12,400 in Libya (2016). Total users in all countries: 15,500 6b (Threatened) Ayt Waziten (Ait Wazitan), Ayt Welid.
jbn Nafusi Afro-Asiatic, Berber, Northern, Zenati, East Libya Al Jabal al Gharbi and Nalut districts: Jabal Nafusah, Nalut, Tripolitania, and Yafran areas, isolated on Zuara Coast west of Tripoli 228,000 in Libya (2016). Preschool children are monolingual in Nafusi. Total users in all countries: 278,000 6a (Vigorous) Djerbi, Jabal Nafusi, Jbel Nafusi, Jebel Nefusi, Nefusi Zuara (Zouara, Zuraa, Zuwara, Zuwarah, Zwara), Tamezret (Duwinna), Jerbi (Jerba). Zuara dialect well known in Jebel Nafusa area and in Jerba Tunisia. Some visit Zuara, but not vice versa. Matmata and Tatawine area less well understood by speakers in Jerba or Zuara. Speakers in Zuara and Jebel areas understand Jerba dialect stories well.
sds Sened Afro-Asiatic, Berber, Northern, Zenati, East Tunisia Qafsah governorate: Sened and Tmagourt villages, northwest of Gabès No known L1 speakers. The last speakers probably survived into the 1970s 10 (Extinct) Tmagourt (Tmagurt), Sened.
jbn Shilha Afro-Asiatic, Berber, Northern, Zenati, East Tunisia Madanin governorate: Ajim, Djerba island, Guellala, and Sedouikech; Qabis governorate: Matmata, Tamezret, Taoujjout, and Zraoua; Qibili governorate: Douiret, Chenini, and Tataouine; Tunis city 50,000 in Tunisia (2004 S. Chaker) 6b* (Threatened) Djerbi, Jabal Nafusi, Nafusi, Tunisian Berber Jbali-Tamezret (Duwinna), Jerba (Djerbi, Guelili).
gho Ghomara Afro-Asiatic, Berber, Northern, Zenati, Ghomara Morocco Tangier-Tetouan region: Chechaouen province, along Rif Mountains coast 10,000 (2008 J. Hannouche) 6a (Vigorous) Shilha, Taghumarit, Tamazight
oua Tagargrent Afro-Asiatic, Berber, Northern, Zenati, Mzab-Wargla Algeria Ouargla province: N’Goussa and Ouargla are main centers, near Mzab 20,000 (2014) 6b* (Threatened) Ouargla, Ouargli, Wargla Ouedghir (Wadi), Temacin, Tariyit. Only moderate comprehension of Tumzabt. Tariyit dialect is spoken by the Haratine (former slaves of the Ouargli people).
tjo Tamazight, Temacine Afro-Asiatic, Berber, Northern, Zenati, Mzab-Wargla Algeria Ouargla province: Bledit Amor; also Ghomra, Meggarin, Temacine, and Tamelhat areas 6,000 (1995) 7 (Shifting) Touggourt, Tougourt, Tugurt Possibly a dialect of Tagargrent.
grr Taznatit Afro-Asiatic, Berber, Northern, Zenati, Mzab-Wargla Algeria Adrar, Béchar, El Bayadh, and Naama provinces; Gourara area; Beni Ounif, Boussemghoun, Igli, Ouakda, Taghit 11,000 in Algeria (2014 L. Souag) 6b (Threatened) Zenatiyya Gourara (Gurara), Touat (Tuat, Tuwat), South Oran. Reportedly similar to Tumzabt [mzb], Tagargrent [oua], and Temacine Tamazight [tjo], but not as similar as they are to each other. Low intelligibility of other Tamazight speech forms, including Tumzabt and Tagargrent.
grr Taznatit Afro-Asiatic, Berber, Northern, Zenati, Mzab-Wargla Morocco Oriental region. Ain Chair, Figuig, and Ich (South Oran dialect) 6b* (Threatened) South Oran.
mzb Tumzabt Afro-Asiatic, Berber, Northern, Zenati, Mzab-Wargla Algeria Ghardaïa province: Mzab region south of Algiers; 7 oases, Ghardaïa is principal one 150,000 (2010 UNESCO). Women are monolingual 6b* (Threatened) Ghardaia, Mozabite, Mzab, Mzabi Only minor dialect variations.
sjs Senhaja Berber Afro-Asiatic, Berber, Northern, Zenati, Riff Morocco Taza-Al Hoceima-Taounate region: Ketama area west of Tarifit 50,000 (2013) 6b (Threatened) Senhaja de Srair, Senhajiya, Shilha, Shilha Barbarya, Shilha n Jbala, Tajeblit, Tamazight, Tamazight n Jbala, Tasenhajit Beni Ahmed, Beni Bechir, Beni Buensar, Beni Jennus, Beni Mesdui, Beni Seddat, Quetama (Ketama), Sarcat, Tagsut. A separate language from Tarifit [rif].
rif Tarifit Afro-Asiatic, Berber, Northern, Zenati, Riff Algeria Oran and Tlemcen provinces No known L1 speakers in Algeria (2010 L. Souag) 9 (Dormant) Fifia, Northern Shilha, Rif, Riff, Rifi, Ruafa, Shilha, Tirifie Arzeu, Igzennaian, Iznacen (Beni Iznassen).
rif Tarifit Afro-Asiatic, Berber, Northern, Zenati, Riff Morocco Oriental and Taza-Al Hoceima-Taounate regions. Dialects from all areas of the Rif 4,240,000 in Morocco (2016). Total users in all countries: 4,366,000 5 (Developing) Arrif, Northern Shilha, Rif, Rif Berber, Rifeño, Riff, Rifia, Rifiya, Ruafa, Shilha, Tamazight, Tamazight n Arrif, Tarifiyt, Tarifyt Berber, Tmaziɣt, Tmazight Tarifit, تاريفيت‎ (Tarifit), ⵜⴰⵔⵉⴼⵉⵜ‎ (Tarifit) Iznasen (Beni Snassen), Ayt Waryaghar, Ayt Ittef, Ayt Mezduy, Ayt Aamart, Ibeqquyen, Ayt Tamsaman, Ayt Tuzin, Igzennayen, Ayt Saaid, Ayt Urishesh, Ayt Tfarsit, Iqeraayen, Ayt Buyahyi, Ayt Settut, Icebdanen.
shy Tachawit Afro-Asiatic, Berber, Northern, Zenati, Shawiya Algeria Batna, Biskra, Guelma, Khenchela, Oum el-Bouaghi, Souk Ahras, and Tébessa provinces: Aurès mountains, south and southeast of Grand Kabylie 2,130,000 in Algeria (2016). Total users in all countries: 2,178,100 6a* (Vigorous) Aurès, Awras, Chaouia, Chawi, Shawia, Shawiya, Tacawit
shy Tachawit Afro-Asiatic, Berber, Northern, Zenati, Shawiya Tunisia 48,100 in Tunisia (2016) 6a* (Vigorous) Chaouia
tia Tamazight, Tidikelt Afro-Asiatic, Berber, Northern, Zenati, Tidikelt Algeria Tamanrasset province: Salah area, Tidikelt, and Tit south 1,000 (2011), decreasing 8a (Moribund) Tidikelt, Tit.
thv Tamahaq, Tahaggart Afro-Asiatic, Berber, Tamasheq, Northern Algeria Adrar and Illizi provinces; Tamanrasset province: south to Niger border in south Hoggar mountains. Southeast, Ganet area and west (Hoggar Ghat dialect) 40,000 in Algeria. Total users in all countries: 81,000 6b* (Threatened) Tamachek, Tamachek’, Tamahaq, Tamashekin, Tamasheq, Tomachek, Touareg, Tourage, Tuareg Hoggar (Ahaggaren, Ajjer, Tahaggart), Ghat (Djanet, Ganet). A member of macrolanguage Tamashek [tmh].
thv Tamahaq, Tahaggart Afro-Asiatic, Berber, Tamasheq, Northern Libya Ghat and Murzuq districts; south Hoggar mountains, Tamanrasset and south (Hoggar dialect); Ganet and west Libya oases, Ghat area (Ghat dialect) 21,000 in Libya (2016) 6b* (Threatened) Tamachek, Tamachek’, Tamahaq, Tamashekin, Tamasheq, Tomachek, Tourage, Toureg, Tuareg Hoggar (Ahaggaren, Ajjer, Tahaggart), Ghat (Djanet, Ganet).
thv Tamahaq, Tahaggart Afro-Asiatic, Berber, Tamasheq, Northern Niger Agadez region: north border area 20,000 in Niger (1998) 6b* (Threatened) Tamachek, Tamachek’, Tamahaq, Tamashekin, Tamasheq, Tomachek, Touareg, Tourage, Tuareg Hoggar (Ahaggaren, Ajjer, Tahaggart), Ghat (Djanet, Ganet).
ttq Tamajaq Afro-Asiatic, Berber, Tamasheq, Southern Mali Gao region: Menaka circle 351,000 in Mali (2013 J. Leclerc) 6a (Vigorous) Tahoua, Tajag, Tamajeq, Tamashekin, Tamasheq, Tomacheck, “Tourage” (pej.), “Tuareg” (pej.) Tawallammet Tan Dannag (Ioullemmeden), Tawallammat Tan Ataram.
ttq Tamajaq, Tawallammat Afro-Asiatic, Berber, Tamasheq, Southern Niger Agadez region: Tchirozerine department; Dosso region: Dogondoutchi department; northwest Maradi region; Tahoua and Tillabéri regions. Central Tahoua from Ingal to Mali border (eastern dialect); west, north and northwest of Niamey (western dialect) 450,000 in Niger (1998). Total users in all countries: 801,000 6a (Vigorous). Recognized language (1999, Constitution, Article 3) Amazigh, Tahoua, Tahoua Tamajeq, Tamachek, Tamashekin, Tamasheq, Tewellemet, Tomacheck, Touareg, Tourage, Tuareg Tamajaq Tawallammat Tan Dannag (Ioullemmeden), Tawallammat Tan Ataram. A member of macrolanguage Tamashek [tmh].
ttq Tamajaq, Tawallammat Afro-Asiatic, Berber, Tamasheq, Southern Nigeria Sokoto state Few in Nigeria 5* (Developing) Azbinawa, Buzu, Tahoua Tamajeq, Tamajaq, Tamasheq, Tomacheck, Tuareg Ioullemmeden.
thz Tamajeq, Tayart Afro-Asiatic, Berber, Tamasheq, Southern Niger Agadez region: Arlit and Tchirozerine departments; northwest Zinder and east, southeast Tahoua regions; Maradi region: Dakoro and Mayahi departments 250,000 (1998) 4 (Educational) Amazigh, Tamachek, Tomacheck, Touareg, Tuareg Tamajeq Air (Agadez, Tamestayert, Tayart, Tayert), Tanassfarwat (Tamagarast). A member of macrolanguage Tamashek [tmh].
taq Tamasheq Afro-Asiatic, Berber, Tamasheq, Southern Mali Widespread northeast: Gao, Kidal, and Tombouctou regions; Mopti region: Youvarou circle 378,000 in Mali (2014 UNSD). Total users in all countries: 500,000 5 (Developing). Recognized language (1982, Decree No. 159 of 19 July, Article 1) Tamachen, Tamashek, Tamashekin, Tomacheck, tamachèque, tamasagt, “Tuareg” (pej.) Tǝmajǝq Timbuktu (Tanaslamt, Tombouctou), Tadhaq (Kidal, Kidal Tamasheq). May be 2 separate languages. A member of macrolanguage Tamashek [tmh].
taq Tamasheq, Kidal Afro-Asiatic, Berber, Tamasheq, Southern Burkina Faso Nord region: Loroum province, into Yatenga province; Sahel region: Oudalan province 122,000 in Burkina Faso (2009 UNSD) 5* (Developing) Tamashekin, Timbuktu, Tomacheck, Tuareg Timbuktu (Tanaslamt, Tombouctou), Tadghaq (Kidal).
tez Tetserret Afro-Asiatic, Berber, Zenaga Niger Tahoua region: Abalak department, Azawagh valley between Abalak, Shadwanka and Akoubounou south of the Aîr massif 2,000 (2017 I. Maddieson) 6b (Threatened) Chinsart, Tin Sert None known. Most closely related to Zenaga [zen].
zen Zenaga Afro-Asiatic, Berber, Zenaga Mauritania Trarza region: Atlantic coast to Mederdra 200 in Mauritania (2014 J. Leclerc), decreasing. Total users in all countries: 2,700 8a (Moribund) Mauritania Berber, Mauritanian Berber None known. Related to other Berber languages in basic structure though specific features are quite different.
bvw Boga Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.1, Eastern Nigeria Adamawa state: Hong LGA 10,000 (Blench and Zeitlyn 1990) 6a* (Vigorous) Boka
gqa Ga’anda Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.1, Eastern Nigeria Adamawa state: Gombi LGA; Guyuk, Mubi, and Song LGAs; Borno state: Biu LGA 43,000 (1992) 4 (Educational) Ga’ana, Ga’andu, Ganda, Kaandecha, Makwar, Mokar Kaandata Ga’anda, Gabin.
hwo Hwana Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.1, Eastern Nigeria Adamawa state: Girei, Shelleng, and Song LGAs, some in Gombi LGA; Borno state: Hawul LGA 32,000 (1992) 6a* (Vigorous) Fiterya, Hona, Hwona Tuftera
jaf Jara Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.1, Western Nigeria Borno state: Biu and Kwaya-Kusar LGAs; Gombe state: Akko and Yamaltu-Deba LGAs 46,300 (2000) 6a* (Vigorous) Jera
ttr Tera Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.1, Western Nigeria Borno state: Kwayakusar LGA; Gombe state: Yamaltu-Deba LGA 101,000 (2000) 6a* (Vigorous) Nyimatli (Nimalto, Nyemathi, Nyimatali, Yamaltu), Pidlimdi (Ghena, Ghuna, Hina, Hinna), Bura Kokura. Dialect cluster (Crozier and Blench 1992).
ngx Nggwahyi Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.2 Nigeria Adamawa state: Hong LGA; Borno state: Askira-Uba LGA 2,000 (1995) 6b* (Threatened) Ngwaxi, Ngwohi
bwr Bura-Pabir Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.2, 1 Nigeria Adamawa state: Gombi LGA; Borno state: Askira-Uba and Biu LGAs; Yobe state: south 250,000 (1987 UBS). 200,000 Pabir (1993). 32,000 in Adamawa state (1992) 6b (Threatened) Babir, Babur, Barburr, Bourrah, Bura, Burra, Huve, Huviya, Kwojeffa, Mya Bura, Pabir Pela (Bura Pela, Hill Bura), Hyil Hawul (Bura Hyilhawul, Plain Bura). Kofa [kso] may be a related language.
ckl Kibaku Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.2, 1 Nigeria Borno state: Askira-Uba, Chibok, and Damboa LGAs 200,000 (2014 NBTT) 6a (Vigorous) Chibbak, Chibbuk, Chibok, Chibuk, Cibak, Cibuk, Kibbaku, Kikuk, Kyibaku
kso Kofa Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.2, 1 Nigeria Adamawa state: Song LGA, north of Belul road, north of Yola 1,100 (2003) 6b* (Threatened) Kota None known. Reportedly a separate language from Bura-Pabir [bwr].
mfl Putai Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.2, 1 Nigeria Adamawa state: Madagali and Michika LGAs; Borno state: Akira-Uba, Biu, Chibok, Damboa, Hawul, Kaga, and Konduga LGAs 50 8b (Nearly extinct) Marghi West
mfm Marghi South Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.2, 2 Nigeria Adamawa state: Michika and Mubi LGAs; Borno state: Askira-Uba LGA Ethnic population: 166,000 (2006 J. Leclerc). 135,000 in Marghi Central, Marghi South, and Putai languages (1999) 6a* (Vigorous) Margi Wamdiu, Hildi. Marghi South, Marghi Central [mrt], and Putai [mfl] form a language subgroup. Hoffman (1963) relates Marghi South to Huba [hbb] rather than to Margi.
mrt Marghi Central Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.2, 2 Nigeria Adamawa state: Mubi and Michika LGAs; Borno state: Askira-Uba and Damboa LGAs Ethnic population: 158,000 (2006 J. Leclerc). 135,000 in Marghi Central, Marghi South, and Putai languages (1999). Madube: 4,000, Mulgwe: 6,000 (2014 SIL) 6a* (Vigorous) Marghi, Margi Lassa (Babal), Gulak (Dzerngu), Madube (Gwara), Mulgwe (Malgwa), Wurga.
hbb Nya Huba Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.2, 2 Nigeria Adamawa state: Gombi, Hong, Maiha, and Mubi LGAs; Borno state: Askira-Uba LGA 306,000 (2006 census) 6a* (Vigorous) Chobba, Huba, Kilba Nya Hong, Nya Gaya, Nya Mugwahi, Nya Garaha, Nya Kopre, Nya Ya Dil.
hig Kamwe Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.3 Nigeria Adamawa state: Michika LGA, Mandara mountains 300,000 (1992) 5* (Developing) Hiji, Vacamwe, “Higgi” (pej.), “Higi” (pej.) Kamwǝ Nkafa, Dakwa (Bazza), Sina, Futu, Tili Pte, Modi, Humsi. Reportedly similar to Psikye [kvj] and Hya [hya] of Cameroon.
kvj Psikye Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.3 Cameroon Far North region: Mayo-Tsanaga division, southwest Mokolo subdivision 40,500 in Cameroon (1982 SIL). Total users in all countries: 52,500 5* (Developing) Kamsiki, Kapsiki, Ptsake Psikye (Kamu, Kapsiki), Zlenge. Reportedly similar to Hya [hya] and Kamwe [hig] of Nigeria.
fkk Kirya-Konzel Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.3 Nigeria Adamawa state: Mubi LGA 5,800 (2011 SIL) 6a* (Vigorous) Fali of Kiria, Fali of Kiriya, Fali of Kirya, Fali of Mijilu, Karya, Kirya, Konzal myá Kákíryà, myá Kónzə̀l None known. Reportedly similar to Hya [hya] and Kamwe [hig].
bcw Bana Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.3 Cameroon Far North region: Mayo-Tsanaga division, Bourrah subdivision on Nigeria border 23,000 (2007 SIL). 14,000 Gamboura and 9,000 Guili 5 (Developing) Baza, Ka-Bana, Koma, Mizeran, Parole des Bana kwəmà ká bàná Gamboura, Gili (Guili). Reportedly similar to Psikye [kvj], Hya [hya], and Kamwe [hig].
hya Hya Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.3 Cameroon Far North region: Mayo-Tsanaga division, Mokolo subdivision, Amsa 940 in Cameroon (2002 SIL). Total users in all countries: 2,940 8a (Moribund) Ghye, Za None known. Reportedly similar to Kamwe [hig]. Lexical similarity: 62% with Psikye [kvj].
hya Hya Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.3 Nigeria Adamawa state: Michika and Mubi North LGAs; Boppa, Gameta, Ligwe, Mukta, Shike, Tukwri, and Vi villages 2,000 in Nigeria (2008 SIL) 8a (Moribund) Ghye, Hwate, Manta, Mukta, Munta, Za Manta.
kvj Psikye Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.3 Nigeria Adamawa state: northeast of Michika, south of Madagali, in Mandara mountains 12,000 in Nigeria (1992) 6a* (Vigorous) Kamsiki, Kapsiki, Ptsake Psikye (Kamu, Kapsiki), Zlenge, Wula (Lying, Oula, Ula-Xangku).
xed Hdi Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.4, Lamang Cameroon Far North region: Mayo-Tsanaga division, Mokolo subdivision, Nigeria border northwest of Mokolo. 15 villages 25,000 in Cameroon (2001 SIL). Total users in all countries: 29,000 5 (Developing) Hedi, Hide, Hǝdi, Tur, Turu-Hide, Xədi, Xadi, Xdi, Xedi Hdi Tur (Ftour, Tourou, Turu). 51% intelligibility of Vemgo-Mabas [vem], 48% of Lamang [hia], 35% of Gvoko [ngs]. Lexical similarity: 78% with Vemgo-Mabas [vem], 64% with Lamang [hia], 56% with Gvoko [ngs] (Hamm 2004).
xed Hide Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.4, Lamang Nigeria Adamawa state: Michika LGA, on Cameroon border, 1 village area; Borno state: Gwoza LGA 4,000 in Nigeria (2001 SIL) 5* (Developing) Ftour, Hdi, Hedi, Tourou, Tur, Turu, Turu-Hide, Xedi None known. Lexical similarity: 82% with Vemgo-Mabas [vem], 76% with Lamang [hia], 68% with Gvoko [ngs], 50% with Dghwede [dgh], 47%–48% with Guduf-Gava [gdf], 45% with Cineni [cie], and 44% with Glavda [glw] (Hamm 2004).
hia Lamang Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.4, Lamang Nigeria Adamawa state: Michika LGA; Borno state: Gwoza LGA 40,000 (1993) 6a* (Vigorous) Gbuhwe, Laamang, Waha North Lamang, Central Lamang, South Lamang. 37% intelligibility of Vemgo-Mabas [vem], 31% of Hide [xed]. North Lamang subdialects: Zaladeva (Alataghwa), Dzuba, Leghva (Luhuva), Gwoza-Wakane; Central Lamang: Hedkala (Hidkala, Xidkala, Hitkala, Hitkalanchi), Waga (Waha, Woga, Wagga), Dlige; South Lamang: Ghudavan. Lexical similarity: 81% with Vemgo-Mabas [vem], 76% with Hdi [xed], 61% with Gvoko [ngs], 50% with Dghwede [dgh], 46%–47% with Guduf-Gava [gdf], 43% with Glavda [glw], and 42% with Cineni [cie] (Hamm 2004).
vem Vemgo-Mabas Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.4, Lamang Nigeria Adamawa state: Michika LGA, Madagali district 10,000 in Nigeria (1993). Total users in all countries: 11,000 6a* (Vigorous) Vemgo, Mabas, Visik (Vizik). 56% intelligibility of Lamang [hia], 36% intelligibility of Hdi [xed]. Possibly intelligible of Mafa [maf]. Lexical similarity: 82% with Hdi [xed], 81% with Lamang [hia], 64% with Gvoko [ngs], 50% with Dghwede [dgh], 47%–48% with Guduf-Gava [gdf], 44% with Cineni [cie], and 43% with Glavda [glw] (Hamm 2004).
vem Vemgo-Mabas Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.4, Lamang Cameroon Far North region: Mayo-Tsanaga division, Mabas village on Nigeria border northwest of Mokolo 1,000 in Cameroon (Hamm 2004) 6a (Vigorous) Vemgo, Mabas.
ngs Gvoko Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.4, Mandara Proper, Glavda Nigeria Adamawa state: Michika LGA; Borno state: Gwoza LGA 20,000 in Nigeria (1990). Total users in all countries: 21,000 6a* (Vigorous) Gavoko, Gevoko, Ghboko, Kuvoko, Nggweshe, Ngoshe Sama, Ngoshe-Ndhang, Ngoshi, Ngossi, Ngweshe-Ndaghan None known. Related to Glavda [glw] and Guduf [gdf]. High level of intelligibility with Hdi [xed] as a result of contact. Lexical similarity: 68% with Hdi [xed], 64% with Dghwede [dgh] and Vemgo-Mabas [vem], 61% with Lamang [hia], 59%–61% with Guduf-Gava [gdf], 53% with Cineni [cie], and 51% with Glavda [glw] (Hamm 2004).
glw Glavda Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.4, Mandara Proper, Glavda Nigeria Borno state: Gwoza LGA, mainly Nggoshe village; Agapalawa, Amuda, Ashigashiya, Kerawa, Pelekwa, and Vale villages 28,500 in Nigeria (2000). Total users in all countries: 31,300 6a* (Vigorous) Galavda, Galvaxdaxa, Gelebda, Glanda, Guelebda Bokwa, Ngoshie (Ngweshe), Glavda. Lexical similarity: 85% with Cineni [cie], 70%–72% with Guduf-Gava [gdf], 52% with Dghwede [dgh], 51% with Gvoko [ngs], 44% with Hdi [xed], and 43% with Lamang [hia] and Vemgo-Mabas [vem] (Hamm 2004).
gdf Guduf-Gava Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.4, Mandara Proper, Glavda Nigeria Borno state: Gwoza LGA, mainly Cikide, Gava, and Guduf 55,900 (2000) 6a* (Vigorous) Afkabiye, Gudupe Cikide (Chikide), Guduf, Gava (Yaghwatadaxa, Yawotataxa). Lexical similarity: 78%–82% with Cineni [cie], 72% with Glavda [glw], 70% with Dghwede [dgh], 61% with Gvoko [ngs], 48% with Hdi [xed] and Vemgo-Mabas [vem], and 47% with Lamang [hia] (Hamm 2004).
cie Cineni Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.4, Mandara Proper, Glavda Nigeria Borno state: Gwoza LGA, Cineni village 3,000 (1998) 6b (Threatened) None known. Lexical similarity: 85% with Glavda [glw], 78%–82% with Guduf-Gava [gdf], 60% with Dghwede [dgh], 53% with Gvoko [ngs], 45% with Hdi [xed], 44% with Vemgo-Mabas [vem], and 42% with Lamang [hia] (Hamm 2004).
dgh Dghwede Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.4, Mandara Proper, Glavda Nigeria Borno state: Gwoza LGA 30,000 (1980 UBS) 6a* (Vigorous) Azaghvana, Dehoxde, Hude, Johode, Tghuade, Toghwede, Traude, Wa’a, Zaghvana None known. Lexical similarity: 69%–70% with Guduf-Gava [gdf], 64% with Gvoko [ngs]. 60% with Cineni [cie], 52% with Glavda [glw], and 50% with Hdi [xed], Lamang [hia], and Vemgo-Mabas [vem] (Hamm 2004).
glw Glavda Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.4, Mandara Proper, Glavda Cameroon Far North region: Mayo-Tsanaga division, Koza subdivision, on Nigeria border, Gelvaxdaxa village area south of Ashigashia 2,800 in Cameroon (1982 SIL) 6b* (Threatened) Galavda, Galvaxdaxa, Gelvaxdaxa, Guelebda, Vale
ngs Gvoko Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.4, Mandara Proper, Glavda Cameroon Far North region: Mayo-Tsanaga division, Mokolo subdivision, north of Tourou, Ngoshi village (different from Nggoshe) 1,000 in Cameroon (2000 SIL) 6a (Vigorous) Gavoko, Gevoko, Ghboko, Kuvoko, Ngoshe-Ndhang, Ngoshi, Ngossi
mfi Wandala Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.4, Mandara Proper, Mandara Cameroon Far North region: Mayo-Sava division, east of Mora, north and northwest in a semicircle, to Nigeria border 23,500 in Cameroon (1982 SIL). Total users in all countries: 43,500 5 (Developing) Mandara, Mandara Montagnard, Ndara Wandala Kamburwama, Masfeima, Jampalam, Ziogba, Mazagwa, Gwanje, Wandala (Mandara), Mura (Duwe, Kirdi-Mora, Mora Brousse, Mora Massif), Gamargu (Gamergou, Gamergu, Malgo, Malgwa).
mfi Wandala Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.4, Mandara Proper, Mandara Nigeria Borno state: Bama, Damboa, Gwoza, and Konduga LGAs 20,000 in Nigeria (1993). 10,000 Gamargu, 9,300 Kirawa 5* (Developing) Mandara, Ndara Kamburwama, Masfeima, Jampalam, Ziogba, Mazagwa, Gwanje, Gamargu (Gamergu, Malgo, Malgwa), Kirawa.
pbi Parkwa Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.4, Mandara Proper, Podoko Cameroon Far North region: Mayo-Sava division, Mora subdivision, west and southwest of Mora 30,000 (1993 SIL) 5 (Developing) Gwadi Parekwa, Kudala, Padogo, Padoko, Padokwa, Paduko, Parekwa, Pawdawkwa, Podogo, Podoko, Podokwa, Podokwo Gwaɗi Parǝkwa
mlr Vame Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.5 Cameroon Far North region: Mayo-Sava division, Mora and Tokombéré subdivisions, southern Mora massif south of Mora 8,500 (1992 SIL). Few monolinguals 5 (Developing) Maslava, Pelasla, Pǝlasla Vamé Ndreme, Hurzo, Pelasla (Pǝlasla). Pelasla is reportedly more similar to Wuzlam [udl] than the other dialects are.
bdn Baldemu Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.5 Cameroon Far North region: Diamaré division, Balda, Bogo, and Guingley east of Maroua; Lara, south of Maroua No known L1 speakers. Last known speakers probably survived into the early 2010s 10 (Extinct) Baldamu, Baldare, Mbazla
cuv Cuvok Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.5 Cameroon Far North region: Mayo-Tsanaga division, Mokolo subdivision, Tchouvok area, Matakam South canton, near Zamay 5,000 (Dieu and Renaud 1983), increasing 5 (Developing) Tchouvok Cuvakw
dme Dugwor Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.5 Cameroon Far North region: Diamaré division, Meri subdivision, west of Tchere canton between Maroua and Meri, 6 villages 5,000 (2001 SIL) 6a (Vigorous) Dougour, Memekere, Mofu-Dugwor, Tchakidjebe Mikere.
giz Giziga Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.5 Cameroon Far North region: Diamaré and Kaélé divisions, Diamare plains, southwest of Maroua 60,000 (1991 UBS) 5 (Developing) Gisiga, Gisika, Guiziga, Marva, South Giziga Giziga Muturami (Giziga de Moutouroua, Loulou, Muturua, Muturwa), Mi Mijivin (Giziga de Midjivin), Rum.
gis Giziga, North Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.5 Cameroon Far North region: Diamaré division, Meri subdivision, Mogazang and Tchere massifs and Dogba plains, north and west of Maroua 20,000 (1982 SIL) 6a* (Vigorous) Dogba, Gisiga, Gisika, Giziga de, Guiziga, Maroua, Marva, Mi Marva, Tchere
mxu Mada Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.5 Cameroon Far North region: Mayo-Sava division, Tokombéré subdivision, Mada massif at edge of Mandara mountains and neighboring plain 17,000 (1982 SIL) 6a (Vigorous) Maɗa
maf Mafa Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.5 Cameroon Far North region: Mayo-Tsanaga division, Mokolo town and north 210,000 in Cameroon (2005 SIL). Based on the actual population of the sub-divisions where the Mafa people are present (2014 C. Hamm). Total users in all countries: 214,910 5 (Developing) Mofa, Natakan, “Matakam” (pej.) Mafa West Mafa (Magoumaz, Mavoumay, Moskota), Central Mafa (Djingliya, Gouzda, Koza, Ldamtsai, Mokola, Mokolo, Ouzal), East Mafa (Bao, Mazam, Midre, Soulede), Roua. The Roua dialect may be a separate language.
maf Mafa Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.5 Nigeria Borno state: Gwoza LGA 4,910 in Nigeria (2000) 5* (Developing) Bula, Bulahai, Natakan, “Matakam” (pej.) Mafa.
mfh Matal Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.5 Cameroon Far North region: Mayo-Sava division, Mora subdivision, southwest of Mora, east edge of Mandara mountains 18,000 (1982 SIL) 5 (Developing) Balda, Mouktele, Muktele, Muktile Matal
mqb Mbuko Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.5 Cameroon Far North region: Diamaré division, Meri subdivision, Mbuko massif and neighboring Mayo-Raneo plain east of Meri 15,000 (2008 SIL), increasing 5 (Developing) Mbokou, Mboku, Mbuku Mbuko
mfj Mefele Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.5 Cameroon Far North region: Mayo-Tsanaga division, Mokolo subdivision, 6 villages south and east of Mokolo 11,000 (2002 SIL) 6a (Vigorous) Baitsawara, Boulahay, Bula, Bulahai Mefele (Mofouele), Serak (Sirak), Muhura (Moughour, Mouhour), Shugule (Chougoule).
meq Merey Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.5 Cameroon Far North region: Diamaré division, near Meri massif west of Meri town 10,000 (1982 SIL) 5 (Developing) Mere, Meri, Mofu de Méri, Méré
mfk Mofu, North Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.5 Cameroon Far North region: Diamaré division, massifs south of Meri 27,500 (1982 SIL) 5* (Developing) Douvangar, Mofu-Douvangar, Mofu-Nord Douroun (Durum, Mofu de Douroum), Wazan (Wazang).
mif Mofu-Gudur Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.5 Cameroon Far North region: Mayo-Tsanaga division into Diamare division, Mokolo subdivision, massifs south of Tsanaga river to Mayo-Louti river 90,000 (2008 SIL), increasing 5 (Developing) Mey ŋga aŋgwa, Mey Mafaw Gudur, Mofou, Mofou de Goudour, Mofu, Mofu South, Mofu-Sud Mey Mafaw, Mey aŋgwa Mokong (Mey Məkaŋ), Gudur (Mey Gudal), Zidim (Mey Zədem), Dimeo (Mey Dimew), Massagal (Massakal, Mey Masakal), Njeleng (Mey Njeleŋ).
mlw Moloko Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.5 Cameroon Far North region: Mayo-Sava division, Tokombéré subdivision, Makalingay canton, Melokwo mountain area 10,000 (Starr 1997) 5 (Developing) Melokwo, Mokyo, Molko, Molkoa, Molkwo, Molokwo, Mǝlokwo Ma Mǝloko Surrounded by 4 related languages, including Muyang [muy], Giziga North [gis], and the Mikiri dialect of Dugwor [dme], plus one other.
muy Muyang Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.5 Cameroon Far North region: Mayo-Sava division, Gouadagouada, Mougouba, Muyang, and Palbara massifs northeast of Tokombéré 30,000 (2007 SIL) 5 (Developing) Mouyenge, Mouyengue, Muyenge, Myau, Myenge ma Muyaŋ
udl Wuzlam Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.5 Cameroon Far North region: Mayo-Sava division, Tokombéré subdivision, Wuzlam massif south of Mora 10,500 (1982 SIL), increasing. Very few monolinguals 5 (Developing) Mizlime, Ouldeme, Udlam, Uldeme, Uzam, Uzlam Wuzlam
gnd Zulgo-Gemzek Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.5 Cameroon Far North region: Mayo-Sava division, Tokombéré subdivision, 16 villages on east edge of Mandara mountains, north of Maroua; Some parts of Mayo-Tsanaga division 26,000 (2002 SIL) 5 (Developing) Gemjek, Guemjek, Guemshek, Guemzek, Zoulgo Gemzek, Zulgo Gemzek (Gaduwa), Mineo (Minew), Zulgo (Zelgwa, Zoulgo, Zulgwa). Slight dialect differences between villages.
syk Sukur Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.6 Nigeria Adamawa state: Madagali LGA, Mandara mountains; Borno state: Gwoza LGA 14,800 (1992) 6a* (Vigorous) Adikimmu Sukur, Gemasakun, Sakul, Sugur
bhs Buwal Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.7 Cameroon Far North region: Mayo-Tsanaga division, Mokolo subdivision, Gadala area, south of Mokolo 10,000 (2004 SIL), increasing 5 (Developing) Bual, Gadala, Ma Buwal Buwal None known. Distinct phonological, grammatical and sociolinguistic differences with Gavar [gou]. Lexical similarity: 90% with Gavar [gou].
dbq Daba Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.7 Cameroon Far North region: Mayo-Tsanaga division, Bourrah and Hina subdivisions; North region: Mayo-Louti division, Mayo-Oulo and Guider subdivisions northwest of Guider 24,000 in Cameroon (2007 SIL). Total users in all countries: 25,000 5 (Developing) Dabba Daba Nive, Pologozom, Gamdugun.
dbq Daba Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.7 Nigeria Adamawa state: Mubi LGA, 1 village between Bahuli and Mubi 1,000 in Nigeria (Crozier and Blench 1992) 6b* (Threatened) Dabba
gou Gavar Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.7 Cameroon Far North region: Mayo-Tsanaga division, Mokolo subdivision, Mogode canton, Gawar area, south of Mokolo. Some Gavar Hossere live among Gavar-Fulfulde, and some isolated in Kortchi village mountain area 15,000 (2010 SIL) 6a (Vigorous) Gauar, Gawar, Gaware, Gouwar, Kortchi, Rtchi Ma Gavar None known. Distinct phonological, grammatical and sociolinguistic differences with Buwal [bhs]. Lexical similarity: 90% with Buwal [bhs].
dkx Mazagway-Hidi Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.7 Cameroon Far North region: Diamaré division southwest corner, Ndoukoula district, Dagaï, Kpala; Mayo-Tsanaga division, Mokolo subdivision, Hina district, Mayo-Ladde, Zouvoul; North region: Bénoué division: Tam Djidde; Mayo-Louti division, Baila, Boula Ibbi, Mazagway 35,000 (2005 census) 6a (Vigorous) Mazagway Mazagway-Hidi Mazagway (Daba-Mousgoy, Musgoi, Musgoy), Kola (Daba-Kola, Kpala), Madama.
xmd Mbudum Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.7 Cameroon Far North region: Mayo-Tsanaga division, Mokolo subdivision, northeast of Hina 6,000 (2001 SIL) 6a (Vigorous) Boudoum, Hedi Mbudum, Mbedam, Mboudoum Ma Mbudum Mbudum, Membeng. Most closely related to Mina [hna].
hna Mina Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.7 Cameroon Far North region: Mayo-Tsanaga division, Hina subdivision, 20 villages south of Mokolo 11,000 (2000) 6a (Vigorous) Hina Bezleri, Jingjing (Dzumdzum), Kefedjevreng.
bta Bata Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.8 Nigeria Adamawa state: Demsa, Fufore, Girei, Maiha, Song, and Yola North LGAs 150,000 in Nigeria (1992). 3,500,000 Bwaatye (Bata and Bacama [bcy]) (2006 census). Total users in all countries: 152,500 6a (Vigorous) Batta, Bete, Birsa, Bwaatye, Bwatiye, Demsa Bata, Dunu, Eastern Bwatiye, Gboati, Gbwata, Gbwate Zumu (Jimo, Zomo), Wadi (Wa’i), Malabu, Kobotachi, Ribaw (Ribow), Njoboliyo, Garoua (Garua), Jirai, Furo, Song Bata. Bacama [bcy] and Central Bwatiye [bcy] 54%–68% of non-riverine dialects (Furo and Song); Njoboliyo [bta] 87% of Furo [bta], Song [bta], and Central Bwatiye [bcy]; Njoboliyo [bta] 73% of Bacama. Upriver dialects have contact with downriver dialects due to fishing practices. Dialect chain: Bacama [bcy] 89% with Central Bwatiye [bcy], 81% with Njoboliyo [bta], 86% with Furo [bta], 84% with Song Bata [bta].
bcy Bacama Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.8 Nigeria Adamawa state: Lamurde, Numan, Demsa, Guyuk, Girei, Yola North and Yola South LGAs; Kaduna state: northeast of Kaduna town; Kogi state: confluence of Benue and Niger rivers 150,000 (1992 CAPRO) 5* (Developing) Abacama, Bachama, Bashama, Bashamma, Besema, Bwaatye, Bwareba, Bwatiye, Gboare Mulyen (Mulwyin, Mwulyin), Opalo (Opolo), Wa-Duku, Central Bwatiye (Demsa, Demsa Bata). In Bata dialect subgroup. Bacama and Central Bwatiye [bcy] 54%–68% of non-riverine Bata [bta] dialects (Furo and Song); Upriver dialects have contact with downriver dialects due to fishing practices. Lexical similarity: Bacama [bcy] 89% with Central Bwatiye [bcy], 81% with Njoboliyo [bta], 86% with Furo [bta], 84% with Song Bata [bta].
bta Bata Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.8 Cameroon North region: Bénoué division along Nigeria border; along Bénoué river, west of Garoua; north Faro division, along Faro river 2,500 in Cameroon 6b* (Threatened) Batta, Dii, Gbwata, Gwate Ndeewe (Bata-Ndeewe).
fli Fali Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.8 Nigeria Adamawa state: Mubi North, Mubi South LGAs 25,000 (2010 Z. Yoder et al.). 5,500 in the language area; 5,000 outside, many of whom return each summer 6a (Vigorous) Fali of Mubi, Fali of Muchella, Vimtim, Yimtim Vin (Uroovin, Uvin, Vimtim), Huli (Bahuli, Urahuli), Madzarin (Madzara, Muchella, Ura Madzarin), Bwin (Bagira, Bween, Urambween). Bwin about 92% intelligible of other dialects and 71% of Zizilvakan [ziz], Huli at least 85% of other dialects and 59% of Zizilivakan, Madzara 61% of Huli, Vin 71% of Madzara. Lexical similarity: 61%–82% between the dialects, 47%–59% with Zizilivakan [ziz], 15%–23% with Kirya-Konzal [fkk], 14%–18% with Hya [hya].
gde Gude Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.8 Cameroon Far North region: Mayo-Tsanaga division, south Bourrah subdivision, north and northwest of Dourbeye; North region: Mayo-Louti division, extreme northwest Mayo-Oulo subdivision 20,000 in Cameroon (1992 SIL) 5* (Developing) Cheke, Goude, Mapodi, Mocigin, Motchekin, Mubi, Mudaye, Shede, Tchade, Tcheke, guɗe
gde Gude Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.8 Nigeria Borno state: Askira-Uba LGA; Adamawa state: Mubi LGA 68,000 in Nigeria (1987). Total users in all countries: 88,000 5* (Developing) Cheke, Goude, Mapodi, Mapuda, Mocigin, Motchekin, Mudaye, Shede, Tchade Guɗe Different dialects are spoken in Cameroon and Nigeria.
gdu Gudu Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.8 Nigeria Adamawa state: Song LGA 5,000 (1993) 6a* (Vigorous) Gudo, Gutu Kumbi.
hod Holma Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.8 Nigeria Adamawa state: north of Sorau on Cameroon border No known L1 speakers. Last known speaker survived into the early 1990s (1987 R. Blench) 10 (Extinct) Bali Holma, Da Holmaci None known. Related to Nzanyi [nja].
jim Jimjimen Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.8 Cameroon Far North region: Mayo-Tsanaga division, Bourrha area, on Nigeria border 10,000 (2019 SIL) 6a (Vigorous) Jimi, "’Um Falin" (pej.) Jimjimən Djimi, Zumo (Zame, Zomo, Zumu), Jimo, Wadi (Wa’i), Malabu. Reportedly Jimjimen speakers understand Gude [gde].
ngw Ngwaba Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.8 Nigeria Adamawa state: Gombi LGA at Fachi and Guduniya, and Hong LGA. 2 villages 10,000 (1993 CAPRO) 8a (Moribund) Goba, Gombi
nja Nzanyi Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.8 Cameroon North region: Mayo-Louti division, Mayo-Oulo subdivision, Doumo area, west of Dourbeye near Nigeria border 9,000 in Cameroon 6a* (Vigorous) Jeng, Kobochi, Kobotshi, Mzangyim, Njai, Njanyi, Njegn, Njei, Njeng, Njeny, Nzangi, Zani, Zany Holma.
nja Nzanyi Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.8 Nigeria Adamawa state: Maiha LGA 77,000 in Nigeria (1993). Total users in all countries: 86,000 6b (Threatened) Jeng, Jenge, Kobotshi, Njai, Njanyi, Njei, Njeing, Njeny, Nzangi, Zani, Zany Paka, Rogede, Nggwoli, Hoode, Maiha, Magara, Dede, Mutidi, Lovi.
swq Sharwa Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.8 Cameroon Far North region: Mayo-Tsanaga division, south Bourrah subdivision; North region: Mayo-Louti division 5,100 (2000 SIL) 6a* (Vigorous) Sarwaye, Sherwin, Tchevi
tsh Tsuvan Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.8 Cameroon Far North region: Mayo-Tsanaga division, southeast Bourrah subdivision, Tchevi village, 5 quartiers found in an area 10 km in diameter northeast of Dourbeye; some in North region: Mayo-Louti division 2,300 (2000 SIL) 6b (Threatened) Matsuvan, Motsuvan, Tchede, Telaki, Teleki, Terki
ziz Zizilivakan Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.8 Cameroon Far North region: Mayo-Tsanaga division, Bourrah subdivision, near Nigeria border 200 in Cameroon (2010 Z. Yoder et al.) 8b (Nearly extinct) Fali of Jilbu, Ziliva, Ziziliveken, Àmzírív
ziz Zizilivakan Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, A, A.8 Nigeria Adamawa state: Mubi North LGA, Jilvu town, near Cameroon border 6,000 in Nigeria (2010 Z. Yoder et al.). Total users in all countries: 6,200 6a (Vigorous) Fali of Jilbu, Jilvu, Zhilvu, Ziliva, Ziziliveken, Àmzírív None known. Intelligibility 20% of Fali [fli]. Lexical similarity: 47%–59% with Fali [fli].
jie Jilbe Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, B, B.1 Nigeria Borno state: Jilbe town, Cameroon border area 100 (1999 H. Tourneux) 8b (Nearly extinct) Zoulbou None known. Kotoko speakers in Cameroon and Chad consistently report low intelligibility with Jilbe. Distinct from Zizilivakan [ziz].
bdm Buduma Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, B, B.1, Buduma Cameroon Far North region: Logone-and-Chari division, islands of Lake Chad 200 in Cameroon 6b* (Threatened) Boudouma, Yadena, Yedima, Yedina
bdm Buduma Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, B, B.1, Buduma Chad Hadjer-Lamis region: Lake Chad islands and north shore; Lac region: Mamdi department, Bol subprefecture 51,600 in Chad (1993 census). Total users in all countries: 54,800 6a* (Vigorous) Boudouma, Yedima, Yedina, Yidana, Yidena Southern Buduma, Northern Buduma. 90% inherent intelligibility between dialects.
bdm Yedina Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, B, B.1, Buduma Nigeria Borno state: islands in Lake Chad 3,000 in Nigeria 6b* (Threatened) Boudouma, Buduma, Yedana, Yedima, Yidana Buduma, Kuri (Kakaa, Kouri).
jia Jina Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, B, B.1, Jina Cameroon Far North region: Logone-and-Chari division, south Logone-Birni subdivision, Zina area and east of Waza town 1,500 (Tourneux 2004). 40,000 all Kotoko languages (Tourneux 2004) 6b (Threatened) Zina Jina (Zine), Sarassara, Tchide (Sede), Muxule (Muxuli, Ngodeni), Mae. People in Zina say they understand Lagwan [kot] and Musgu [mug] better than Jina.
xmj Majera Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, B, B.1, Jina Cameroon Far North region: Logone-and-Chari division, extreme south Logone-Birni subdivision, Majera area 500 in Cameroon (Tourneux 2004). 40,000 all Kotoko languages (Tourneux 2004) 6b (Threatened) Mazera Majera (Mazra), Kajire-’dulo, Hwalem (Holom).
xmj Majera Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, B, B.1, Jina Chad Chari-Baguirmi region; Mayo-Kebbi Est region: Mayo Lemie department, Dogwea village on Logone river east bank 6a* (Vigorous) Da’a, Mazera, Mida’a, Midah Majera (Mazra), Kajire-’dulo, Hwalem (Holom).
aal Afade Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, B, B.1, Kotoko Proper, North Cameroon Far North region: Logone-and-Chari division, south Makari subdivision, Afade area 5,000 in Cameroon (Tourneux 2004). 40,000 all Kotoko languages (Tourneux 2004) 6b* (Threatened) Afadeh, Affade, Mandagué None known. Related to Mpade [mpi], Maslam [msv], Malgbe [mxf], Mser [kqx], and Lagwan [kot].
aal Afade Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, B, B.1, Kotoko Proper, North Nigeria Borno state: Kala/Balge LGA, 12 villages 6a* (Vigorous) Afada, Afadeh, Affade, Kotoko, Mogari
mxf Malgbe Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, B, B.1, Kotoko Proper, North Cameroon Far North region: Logone-and-Chari division, Goulfey subdivision, Chari river area north of Kousseri 6,000 in Cameroon (Tourneux 2004). 40,000 all Kotoko languages (Tourneux 2004) 6b* (Threatened) Goulfei, Gulfe, Gulfei, Malbe, Malgwe, Ngwalkwe, Sanbalbe Malgbe (Goulfei), Mara, Dro, Douguia (Dugiya). Related to Afade [aal], Maslam [msv], Mpade [mpi], Mser [kqx], and Lagwan [kot].
mxf Malgbe Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, B, B.1, Kotoko Proper, North Chad Hadjer-Lamis region: N’Djamena subprefecture, Douguia, Malalie, Oulio (Walia) and other villages on Chari river 6b* (Threatened) Goulfei, Goulfey, Gulfei, Kotoko-Gulfei, Malbe, Malgwe, Ngwalkwe, Sanbalbe Goulfey, Walia, Mara, Douguia.
msv Maslam Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, B, B.1, Kotoko Proper, North Cameroon Far North region: Logone-and-Chari division, Makari subdivision, northwest of Kousséri, Maltam, and Saho 250 in Cameroon (Tourneux 2004). 40,000 all Kotoko languages (Tourneux 2004) 8a (Moribund) Maslam (Maltam), Sao (Sahu). Related to Afade [aal], Mpade [mpi], Malgbe [mxf], Mser [kqx], and Lagwan [kot]. Speakers may be able to use literature in one of these languages.
msv Maslam Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, B, B.1, Kotoko Proper, North Chad Ville de N’Djamena region: Haraze Al Biar department, Mani subprefecture along Chari river. Miskini and Blabli villages (Maslam dialect); Farcha-Milezi and Ngara-Mandju villages (Sao dialect) 7 (Shifting) Kotoko-Maltam, Maltam Maslam (Maltam), Sao (Sahu).
mpi Mpade Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, B, B.1, Kotoko Proper, North Cameroon Far North region: Logone-and-Chari division, south of Lake Chad, Makari area 16,000 in Cameroon (Tourneux 2004). 40,000 all Kotoko languages (Tourneux 2004) 6b* (Threatened) Makari, Makary, Makary Kotoko Shewe (Mani), Mpade (Makari), Bodo, Woulki, Digam.
mpi Mpade Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, B, B.1, Kotoko Proper, North Chad Hadjer-Lamis region: Haraze Al Biar department, Mani subprefecture, south of Lake Chad; N’Djamena town; Mani area on Logone river, north of N’Djamena 6b* (Threatened) Kotoko-Makari, Makari Makari, Bodo, Woulki, Digam.
kqx Mser Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, B, B.1, Kotoko Proper, South Cameroon Far North region: Logone-and-Chari division, Kousséri subdivision 500 in Cameroon (Tourneux 2004). 40,000 all Kotoko languages (Tourneux 2004) 8a (Moribund) Kotoko-Kuseri, Kouseri, Kousseri, Kuseri Houlouf (Mani), Gawi (Makari), Mser (Kousseri), Kabe, Kalo (Kalakafra). Comprehension of Lagwan [kot] is marginal. Related to Lagwan, Afade [aal], Malgbe [mxf], Maslam [msv], and Mpade [mpi].
kot Lagwan Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, B, B.1, Kotoko Proper, South Cameroon Far North region: Logone-and-Chari division, Logone-Birni subdivision north of Waza National Park, Logone river bank across to Nigeria border 15,000 in Cameroon (Shryock and Brahim 2014). 40,000 all Kotoko languages (Tourneux 2004) 6b* (Threatened) Kotoko-Logone, Lagouane, Lagwane, Logone Logone-Birni, Logone-Gana (Kotoko-Gana).
kot Lagwan Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, B, B.1, Kotoko Proper, South Chad Chari-Baguirmi region: south N’Djamena, Logone-Gana area along Logone river 6b* (Threatened) Kotoko-Logone, Lagouane, Lagwane, Logone Logone-Birni, Logone-Gana (Kotoko-Gana).
kqx Mser Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, B, B.1, Kotoko Proper, South Chad Chari-Baguirmi and Ville de N’Djamena regions; to Cameroon border 7 (Shifting) Klesem, Kotoko-Kuseri, Kousseri, Kuseri Mser (Kousseri, Msir), Kalo (Kalakafra), Gawi, Houlouf, Kabe.
mpk Mbara Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, B, B.2 Chad Chari-Baguirmi region: Baguirmi department, Massenya subprefecture; Mayo-Kebbi Est region: Mayo-Boneye department, Bongor subprefecture; Mayo-Lémié department along Chari river, Guélengdeng area 1,000 (Tourneux et al 1986) 8a (Moribund) G’kelendeg, G’kelendeng, Guelengdeng, Massa de Guelengdeng
mug Musgu Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, B, B.2 Cameroon Far North region: Mayo-Danay division, Maga subdivision 140,000 in Cameroon (2005 SIL). Based on the actual population of the sub-divisions where the Musgu people are present, as of the 2005 census (2014 C. Hamm). Total users in all countries: 164,400 5* (Developing) Mousgou, Mousgoum, Mousgoun, Munjuk, Musgum, Musuk, Muzuk Mulwi Mpus (Mousgoum de Pouss, Pouss, Pus), Beege (Jafga), Vulum (Mulwi, Vlum), Ngilemong, Luggoy, Maniling (Mani-Iling), Muzuk (Mousgoum de Guirvidig). Vulum dialect is mainly in Chad.
mug Musgu Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, B, B.2 Chad Chari-Baguirmi region: small area, Chari river east bank; Mayo-Kebbi Est region: Mayo-Boneye department, Bongor subprefecture; Ville de N’Djamena: between Chari and Logone rivers 24,400 in Chad (1993 census) 5* (Developing) Mouloui, Mousgou, Mousgoum, Mousgoun, Mulwi, Munjuk, Musgum, Musuk Mpus (Mousgoum de Pouss, Musgum-Pouss, Pouss, Pus), Beege (Jafga), Vulum (Mulwi-Mogroum, Vlum), Muzuk (Guirvidig, Mousgoum de Guirvidig, Mousgoum de Guirvidik).
mje Muskum Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, B, B.2 Chad Mayo-Kebbi Est region: Mayo-Boneye and Mayo-Lemie departments, Bongor subprefecture No known L1 speakers. The last speaker survived into the late 1970s 10 (Extinct) Muzgum None known. Lexical similarity: 40% with Musgu [mug].
gid Gidar Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, C Cameroon Far North region: a small section of Diamaré division; North region: Mayo- Louti division, Figuil and Guider subdivisions 54,000 in Cameroon (1982 SIL). Total users in all countries: 65,700 5* (Developing) Baynawa, Gidder, Guidar, Guider, Kaɗa, Kada ma Kaɗa Zlam.
gid Gidar Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Biu-Mandara, C Chad Mayo-Kebbi Ouest region: Lac Léré department, northwest of Léré. At least 25 villages 11,700 in Chad (1993 census) 5* (Developing) Gidder, Guidar, Kada, “Baynawa” (pej.)
bso Buso Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, A, A.1 Chad Chari-Baguirmi region: Loug Chari departement, Bousso subprefecture 40 (Welmers 1971a) 8b (Nearly extinct) Bousso, Busso, Dam de Bousso None known. Not in the Bua group, but Chadic (Boyeldieu 1977).
mvh Mulgi Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, A, A.1, 1 Chad Tandjilé region: Tandjilé Est department, Lai subprefecture 5,000 (2011 SIL) 6a* (Vigorous) Mire None known. Lexical similarity: 65% with Ndam [ndm], 32% with Kimré [kqp].
ndm Ndam Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, A, A.1, 1 Chad South Chari-Baguirmi, north Mandoul, and northwest Moyen-Chari regions; Tandjilé region: Tandjilé Est department, Lai subprefecture, northeast of Lai, and southeast of Bousso d’Béré 6,500 (1990 census) 6a* (Vigorous) Dam, Ndamm Ndam-Ndam (Southern Ndam), Ndam Dik (Northern Ndam).
sor Somrai Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, A, A.1, 1 Chad Tandjilé region: Tandjilé Est department, Lai subprefecture northeast of Lai, Domogou is center 7,410 (1993 census) 5* (Developing) Sibine, Somray, Somre, Somrei, Soumrai, Soumray, Sounrai, Sumrai Shibne None known. Not intelligible of any other language. Lexical similarity: 47% with Ndam [ndm], 39% with Sarua [swy], 35% with Gadang [gdk], 33% with Tumak [tmc], 28% with Miltu [mlj].
tmc Tumak Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, A, A.1, 1 Chad Mandoul region: Mandoul Oriental department, Gouindi subprefecture; northwest Moyen-Chari and east Tandjilé regions 25,200 (1993 census) 6a* (Vigorous) Dije, Sara Toumak, Toumak, Tumac, Tumag, Tummok Tumak, Motun (Mawer, Mod, Moden, Modin, Mot, Motin). Lexical similarity: 71% with Motun dialect.
bvf Boor Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, A, A.1, 2 Chad Chari-Baguirmi region: Loug-Chari department, Bousso subprefecture; Moyen-Chari region: Barh Kôh department, Sarh subprefecture, Dumraw (Bwara) village on Chari river north bank 100 (1999 SIL) 6b (Threatened) Bwara, Damraw Some have classified it as a dialect of Miltu [mlj]. Lexical similarity: 36% with Miltu [mlj] (most similar).
gdk Gadang Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, A, A.1, 2 Chad Chari-Baguirmi region: Loug Chari department, Bousso subprefecture, between Mogo and Mbarlé; Somrai area 2,500 (1997 SIL) 7 (Shifting) None known. Related to Sarua [swy] and Miltu [mlj].
mlj Miltu Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, A, A.1, 2 Chad Chari-Baguirmi region: Loug Chari department, Bousso subprefecture, Miltou town area; Moyen-Chari region 270 (1993 census) 8a (Moribund) Miltou None known. Lexical similarity: 27% with Sarua [swy], Somrai [sor], Gadang [gdk], and Ndam [ndm], 36% with Boor [bvf].
swy Sarua Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, A, A.1, 2 Chad Chari-Baguirmi region: Loug Chari department, Bousso subprefecture, between Bousso and Miltou along Chari river 2,000 (1997 SIL) 7 (Shifting) Saroua, Sarwa None known. Lexical similarity: 42% with Gadang [gdk], 27% with Miltu [mlj].
kqp Kimré Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, A, A.2, 1 Chad Tandjilé region: Tandjile Est department, east of Laï 20,000 (2007 A. Oumounabidji) 5* (Developing) Gabri-Kimré, Gawra Kimruwa (Kimré, Kim-Ruwa), Buruwa (Bordo). Popular glossonym: Gabri, but it is not intelligible of Gabri [gab].
lln Lele Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, A, A.2, 1 Chad Tandjilé region: Tandjilé Ouest department, south of Kélo 26,000 (1991 UBS) 5* (Developing) Lele
nnc Nancere Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, A, A.2, 1 Chad Tandjilé region: Tandjilé Ouest department, Béré, Delban, and Kélo subprefectures 81,000 (2007 B. Keineng), increasing 5* (Developing) Nanchere, Nangcere, Nangjere, Nangtchere, Nanjeri, Nantcere Mire, Bolo, Kwale, Nancere du Centre.
gab Gabri Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, A, A.2, 2 Chad Tandjilé region: Tandjilé Est department, Lai subprefecture, Darbé and Dormon villages area northwest of Lai 34,400 (2000) 5* (Developing) Gabere, Gaberi, Gabri Darbé-Dormon, Gabri Maja, Ngabre, Southern Gabri Maja Darbé, Dormon.
kvf Kabalai Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, A, A.2, 2 Chad Tandjilé region: Lai subprefecture, Lai and south on Logone river east bank 17,900 (1993 census) 6a* (Vigorous) Gablai, Kaba-Lai, Kabalay, Kabalaye, Keb-Kaye, Lai, Lay None known. May be intelligible with Nancere [nnc].
tng Tobanga Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, A, A.2, 2 Chad Mayo-Kebbi Est region: west; Tandjilé region: Tandjilé Est department, Deressia subprefecture 30,000 (1999 SIL) 6a* (Vigorous) Gabri, Gabri-Nord, Gabri-North, Northern Gabri Mande, Tobanga (Deressia).
ker Kera Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, A, A.3 Cameroon Far North region: Mayo-Danay division, southeast of Doukoula 6,000 in Cameroon 5* (Developing)
ker Kera Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, A, A.3 Chad Mayo-Kebbi Est region: Mont d’Illi department, near Lake Tikem south of Fianga 44,500 in Chad (1993 census). Total users in all countries: 50,500 5* (Developing) Keera None known. Lexical similarity: 42% with Kwang [kvi].
kvi Kwang Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, A, A.3 Chad Chari-Baguirmi and Mayo-Kebbi Est regions; Tandjilé region: Tandjilé Est department; north of Lai, east of Bongor, southwest of Bousso. Mobou (Mobou dialect); Mogo (Aloa dialect) 16,800 (1993 census). 10,000 or more Kwang, 2,000 Mobou, 250 Aloa 6a* (Vigorous) Kouang, Kuang, Kwong Kwang, Mobou (Mobu), Ngam (Gam, Modgel), Tchagin (Tchakin), Aloa, Kawalké, Gaya, Mindéra. Includes Midigil village, sometimes erroneously listed as ‘Modgel’ (Medegel) in some sources. Lexical similarity: 42% with Kera [ker].
bid Bidiyo Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, B, B.1, 1 Chad Guéra region: Guéra department, Mongo subprefecture, south of Mongo and west of Abou Telfane 14,000 (Jungraithmayr 1981) 6a* (Vigorous) ’Bidio, ’Bidiyo, Bidio, Bidiya, Bidiyo-Waana, Bidyo Garawgino (Kafila), Jekkino (Kofilo), Bigawguno (Tounkoul), Nalguno (Niergui), ’Oboyguno (Zerli). The first 2 dialects listed are eastern, the others western. Dambiya is probably a Bidiyo dialect instead of a Migaama [mmy] dialect.
jeu Jonkor Bourmataguil Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, B, B.1, 1 Chad Guéra region border area; Salamat region: Aboudeia department, west of Abou Deia; centered in Ader-Ader 1,500 (1993 SIL) 6b (Threatened) Djongor Bourmataguil, Dougne, Karakir Dougne, Musunye. Relationship with other Dangla languages needs investigation, especially Toram [trj] and Mogum [mou].
ubi Ubi Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, B, B.1, 1 Chad Guéra region: Guéra department, Mongo subprefecture, Oubi village area 1,100 (1995 SIL) 6b (Threatened) Oubi None known. Lexical similarity: 48% with Mawa [mcw] (most similar).
daa Dangaléat Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, B, B.1, 1 Chad Possibly Batha region; Guéra region: Guéra department, Bang-bang subprefecture. Barlo, Koubo Adougoul area (Central dialect); Korlongo area (Eastern dialect); Korbo area (Western dialect) 60,000 (2005 SIL), increasing. 45,000 in Dangaléat Canton 5* (Developing) Danal, Dangal, Dangla Daŋla West Dangaléat (Karbo, Korbo), East Dangaléat, Central Dangaléat. Intelligibility between east and west dialects is low, but central dialect well understood.
muj Mabire Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, B, B.1, 1 Chad Guéra region: Bidiyo canton, Mongo-Rural subprefecture, Oulek village No known L1 speakers. Last fluent speaker may have survived into the early 2010s 10 (Extinct) Reportedly similar to Tounkoul dialect of Bidiyo [bid]. Lexical similarity: 37%–52% with Jegu dialect of Mogum [mou].
mcw Mawa Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, B, B.1, 1 Chad Guéra region: Guéra department, Bitkine subprefecture, Mahoua village area 6,560 (2000) 6a (Vigorous) Mahoua, Mahwa Gura (village of Gurara) and Reupan (village of Roffono) have been called dialects but their speech is very similar to that of Mahoua. Lexical similarity: 8% with Ubi [ubi].
mmy Migaama Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, B, B.1, 1 Chad Guéra region: Guéra department, Mongo subprefecture, Abou Telfane canton, Abu Telfan area. Baro (Migaama dialect); Fityari (Doga dialect); Game and Julkulkili (Gamiya dialect); Mala (Dambiya dialect) 20,000 (2000 W. Chesley). 2,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 23,000 (1991 census) 5* (Developing) Dionkor, Djonkor, Dyongor, Jongor, Jonkor, Migama, “Djonkor Abou Telfane” (pej.) Migaama Migaama, Doga, Gamiya, Dambiya (Ndambiya).
mou Mogum Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, B, B.1, 1 Chad Guéra region: Barh Signaka department, Melfi subprefecture; Guéra department, Bitkine and Mongo subprefectures 7,000 (1997 SIL) 6a* (Vigorous) Mogoum Jegu, Kofa (Koffa), Mogum Délé, Mogum Diguimi, Mogum Urmi. Dialect subgroup. Mogum Diguimi may not be a separate dialect. Lexical similarity: more than 96% among dialects.
ckq Kajakse Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, B, B.1, 2 Chad Sila region: Djourf-Al-Ahmar department, south and southeast of Am Dam 10,000 (Bender 1983a) 6a* (Vigorous) Kadjakse, Kajeske, Kawa Tadimini, Kujarke, Mini None known. Partially intelligible with Masmaje [mes] and Mubi [mub].
zrn Zerenkel Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, B, B.1, 2 Chad Guéra region: Mongo subprefecture, Canton Dadjo I, Dambiro, Nikel, and Sirbodom villages 2,240 (1993 census) 6b (Threatened) Zirenkel None known. Lexical similarity: 71% with Mubi [mub], 34%–36% with Dangaléat [daa] (East, Central, and Western).
btf Birgit Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, B, B.1, 2 Chad Salamat region: Aboudéïa and Barh-Azoum departments; Sila region: Djourf al Ahmar department, centered in Abgué; south Batha region 10,400 (2000) 6a* (Vigorous) Bergit, Berguid, Birgid Abgue, Eastern Birgit, Duguri, Agrab.
mes Masmaje Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, B, B.1, 2 Chad Batha region: Batha Est department, Oum Hadjer subprefecture, southwest of Oum Hadjer Ethnic population: 25,700 (1993 census) 6a* (Vigorous) Masmadje, Mesmedje
mub Mubi Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, B, B.1, 2 Chad Batha region: widespread; Guéra region: Guéra department, Mangalmé subprefecture, 135 villages in Mangalmé area 35,300 (1993 census) 6a* (Vigorous) Moubi None known. Lexical similarity: 71% with Zirenkel [zrn], 35% with Dangaléat [daa].
trj Toram Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, B, B.1, 2 Chad Salamat region: Aboudeïa department, in and west of Ter 8,460 (2000) 8a (Moribund) Torom, Torum
moz Mukulu Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, B, B.2 Chad Guéra region: Guéra department, Bitkine subprefecture, Djarkatché, Doli, Gougué, Morgué, Moukoulou, and Séguine villages below Guera massif 12,000 (1990 SIL) 5 (Developing) Diongor Guera, Djonkor Guera, Dyongor Guera, Guerguiko, Jonkor-Gera, Mokoulou, Mokulu Gergiko Mokilko, Seginki, Doliki, Moriko, Mezimko, Gugiko.
bva Barein Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, B, B.3 Chad Guéra region: Bahr Signaka department, Melfi subprefecture, west (Jalkia dialect), south, southwest (Komi dialect), and east of Melfi (Sakaya dialect) 4,100 (1993 census) 6a* (Vigorous) Baraïn, Guilia, Jalkia Jalkia, Guilia, Sakaya (Dagne, Jelkin), Komi. Lexical similarity: 92% between the Jalkia dialect and the Guilia dialect, 70% between the Sakaya dialect and both Jalkia and Guilia.
saa Saba Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, B, B.3 Chad Guéra region: Bahr Signaka department, Melfi subprefecture, northeast of Melfi 1,340 (2000) 6b (Threatened) Jelkung
sok Sokoro Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, B, B.3 Chad Guéra region: Bahr Signaka department, Melfi subprefecture, Badanga to Gogmi; Hadjer-Lamis region: southeast 5,000 (1994 SIL) 6a* (Vigorous) Sokoro, Bedanga. Lexical similarity: 55% with Tamki [tax].
tax Tamki Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, East, B, B.3 Chad Guéra region: Bahr Signaka department, Melfi subprefecture, Tamki village 500 (1999 SIL) 6b (Threatened) Temki None known. Not inherently intelligible of Sokoro [sok]. Lexical similarity: 62% with Saba [saa], 55% with Sokoro [sok], 32% with Mawa [mcw].
lme Pévé Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Masa Chad Mayo-Kebbi Ouest region: Lamé is center 30,000 in Chad (1999 SIL). Total users in all countries: 35,720 6a* (Vigorous) Ka’do Pevé, Lamé, Zime, “Kado” (pej.) Lamé, Doe (Doué), Dari. Related to Herdé [hed] and Ngeté [nnn] with differences in phonology, grammar, and ethnic attitudes.
mse Musey Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Masa Chad Mayo-Kebbi Est region: Kabbia and Mont d’Illi departments, Fianga, Gounou Gaya; Mayo-Kebbi Ouest region: small border enclave; Tandjilé region: Tandjilé Ouest department, Kélo 308,000 in Chad (2013 J. Leclerc). Total users in all countries: 358,000 5* (Developing) Bananna, Bananna Ho Ho, Mosi, Moussei, Moussey, Musei, Mussoi, Mussoy Museyna Bongor-Jodo-Tagal-Berem-Gunu, Pe-Holom-Gamé, Jaraw-Domo. Some intelligibility of Masana [mcn]. Marba [mpg] (Azumeina) is reportedly most similar linguistically. All dialects mutually intelligible. Dialect names are village names. Pe dialect is in Cameroon.
nnn Ngete Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Masa Chad Mayo-Kebbi Ouest region: Mayo-Dallah department, Ngeté village area east of Pala; south Mayo-Kebbi Est region 10,000 (1991 UBS) 6a* (Vigorous) Ka’do Ngueté, Nge’dé, Nguetté, Ngueté, Zime None known. Linguistic and sociolinguistic differences with Pévé [lme] and Herdé [hed]. Used by outsiders to refer to this and related languages: Herdé, Pévé, Mesmé [zim].
hed Herdé Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Masa Chad Mayo-Kebbi Est region; Mayo-Kebbi Ouest region: Mayo-Dallah and Lac Léré departments, Pala and Lamé area 40,000 (1999 SIL) 6a* (Vigorous) He’dé, Ka’do Herdé, Zime, Zime of Pala, “Kado” (pej.)
mpg Marba Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Masa Chad Mayo-Kebbi Est region: Kabbia department, north of Kélo (Léo dialect); Tandjilé region: Tandjilé Ouest department (Marba and Kolon dialects) 218,000 (2013 J. Leclerc) 5* (Developing) Azumeina Marba Marba (Banana, Bananna, Maraba), Kolon (Kolong, Kulung), Léo (Leou, Lew), Monogoy.
mcn Masana Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Masa Cameroon Far North region: southeast Mayo-Danay division, Yagoua town area 103,000 in Cameroon (1982 SIL) 5* (Developing) Masa, Massa, Massana, “Banana” (pej.) Yagwa (Yagoua), Domo, Walya (Walia), Bongor, Wina (Viri), Gizay (Guissey), Budugum.
mcn Masana Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Masa Chad Mayo-Kebbi Est region: Mayo-Boneye department, Bongor subprefecture, along Logone river; small group in Chari-Baguirmi region 192,000 in Chad (2013 J. Leclerc). Total users in all countries: 295,000 5* (Developing) Masa, Massa, “Banana” (pej.) Massana Yagwa (Yagoua), Bongor, Wina (Viri), Walia (Walya), Domo, Gizay (Gisey, Guissey), Bugudum (Budugum), Gumay (Goumaye), Ham. All dialects understand Yagoua dialect well; Gizay and Yagoua dialects are 80% mutually intelligible. Lexical similarity: 97% between the Budugum dialect and the most similar other dialect.
zim Mesme Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Masa Chad Tandjilé region: Tandjilé Ouest department, between Kélo and Pala 20,100 (1993 census) 5* (Developing) Djime, Djiwe, Zime, Zime of Kélo Bero, Zamre. Related to Pévé [lme], Ngeté [nnn], and Herdé [hed].
mse Musey Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Masa Cameroon Far North region: Mayo-Danay division, east of Guere on Chad border 50,000 in Cameroon (2005 SIL). Based on the actual population of the subdivisions where the Musey people are present as of the 2005 census (2014 C. Hamm) 5* (Developing) Bananna, Bananna Ho, Ho, Mosi, Moussei, Moussey, Musaya, Musei, Museyna, Musiina, Musoi, Mussoi, Mussoy Pe.
lme Pévé Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Masa Cameroon North region: Mayo-Rey division, northeast of Tchollire, Bouba-Ndjida Park area 5,720 in Cameroon (2000) 6a* (Vigorous) Ka’do, Lamé
zuy Zumaya Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, Masa Cameroon Far North region: Diamaré division, Maroua subdivision, Ouro-Lamorde No known L1 speakers. The last speaker probably died or shifted to Fulfulde by the late 1980s 10 (Extinct)
hau Hausa Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.1 Nigeria Widespread 48,300,000 in Nigeria, all users. L1 users: 33,300,000 in Nigeria (2015). L2 users: 15,000,000. Total users in all countries: 63,428,100 (as L1: 43,928,100; as L2: 19,500,000) 2 (Provincial). De facto provincial language in northern region. Spoken as L2 in the north Abakwariga, Habe, Haoussa, Hausawa, Kado, Mgbakpa Hausa Kano, Katagum, Hadejiya, Sokoto, Gobirawa, Adarawa, Kebbawa, Zamfarawa, Katsina, Arewa. Barikanchi [bxo] is a Hausa pidgin used in military barracks. There is also a pidgin or market Hausa [gib]. Subdialects of Eastern Hausa: Kano, Katagum, Hadejiya; of Western Hausa: Sokoto, Katsina, Gobirawa, Adarawa, Kebbawa, Zamfarawa; of North Hausa: Arewa, Arawa. Abakwariga is a subgroup.
gwn Gwandara Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.1 Nigeria Abuja Capital Territory: Bwali and Kwai LGAs; Kaduna state: Kaura LGA; Nassarawa state: Akwanga, Keffi, Lafia, and Nasarawa LGAs; Niger state: Gurara and Suleija LGAs; Plateau state: Riyom LGA 27,300 (2000) 6a* (Vigorous) Kwandara Gwandara Karashi, Gwandara Koro, Gwandara Southern (Kyan Kyar), Gwandara Eastern (Toni), Gwandara Gitata, Nimbia.
hau Hausa Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.1 Benin Widespread north: Alibori, Atacora, Borgou, and Donga departments, mainly in larger towns, market villages Ethnic population: 800,000 (2006 J. Leclerc) 3 (Wider communication)
hau Hausa Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.1 Burkina Faso Scattered. Est region: Gourma and Tapoa provinces 500 in Burkina Faso (Vanderaa 1991) 5* (Dispersed) Haoussa
hau Hausa Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.1 Cameroon Widespread 23,500 in Cameroon (1982 SIL) 5* (Dispersed) Haoussa, Hawsa
hau Hausa Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.1 Chad Widespread in the south 100,000 in Chad (Gunnemark and Kenrick 1985) 3 (Wider communication). Widespread use as L2 in northern Chad
hau Hausa Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.1 Côte d’Ivoire Abidjan 395,000 in Côte d’Ivoire (Leclerc 2017c). Ethnic population: 1,000,000 5* (Dispersed)
hau Hausa Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.1 Ghana Widespread 3 (Wider communication). Used as L2 in the north None known. There is evidence to suggest Ghanaian Hausa is a distinct variety of Hausa.
hau Hausa Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.1 Niger Widespread 14,500,000 in Niger, all users. L1 users: 10,000,000 in Niger (2016). L2 users: 4,500,000 (2015) 3 (Wider communication). Recognized language (2001, Language Law No. 2001-037), mainly used in education. The main trade language of Niger Haoussa, Hausawa, Haussa Dawra, Katsina, Damagaram, Gobirawa, Aderawa, Arewa, Kurfey, Gaya.
hau Hausa Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.1 Sudan Blue Nile and Khartoum states; scattered in Khartoum, along Blue Nile river; Kordofan 80,000 in Sudan (2007) 5* (Dispersed)
kof Kubi Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.2, Bole, Bole Proper Nigeria Bauchi state: Ganjuwa LGA No known L1 speakers. The last speaker either died or shifted to Hausa [hau] by 1940 (Ogbonna 2016). Ethnic population: 1,500 (1995 CAPRO) 9 (Dormant) Be, Denawa, Deno, Denwa, Kuba, Kubawa
bxq Beele Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.2, Bole, Bole Proper Nigeria Bauchi state: a few villages 120 (Temple and Temple 1922) 6b (Threatened) Bele, Bellawa, Àbéélé None known. A separate language from Bole [bol].
bol Bole Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.2, Bole, Bole Proper Nigeria Bauchi state: Alkaleri, Darazo, and Dukku LGAs; Gombe state: Dukku LGA; Plateau state: Wase LGA; Yobe state: Fika LGA 100,000 (1990) 6a* (Vigorous) Ampika, Bolanchi, Bolanci, Bolawa, Bolewa, Borpika Bara, Fika (Anpika, Fikankayen, bòo Pìkkà).
bvh Bure Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.2, Bole, Bole Proper Nigeria Bauchi state: Kirfi LGA, Bure village 20 (Batic 2011), decreasing. Ethnic population: 500 8b (Nearly extinct) Bubure
dbb Deno Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.2, Bole, Bole Proper Nigeria Bauchi state: Darazo LGA, 45 km northeast of Bauchi town; Gombe state: Dukku LGA 6,000 (1995 CAPRO) 6a* (Vigorous) Be, Denawa, Denwa
glo Galambu Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.2, Bole, Bole Proper Nigeria Bauchi state: Bauchi LGA Ethnic population: 25,000 (2006 J. Leclerc) 6a* (Vigorous) Galambe, Galambi, Galembi
gew Gera Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.2, Bole, Bole Proper Nigeria Bauchi state: Bauchi and Ganjuwa LGAs, Bauchi town 200,000 (1995 CAPRO) 6a* (Vigorous) Gerawa, Rawam
gea Geruma Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.2, Bole, Bole Proper Nigeria Bauchi state: Bauchi, Ganjuwa, South Ningi, and Toro LGAs 9,030 (2000) 6a* (Vigorous) Gerema, Germa Sum, Duurum.
kks Giiwo Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.2, Bole, Bole Proper Nigeria Bauchi state: Alkaleri, Bauchi, and Darazo LGAs 14,000 (1998 SIL) 6a* (Vigorous) Bu Giiwo, Kirfi, Kirifawa, Kirifi
ktc Kholok Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.2, Bole, Bole Proper Nigeria Taraba state: Karim Lamido LGA, near Didango 2,500 (Voegelin and Voegelin 1977) 6b* (Threatened) Kode, Koode, Kwoode, Pia, Pitiko, Widala, Wurkum
mew Maaka Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.2, Bole, Bole Proper Nigeria Yobe state: Gulani LGA, Bara town area 10,000 (1993) 6a* (Vigorous) Maga, Magha, Maha, Maka
nbh Ngamo Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.2, Bole, Bole Proper Nigeria Bauchi state: Darazo LGA; Gombe state: Nafada-Bajoga LGA: Yobe state: Fika LGA 60,000 (1993) 6a* (Vigorous) Gamawa, Gamo, Ngamawa
nmi Nyam Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.2, Bole, Bole Proper Nigeria Taraba state: Karim Lamido LGA, Ndallang, northeast of Andamin village Ethnic population: 100 (2006 J. Leclerc) 6b* (Threatened) Nyambolo
kai Karekare Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.2, Bole, Karekare Nigeria Bauchi state: Gamawa and Misau LGAs; Gombe state: Dukku LGA small area; Yobe state: Fika and Nangere LGAs 150,000 (1995 CAPRO) 6a* (Vigorous) Karai Karai, Karai-karai, Karaikarai, Kerekere, Kerrikerri Jalalam (West Karekare), Birkai, Kwarta Mataci.
kna Dera Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.2, Tangale, Dera Nigeria Adamawa state: Guyuk LGA; Borno state: Biu LGA; Gombe state: Balanga LGA 20,000 (1973 SIL) 5* (Developing) Kanakuru Shani, Shellen, Gasi.
kuh Kushi Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.2, Tangale, Tangale Proper Nigeria Gombe state: Shomgom LGA, Kushi village 11,000 (1995 CAPRO) 6a* (Vigorous) Chong’e, Goji, Kushe
kpa Kutto Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.2, Tangale, Tangale Proper Nigeria Gombe state: Funakaye LGA, 2 villages 3,000 (1995) 6b* (Threatened) Kupto, Kúttò
ksq Kwaami Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.2, Tangale, Tangale Proper Nigeria Bauchi state: Gombe LGA 10,000 (1990) 6a* (Vigorous) Komawa, Kwam, Kwamanchi, Kwami, Kwom
pip Pero Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.2, Tangale, Tangale Proper Nigeria Gombe state: Kaltungo LGA, Burak, Gundalf, Gwandum, Kushi, and Yapito; Taraba state: Karim-Lamido LGA; possibly Bauchi state 25,000 (1995 CAPRO) 6a* (Vigorous) Filiya, Pipero
piy Piya-Kwonci Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.2, Tangale, Tangale Proper Nigeria Bauchi state; Taraba state: Karim Lamido LGA. 21 villages or more 5,000 (1992) 5* (Developing) Pia, Pitiko, Piya, Wurkum Ambandi Piya, Kwonci.
tan Tangale Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.2, Tangale, Tangale Proper Nigeria Bauchi state: Alkaleri LGA, Futuk village; Gombe state: Akko, Balanga, Billiri, and Kaltungo LGAs 200,000 (2006 census) 6b (Threatened) Tangle Kaltungo (Tangale East), Biliri (Tangale West).
sur Mwaghavul Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.3, Angas Proper, 1 Nigeria Plateau state: Barakin-Ladi and Mangu LGAs 150,000 (2016 R. Blench) 3 (Wider communication) Maghavul, Sura Mwaghavul Mupun (Mapan, Mapun), Panyam. Reportedly similar to Cakfem-Mushere [cky] and Miship [mjs].
cky Cakfem-Mushere Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.3, Angas Proper, 1 Nigeria Plateau state: Mangu LGA 5,000 (1990 SIL) 6a (Vigorous) Chakfem, Chokfem Jajura, Kadim, Kaban, Mushere, Chakfem.
jrt Jorto Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.3, Angas Proper, 1 Nigeria Plateau state: Shendam LGA, Dokan Kasuwa Unattested
kwl Kofyar Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.3, Angas Proper, 1 Nigeria Nassarawa state: Lafia LGA; Plateau state: Mangu and Qua’an Pan LGAs 110,000 (2000) 6a (Vigorous) Koffiar Kofyar (Kwong), Kwagallak (Kwa’alang, Kwalla), Dimmuk (Dimuk, Doemak), Mirriam (Mernyang), Bwol (Bwal, Mbol), Gworam (Giverom, Goram), Jipal (Jepal, Jepel, Jibyal).
mjs Miship Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.3, Angas Proper, 1 Nigeria Plateau state: Mangu, Pankshin, and Shendam LGAs 6,000 (1976 SIL) 6a* (Vigorous) Chip, Cip, Ship Doka.
anc Ngas Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.3, Angas Proper, 1 Nigeria Plateau state: Kanam, Langtang, and Pankshin LGAs 400,000 (1998 SIL) 6a* (Vigorous) Angas, Karang, Kerang Hill Angas, Plain Angas.
pcw Pyapun Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.3, Angas Proper, 2 Nigeria Plateau state: Shendam LGA 3,000 (2016 R. Blench) 6b* (Threatened) None known. Related to Tal [tal] and Montol [mtl].
ank Goemai Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.3, Angas Proper, 2 Nigeria Nassarawa state: Awe and Lafia LGAs; Plateau state: Shendam LGA 200,000 (1995) 6b* (Threatened) Ankwai, Ankwe, Ankwei, Gamai, Kemai
kcs Koenoem Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.3, Angas Proper, 2 Nigeria Plateau state: Shendam LGA 3,000 (2016 R. Blench) 6b* (Threatened) Kanam
mtl Montol Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.3, Angas Proper, 2 Nigeria Plateau state: Shendam LGA 21,900 (1990) 6a* (Vigorous) Baltap, Montal, Teel, Tehl Montol, Baltap-Lalin. Related to Tal [tal].
tal Tal Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.3, Angas Proper, 2 Nigeria Plateau state: Pankshin LGA 10,000 (1973 SIL) 6a (Vigorous)
gek Ywom Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.3, Yiwom Nigeria Plateau state: Langtang, Mikang, and Shendam LGAs; Taraba state 10,000 (2016 R. Blench) 6a* (Vigorous) Garkawa, Gerka, Gerkanchi, Gerkawa, Gurka, Yioum, Yiwom
fie Fyer Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.4, Fyer Nigeria Plateau state: Pankshin LGA, Fyer district 26,100 (2000) 6a* (Vigorous) Fier
tdk Tambas Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.4, Fyer Nigeria Plateau state: Pankshin LGA 3,000 (2001 R. Blench) 6b* (Threatened) Tambes, Tembis
mmf Mundat Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.4, Ron Proper Nigeria Plateau state: Bokkos LGA, Mundat village near Sha 1,000 (1998 SIL) 6b* (Threatened) None known. Reportedly similar to Sha [scw] and Duhwa [kbz].
kbz Duhwa Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.4, Ron Proper Nigeria Nassarawa state: Akwanga LGA, Kerifa village; Plateau state: Barkin Ladi and Bokkos LGAs 800 (1973 SIL) 6b* (Threatened) Karfa, Kerifa, Nzuhwi
kul Kulere Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.4, Ron Proper Nigeria Plateau state: Bokkos LGA 15,600 (1990) 6a* (Vigorous) Akande, Akandi, Kande, Korom Boye, Tof Tof, Richa, Kamwai-Marhai.
cla Ron Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.4, Ron Proper Nigeria Plateau state: Barakin-Ladi, Bokkos, and Mangu LGAs; possibly Nassawara state 176,000 (2006 census). 20,000 Shagau (Manguna) 6a (Vigorous) Alis I Ron (Alis I Run, Bokkos), Lis Ma Ron (Lis Ma Run), Shagau (Maleni, Manguna, Nafunfia, Shagawu).
scw Sha Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.4, Ron Proper Nigeria Kaduna state: Sanga LGA border; Plateau state: Bokkos LGA, Sha district 3,000 (1998 SIL) 6b* (Threatened)
bde Bade Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.1, Bade Proper Nigeria Yobe state: Bade, Jakusko, Borsari and Bade LGAs; Jigawa state: Guri LGA; Bauchi state: Zaki LGA 250,000 (2007 IMB) 6a (Vigorous) Badanci, Bedde, Bede, Gidgid Gabaden Gashua Bade (Mazgarwa), Southern Bade (Bade-Kado), Western Bade (Amshi, Maagwaram, Magwaram), Shirawa (Shira). Amshi 91% and Southern 87% of all Bade dialects. Ngizim [ngi] and Duwai [dbp] not intelligible of Bade. Shirawa dialect is extinct (2018 R. Blench). Lexical similarity: 63% with Ngizim [ngi], 61% with Duwai [dbp].
ngi Ngizim Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.1, Bade Proper Nigeria Yobe state: Damaturu LGA 80,000 (1993) 6a* (Vigorous) Ngezzim, Ngizmawa
dbp Duwai Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.1, Duwai Nigeria Kano state: Hadejia LGA; Yobe state: Bade LGA 11,400 (2000) 6a* (Vigorous) Eastern Bade, Evji
ajw Ajawa Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.2 Nigeria Bauchi state No known L1 speakers. The last speaker either died or shifted to Hausa [hau] by 1940 (Ogbonna 2016) 10 (Extinct) Aja, Ajanci None known. Related to Miya [mkf].
wji Warji Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.2 Nigeria Bauchi state: Ningi LGA; Jigawa state: Birnin Kudu LGA 77,700 (2000) 6a* (Vigorous) Sar, Sarawa, Warja, Warjawa Miya [mkf] may be a dialect.
tgd Ciwogai Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.2 Nigeria Bauchi state: Ganjuwa LGA, Tsagu village area 2,000 (1995 CAPRO) 6b* (Threatened) Sago, Tsagu None known. Related to Diri [dwa].
dwa Diri Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.2 Nigeria Bauchi state: Darazo and Ningi LGAs 7,200 (2000) 6a* (Vigorous) Diriya, Dirya, Diryawa
kil Kariya Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.2 Nigeria Bauchi state: Ganjuwa LGA, Kariya village near Miya town 2,000 (1995 CAPRO) 6b* (Threatened) Kariyu, Kauyawa, Lipkawa, Vinahe, Wihe
bbt Mburku Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.2 Nigeria Bauchi state: Darazo LGA 12,000 (2000) 6a* (Vigorous) Barke, Barko, Burkanawa, Kariya, Lipkawa, Mburkanci, Wudufu, Wuufu
mkf Miya Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.2 Nigeria Bauchi state: Ganjuwa LGA, Miya town 30,000 (1995 CAPRO) 6a* (Vigorous) Miyanci, Miyawa, Muya, vә́na mίy Gala, Faishang, Fursum, Demshin, Federe.
pqa Pa’a Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.2 Nigeria Bauchi state: Bauchi and Ningi LGAs 8,000 (1995 CAPRO) 6a* (Vigorous) Afa, Afanci, Afawa, Fa’awa, Foni, Fucaka, Fuucəka, Pa’anci, Pa’awa, Pala
sir Siri Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.2 Nigeria Bauchi state: Ningi LGA Ethnic population: 3,800 (2006 J. Leclerc) 8a (Moribund) Sirawa
jmb Zumbun Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.2 Nigeria Bauchi state: Darazo LGA, Jimbim settlement 2,000 (1995 CAPRO) 6b* (Threatened) Jimbin, Jimbinawa
dot Dass Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.3 Nigeria Bauchi state: Akleri, Dass, and Toro LGAs; Plateau state: Shendam LGA 8,830. 1,130 Lukshi, 4,700 Durr-Baraza, 700 Wandi and Zumbul, 2,300 Dot (1971 census) 6a* (Vigorous) Barawa Lukshi (Dekshi), Durr-Baraza (Bandas), Zumbul (Boodla), Wandi (Wangday), Dot (Dott, Dwat, Zodi). A dialect subgroup.
bux Boghom Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.3, Boghom Nigeria Plateau state: Kanam, Shendam, and Wase LGAs 50,000 (1973 SIL) 6a* (Vigorous) Bogghom, Boghorom, Bohom, Bokiyim, Borrom, Burma, Burom, Burrum, Burum None known. Related to Mangas [zns].
kkr Kir-Balar Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.3, Boghom Nigeria Bauchi state: Bauchi LGA, Kir Bajang’leand Kir Bengbet villages 3,050 (1993) 6b* (Threatened) Kir, Kirr Kir, Balar (Larbawa).
zns Mangas Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.3, Boghom Nigeria Bauchi state: Bauchi LGA, Mangas town 100 (1995 CAPRO) 6b* (Threatened)
jmi Jimi Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.3, Eastern Nigeria Bauchi state: Ganjuwa LGA, Jimi village 1,000 (1995 CAPRO) 7 (Shifting) Bi-Gimu Zumo.
grd Guruntum-Mbaaru Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.3, Guruntum Nigeria Bauchi state: Alkaleri and Bauchi LGAs 15,000 (1993) 8a (Moribund) Gurdung, Guruntum Dooka, Gar, Gayar, Karakara, Kuuku, Mbaaru.
juu Ju Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.3, Guruntum Nigeria Bauchi state: Bauchi LGA, Ju village 900 (1993) 6b (Threatened)
tak Tala Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.3, Guruntum Nigeria Bauchi state: Bauchi LGA, Kuka and Talan Kasa villages 1,000 (1993) 6b* (Threatened)
zah Zangwal Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.3, Guruntum Nigeria Bauchi state: Bauchi LGA 100 (1993) 6b* (Threatened) Twar, Zwangal
gji Geji Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.3, Zaar Proper Nigeria Bauchi state: Toro LGA 6,000 (1995 CAPRO) 6a (Vigorous) Gejawa, Gezawa, Kayauri Bolu (Magang, Pelu), Geji (Gaejawa, Gezawa, Gyaazi), Zaranda (Buu). Geji dialect subgroup, in Barawa [dot] language subgroup.
ldd Luri Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.3, Zaar Proper Nigeria Bauchi state: Bauchi LGA, Kayarda and Luri villages No known L1 speakers. Last known speakers survived through the first decade of the 2000s (Caron 2004) 10 (Extinct) Lúr May have been a dialect of Polci [plj].
plj Polci Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.3, Zaar Proper Nigeria Bauchi state: Bauchi, Dass, and Toro LGAs 22,000 (1995 CAPRO). 2,000 Zul (1995), 4,000 Buli (1993), 400 Langas (1993), 15,000 Polci, 250 Baram (1993), 800 Dir (1993) 6a* (Vigorous) Palchi, Palci, Polchi Zul (Barma, Mbarmi), Baram (Barang, Mbaram), Dir (Baram Dutse, Diir, Dra), Buli, Langas (Lundur, Nyamzax), Polci (Palci, Polshi, Posa). Dialect cluster within Barawa language cluster (Crozier and Blench 1992).
say Saya Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.3, Zaar Proper Nigeria Bauchi state: Bogoro, Dass, Tafawa-Balewa, and Toro LGAs; Plateau state: Kanem and Mangu LGA borders 300,000 (2013 SIL). 7,000 Sigidi (1995 CAPRO) 6a (Vigorous) Sayanci, Sayara, Sayawa, Seiyara, Seya, Seyawa, Vigzar, Vikzar, Zaar Ntumu, Okak (Ntumu), Sigidi (Segiddi, Sigdi, Sugudi), Gambar (Gambar Leere, Kal, Lusa, Vigzar, Vikzar). Dialect cluster within Barawa language cluster (Crozier and Blench 1992). Lusa is the prestige dialect and other dialects are thought to be shifting to Lusa.
zaz Zari Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.3, Zaar Proper Nigeria Bauchi state: Dass, Tafawa Balewa, and Toro LGAs No known L1 speakers. The last speaker died by the year 2000 (Campbell and Belew 2018). Ethnic population: 20,700 (2000 CAPRO). 20,000 Zakshi (1995 CAPRO), 1,000 Boto (Gunn 1953) 9 (Dormant) Zariwa Zakshi (Zaksa), Boto (Bibot, Boot), Zari (Kopti, Kwapm). Dialect cluster within Barawa cluster (Crozier and Blench 1992).
zua Zeem Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, B, B.3, Zaar Proper Nigeria Bauchi state: Toro LGA No known L1 speakers. Last speakers may have survived into the 2000s 9 (Dormant) Chaari Tulai (Tule), Danshe, Lushi (Dokshi, Lukshi), Dyarim (Kaiwari, Kaiyorawa). Zeem dialect cluster within Barawa language cluster (Crozier and Blench 1992).
xan Xamtanga Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, Central, Eastern Ethiopia Amhara region: Avergele district, Lasta and Waag zones; Tigray region: southeast in Jirurzba area 224,000, all users. L1 users: 213,000 (2010 UNSD). L2 users: 11,000. 93,900 monolinguals 4 (Educational) Agaw, Agawinya, Khamtanga, Simt’anga, Xamir, Xamta ኃምታጛ‎ (X’imt’a-nga) None known. Low inherent intelligibility of Qimant [ahg]. Lexical similarity: 45% with Qimant [ahg].
byn Bilen Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, Central, Northern Eritrea Anseba region: Keren town area 112,000 (2016) 5 (Developing) Balen, Belen, Beleni, Bilayn, Bilein, Bilene, Bileno, Bilin, Bogo, Bogos, North Agaw Blin, ብሊን‎ (Blin) Senhit, T’aqwur.
awn Awngi Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, Central, Southern Ethiopia Amhara region: Awi and north Gonder zones, southwest of Lake Tana; Benishangul-Gumuz region: Metekel zone 553,400, all users. L1 users: 489,000 (2007 census), increasing. L2 users: 64,400 (1994 census). 323,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 636,000 (2007 census) 4 (Educational) Agau, Agaw, Agew, Agew-Awi, Agow, Awŋi, Awawar, Awi, Awija, Awiya, Damot, Kwollanyoch, “Kumfel” (pej.), “Kunfel” (pej.), “Kunfäl” (pej.) Dega, Kwolla, Northern Awngi (“Kunfäl” (pej.)).
ahg Qimant Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, Central, Western Ethiopia Amhara region: north Gonder zone, north of Lake Tana 4,830, all users. L1 users: 1,650 (1994 census). L2 users: 3,180. Ethnic population: 172,000 (1994 census) 8b (Nearly extinct) Agaw, Kemant, Kemantney, Kimanteney, Qemant, Western Agaw Qimant (Chemant, Kamant, Kemanat, Kemant, Kimant, Qemant), Dembiya (Dambya, Dembya), Hwarasa (“Kara” (pej.), Qwara, Qwarina), Kayla, Semyen, Achpar, Kwolasa (Kwolacha). Distinct from Awngi [awn], Bilen [byn], and Xamtanga [xan].
bnl Boon Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East Somalia Jubbada Dhexe region: Jilib district, bush settlements 59 (2000) 8a (Moribund) Af-Boon None known. Reportedly similar to Somali [som].
tsb Tsamai Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Dullay Ethiopia Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ region: South Omo area, lowlands west of Lake Chamo 19,200, all users. L1 users: 18,000 (2007 census). L2 users: 1,200. 5,300 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 20,000 (2007 census) 5 (Developing) Bago S’aamakk-Ulo, Cule, Kuile, Kule, S’amai, Tamaha, Ts’amay, Tsamakko, Tsamako, Tsemay Bago Ts’amakkilo The Tsamai say Ale [gwd] is difficult to understand. Possibly related to Birale [bxe]. The most divergent variety in the Dullay classification. Lexical similarity: 56%–73% with Ale [gwd] dialects, 61% with Bussa [dox], 31% with Konso [kxc].
gwd Ale Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Dullay Ethiopia Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ region: Segen zone, west of Lake Chamo 85,670, all users. L1 users: 84,300 (2017). L2 users: 1,370. 27,500 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 68,600 (2007 census) 5 (Developing) Dabosse, Debase, Dobase, Dullay, Gobeze, Qawko, Werizoid, “Gauwada” (pej.), “Gawata” (pej.), “Gawwada” (pej.), “Gewada” (pej.), “Kawwad’a” (pej.), “Kawwada” (pej.) Ale (Ale) Tihinte (Dihina), Gargarte (K’ark’arte), Dobase (Gobeze), Golango (Kollanko, Wollango), Gorroze, Harse (Worase). Lexical similarity: 78% with Bussa [dox], 73% with Tsamai [tsb], 77% with the Harso dialect, 92% with the Gollango dialect, 41% with Konso [kxc]. The Harso dialect has 80% lexical similarity with the Dobase dialect of Bussa [dox], 56% with Tsamai [tsb].
bji Burji Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Highland Ethiopia Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ region: south of Lake Chamo; into Oromia region 49,450 in Ethiopia, all users. L1 users: 46,400 in Ethiopia (2007 census). L2 users: 3,050. 29,300 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 71,800 (2007 census). Total users in all countries: 73,150 (as L1: 70,100; as L2: 3,050) 4 (Educational) Bambala, Bembala, Daashi ቡረጊ‎ (Burji) None known. Lexical similarity: 41% with Sidamo [sid] (most similar).
drs Gedeo Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Highland Ethiopia Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ and Oromia regions: central highland area, southwest of Dilla and east of Lake Abaya 1,023,000, all users. L1 users: 975,000 (2007 census). L2 users: 48,000. 439,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 976,000 (2007 census) 4 (Educational) Geddeo, “Darasa” (pej.), “Darassa” (pej.), “Derasa” (pej.), “Derasanya” (pej.), “Deresa” (pej.) None known. Lexical similarity: 60% with Sidamo [sid] (most similar), 57% with Alaba-Kabeena [alw], 54% with Kambaata [ktb], 51% with Hadiyya [hdy].
alw Alaba-K’abeena Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Highland Ethiopia Oromia region: Rift Valley southwest of Lake Shala; Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ region 307,700, all users. L1 users: 278,000 (2007 census). 227,000 Alaba, 51,300 K’abeena (2007 census). L2 users: 29,700. 111,000 monolinguals (1994 census). Ethnic population: 286,000 (2007 census). 233,000 Alaba, 52,700 K’abeena (2007 census) 4 (Educational) Alaaba, Allaaba, Halaba, K’abeena, K’abena, Qebena, Wanbasana Alaaba (Alaba, Wanbasana), K’abeena (Qebena). Lexical similarity: 81% with Kambaata [ktb], 64% with Sidamo [sid], 56% with Libido [liq], 54% with Hadiyya [hdy].
bji Burji Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Highland Kenya Marsabit county: Moyale township area 23,700 in Kenya (2009 census) 7 (Shifting) Bambala
hdy Hadiyya Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Highland Ethiopia Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ region: Gurage, Hadiyya, and Kambaata zones, between Omo and Billate rivers, Hosaina town area; Oromia region: east Shewa zone 1,401,000, all users. L1 users: 1,250,000 (2007 census). L2 users: 151,000. 595,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 1,270,000 (2007 census) 4 (Educational) Adea, Adiya, Adiye, Hadia, Hadiya, Hadya Hadiyyisa Leemo, Soro. Lexical similarity: 82% with Libido [liq], 56% with Kambaata [ktb], 54% with Alaba-Kabeena [alw], 53% with Sidamo [sid].
ktb Kambaata Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Highland Ethiopia Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ region: southwest Gurage, Kambaata, and Hadiyya zones; Durame is main town 822,300, all users. L1 users: 743,000 (2007 census). 30,100 Donga, 97,800 Timbaro (2007 census). L2 users: 79,300. 330,500 monolinguals. Includes 279,000 Kambaata, 51,600 Timbaro. Ethnic population: 761,000 (2007 census). Includes 35,200 Donga, 98,600 Timbaro (2007 census) 4 (Educational) Donga, Kambara, Kambata, Kambatta, Kemata, Kembata Kambaatissata Tambaro, Timbaro (T’imbaaro, Timbaaro, Timbara, Timebaro). Lexical similarity: 95% between dialects, 81% with Alaba-Kabeena [alw], 62% with Sidamo [sid], 57% with Libido [liq], 56% with Hadiyya [hdy].
liq Libido Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Highland Ethiopia Oromia region: west of Lake Ziway; Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ region: Gurage, Hadiyya, and Kambaata zones, northeast of Hosaina 68,010, all users. L1 users: 58,800 (2007 census). L2 users: 9,210. 14,700 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 64,300 (2007 census) 4 (Educational) Mareko, Mareqo None known. Syntactic, morphological, and lexical differences from Hadiyya [hdy]. Lexical similarity: 82% with Hadiyya [hdy], 57% with Kambaata [ktb], 56% with Alaba-Kabeena [alw], 53% with Sidamo [sid].
sid Sidamo Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Highland Ethiopia Oromia region: southeast of Lake Awasa; Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ region: northeast of Lake Abaya 3,081,000, all users. L1 users: 2,980,000 (2007 census). L2 users: 101,000. 2,530,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 2,950,000 (2007 census) 4 (Educational) Sidaama, Sidaamu afii, Sidama, Sidaminya, Sidámo ’Afó Sidaamu Afoo None known. Lexical similarity: 64% with Alaba-Kabeena [alw], 62% with Kambaata [ktb], 53% with Hadiyya [hdy].
gdl Dirasha Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Konso-Gidole Ethiopia Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ region: Tsegen zone, Gidole town area in hills west of Lake Chamo 80,500, all users. L1 users: 73,500 (2007 census). 15,300 Dirasha, 49,900 Gidole, 8,250 Kusumitta (2007 census). L2 users: 7,000. Ethnic population: 80,400 (2007 census). 30,100 Dirasha, 41,100 Gidole, 9,210 Kusumitta (2007 census) 5 (Developing) Derashe, Dhirasha, Dhiraytata, Diraasha, Dirashitata, Dirayta, Diraytta, Gardulla, Gedoligna, Ghidole, Gidole Dhirayta Mosiya, Kusumitta (Kusumie). Part of a dialect continuum with Konso [kxc] and Bussa [dox]. Lexical similarity: 55% with Konso [kxc].
dox Bussa Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Konso-Gidole Ethiopia Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ region: Segen zone, west of Lake Chamo 19,020, all users. L1 users: 18,100 (2007 census). L2 users: 920. 4,960 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 30,000 (2007 census) 6b* (Threatened) Buusa, D’oopace, D’opaasunte, Dobase, Gobeze, Goraze, Gowase, Lohu, Mashelle, Mashile, Masholle, Mosittacha, Mosittata, Mosiye, Mossiye, Musiye, Orase Mashola. There is a dialect chain with Konso-Dirasha-Dobase. Lexical similarity: 78% with Ale [gwd], 51% with Konso [kxc], 86% with the Gollango dialect of Ale, 80% with the Harso dialect of Ale, 61% with Tsamai [tsb].
kxc Konso Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Konso-Gidole Ethiopia Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ region: Segen zone south of Lake Chamo, near Segen River bend 247,660 in Ethiopia, all users. L1 users: 242,000 in Ethiopia (2007 census), increasing. L2 users: 5,660. 139,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 251,000 (2007 census). Total users in all countries: 247,660 (as L1: 242,000; as L2: 5,660) 4 (Educational) Af Kareti, Afa Karatti, Conso, Gato, Karate, Kareti, Komso Khonso Kholme, Duuro, Fasha, Karatti. Lexical similarity: 55% with Dirasha [gdl], 51% with Bussa [dox], 41% with Ale [gwd], 31% with Tsamai [tsb].
gaz Oromo, West Central Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Oromo Ethiopia Widespread 8,920,000 (1994 census). 24,900,000 all Oromo speakers in Ethiopia (2007 census). Ethnic population: 30,000,000 2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial working language in Oromia Region (1994, Constitution, Article 47(3)). West Central Oromo [gaz] is lingua franca of the area Afan Oromo, Oromiffa, Oromoo, “Galla” (pej.) Afaan Oromoo Western Oromo, Central Oromo. Subdialects are Mecha (Maccha, Wellaga, Wallaga, Wollega), Raya, Wello (Wollo), and Tulema (Tulama, Shoa, Shewa). Harar and Borana are most divergent. A member of macrolanguage Oromo [orm].
gax Borana Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Oromo Kenya Isiolo, Laikipia, Mandera, Marsabit, and Wajir counties: Lake Turkana east to Ethiopia-Somalia border, and south toward Nairobi 278,000 in Kenya (2009 census), increasing. Borana: 161,000, Gabra: 89,500, Sakuye: 26,800 5 (Developing) Afaani Borana, Booran, Boraan, Boraana, Boran, Oromo, Southern Oromo, “Galla” (pej.) Boran, Arsi, Guji.
orc Orma Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Oromo Kenya Kilifi, Lamu, and Tana River counties 66,300 (2009 census), increasing 6a (Vigorous) Munyo (Korokoro, Munyo Yaya), Orma. Distinct from Borana [gax]. Munyo Yaya is an ethnic group who speak a dialect of Orma. A member of macrolanguage Oromo [orm].
gax Oromo, Borana-Arsi-Guji Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Oromo Ethiopia Afar, Amhara, and Somali regions; Oromia region: south; Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ region 3,630,000 in Ethiopia (2007). 24,900,000 all Oromo speakers in Ethiopia (2007 census). Total users in all countries: 3,949,600 5 (Developing) Afan Oromo, Booranaa, Borana, Oromiffa, Oromoo, Southern Oromo, “Galla” (pej.), “Galligna” (pej.), “Gallinya” (pej.) Afaan Oromoo A member of macrolanguage Oromo [orm].
gax Oromo, Borana-Arsi-Guji Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Oromo Somalia Gedo region 41,600 in Somalia (2000) 5* (Developing) Southern Oromo Borana (Booran, Boran).
hae Oromo, Eastern Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Oromo Ethiopia Afar region: south; Dire Dawa and Harari regions; Oromia region: north Bale, east Hararghe, and west Hararghe zones; Somali region: Shinile zone 4,530,000 (1994). 24,900,000 all Oromo speakers in Ethiopia (2007 census) 5 (Developing) Afan Oromo, Harar, Harar Oromo, Harer, Ittu, Oromiffa, Oromoo, “Kwottu” (pej.), “Qottu” (pej.), “Qotu Oromo” (pej.), “Quottu” (pej.), “Qwottu” (pej.) Afaan Oromoo None known. Reportedly similar to Borana-Arsi-Guji Oromo [gax]. A member of macrolanguage Oromo [orm].
ssn Waata Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Oromo Kenya Isiolo county: north of Meru town; Garissa and Lamu counties: east of Tana river; Kilifi county: Indian Ocean coast and inland from Formosa Bay south to Gongoni town; Tana River county: Garsen area west of Tana river 12,600 (2009 census), increasing 6a (Vigorous) Ariangulu, Langulo, Sanya, Sanye, Waat, Wasanye
bob Aweer Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Rendille-Boni Kenya Garissa county: north and west of Mundane range; Lamu county: Indian Ocean area inland north of Lamu city; Tana River county: forests inland from Kipini city; 11 villages or more 7,600 (2009 census), increasing. 1,600 monolinguals 6a (Vigorous) Aweera, Bon, Ogoda, Waboni, Wata-Bala, “Boni” (pej.), “Sanye” (pej.) None known. Lexical similarity: with Rendille [rel] of Marsabit County (most similar).
rel Rendille Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Rendille-Boni Kenya Marsabit and Samburu counties: between Lake Turkana and Marsabit mountain 60,000 (2009 census), increasing 6a (Vigorous) Randile, Rendile
aar Afar Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Saho-Afar Djibouti Ali Sabieh region: southwest of regional capital; Arta region: southwest of Ghoubet Kharab; Dikhil, Obock, and Tadjoura regions; Red Sea coast 184,000 in Djibouti (2016). Ethnic population: 306,000 (2014 World Factbook) 5* (Dispersed) Afaraf, Qafar, Qafar af, ʿAfár af, “Danakil” (pej.)
aar Afar Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Saho-Afar Eritrea Northern Red Sea and Southern Red Sea regions 487,000 in Eritrea (2016), increasing 5 (Dispersed) Afaraf, Qafar, Qafar af, ʿAfár af, “Danakil” (pej.), “Denkel” (pej.) Central Afar, Northern Afar, Aussa, Ba’adu.
aar Afar Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Saho-Afar Ethiopia Afar, Amhara, and Somali regions: eastern lowlands 1,302,800 in Ethiopia, all users. L1 users: 1,280,000 in Ethiopia (2007 census). L2 users: 22,800. 906,000 monolinguals (1994 census). Ethnic population: 1,280,000 (2007 census). Total users in all countries: 1,973,800 (as L1: 1,951,000; as L2: 22,800) 2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial working language in Afar Region (1994, Constitution, Art 47) Adal, Afaraf, Affar, Affarigna, Qafar af, ʿAfár af, “Danakil” (pej.), “Denkel” (pej.) Qafar Northern Afar, Central Afar, Aussa, Baadu (Ba’adu). Related to Saho [ssy].
ssy Saho Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Saho-Afar Eritrea Debub, Northern Red Sea, and Southern Red Sea regions 235,000 in Eritrea (2016), increasing. Total users in all countries: 271,180 (as L1: 267,800; as L2: 3,380) 5 (Developing) Sao, Shaho, Shiho, Shoho Saho Irob dialect only in Ethiopia. Very similar to Afar [aar].
ssy Saho Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Saho-Afar Ethiopia Afar and Tigray regions 36,180 in Ethiopia, all users. L1 users: 32,800 in Ethiopia (2007 census). L2 users: 3,380. Ethnic population: 33,400 (2007 census) 4 (Educational) Sao, Shaho, Shiho, Shoho Irob.
jii Jiiddu Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Somali Somalia Shabeellaha Hoose region: west of Moqdisho 20,000 (1998 J. Leclerc) 6b* (Threatened) Af-Jiiddu, Jiddu Distinct from Somali [som] and Tunni [tqq], usually grouped under Digil dialects or languages. Different sentence structure and phonology from Somali. More similar to Somali than to Baiso [bsw]. Reportedly some similarities to Konsoid languages and to Gedeo [drs], Alaba-Kabeena [alw], Hadiyya [hdy], and Kambaata [ktb].
ymm Maay Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Somali Somalia Bakool, Bay, Gedo, Hiiraan, Jubbada Dhexe, Jubbada Hoose, and Shabeellaha Hoose regions 1,750,000 in Somalia (2015) 5* (Developing) Af-Maay, Af-Maay Tiri, Af-May, Af-Maymay, Maay Maay, Mai Mai, Rahanween, Rahanweyn Af-maay Af-Helledi. May be more than 1 language; dialects form a continuum. Within the Maay dialect continuum, at least two dialect groupings may be discerned, largely between the Digil clans (e.g, Wenle Weyn) and the Mirifle clans (based on Bay Bakool). The Digil consider themselves the “royal clan class” of the Maay-speaking Rahanweyn. Somali [som] is difficult or unintelligible to Maay speakers, except when learned through mass communications, urbanization, and internal movement. Different sentence structure and phonology from Somali. Af-Helledi is a Maay secret language used by hunters.
tqq Tunni Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Somali Somalia Jubbada Dhexe and Shabeellaha Hoose regions: Baraawe, Dhiinsoor, and Jilib districts; Bay and Jubbada Hoose regions 20,000 (1998 J. Leclerc) 6b* (Threatened) Af-Tunni Distinct from Somali [som] or Jiiddu [jii], usually grouped under the Digil dialects or languages. Different sentence structure and phonology from Somali [som].
dbr Dabarre Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Somali Somalia Bay region: Dhiinsoor district area, Dabaare; Jubbada Dhexe region: Bu’aale district; Shabeellaha Hoose region: Sablaade district 20,000 (1998 J. Leclerc) 6b* (Threatened) Af-Dabarre Dabarre, Iroole (Af-Iroole). A very distinctive language in the Digil clan family. Dialects are clan names.
gex Garre Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Somali Somalia Bay region: southeast border area; Shabeellaha Hoose region: Qoryoley and Wanla Weyne districts 50,000 (1998 J. Leclerc). Ethnic population: 100,000 (1992) 6a* (Vigorous) Af-Garre None known. Reportedly linguistically similar to Boni [bob].
som Somali Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Somali Djibouti Ali Sabieh, Arta, and Djibouti regions 485,000 in Djibouti (2005 J. Leclerc). Ethnic population: 524,000 (2014 World Factbook) 5* (Dispersed) Af-Soomaali
som Somali Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Somali Ethiopia Mainly Oromia and Somali regions; areas in Afar and Dire Dawa regions 4,705,600 in Ethiopia, all users. L1 users: 4,610,000 in Ethiopia (2007 census). L2 users: 95,600. 2,880,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 4,590,000 (2007 census) 2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial working language in Somali Region (1994, Constitution, Article 47(3)) Af-Soomaali, Common Somali, Somalie, Standard Somali
som Somali Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Somali Kenya Garissa, Mandera, and Wajir counties: entire eastern border area; northwest Lamu county 2,386,000 in Kenya (2009 census), increasing. Includes 58,200 Hawiyah; 516,000 Degodia; 622,000 Ogaden (2009 census) 5 (Dispersed) Standard Somali Degodia, Ogaden, Wardei (Uardai, Wadai, Warday).
som Somali Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Somali Somalia Widespread 7,820,000 in Somalia (2015). Total users in all countries: 16,321,530 (as L1: 16,225,930; as L2: 95,600) 1 (National). Statutory national language (2004, Transitional Federal Charter, Article 7(1)) Af-Maxaad Tiri, Common Somali, Soomaaliga, Standard Somali Af-Soomaali, Afka Soomaaliga Northern Somali, Benaadir, Af-Ashraaf (Ashraaf). Northern Somali is basis for standard Somali. Readily intelligible to Benaadir Somali speakers, but difficult or unintelligible to most Maay [ymm]. Those in Merka and Muqdisho speak Af-Ashraaf, a distinct variety which may have limited inherent intelligibility of standard Somali.
arv Arbore Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Western Omo-Tana Ethiopia Oromia region: Lake Chew Bahir area; Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ region: south Omo zone 10,320, all users. L1 users: 7,210 (2007 census). L2 users: 3,110. 3,900 monolinguals (1994 census). Ethnic population: 7,280 (2007 census) 6a (Vigorous) Arbora, Arborie, Erbore, Irbore
bsw Baiso Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Western Omo-Tana Ethiopia Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ region: halfway between Soddo and Arba Minch, Merab Abaya area, Alge village (390); Gidicho Island, Baiso and Shigima villages (200); Welege island on Lake Abaya (420), and west shore 4,620 (2007 census). Ethnic population: 5,490 (2007 census) 6a (Vigorous) Alkali, Bayso, Gedicho, Gidicho
dsh Daasanach Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Western Omo-Tana Ethiopia Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ region: lower Omo river, along Lake Turkana 48,230 in Ethiopia, all users. L1 users: 48,000 in Ethiopia (2007 census). L2 users: 230. 31,400 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 48,100 (2007 census). Total users in all countries: 60,730 (as L1: 60,500; as L2: 230) 5 (Developing) Af ’Daasanach, Daasanech, Dama, Dasenech, Dathanaic, Dathanaik, Dathanik, Dhaasanac, Gallab, Galuba, Gelab, Geleb, Geleba, Gelebinya, Gelubba, Gheleba, Marille, Merile, Merille, Morille, Reshiat, Russia, af’Daasanach, “Shangilla” (pej.) Af Daasanach
dsh Daasanach Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Western Omo-Tana Kenya Marsabit and Turkana counties: north Lake Turkana, both shores 12,500 in Kenya (2009 census), increasing. Population varies as people freely cross the Ethiopian border. 6,250 monolinguals 6a* (Vigorous) Daasanech, Dama, Dasenech, Dathanaik, Dhaasanac, Geleb, Geleba, Gheleba, Marille, Reshiat, “Shangilla” (pej.)
elo El Molo Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Western Omo-Tana Kenya Marsabit county: Lake Turkana southeast shore, west of Mount Kulal No known L1 speakers. Last fluent speaker, Kaayo, died in 1999 (2012 M. Tosco). Ethnic population: 2,840 (2009 census) 9 (Dormant) Dehes, Elmolo, Fura-Pawa, Ldes, “Ndorobo” (pej.) None known. The original language is reportedly similar to Daasanach [dsh].
muu Yaaku Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Yaaku Kenya Isiolo and Laikipia counties: Mukogodo forest west of Doldol, foothills north of Mount Kenya; Samburu and Turkana counties: Lake Turkana south tip 10 (2016 BBC). Ethnic population: 4,000 (2016 BBC) 8a (Moribund) Mogogodo, Mukogodo, Mukoquodo, Siegu, Yaakua, Yiaku, Yiakunte, “Ndorobo” (pej.), “Ntorobo” (pej.)
bej Bedawiyet Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, North Egypt Al Bahr al Ahmar Governorate; north of Marsa al ’Alam south to administrative boundary on Red Sea east coast 1,030,000 in Egypt (2016) 5* (Developing) Bedawi, Bedàwie, Beja, Bidhaawyeet, Tu Bdhaawi, Tubdhaawi
bej Bedawiyet Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, North Eritrea Anseba and Gash-Barka regions 194,000 in Eritrea (2016) 5 (Developing) Beḍauye, Bedawi, Bedawiye, Bedawye, Bedja, Bedwi, Bedya, Bedàwie, Beja, Bidhaaweet, Bidhaawyeet, Lobat, Tu Bdhaawi Hadareb (Hadaareb), Bisharin (Bisariab, Bisarin), Hadendoa (Hadendowa), Beni-Amir, Ababda, Amara.
bej Bedawiyet Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, North Sudan Red Sea state; Gedaref, Kassala, and River Nile states, southeast river Nile 2,140,000 in Sudan (2015). Total users in all countries: 3,364,000 5 (Developing) Beḍauye, Bedawi, Bedawiye, Bedja, Bedàwie, Beja, Biďaːwyéːt, Tibďaːwyě, To Bedawiat, To Bedawie, Tu Bdhaawi, Tu-Bedawie Bidhaawyeet, Tubdhaawi, بجاوية‎ (Bidhaawyeet), تُبڈاوِ‎ (Tubdhaawi) Hadendoa (Hadendiwa, Hadendowa), Hadareb (Hadaareb), Bisharin (Bisariab), Beni-Amir. Little vocabulary in common with other Cushitic languages, but a great deal of the verbal morphology is similar.
bds Burunge Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, South Tanzania Dodoma region: Kondoa district, Chambalo, Goima, and Mirambu villages; Manyara region 28,000 (Mradi wa Lugha za Tanzania 2009). Ethnic population: 30,000 (Dimmendaal and Voeltz 2007) 6a (Vigorous) Bulunge, Burunga Iso, Burungee, Burungi, Kiburunge, Mbulungi, Mbulungwe Burungaisoo None known. Lexically similar with Gorowa [gow] and Iraqw [irk], 65% with Alagwa [wbj] (Aweki 1996); relatively high similarity between Alagwa and Burunge, despite their belonging to separate branches of the same language family according to their grammars (Kiessling and Mous 2003).
wbj Alagwa Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, South Tanzania Dodoma region: Kondoa district 53,000 (Mradi wa Lugha za Tanzania 2009) 6b (Threatened) Alaagwa’isa, Alagwase, Alawa, Asi, Chasi, Hhagiree, Kialagwa, Kichase, Uassi, Waasi, Wasi Alagwaisa None known. Grammar is closer to Iraqw [irk] but not inherently intelligible. High degree of lexical similarity with Burunge [bds].
aas Aasáx Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, South Tanzania Manyara region: Landenai, Lolbeni, and Ndovu Okutu villages in central Maasai steppe; reportedly also in Lemelebo, Landrobo, and Naitomani districts 350 (1999 J. Carr), decreasing 8b (Nearly extinct) Aasá, Aramanik, Asak, Asax, Assa, Asá, Il Konono, Lamanik, “Dorobo” (pej.), “Ndorobo” (pej.)
dal Dahalo Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, South Kenya Lamu and Tana River counties: near Tana river mouth 400 (1992 M. Brenzinger). Ethnic population: 2,400 (2009 census) 8a (Moribund) Guo Garimani, Sanye
gow Gorowa Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, South Tanzania Dodoma region: Kondoa district, near Babati, Mount Ufiome area; Manyara region: Mbulu district 113,000 (Mradi wa Lugha za Tanzania 2009) 6a (Vigorous) Fiome, Goroa, Gorwaa, Ufiomi Reportedly similar to Burunge [bds], Alagwa [wbj], and Iraqw [irk]. May be a dialect of Iraqw.
irk Iraqw Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, South Tanzania Manyara region: Mbulu district, highlands southwest of Arusha in the north; Singida region near Manyara border; small areas in Arusha and Dodoma regions 603,000 (Mradi wa Lugha za Tanzania 2009) 5 (Developing) Erokh, Iraku, Iraqu, Kiiraqw, Mbulu, Mbulunge Kángw Iraqw Asa. Asa dialect may be a separate language.
wka Kw’adza Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, South Tanzania Manyara region: Mbulu district No known L1 speakers. The last speakers probably died in the 1980s (Sommer 1992) 10 (Extinct) Kwadza, Ng’omvia, Ngomvya, Qwadza None known. Related to Iraqw [irk].
cop Coptic Afro-Asiatic, Egyptian Egypt Al Wadi al Jadid governorate No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: No ethnic community 9 (Second language only) Neo-Egyptian Bohairic, Sahidic.
mdx Dizin Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Dizoid Ethiopia Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ region: Bench-Maji zone 35,950, all users. L1 users: 33,900 (2007 census), increasing. L2 users: 2,050. 17,600 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 34,700 (2007 census) 4 (Educational) Diizinuog, Dizi, Dizi-Maji, Dizinog, Dizinya, Maji, Majinya, Sizi, Twoyu Diizi-Noog, Diizin Central Dizin, Eastern Dizin, Western Dizin. Related to Sheko [she] and Nayi [noz].
she Sheko Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Dizoid Ethiopia Southeast Gambela region: southeast; Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ region: Bench-Maji zone 43,820, all users. L1 users: 38,900 (2007 census). L2 users: 4,920. 13,600 monolinguals (1994 census). Ethnic population: 37,600 (2007 census) 4 (Educational) Shak, Shako, Shekka, Shekko, Tschako S’oku noogu Sheko, Tepi, Guraferda. Distinct from Shabo [sbf] and Shekkacho [moy].
noz Nayi Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Dizoid Ethiopia Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ region: scattered in Decha and Shoa Bench districts, Dulkuma village; Sheko district, Aybera, Jomdos, and Kosa villages 9,070, all users. L1 users: 7,190 (2007 census). L2 users: 1,880. 1,140 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 12,000 (Dimmendaal and Voeltz 2007) 7 (Shifting) Na’o, Nao None known. Lexical similarity: 58% with Dizin [mdx].
jnj Yemsa Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Gonga-Gimojan, Gimojan, Janjero Ethiopia Oromia region: Fofa (main village); mixed in Oromo villages Deedoo, Jimma, Saja, and Sak’a; Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ region: Yem zone 92,200 (2007 census). Ethnic population: 160,000 (2007 census) 4 (Educational) Yem, “Janjerinya” (pej.), “Janjero” (pej.), “Janjor” (pej.), “Yangaro” (pej.), “Zinjero” (pej.) Yemsa Fuga of Jimma, Toba. The Fuga of Jimma dialect may be a separate language. Lexical similarity: 24% with Shekkacho [moy].
cra Chara Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Gonga-Gimojan, Gimojan, Ometo-Gimira, Chara Ethiopia Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ region: south Omo zone, Omo river 13,770, all users. L1 users: 13,100 (2007 census). L2 users: 670. 5,560 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 13,200 (2007 census) 6a (Vigorous) Ciara, Gimiri Nona Buch’a. Lexical similarity: 54% with Wolaytta [wal].
bcq Bench Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Gonga-Gimojan, Gimojan, Ometo-Gimira, Gimira Ethiopia Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ region: Mizan Teferi area 370,600, all users. L1 users: 348,000 (2007 census). 14,300 Mer. L2 users: 22,600. 150,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 352,000 (2007 census) 4 (Educational) Benchnon, Bencnon, Dizu, “Ghimarra” (pej.), “Gimarra” (pej.), “Gimira” (pej.) Bèntʂ nòn‎ (Benc’non) Bench (Bencho, Benesho), Mer (Mieru), She (Kaba, Sce).
mdy Male Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Gonga-Gimojan, Gimojan, Ometo-Gimira, Ometo Ethiopia Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ region: north Omo zone, southeast of Jinka 101,430, all users. L1 users: 94,700 (2007 census). L2 users: 6,730. 40,500 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 97,900 (2007 census) 5 (Developing) Maale, Malie None known. Lexical similarity: 48% with Dorze [doz], 46% with Gofa [gof], 45% with Koorete [kqy], 44% with Gamo [gmv], 43% with Wolaytta [wal] and Dawro [dwr].
wal Wolaytta Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Gonga-Gimojan, Gimojan, Ometo-Gimira, Ometo, Central Ethiopia Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ region: Wolaytta zone, Lake Abaya area 1,719,800, all users. L1 users: 1,630,000 (2007 census). L2 users: 89,800. 1,000,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 1,680,000 (2007 census) 3 (Wider communication) Borodda, Ometo, Uba, Welaita, Wolaita, Wolaitta, Wolataita, Wolayta, “Ualamo” (pej.), “Uollamo” (pej.), “Walamo” (pej.), “Wallamo” (pej.), “Welamo” (pej.), “Wellamo” (pej.), “Wollamo” (pej.) Wolaytta Zala. Dorze [doz], Melo [mfx], and Oyda [oyd] may be dialects of Wolaytta. Lexical similarity: 79%–93% with Gamo [gmv], 84% with Gofa [gof], 80% with Dawro [dwr] and Dorze [doz], 48% with Koorete [kqy], 43% with Male [mdy].
dwr Dawro Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Gonga-Gimojan, Gimojan, Ometo-Gimira, Ometo, Central Ethiopia Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ region: Dawro zone; 2 small border areas in Oromia region 533,000, all users. L1 users: 513,000 (2007 census). 81,600 Konta (2007 census). L2 users: 20,000. 260,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 538,000 (2007 census). 83,600 Konta (2007 census) 4 (Educational) Dauro, Dawuro, Ometay, “Cullo” (pej.), “Kullo” (pej.) Dawrogna Konta (Conta), Kucha (Koysha, Kusha). Lexical similarity: 73%–80% with Gamo [gmv], 76% with Gofa [gof], 80% with Wolaytta [wal], 73%–75% with Dorze [doz], 48% with Koorete [kqy], 43% with Male [mdy].
doz Dorze Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Gonga-Gimojan, Gimojan, Ometo-Gimira, Ometo, Central Ethiopia Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ region: north Omo zone, Chencha area 24,400, all users. L1 users: 20,800 (1994 census). L2 users: 3,600. 9,910 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 29,000 (1994 census) 6b* (Threatened) None known. Lexical similarity: 82%–87% with Gamo [gmv], 77%–81% with Gofa [gof], 80% with Wolaytta [wal], 73%–75% with Dawro [dwr], 54% with Koorete [kqy], 48% with Male [mdy].
gmv Gamo Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Gonga-Gimojan, Gimojan, Ometo-Gimira, Ometo, Central Ethiopia Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ region: Gamo-Gofa zone 1,094,400, all users. L1 users: 1,070,000 (2007 census), increasing. L2 users: 24,400. 600,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 1,100,000 (2007 census) 4 (Educational) Gemu Gamotso Dache. Lexical similarity: 79%–91% with Gofa [gof], 82%–87% with Dorze [doz], 73%–80% with Dawro [dwr], 79%–89% with Wolaytta [wal], 49% with Koorete [kqy], 44% with Male [mdy].
gof Gofa Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Gonga-Gimojan, Gimojan, Ometo-Gimira, Ometo, Central Ethiopia Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ region: Gamo-Gofa zone 392,400, all users. L1 users: 359,000 (2007 census), increasing. L2 users: 33,400. 190,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 362,000 (2007 census) 4 (Educational) Goffa, Goofa Goofatho None known. Lexical similarity: 79%–91% with Gamo [gmv], 76% with Dawro [dwr].
mfx Melo Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Gonga-Gimojan, Gimojan, Ometo-Gimira, Ometo, Central Ethiopia Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ region: north Omo zone, Malo-Koza area 24,860, all users. L1 users: 20,200 (1994 census). L2 users: 4,660. 13,700 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 20,200 (1994 census) 6a (Vigorous) Malo None known. Lexical similarity: 70% with the majority of Ometo language varieties.
oyd Oyda Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Gonga-Gimojan, Gimojan, Ometo-Gimira, Ometo, Central Ethiopia Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ region: northwest Omo area, southwest of Sawla 40,940, all users. L1 users: 36,900 (2007 census). L2 users: 4,040. 6,250 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 45,100 (2007 census) 6a (Vigorous) Oida Oyda None known. Lexical similarity: 69% with Wolaytta [wal], 61% with Basketo [bst].
kcx Kachama-Ganjule Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Gonga-Gimojan, Gimojan, Ometo-Gimira, Ometo, East Ethiopia Oromia and Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ regions: Lake Abaya, Gidicho island, Kachama; Lake Chamo, Ganjule on west shore, Shela-Mela village 2,830 (2007 census). 1,000 Gats’ame and less than 50 Ganjule (Dimmendaal and Voeltz 2007). Ethnic population: 2,590 (2007 census) 6a (Vigorous) Qechem Ganjule (Ganjawle), Ganta, Kachama, Gats’ame (Gatame, Get’eme, Makka), Haro (Gidicho, Harro). Gats’ame, Ganjule and Haro form a dialectal cluster within Kachama-Ganjule (Brenzinger 1999). Lexical similarity: 46% with Wolaytta [wal].
kqy Koorete Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Gonga-Gimojan, Gimojan, Ometo-Gimira, Ometo, East Ethiopia Oromia region: Lake Abbaya, Harro village; Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ region: Amaro Woreda; mountains east of Lake Abaya and Lake Chamo 159,370, all users. L1 users: 157,000 (2007 census), increasing. L2 users: 2,370. 84,400 monolinguals (1994 census). Ethnic population: 157,000 (2007 census) 4 (Educational) Amaarro, Amarro, Badittu, Haro, Harro, Koore, Kore, Koyra, Kwera, Nuna Koorete, Koori Nuuna South Koorete, North Koorete, Middle Koorete. Dialects are mutually intelligible. Lexical similarity: 54% with Dorze [doz], 53% with Wolaytta [wal], 52% with Gofa [gof], 49% with Gamo [gmv], 48% with Dawro [dwr], 45% with Male [mdy].
zay Zaysete Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Gonga-Gimojan, Gimojan, Ometo-Gimira, Ometo, East Ethiopia Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ region: Tsegen zone, west of Lake Chamo 18,500 (2007 census). 10,200 Zayse, 7,600 Zergulla. 3,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 17,900 (2007 census) 5 (Developing) Korisadam, Zagisite, Zaisse, Zayse, Zayse-Zergulla, Zaysinya, Zaysitè, Zaysse, Zeyese Zaysite Zergulla (Zargulla, Zergullinya), Zayse. Speakers are shifting from Zergulla to Zayse (Dimmendaal and Voeltz 2007). Similar to the Gidicho dialect of Koorete [kqy].
bst Basketo Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Gonga-Gimojan, Gimojan, Ometo-Gimira, Ometo, West Ethiopia Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ region: north Omo zone, plateau west of Bulki 101,560, all users. L1 users: 92,600 (2007 census). L2 users: 8,960. 42,800 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 78,300 (2007 census) 4 (Educational) Baskatta, Basketo-Dokka, Basketto, Mesketo, Misketto None known. Lexical similarity: 61% with Oyda [oyd].
myo Anfillo Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Gonga-Gimojan, Gonga, Central Ethiopia Oromia region: Anfillo forest, west of Dembi Dolo 500 (1990 SIL). Ethnic population: 1,000 (1990 SIL) 8a (Moribund) Southern Mao None known. Lexical similarity: 53% with Shekkacho [moy].
bwo Borna Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Gonga-Gimojan, Gonga, North Ethiopia Benishangul-Gumuz region: Metekel zone, near Blue Nile river 38,180, all users. L1 users: 35,900 (2007 census). L2 users: 2,280. 18,600 monolinguals. 77 Gamila. Ethnic population: 60,600 (2007 census) 4 (Educational) Borəni noon, Bora, Borí noonə, Boro, Bworo, Dangabo, Gonga, Scinacia, Shinasha, Shinassha, Shinicho, Šinaša Bori Noona, Borna Wenbera-Dangur, Guba, Wambera. Scattered dialect groups. Lexical similarity: 46% with Shekkacho [moy].
kbr Kafa Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Gonga-Gimojan, Gonga, South Ethiopia Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ region: Bonga town area; border areas in Oromia region 881,700, all users. L1 users: 835,000 (2007 census). L2 users: 46,700. 445,000 monolinguals (1994 census). Ethnic population: 865,000 (2007 census) 4 (Educational) Caafiti, Caffino, Kaffa, Kaficho, Kefa, Keffa, Kefficho, Manjo Kafi noono Kafa, Bosha (Garo). Bosha may be a distinct language. Manjo is an argot based on Kafa [kbr] (Bender 1983b).
moy Shekkacho Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Gonga-Gimojan, Gonga, South Ethiopia Oromia and Gambela regions; Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ region: Maasha area 83,580, all users. L1 users: 80,100 (2007 census). L2 users: 3,480. 36,500 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 77,600 (2007 census) 4 (Educational) Mocha, Shakacho, Shekacho, Shekecho, Shekicho, Shekka, Šakačo, Šekki noono Shekki-noone None known. Reportedly similar to Kafa [kbr].
hoz Hozo Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Mao Ethiopia Benishangul-Gumuz region; Oromia region: West Wollega zone, K’ondala district 6,000 (Küspert 2015) 7 (Shifting) Agmo Wandi, Begi-Mao, Hoozo, Mo Wandi, Nu Wandi, Shuluyo, Shulyo Hozo, Shulyo. Closely related to Seze [sze] (Küspert 2015); distantly related to Bambassi [myf] (Bender 1975). Hozo and Shulyo dialects have very high degree of intelligibility but viewed by speakers of these groups as separate languages.
sze Seze Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Mao Ethiopia Oromia region: West Wollega zone, K’ondala district 13,000 (Küspert 2015) 7 (Shifting) Begi Mao, Seez waani, Seezi, Seze Wani, Sezo None known. Closely related to Hozo [hoz] (Küspert 2015); distantly related to Bambassi [myf] (Bender 1975).
myf Màwés Aasʼè Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Mao Ethiopia Benishangul-Gumuz region: Bambassi area toward the east to the Yabus River and also 300 km to the east in the Didessa river valley; Oromia region: western Wellaga zone 2,300 (2011 M. Ahland) 5 (Developing) Amam, Bambassi, Bambeshi, Didessa, Fadiro, Northern Mao, Siggoyo Màwés Aasʼè Didessa, Bambassi. Lexical similarity: 30% with other Omotic languages, 60% with Sezo [hoz] (Bender 2003).
gza Ganza Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Mao Ethiopia Gambela region: Mao-Komo special district, north of Zebsher 400 in Ethiopia (2007) 6a (Vigorous) Ganzo, Gwami, Koma
gza Ganza Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Mao Sudan Blue Nile state: Kurmuk district, Dahmoh, Darsoma, Korbum, Tugubele, and Yeshkab villages between Daga and Yabus rivers 2,600 in Sudan (2007 A. Krell). Total users in all countries: 3,000 6a (Vigorous) Ganzo, Gwami, Koma, Koma-Ganza
aiw Aari Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, South Ethiopia Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ region: central north Omo zone, south tip of Ethiopia plateau 298,300, all users. L1 users: 285,000 (2007 census). Includes Gayil [gyl] speakers. L2 users: 13,300. 129,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 290,000 (2007 census). Includes Gayil [gyl] 4 (Educational) Aarai, Ara, Ari, Aro, “Shankilla” (pej.), “Shankilligna” (pej.), “Shankillinya” (pej.) Aari Bako (Baco), Biyo (Bio), Laydo, Seyki, Shangama, Sido, Wubahamer (Ubamer), Zeddo. Reportedly similar to Gayil [gyl].
dim Dime Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, South Ethiopia Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ region: north of Omo river, just before it turns south 1,100, all users. L1 users: 570 (2007 census), decreasing. L2 users: 530. Ethnic population: 870 (2007 census) 6a (Vigorous) Dim-af, Dim-ap, Dima None known. Lexical similarity: 47% with Hamer-Banna [amf].
gyl Gayil Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, South Ethiopia Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ region: south Omo zone, Gelila district 55,700 (2007 L. Jordan) 6a (Vigorous) Galila, Gayi, Gayl, Gelila, Northern Ari None known. Related to Aari [aiw], Dime [dim], Hamer-Banna [amf], and Karo [kxh].
amf Hamer-Banna Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, South Ethiopia Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ region: south Omo zone, near Omo river; north of Lake Turkana, near Kenya and Sudan borders; Oromia region: Borena zone 81,520, all users. L1 users: 74,400 (2007 census). 47,500 Hamer, 26,900 Banna (2007 census). L2 users: 7,120. 38,400 monolinguals (1994 census). Ethnic population: 73,500 (2007 census). 46,500 Hamer, 27,000 Banna (2007 census) 6a (Vigorous) Amar, Amarcocche, Amer, Ammar, Bana, Banna, Bena, Beshada, Cocche, Hamar, Hamar-Benna, Hamar-Koke, Hamer, Hammer, Hammercoche, Kara Kerre None known. Hamer and Banna are separate ethnic groups who speak virtually the same language.
kxh Karo Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, South Ethiopia Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ region: south Omo zone 1,480 (2007 census). Ethnic population: 1,490 (2007 census) 6b (Threatened) Cherre, Kara, Kere, Kerre May be a dialect or a closely related language with Hamer-Banna [amf]. More similar to Hamer variety than Banna. Lexical similarity: 81% with Hamer-Banna [amf].
rzh Rāziḥī Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central Yemen Sa‘dah governorate: Rāziḥ district; Jabal Rāziḥ massif region, numerous small settlements 62,900 (2004 census) 6a* (Vigorous) Jabal Razih, Rāziḥīt, S-samrit, Samrah Rāziḥīt, Samrit Rāziḥ None known. Rāziḥī and local spoken varieties of Arabic are mutually unintelligible.
syc Syriac Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, Aramaic, Eastern Turkey Sanliurfa province No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: No ethnic community 9 (Second language only) Ancient Syriac, Classical Syriac, Lishana Atiga, Suryaya, Suryoyo Western Syriac, Eastern Syriac. Syrian churches: Eastern (Nestorian), Syrian Orthodox (Jacobite), and Syrian Catholic (Melkite, Maronite) developed a vast literature based on the Edessa (currently Sanliurfa, southeastern Turkey) variety of the Syrian dialect. Assyrian group (see Assyrian Neo-Aramaic in Iraq and elsewhere) separated denominationally from Chaldean (see Chaldean Neo-Aramaic in Iraq) and Jacobite (see Turoyo in Turkey and Syria) in the Middle Ages. Neo-Eastern Aramaic languages spoken by Christians are often dubbed Neo-Syriac although not directly descended from Syriac.
cld Chaldean Neo-Aramaic Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, Aramaic, Eastern, Central, Northeastern Iraq Dahuk and Ninawa governorates 100,000 in Iraq (1994 H. Mutzafi). Total users in all countries: 241,610 7 (Shifting). Recognized language (2005, Constitution, Article 4(1)), constitutional term: Syriac. Unevenly recognized except in Kurdistan Region Chaldean, Fallani, Fellihi, Kaldaya, Kildani, Lishana Kaldaya, Modern Chaldean, Neo-Chaldean, Soorath, Soorith, Suras, Sureth Mangesh, Alqosh, Tel Kepe, Tisqopa, Bartille, Shirnak-Chizre (Bohtan), Dihok. High intelligibility of Lishana Deni [lsd] and Ashirat [aii] (western dialect group of Assyrian Neo-Aramaic); little or no intelligibility with other Northeastern Aramaic varieties. A member of macrolanguage Syriac [syr].
aii Assyrian Neo-Aramaic Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, Aramaic, Eastern, Central, Northeastern Armenia Yerevan province: scattered 2,700 in Armenia (Leclerc 2017a). Ethnic population: 15,000 7 (Shifting) Aisorski, Assyriski, Sooreth
aii Assyrian Neo-Aramaic Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, Aramaic, Eastern, Central, Northeastern Georgia Transcaucasia area: scattered 3,400 in Georgia (Leclerc 2015). Ethnic population: 14,000 8a (Moribund) Aisorski, Assyriski
aii Assyrian Neo-Aramaic Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, Aramaic, Eastern, Central, Northeastern Iran West Azerbaijan province: west of Lake Urmia; many in Reza’iyeh (Rizaiye) and Tehran 15,000 in Iran (1994). Ethnic population: 103,000 (2014 J. Leclerc) 6b* (Threatened) Aturaya Swadaya, Lishana Aturaya, Swadai, Swadaya Urmi.
aii Assyrian Neo-Aramaic Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, Aramaic, Eastern, Central, Northeastern Iraq Dahuk and Ninawa governorates: 2 areas, one northeast of Buhayrat al Mawsil, the other, at Turkish border; scattered in Al Basrah, Arbil, Baghdad, and Kirkuk governorates 152,000 in Iraq (Leclerc 2014b). Ethnic population: 4,250,000 (1994). Total users in all countries: 587,320 6b* (Threatened). Recognized language (2005, Constitution, Article 4(1)), constitutional term: Syriac. Unevenly recognized except in Kurdistan Region Assyrian, Assyrianci, Lishana Aturaya, Neo-Syriac, Sooreth, Suret, Sureth, Suryaya Swadaya ܐܬܘܪܝܐ‎ (Ātūrāyā), ܣܘܪܬ‎ (Sūrët) Urmi (Sipurghan, Solduz, Urmi Assyrian), Northern Assyrian (Baz, Dez, Gavar, Jilu, Qudshanis, Salamas, Upper Barwari, Van), Central Assyrian (Anhar, Mar Bishu, Nochiya, Shamezdin, Tergawar), Western Assyrian (Lewin, Lower Barwari, Tal, Tkhuma), Sapna (Aradhin, Benatha, Daudiya, Inishke, Tina). Similar linguistically to other Northeastern Aramaic varieties. Inherent intelligibility is difficult to estimate due to extensive exposure throughout the Assyrian diaspora to many dialects, especially Urmi and Iraqi Koine. As a result, intelligibility between dialects is as high as 80%–90%. Urmian group subdialects: Urmi, Sipurghan, Solduz; Northern Group: Salamas, Van, Jilu, Gavar, Qudshanis, Upper Barwari, Dez, Baz; Central Group: Mar Bishu, Nochiya (Shamezdin), Tergawar, Anhar; Western Group: Tkhuma, Lower Barwari, Tal, Lewin; Sapna Group: Aradhin, Tina, Daudiya, Inishke, Benatha. Standard literary Assyrian is based on Urmi. Many left original areas and developed a common spoken and written form based on the prestigious Urmi dialect as spoken in Baghdad, the United States, and elsewhere (Iraqi Koine). Most Christians understand it. This Urmi variety is different from Lishán Didán Urmi variety. All dialects of Western, Northern, and Central Assyrian are spoken in Syria. A member of macrolanguage Syriac [syr].
aii Assyrian Neo-Aramaic Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, Aramaic, Eastern, Central, Northeastern Syria Al Hasakah governorate: Khabur river banks, Turkey border, over 30 villages; some in Al Hasakah city 196,000 in Syria (2016). Ethnic population: 700,000 6b* (Threatened) Assyrian, Lishana Aturaya, Neo-Syriac, Suret, Sureth, Suryaya Swadaya
bjf Barzani-Sandu Jewish Neo-Aramaic Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, Aramaic, Eastern, Central, Northeastern Israel Jerusalem 6 (2017 H. Mutzafi) 8b (Nearly extinct) Barzani Jewish Neo-Aramaic, Central Jewish Neo-Aramaic, Lishan Didan, Lishan Dideni Barzani dialect cluster (Barzan, Bijil, Shahe), Sandu. Sandu is a Jewish Neo-Aramaic dialect closely related to Barzani, but several isoglosses link it with Lishana Deni [lsd]. Bijil went extinct in 1998, Shahe in 2000, and Sandu in 2008 (2017 H. Mutzafi).
bhn Bohtan Neo-Aramaic Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, Aramaic, Eastern, Central, Northeastern Georgia Kvemo Kartli region: mainly Garbadani village 900 in Georgia (Leclerc 2015) 7 (Shifting)
bhn Bohtan Neo-Aramaic Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, Aramaic, Eastern, Central, Northeastern Russian Federation Krasnodar krai: Krymsk; Stavropol krai: Novopavlovsk 8b (Nearly extinct)
hrt Hértevin Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, Aramaic, Eastern, Central, Northeastern Turkey Siirt province: Pervari county, Ekindüzü village 4 (2012 A. Ajansi) 8b (Nearly extinct) None known. Considerable differences from other Northeastern Aramaic varieties, and not intelligible with any or most of them.
tmr Jewish Babylonian Aramaic Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, Aramaic, Eastern, Central, Northeastern Israel Jerusalem district No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: No ethnic community 9 (Second language only) Babylonian Talmudic Aramaic
kqd Koy Sanjaq Surat Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, Aramaic, Eastern, Central, Northeastern Iraq Arbil governorate: Armota, Koi-Sanjaq 800 (1995 H. Mutzafi) 6b* (Threatened) Koi Sanjaq Soorit, Koi-Sanjaq Sooret, Koy Sanjaq Sooret, Koy Sanjaq Soorit, Surat None known. Related in certain morphological and lexical respects to Senaya [syn].
syn Senaya Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, Aramaic, Eastern, Central, Northeastern Iran Qazvin and Tehran provinces 60 (1997 H. Mutzafi) 8b (Nearly extinct) Christian Neo-Aramaic, Lshan Sray, Senaaya, Shan Gyanan, Shan Sray, Soray, Sray None known. Qazvin variety slightly different from that spoken by Sanandaj-born people.
huy Hulaulá Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, Aramaic, Eastern, Central, Northeastern, Trans-Zab Israel Scattered Several thousands (2017 H. Mutzafi). Total users in all countries: 350 8a (Moribund) Jabali, Lishana Akhni, Lishana Noshan Saqiz, Kerend, Sanandaj, Suleimaniyya, Bijar, Tekab, Khanaqin. Very different and not intelligible with Senaya [syn] or Lishana Deni [lsd]. 60%–70% intelligibility of Lishán Noshan [trg] and Inter-Zab Jewish Neo-Aramaic [aij].
aij Inter-Zab Jewish Neo-Aramaic Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, Aramaic, Eastern, Central, Northeastern, Trans-Zab Israel Widespread 2,200 (1994 H. Mutzafi) 8a (Moribund) Hulani, Jbeli, Kurdit, Lishana Didán, Lishanid Noshan Arbel (Arbil), Dobe, Koy Sanjaq, Rwanduz, Rustaqa, Shaqlawa, Ranye, Qaladze. 60%–70% inherent intelligibility with Lishanan [lsd] and Hulaulá [huy]. Very different and not inherently intelligible with Christian Aramaic languages and Lishana Deni. Western cluster dialects are Arbel, Dobe, and Shaqlawa. Eastern cluster dialects are Southeastern varieties: Koy Sanjaq, Qaladze, and Ranye. Northern cluster dialects are Rwanduz and Rustaqa (2017 H. Mutzafi).
trg Lishán Noshan Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, Aramaic, Eastern, Central, Northeastern, Trans-Zab Israel HaMerkaz and Jerusalem districts: Jerusalem city, Tel-Aviv areas 6,230 in Israel (2005 J. Leclerc). Total users in all countries: 6,350 8a (Moribund) Iranian Azerbaijan Jewish Neo-Aramaic, Lakhlókh, Lishanid Nash Didán, Lishanán, Lishán Didán Northern Cluster Lishán Noshan (Başkale, Gavar, Salmas, Urmi), Southern Cluster Lishán Noshan (Mahabad, Naghada, Ushno, Ṣablagh). 60%–70% intelligibility of Hulaulá [huy] and Inter-Zab Jewish Neo-Aramaic [aij], but not of other Aramaic languages. The Urmi variety of Lishán Noshan is extremely different from the Urmi variety of Assyrian Neo-Aramaic (2017 H. Mutzafi).
huy Hulaulá Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, Aramaic, Eastern, Central, Northeastern, Trans-Zab Iran Kordestan: Kerend, Sanandaj, and Saqqez 350 in Iran 8a (Moribund)
lsd Lishana Deni Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, Aramaic, Eastern, Central, Northeastern, Trans-Zab Israel Mainly in Jerusalem district: Jerusalem city area, including Maoz Tsiyon 7,500 (1999 H. Mutzafi). Ethnic population: 9,060 7 (Shifting) Kurdit, Lishan Hozaye, Lishan Hudaye Zakho, Amadiya, Barashe, Shukho, Nerwa, Dohuk, Atrush, Bétanure, Gzira (Cizre), Challa (Çukurca), Dohok. Resembles Chaldean Neo-Aramaic [cld], but with differences in morphology and other features. Inherent intelligibility is high between them. Low intelligibility with Ashirat dialects of Assyrian New-Aramaic [aii]; not intelligible with other Neo-Aramaic varieties. Gzira, Challa, and Shukho dialects are extinct; Nerwa extinct since 2012 (2017 H. Mutzafi).
lhs Mlahsö Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, Aramaic, Eastern, Central, Northwestern Syria Al Hasakah governorate: Qamishli town No known L1 speakers. The last speaker, Ibrahim Hanna, died in 1998 10 (Extinct) Suryoyo None known. Reportedly similar to Turoyo [tru].
tru Turoyo Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, Aramaic, Eastern, Central, Northwestern Syria Al Hasakah governorate: far northeast corner, Tigris river near Cizre 25,000 in Syria (2016). Ethnic population: 20,000 (1994) 7 (Shifting) Surayt, Suryoyo, Syryoyo, Turani
tru Turoyo Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, Aramaic, Eastern, Central, Northwestern Turkey Mardin and Sirnak provinces 15,000 in Turkey (Leclerc 2014c). Ethnic population: 50,000 (1994). Total users in all countries: 103,300 6b* (Threatened) Suryoyo, Syryoyo, Süryani, Turani Surayt Midyat, Midin, Kfarze, ’Iwardo, Anhil, Raite. Turoyo subdialects divided between Town Turoyo (Midyat Turoyo), Village Turoyo, and Mixed (Village-Town) Turoyo.
mid Mandaic Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, Aramaic, Eastern, Mandaic Iran Khuzestan province: Hoveiseh, other towns 100 in Iran (2017). Ethnic population: 23,000 8a (Moribund) Mandaayi, Mandaean, Mandi, Mandini, Modern Mandaic, Neo-Mandaic, Sabe’in, Sabean, Subbi Ahwaz (Ahvaz), Shushtar (Shustar), Khorramshahr. Iraqi Neo-Mandaic became extinct during the 20th century. Shushtar dialect may have no remaining speakers. The Khorramshahr and Ahwaz dialects are mutually intelligible.
mid Mandaic Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, Aramaic, Eastern, Mandaic Iraq Scattered in Al Basrah and Baghdad governorates No known L1 speakers in Iraq. Ethnic population: 30,000 9 (Dormant) Mandaayi, Mandaean, Mandi, Mandini, Modern Mandaic, Neo-Mandaic, Sabe’in, Sabean, Subbi Iraqi Neo-Mandaic.
myz Mandaic, Classical Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, Aramaic, Eastern, Mandaic Iran Scattered No known L1 speakers in Iran. Ethnic population: No ethnic community. Total users in all countries: none known 9 (Second language only) Classical Mandaean None known. Appears to be the direct ancestor of Modern Mandaic [mid].
myz Mandaic, Classical Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, Aramaic, Eastern, Mandaic Iraq Al Basrah No known L1 speakers in Iraq. Ethnic population: No ethnic community 9 (Second language only)
sam Samaritan Aramaic Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, Aramaic, Western Israel Scattered No known L1 speakers in Israel. Ethnic population: No ethnic community 9 (Second language only) Shamerim
sam Samaritan Aramaic Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, Aramaic, Western Palestine Nablus governorate No known L1 speakers in Palestine. Ethnic population: No ethnic community. Total users in all countries: none known 9 (Second language only) Shamerim
amw Western Neo-Aramaic Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, Aramaic, Western Syria Rif Dimashq governorate: Al-Qutayfah district, Bakh’a, Jubb ’Adin, and Ma’lula villages; Qalamoun mountains, 50 km north of Damascus 18,800 (2016) 7 (Shifting) Loghtha Siryanooytha, Maaloula, Maalula, Neo-Western Aramaic, Siryoon Maaloula (Ma’lu:la, Ma’lula, Maalula), Bakh’a (Bax’a), Jub-’adin (Jubb ’Adi:n). Little dialect variation.
yud Arabic, Judeo-Tripolitanian Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic Israel HaMerkaz district: south of Tel Aviv 30,000 in Israel (1994 H. Mutzafi). Total users in all countries: 35,000 7 (Shifting) Jewish Tripolitanian-Libyan Arabic, Tripolita’it, Tripolitanian Judeo-Arabic, Yudi None known. Not intelligible with Judeo-Iraqi Arabic [yhd]; medium intelligibility with Judeo-Tunisian Arabic [aeb] and Judeo-Morocco Arabic [aju]. A member of macrolanguage Judeo-Arabic [jrb].
ajt Arabic, Judeo-Tunisian Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic Israel Jerusalem district: Beit Shemesh 45,000 in Israel (1995 H. Mutzafi) 7 (Shifting) None known. Medium intelligibility with Judeo-Moroccan Arabic [aju] and Judeo-Tripolitanian Arabic [yud], but none with Judeo-Iraqi Arabic [yhd]. A lexicon of 5,000 words in 1950 had 79% words of Arabic origin, 15% Romance loanwords, 5% Hebrew loanwords, 2% others (Cohen 1985).
arb Arabic, Standard Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic Sudan 26,900,000 in Sudan (2015 SIL), all users 1 (National). Statutory national working language (2005, Interim Constitution, Article 8(3)) None known. Not intelligible with Sudanese Spoken Arabic [apd] or Sudanese Creole Arabic [pga].
auz Arabic, Uzbeki Spoken Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic Uzbekistan Buxoro, Navoiy, and Qashqadaryo regions; Samarkand region, middle and lower Zerafshan valley, some in Katta-Kurgan town; small villages 700 (1992 G. Watson) 8a (Moribund) Central Asian Arabic, Jugari, Kashkadarya Arabic, Uzbeki Arabic Reportedly similar to North Mesopotamian Spoken Arabic [ayp]. Sharp dialect differences between Bukhara and Kashkadarya regions. Bukhara is strongly influenced by Tajiki [tgk], Kashkadarya by Uzbek [uzn] and other Turkic languages. May be a mixed language. A member of macrolanguage Arabic [ara].
aao Arabic, Algerian Saharan Spoken Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic Algeria Adrar, Béchar, Biskra, Djelfa, El Bayadh, El Oued, Ghardaïa, Illizi, Laghouat, Naama, Ouargla, Tamanrasset, and Tindouf provinces; border area along Atlas mountains, northeast to Médéa, southeast to Righ Wadi, south as far as plateau du Tademait 100,000 in Algeria (1996). Total users in all countries: 178,000 6a* (Vigorous) Saharan Arabic, Tamanghasset Arabic, Tamanrasset Arabic None known. Structurally distinct from other Arabic varieties. A member of macrolanguage Arabic [ara].
aao Arabic, Algerian Saharan Spoken Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic Niger Agadez area 10,000 in Niger (1998) 6a* (Vigorous)
arq Arabic, Algerian Spoken Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic Algeria Widespread 29,000,000 in Algeria, all users. L1 users: 26,000,000 in Algeria (2012 Sherbrooke University), increasing. L2 users: 3,000,000. Total users in all countries: 32,387,600 (as L1: 29,387,600; as L2: 3,000,000) 3 (Wider communication). De facto national working language Algerian, Darija, Darja, Dziria دزيرية‎ (Dziria) Constantine, Algiers, Oran. A member of macrolanguage Arabic [ara].
arq Arabic, Algerian Spoken Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic Egypt Scattered 1,590,000 in Egypt (2016) 5* (Dispersed)
abv Arabic, Baharna Spoken Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic Bahrain Widespread 720,000 in Bahrain (2013). Total users in all countries: 737,000 3 (Wider communication). De facto national working language Baharna, Baharna Arabic, Baharnah, Bahraini Arabic, Bahraini Shi’ite Arabic, Bahrani, Bahrani Arabic البحرانية‎ (al-bahrania) Sunni Spoken Arabic. A member of macrolanguage Arabic [ara].
abv Arabic, Baharna Spoken Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic Oman Adh Dhahirah and Al Batinah South governorates 17,000 in Oman (2017) 6a* (Vigorous)
shu Arabic, Chadian Spoken Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic Chad Widespread, center and south 1,440,000 in Chad (2015), increasing. Total users in all countries: 1,757,300 (as L1: 1,687,300; as L2: 70,000) 3 (Wider communication) Arabe Choa, Chad Arabic, Chadian Arabic, Chowa, L’arabe du Tchad, Shua, Shua Arabic, Shuwa, Shuwa Arabic, Suwa, Western Sudanic Arabic العربية‎ (alearabia) Dialects depend on whether their speakers are sedentary or nomads, rural or urban, and on migration routes. A pidginized variety, commonly called, Bongor Arabic, is spoken as L2 by many in the Mayo-Kebbi and other parts of south Chad. A member of macrolanguage Arabic [ara].
acy Arabic, Cypriot Spoken Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic Cyprus Kyrenia district: north shore; Limassol district: south shore; Lefkosia district: Kormakiti, Nicosia city, and Peristonem; several Maronite mountain villages. Mainly urban communities 9,760 (2013 UNSD) 7 (Shifting) Cypriot Maronite Arabic, Kormakiti, Maronite Sanna A member of macrolanguage Arabic [ara].
adf Arabic, Dhofari Spoken Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic Oman Dhofar governorate: Salala and nearby coastal regions 119,000 (2017) 6a* (Vigorous) Dhofari, Zofari None known. Related to Hadrami Spoken Arabic [ayh], Gulf Spoken Arabic [afb], and Omani Spoken Arabic [acx]. A member of macrolanguage Arabic [ara].
avl Arabic, Eastern Egyptian Bedawi Spoken Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic Egypt Al Bahr al Ahmar, Al Isma’iliyah, As Suways, and Bur Sa’id governorates: parts of Red Sea coast east bank, almost to south border; Janub Sina’, Shamal Sina’, and Sinai governorates: mainly Bedouin regions 1,030,000 in Egypt (2016). Total users in all countries: 2,217,600 6a* (Vigorous) Levantine Bedawi Arabic, Levantine Bedawi Spoken Arabic بدوي‎ (Badawi) Northeast Egyptian Bedawi Arabic, South Levantine Bedawi Arabic, North Levantine Bedawi Arabic. Similar to some Hijazi dialects in northwestern Saudi Arabia. A member of macrolanguage Arabic [ara].
arz Arabic, Egyptian Spoken Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic Egypt Widespread 62,300,000 in Egypt (2016). Total users in all countries: 64,618,100 3 (Wider communication). De facto national working language Lower Egypt Arabic, Massry, Modern Egyptian Language, Normal Egyptian Arabic مصري‎ (Masri) North Delta Arabic, South Central Delta Arabic, Cairene Arabic. Egyptian Spoken Arabic, based on Cairo speech (Cairene) is the most widely understood variety used for media, both in Egypt and throughout the non-nomadic Arab world. It is an amalgam of Delta Arabic and Middle Egypt Arabic, with borrowings from literary Arabic. A member of macrolanguage Arabic [ara].
afb Arabic, Gulf Spoken Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic Bahrain Widespread 180,000 in Bahrain (2013) 6a* (Vigorous) Gulf Arabic Bahraini Gulf Arabic.
afb Arabic, Gulf Spoken Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic Egypt Scattered 1,490,000 in Egypt (2016) 5* (Dispersed)
afb Arabic, Gulf Spoken Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic Iran Hormozgan province and nearby Persian gulf islands; also Bushehr, Fars, Kerman, and Yazd provinces 260,000 in Iran (2014 J. Leclerc) 6a* (Vigorous) Gulf Arabic Al-Hasâ, Khamseh.
afb Arabic, Gulf Spoken Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic Iraq Al Basrah governorate: south of Basrah city, near Persian Gulf 67,000 in Iraq (Leclerc 2014b) 6a* (Vigorous) Gulf Arabic Zubair-Faau Arabic.
afb Arabic, Gulf Spoken Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic Kuwait Widepread, except scattered in Al Jahra’ governorate 2,300,000 in Kuwait (2017). Total users in all countries: 9,750,000 3 (Wider communication). De facto national working language, widely used in public administration خليجي‎ (Khaliji) Kuwaiti Hadari Arabic, Kuwaiti Bedouin Arabic. A member of macrolanguage Arabic [ara].
afb Arabic, Gulf Spoken Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic Oman Widespread 748,000 in Oman (2017) 5* (Dispersed) Bedawi, Gulf Arabic, Omani Bedawi Arabic
afb Arabic, Gulf Spoken Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic Qatar Widespread 715,000 in Qatar (2016) 3 (Wider communication). De facto national working language, absent from formal education Gulf Arabic, Qatari North Qatari Arabic, South Qatari Arabic.
afb Arabic, Gulf Spoken Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic Saudi Arabia Eastern Province and Najran region: southeast Kuwait border inland, east to Persian Gulf north of Al Damman; south, Yeman and Oman borders 500,000 in Saudi Arabia (Leclerc 2011) 6a* (Vigorous) Gulf Spoken Al-Hasaa.
afb Arabic, Gulf Spoken Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic United Arab Emirates Widespread 3,480,000 in United Arab Emirates (2016) 3 (Wider communication) Gulf Arabic
afb Arabic, Gulf Spoken Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic Yemen Widespread 10,000 in Yemen (2001 J. Leclerc) 6a* (Vigorous)
ayh Arabic, Hadrami Spoken Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic Yemen Hadramawt and Shabwah governorates 4,560,000 in Yemen (2015). Total users in all countries: 4,570,000 6a* (Vigorous) Hadhrami Arabic, Hadrami, Hadromi, Ḥaḍrami Arabic A member of macrolanguage Arabic [ara].
mey Arabic, Hasanya Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic Mali Widespread 123,000 in Mali (2014 UNSD) 5 (Dispersed). Recognized language (1996, Law 96-049 of 14 December) Hassani, Hassaniya, Hassaniyya, Maure, Mauri, Moor, Sahrawi, Sulaka, Suraka, Suraxxé
mey Arabic, Hassaniyya Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic Algeria Tindouf province 4,590,000 in Algeria (2016) 5* (Dispersed)
mey Arabic, Hassaniyya Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic Morocco Souss-Massa-Drâa region: Mhamid, western Algeria border; Western Sahara, south from Laâyoune, Laâyoune-Boujdour-Sakia El Hamra 282,000 in Morocco (2016) 5* (Dispersed) Hasanya, Hassani, Maure, Mauri, Moor, Sahrawi, Sulaka
mey Arabic, Hassaniyya Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic Niger Tahoua region: Tchin-tabaraden department 19,000 in Niger (2014 J. Leclerc) 6a* (Vigorous) Hasanya, Hassani, Maure, Mauri, Moor, Sulaka
mey Arabic, Hassaniyya Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic Western Sahara Widespread 257,000 in Western Sahara (2017) 5* (Dispersed) Hasanya, Hassani, Maure, Mauri, Moor, Sahrawi, Sulaka
acw Arabic, Hijazi Spoken Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic Eritrea Northern Red Sea and Southern Red Sea regions 29,300 in Eritrea (2016). Ethnic population: 80,000 (2010) 6a* (Vigorous) Rashaida, Rashida
acw Arabic, Hijazi Spoken Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic Saudi Arabia ‘Asir, Bahah, Jizan, Madinah, Makkah, and Tabuk provinces; entire Red Sea coast and inland 14,100,000 in Saudi Arabia (Leclerc 2011). Total users in all countries: 14,524,500 6a* (Vigorous) Hejazi Arabic, West Arabian Colloquial Arabic North Hijazi, South Hijazi, Valley Tihaamah, Coastal Tihaamah. North Hijazi has 4 subvarieties, South Hijazi has 16. A member of macrolanguage Arabic [ara].
acw Arabic, Hijazi Spoken Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic United Arab Emirates Scattered 370,000 in United Arab Emirates (2016) 5* (Developing)
yhd Arabic, Judeo-Iraqi Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic Iraq Scattered 120 in Iraq (1992 H. Mutzafi) 8a (Moribund) Iraqi Judeo-Arabic, Jewish Iraqi-Baghdadi Arabic, Yahudic
yhd Arabic, Judeo-Iraqi Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic Israel Scattered 125,000 in Israel (2016). Total users in all countries: 125,120 7 (Shifting) Iraqi Judeo-Arabic, Jewish Iraqi-Baghdadi Arabic, Yahudic None known. Reportedly not intelligible with Judeo-Tripolitanian Arabic [yud], Judeo-Tunisian Arabic [ajt], or Judeo-Moroccan Arabic [aju]. Reportedly similar to Baghdadi Arabic and North Mesopotamian Arabic [acm]. A member of macrolanguage Judeo-Arabic [jrb].
aju Arabic, Judeo-Moroccan Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic Israel Widespread 250,000 in Israel (1992 H. Mutzafi) 7 (Shifting) Many dialects. Much intelligibility with Tunisian Judeo-Arabic [aeb], some with Judeo-Tripolitanian Arabic [yud], none with Judeo-Iraqi Arabic [yhd]. May be inherently intelligible with Moroccan Arabic [ary].
aju Arabic, Judeo-Moroccan Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic Morocco Casablanca-Settat region 8,930 in Morocco (2000). 90% in Casablanca (1997 World Jewish Congress). Total users in all countries: 258,930 7 (Shifting) il‘arabiyya dyalna A member of macrolanguage Judeo-Arabic [jrb].
ajt Arabic, Judeo-Tunisian Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic Tunisia Al Munastir governorate; Madanin governorate: Djerba island; Susah and Tunis governorates 500 in Tunisia (2011 UNESCO). Total users in all countries: 45,500 8a (Moribund) Tunis. A member of macrolanguage Judeo-Arabic [jrb].
jye Arabic, Judeo-Yemeni Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic Israel HaDarom and Jerusalem districts; Tel Aviv district: Jaffa 50,000 in Israel (1995 Y. Kara) 6a* (Vigorous) Judeo-Yemeni, Yemenite, Yemenite Judeo-Arabic
jye Arabic, Judeo-Yemeni Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic Yemen ‘Adan, Al Bayda’, Sanaa and Shabwah governorates: mainly urban communities; Shabwah governorate (Habban dialect) 300 in Yemen (2010 J. Berer). Total users in all countries: 50,300 8a (Moribund) Judeo-Yemeni, Yemenite Judeo-Arabic, Yeminite San’a, ’Aden, Be:da, Habban. Jewish varieties markedly different from their coterritorial Muslim counterparts. A member of macrolanguage Judeo-Arabic [jrb].
avl Arabic, Levantine Bedawi Spoken Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic Jordan Widespread but especially east 1,040,000 in Jordan (2016) 6a* (Vigorous) South Levantine Bedawi Arabic, North Levantine Bedawi Arabic, Eastern Egyptian Bedawi Arabic.
avl Arabic, Levantine Bedawi Spoken Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic Palestine Jericho and Al Aghwar, Jerusalem and Bethlehem governorates, Judean desert, Jordan river and Dead Sea area 21,000 in Palestine (2005 J. Leclerc) 6a* (Vigorous) South Levantine Bedawi Arabic, North Levantine Bedawi Arabic, Eastern Egyptian Bedawi Arabic.
avl Arabic, Levantine Bedawi Spoken Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic Syria As Suwayda’ and Dara’a governorates in southwest corner; Hauran region southwest, from the border to within 35 km of Damascus 76,600 in Syria (2016) 6a* (Vigorous)
ayl Arabic, Libyan Spoken Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic Libya Widespread, especially north 4,190,000 in Libya (2016), increasing. Total users in all countries: 4,911,800 3 (Wider communication). De facto national working language Libyan Arabic, Libyan Vernacular Arabic, Sulaimitian Arabic, Western Egyptian Bedawi Spoken Arabic ليبي‎ (Lībi) Tripolitanian Arabic, Southern Libyan Arabic, Eastern Libyan Arabic. In the west it is reportedly similar to Bedouin Arabic of southern Tunisia [aeb]. A member of macrolanguage Arabic [ara].
ayl Arabic, Libyan Spoken Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic Niger Agadez region: Bilma north from N’guigmi to Libya border; Diffa region; Zinder region: Goure department 9,300 in Niger (2014 J. Leclerc) 6a* (Vigorous) Libyan Vernacular Arabic, Sulaimitian Arabic
acm Arabic, Mesopotamian Spoken Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic Iran Bushehr province: Deylam county; Khuzestan province: southwest Zagros mountains, Shatt al Arab river area 1,280,000 in Iran (2016) 6a* (Vigorous) Arabi, Mesopotamian Gelet Arabic Khuzistani Arabic.
acm Arabic, Mesopotamian Spoken Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic Iraq Widespread. (Tigris and Euphrates area, southeast from Baghdad to Kuwait and Persian Gulf; An Anbar governorate: Al-Q’aim district, small area) 13,400,000 in Iraq (Leclerc 2014b). Total users in all countries: 15,655,900 3 (Wider communication). De facto national working language Arabic, Baghdadi, Furati, Iraqi Arabic, Mesopotamian Gelet Arabic اللهجة العراقية‎ (allahjat aleiraqia) Geographical and sectarian divisions correlate with Iraqi dialects. The vernacular standard based on Baghdad speech. Also Bedouin dialects. Nearly unintelligible to speakers of certain other vernacular Arabic varieties. Anatolian Cluster in Turkey. A member of macrolanguage Arabic [ara].
acm Arabic, Mesopotamian Spoken Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic Syria Ar Raqqah and Halab governorates: Buhayrat al Asad reservoir at center; Dayr az Zawr governorate: along the Euphrates; west Hamah, central Hims, and east Idlib governorates 53,200 in Syria (2016) 6a* (Vigorous) Furati, Mesopotamian Gelet Arabic, North Syrian Arabic Euphrates Cluster.
acm Arabic, Mesopotamian Spoken Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic Turkey Sanliurfa province 101,000 in Turkey (Leclerc 2014c) 6a* (Vigorous) Mesopotamian Gelet Arabic Syrian Šāwi.
ary Arabic, Moroccan Spoken Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic Egypt Scattered 1,590,000 in Egypt (2016) 5* (Dispersed)
ary Arabic, Moroccan Spoken Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic Morocco Widespread 27,900,000 in Morocco, all users. L1 users: 22,900,000 in Morocco (2016). L2 users: 5,000,000. Total users in all countries: 32,608,700 (as L1: 27,488,700; as L2: 5,120,000) 3 (Wider communication). De facto national working language Colloquial Arabic, Maghrebi Arabic, Maghribi, Moroccan Arabic, Moroccan Colloquial Arabic, Moroccan Dareja, Moroccan Darija, Moroccan Dereja الدارجة‎ (Darija) Rabat-Casablanca Arabic, Fez, Meknes, Tangier, Oujda, Jebli (Jbala, Jebelia), Southern Morocco Arabic, Marrakech. A member of macrolanguage Arabic [ara].
ary Arabic, Moroccan Spoken Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic Western Sahara Widespread 327,000 in Western Sahara (2017) 3 (Wider communication)
ars Arabic, Najdi Spoken Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic Iraq Widespread; Al Anbar, Al Muthanna, and An Najaf governorates: western desert, (Central Najdi dialect); Ninawa governorate: south between the rivers to the Syrian border (North Najdi dialect); Al Basrah, Al Qadisiyah, Babil, Dhi Qar, Ninawa, An Najaf, and Salah ad Din governorates 1,470,000 in Iraq (Leclerc 2014b) 6a* (Vigorous) Najdi North Najdi (Shammar), Central Najdi.
ars Arabic, Najdi Spoken Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic Jordan Al ‘Aqabah, Al Mafraq, Az-Zarqa’, and southeast Ma‘an governorates; scattered settlements far eastern Jordan 76,000 in Jordan (2015) 6a* (Vigorous) Najdi
ars Arabic, Najdi Spoken Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic Saudi Arabia Widespread, especially interior areas; includes Al Hudud ash Shamaliyah, Al Jawf, Al Qasim, and Ha’il provinces; Al Madinah al Munawwarah province: Ta’if area and east; Ash Sharqiyah province north; Ar Riyad province: all but southeast; ’Asir and Najran provinces: south and west; Jizan province: small border area; Tabuk province: northeast 843,000 in Saudi Arabia (Leclerc 2011). Total users in all countries: 4,188,700 3 (Wider communication). De facto national working language Najdi نجدي‎ (Najdi) North Najdi (Bani Khaalid, Dafiir, Shammari), Central Najdi (’Ajmaan, ’Awaazim, ’Utaiba, Al-Qasiim, Biishah, Haayil, Hofuf, Mutair, Najraan, Rashaayda, Riyadh, Rwala, Sudair, Wild ’Ali), South Najdi (Aal Murrah, Najran). Some dialects spoken by Bedouins. A member of macrolanguage Arabic [ara].
ars Arabic, Najdi Spoken Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic Syria Widespread; eastern Syrian desert 1,320,000 in Syria (2016) 6a* (Vigorous) Bedawi, Najdi
apc Arabic, North Levantine Spoken Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic Lebanon Widespread 5,770,000 in Lebanon (2017) 3 (Wider communication). De facto national working language Lebanese-Syrian Arabic, Levantine Arabic, Syro-Lebanese Arabic North Lebanese Arabic, South Lebanese Arabic (Metuali, Shii), North-Central Lebanese Arabic (Mount Lebanon Arabic), South-Central Lebanese Arabic (Druze Arabic), Standard Lebanese Arabic, Beqaa Arabic, Sunni Beiruti Arabic, Saida Sunni Arabic, Iqlim-Al-Kharrub Sunni Arabic, Jdaideh Arabic.
apc Arabic, North Levantine Spoken Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic Mexico Major cities Few speakers. Ethnic population: 630,000 (Johnstone and Mandryk 2001) 7 (Shifting) Lebanese, Libano-mexicano
apc Arabic, North Levantine Spoken Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic Syria Al Ladhiqiyah and Tartus governorates; widespread along Mediterranean coast 14,700,000 in Syria (2016). Total users in all countries: 24,587,400 3 (Wider communication). De facto national working language Lebanese-Syrian Arabic, Levantine Arabic, North Levantine Arabic, Syro-Lebanese Arabic, il-lahje š-šāmiyye شامي‎ (Shami) There is an urban standard dialect based on Damascus speech. Beiruti dialect well accepted. Aleppo dialect shows Mesopotamian (North Syrian) influence. A member of macrolanguage Arabic [ara].
apc Arabic, North Levantine Spoken Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic Turkey Adana, Hatay, and Mersin provinces 1,130,000 in Turkey (Leclerc 2014c) 6b* (Threatened) Çukurova (Cilician Arabic, Çukurovan Arabic). Estimated 55,000 Alevi Çukurovan Arabic speakers and 247,000–329,000 ethnic Arab Alevis in Mersin and Adana provinces. Çukurovan Arabic used by people over age 35–40 (Procházka-Eisl and Procházka 2018).
apc Arabic, North Levantine Spoken Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic United Arab Emirates Scattered 127,000 in United Arab Emirates (2016) 5* (Dispersed)
ayp Arabic, North Mesopotamian Spoken Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic Iraq Al Anbar, Arbil, As Sulaymaniyah, Diyala, Kirkuk, Ninawa, and Salah ad Din governorates: Tigris and Euphrates valleys north of Baghdad; An Najaf, Al Qadisiyah, and Babil governorates: border area northeast of An-Najaf 7,570,000 in Iraq (Leclerc 2014b). Total users in all countries: 8,694,000 6a* (Vigorous). De facto language of provincial identity in Kurdistan Region Maslawi, Mesopotamian Qeltu Arabic, Moslawi, Syro-Mesopotamian Vernacular Arabic مصلاوي‎ (Maslawi) Mardini Aramaic (Abdul-Massih, Jesrawi, Mardilli, Mardini), Tigris Group, Euphrates Group, Kurdistan Group. Reportedly very similar to Judeo-Iraqi Arabic [yhd], but has important sociolinguistic differences. A member of macrolanguage Arabic [ara].
ayp Arabic, North Mesopotamian Spoken Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic Jordan Scattered 304,000 in Jordan (2015) 6a* (Vigorous)
ayp Arabic, North Mesopotamian Spoken Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic Syria Al Hasakah governorate: Damascus toward north border with Turkey 300,000 in Syria (1992) 6a* (Vigorous) Maslawi, Mesopotamian Qeltu Arabic, Moslawi, Syro-Mesopotamian Arabic Mardini Aramaic (Abdul-Massih, Jesrawi, Mardilli, Mardini), Euphrates Group.
ayp Arabic, North Mesopotamian Spoken Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic Turkey Batman, Mardin, Mus, Sanliurfa, Siirt, and Sirnak provinces 520,000 in Turkey (Leclerc 2014c) 6a* (Vigorous) Maslawi, Mesopotamian Qeltu Arabic, Moslawi, Syro-Mesopotamian Vernacular Arabic Mardini Aramaic (Abdul-Massih, Jesrawi, Mardilli, Mardini), Anatolian Group, Euphrates Group. Mardin Arabic mutually intelligible with Moslawi Arabic. Peripheral dialects spoken in Mus, Siirt, and Batman provinces are quite divergent (Jastrow 2015).
acx Arabic, Omani Spoken Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic Kenya Scattered. Kilifi, Kwale, Lamu, and Tana River counties 15,000 in Kenya (1995), increasing 6a (Vigorous)
acx Arabic, Omani Spoken Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic Oman Widespread, mainly in Hajar mountain highlands and a few coastal regions 2,030,000 in Oman (2017). Total users in all countries: 2,622,000 6a* (Vigorous) Omani Hadari Arabic عماني‎ (ʿumāni) A member of macrolanguage Arabic [ara].
acx Arabic, Omani Spoken Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic Tanzania Unguja North, Unguja South regions, Unguja Urban-West regions No known L1 speakers in Tanzania. Ethnic population: 195,000 (Johnstone 1993) 9 (Dormant)
aec Arabic, Sa’idi Spoken Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic Egypt Widespread 22,400,000 (2016) 6a* (Vigorous) Saidi Arabic, Upper Egypt Arabic Middle Egypt Arabic, Upper Egypt Arabic. Reportedly similar to Sudanese Arabic [apd], especially in the south, but heavily influenced by Cairene Arabic (Cairo speech). A member of macrolanguage Arabic [ara].
ayn Arabic, Sanaani Spoken Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic Yemen Widespread; central areas: Amanat al Asimah and Sanaa governorates; outer areas: western Al Bayda’, Al Jawf, Al Mahwit, Amran, central and eastern Dhamar, eastern Hajjah, Ma’rib, and Sa’dah governorates 11,100,000 in Yemen (2015). Total users in all countries: 11,350,000 6a* (Vigorous). De facto language of provincial identity in North Yemen Northern Yemeni Arabic يمني‎ (Yamani) A member of macrolanguage Arabic [ara].
ssh Arabic, Shihhi Spoken Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic Oman Musandam governorate 17,000 in Oman (2017) 6a* (Vigorous)
ssh Arabic, Shihhi Spoken Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic United Arab Emirates Ra’s al Khaymah emirate: Musandam peninsula, Persian Gulf coast 19,000 in United Arab Emirates (2016). Total users in all countries: 36,000 6a* (Vigorous) Al-Shihuh, Shihhi, Shihu, Shihuh A member of macrolanguage Arabic [ara].
shu Arabic, Shuwa Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic Cameroon Far North region: Diamaré, Logone-and-Chari, Mayo-Danay, and Mayo-Sava divisions; along Chari river between Lake Chad and Kousséri, pockets south of Kousséri 145,000 in Cameroon, all users. L1 users: 75,000 in Cameroon (2005 SIL). L2 users: 70,000 (2013 SIL) 3 (Wider communication). Used as a LWC in the market and media, and in some churches. Originated from the migration of Arabic speakers from Chad to Cameroon from colonial period until present Arabe Choa, Chadian Spoken Arabic, Choa, Shoa, Shoa Arabic, Shua, Western Sudanic Arabic
shu Arabic, Shuwa Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic Niger Diffa region: Lake Chad north shore 9,300 in Niger (2014 J. Leclerc) 5* (Dispersed) Arabe Choa, Chadic Arabic, Shua
shu Arabic, Shuwa Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic Nigeria Borno state: Bama, Dikwa, Konduga, and Ngala LGAs; widespread in Borno and Yobe states following livestock movement 100,000 in Nigeria (1973 SIL) 3 (Wider communication) Arabe Choa, Chadian Arabic, Shua Arabic, Shuwa, Western Sudanic Arabic
ajp Arabic, South Levantine Spoken Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic Israel HaTsafon district 1,550,000 in Israel (2016) 3 (Wider communication). De facto language of national identity Levantine, Palestanian-Jordanian Arabic Madani, Fellahi.
ajp Arabic, South Levantine Spoken Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic Jordan ‘Ajlun, Al Balqa’, Al Karak, Al Mafraq, ‘Amman, Irbid, Jarash, and Madaba governorates 5,200,000 in Jordan (2016). Total users in all countries: 11,601,100 3 (Wider communication). De facto national working language Levantine Arabic, Palestinian-Jordanian, South Levantine Arabic أردني‎ (Urduni) Madani, Fellahi. There is a village-to-village difference of which speakers are aware. Newly emerging urban standard dialect based on Amman. A member of macrolanguage Arabic [ara].
ajp Arabic, South Levantine Spoken Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic Palestine Widespread 3,500,000 in Palestine (2014) 5* (Dispersed) Palestinian Arabic Madani, Fellahi.
ajp Arabic, South Levantine Spoken Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic United Arab Emirates Scattered 499,000 in United Arab Emirates (2016) 5* (Dispersed)
arb Arabic, Standard Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic Algeria 28,700,000 in Algeria (2015 SIL), all users 1 (National). Statutory national language (1996, Constitution, Article 3)
arb Arabic, Standard Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic Bahrain Widespread 612,000 in Bahrain (2013 SIL), all users 1 (National). Statutory national language (2002, Constitution, Article 2)
arb Arabic, Standard Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic Chad 615,000 in Chad (2014 SIL), all users 1 (National). Statutory national language (1996, Constitution, Article 9)
arb Arabic, Standard Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic Comoros Widespread 1 (National). Statutory national language (2001, Constitution, Article 1)
arb Arabic, Standard Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic Djibouti 40,100 in Djibouti (2015 SIL), all users 1 (National). Statutory national language (1992, Constitution, Article 1)
arb Arabic, Standard Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic Egypt Widespread 65,500,000 in Egypt (2015 SIL), all users 1 (National). Statutory national language (2014, Constitution, Article 2)
arb Arabic, Standard Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic Eritrea Widespread 2,420,000 in Eritrea (2015 SIL), all users 1 (National). De facto national language
arb Arabic, Standard Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic Iran Widespread 1,320,000 in Iran (2015 SIL), all users 4 (Educational). Recognized language (1979, Constitution, Article 16), used in education
arb Arabic, Standard Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic Iraq Widespread 27,200,000 in Iraq (2015 SIL), all users 1 (National). Statutory national language (2005, Constitution, Article 4(1))
arb Arabic, Standard Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic Israel Widespread 2,170,000 in Israel (2014 SIL), all users 1 (National). Statutory national language (1922, Palestine Order in Council, Article 82, 10 October)
arb Arabic, Standard Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic Jordan Widespread 5,770,000 in Jordan (2015 SIL), all users 1 (National). Statutory national language (1952, Constitution, Article 2)
arb Arabic, Standard Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic Kuwait Widespread 1,670,000 in Kuwait (2015 SIL), all users 1 (National). Statutory national language (1962, Constitution, Article 3)
arb Arabic, Standard Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic Lebanon Widespread 5,220,000 in Lebanon (2015 SIL), all users 1 (National). Statutory national language (1943, Constitution, Article 11)
arb Arabic, Standard Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic Libya 5,650,000 in Libya (2015 SIL), all users 1 (National). Statutory national language (2011, Constitutional Declaration, Article 1)
arb Arabic, Standard Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic Mali Widespread 41,800 in Mali (2015 SIL), all users 4 (Educational). Recognized language (1992, Constitution, Article 25), used in education
arb Arabic, Standard Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic Mauritania Widespread 1,840,000 in Mauritania (2013 SIL), all users 1 (National). Statutory national language (1991, Constitution, Article 6)
arb Arabic, Standard Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic Morocco 14,500,000 in Morocco (2015 SIL), all users 1 (National). Statutory national language (2011, Constitution, Article 5)
arb Arabic, Standard Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic Niger Widespread 7,800 in Niger (2015 SIL), all users 4 (Educational). Recognized language (2010, Constitution, Article 5), used in education
arb Arabic, Standard Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic Oman Widespread 2,140,000 in Oman (2015 SIL), all users 1 (National). Statutory national language (1996, Basic Law, Article 3)
arb Arabic, Standard Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic Palestine Widespread 4,040,000 in Palestine (2014 SIL), all users 1 (National). De facto national language
arb Arabic, Standard Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic Qatar Widespread 1,100,000 in Qatar (2015 SIL), all users 1 (National). Statutory national language (2003, Constitution, Article 1)
arb Arabic, Standard Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic Saudi Arabia Widespread 24,900,000 in Saudi Arabia (2014 SIL), all users. Total users in all countries: 273,989,700 1 (National). Statutory national language (1992, Basic Law, Article 1) Al-’Arabiyya, Literary Arabic العربية‎ (al-ʻArabīyah) Modern Standard Arabic (Modern Literary Arabic), Classical Arabic (Koranic Arabic, Quranic Arabic). Preserves the ancient grammar. A member of macrolanguage Arabic [ara].
arb Arabic, Standard Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic Somalia 2,050,000 in Somalia (2015 SIL), all users 1 (National). Statutory national language (2004, Transitional Federal Charter, Article 7(1))
arb Arabic, Standard Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic South Sudan Scattered 3,130,000 in South Sudan (2016 SIL), all users 4 (Educational)
arb Arabic, Standard Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic Syria Widespread 15,900,000 in Syria (2015 SIL), all users 1 (National). Statutory national language (1973, Constitution, Article 4)
arb Arabic, Standard Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic Tanzania Scattered No known L1 speakers in Tanzania. Ethnic population: No ethnic community 9 (Second language only)
arb Arabic, Standard Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic Tunisia 8,790,000 in Tunisia (2014 SIL), all users 1 (National). Statutory national language (1959, Constitution, Article 1)
arb Arabic, Standard Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic Turkey Scattered 686,000 in Turkey (2015 SIL), all users 4 (Educational). Recognized language (1982, Constitution, Article 3), used in education
arb Arabic, Standard Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic United Arab Emirates Widespread 3,090,000 in United Arab Emirates (2014 SIL), all users 1 (National). Statutory national language (1996, Constitution, Article 7)
arb Arabic, Standard Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic Western Sahara 287,000 in Western Sahara (2015 SIL), all users 1 (National). De facto national language
arb Arabic, Standard Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic Yemen Widespread 17,700,000 in Yemen (2015 SIL), all users 1 (National). Statutory national language (1991, Constitution, Article 2)
apd Arabic, Sudanese Spoken Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic Eritrea Anseba and Gash-Barka regions: possibly Asmara and other urban communities 6a* (Vigorous) Arabi
apd Arabic, Sudanese Spoken Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic Ethiopia Sudan and South Sudan border area 3 (Wider communication)
apd Arabic, Sudanese Spoken Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic South Sudan Widespread A reasonable population estimate cannot be given at this time because of the recent increase in population of South Sudan by those arriving from Sudan 3 (Wider communication). De facto language of national identity. Used as a lingua franca in northern South Sudan and now widely spoken by hundreds of thousands of South Sudanese arriving from the North following South Sudan’s independence Arabi, Khartoum Arabic, Sudanese Arabic
apd Arabic, Sudanese Spoken Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic Sudan Widespread 29,400,000 in Sudan (2015). Total users in all countries: 31,940,300 3 (Wider communication). De facto language of national identity. Used as an L2 by all other language groups in Sudan Khartoum Arabic, Sudanese Arabic Arabi, سوداني‎ (sūdānī) Khartoum, Western Sudanese, North Kordofan Arabic, Ja’ali, Shukri. Western Sudan Spoken Arabic and Khartoum Arabic dialects have little compatibility (Kaye 1988). A member of macrolanguage Arabic [ara].
acq Arabic, Ta’izzi-Adeni Spoken Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic Djibouti Scattered 66,600 in Djibouti (2016) 6a* (Vigorous) Djibouti Arabic
acq Arabic, Ta’izzi-Adeni Spoken Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic Yemen Widespread 9,660,000 in Yemen (2015). Total users in all countries: 10,533,300 6a* (Vigorous). De facto language of provincial identity in South Yemen Southern Yemeni Spoken Arabic Ta’izzi, Adeni. Ta’izzi dialect best accepted in Yemen. A member of macrolanguage Arabic [ara].
abh Arabic, Tajiki Spoken Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic Afghanistan Balkh province: Dawlatabad district, Khushalabad, Yakhdan; Jawzjan province: Mingajik district, Sultan Arigh; Sheberghan district, Hasanabad 16,000 in Afghanistan (2017), decreasing 6b* (Threatened) Arabi Balkh Arabic.
abh Arabic, Tajiki Spoken Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic Tajikistan Khatlon province: Vakhsh valley, mainly small villages; Kuliab and Leninabad cities 1,000 in Tajikistan (2003 J. Leclerc). Total users in all countries: 17,000 6b* (Threatened) Arabi, Bukhara Arabic, Buxara Arabic, Central Asian, Jugari, Tajiki Arabic A member of macrolanguage Arabic [ara].
aeb Arabic, Tunisian Spoken Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic Tunisia Widespread 10,800,000 in Tunisia (2014 census). Total users in all countries: 11,571,600 3 (Wider communication). De facto national working language Tunisian, Tunisian Arabic, Tunisian Darija Derja, تونسي‎ (Tounsi) Tunis, Sahil, Sfax, North-Western Tunisian, South-Western Tunisian, South-Eastern Tunisian. Reportedly similar to Eastern Algerian Arabic [arq], but clearly distinct. Tunis dialect used in media and language textbooks for foreigners. Southern dialects structurally similar to those in Libya. A member of macrolanguage Arabic [ara].
ayl Arabic, Western Egyptian Bedawi Spoken Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic Egypt Al Buhayrah, Al Iskandariyah, and Matruh governorates; Al Fayyum, Al Minya, Al Qahirah, Al Wadi al Jadid, and Bani Suwayf governorates: western oases. Bedouin regions along Mediterranean coast, west to Libya border 374,000 in Egypt (2016) 6a* (Vigorous) Bedawi, Libyan Spoken Arabic, Maghrebi Arabic, Sulaimitian Arabic Western Egyptian Bedawi Arabic, Tripolitanian Arabic, Southern Libyan Arabic, Eastern Libyan Arabic.
mey Hassaniyya Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic Mauritania Widespread 3,360,000 in Mauritania (2016), increasing. Total users in all countries: 8,842,800 3 (Wider communication). Statutory language of national identity (1991, Constitution, Article 6) Hasanya, Hasanya Arabic, Hassani, Hassania, Hassaniya, Hassaniyya Arabic, Klem El Bithan, Maure, Moor Hassaniyya, حسانية‎‎‎ (Ḥassānīya) None known. Not intelligible with other Arabic varieties. The Nemadi (Ikoku) are an ethnic group of 200 (1967) that speak Hassaniyya, but they have special morphemes for dogs, hunting, and houses. Nomadic between Mali and Mauritania.
mey Hassaniyya Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic Senegal Matam and Saint-Louis regions 162,000 in Senegal (2015 J. Leclerc) 5 (Dispersed). Recognized language (2005, Decree No.980 of 21 October) Hasaniya, Hasanya, Hassani, Hassaniya, Klem El Bithan
mlt Maltese Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic Malta Widespread 403,000 in Malta (European Commission 2012). Total users in all countries: 481,760 1 (National). Statutory national language (1964, Constitution, Article 5(2)) Malti Standard Maltese, Port Maltese, Rural West Maltese, Rural East Maltese, Rural Central Maltese, Zurrieq, Gozo.
heb Hebrew Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Canaanite Israel Widespread 8,330,000 in Israel, all users. L1 users: 4,380,000 in Israel (Dekel 2014). Spoken by all Israelis as L1 or L2. Some who use it as L1 now in Israel learned it as L2 originally. L2 users: 3,950,000 (2016). Total users in all countries: 9,303,950 (as L1: 5,353,950; as L2: 3,950,000) 1 (National). Statutory national language (1922, Palestine Order in Council, Article 82, 10 October) Israeli עברית‎ (Ivrit), עברית חדשה‎ (ivrít ḥadašá[h]) Standard Hebrew (Europeanized Hebrew, General Israeli), Oriental Hebrew (Arabized Hebrew, Yemenite Hebrew). An amalgamation of different Hebrew strata plus intrinsic linguistic evolution; not a direct offspring from Biblical or other varieties of Ancient Hebrew.
hbo Hebrew, Ancient Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Canaanite Israel Jerusalem district: west Jerusalem No known L1 speakers 9 (Dormant) Old Hebrew
smp Samaritan Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Canaanite Israel Scattered No known L1 speakers in Israel. Ethnic population: No ethnic community 9 (Second language only) Shamerim
smp Samaritan Hebrew Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Canaanite Palestine Nablus governorate No known L1 speakers in Palestine. Ethnic population: No ethnic community. Total users in all countries: none known 9 (Second language only) Samaritan, Shamerim
tig Tigré Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, South, Ethiopian, North Eritrea Anseba, Gash-Barka, and Northern Red Sea regions. Widespread except in Southern Red Sea region 1,290,000 in Eritrea (2016), increasing 4 (Educational) ትግራይት‎ (Tigrayit/Tigraayit) Mansa’ (Mensa), Habab, Beni-Amir, Semhar, Algeden, Senhit (Ad-Tekleis, Ad-Temariam, Bet-Juk, Marya Kayah, Mensa), Dahalik. Between dialects (except Dahalik) intelligibility is above 91% (Idris 2005); between Dahalik and the other dialects 24%–51% (Idris 2010). Lexical similarity: 71% with Ge’ez [gez], 64% with Tigrigna [tir] (Bender, M. 1971). Intelligibility of Dahalik undetermined, Tigre dialectical lexical similarity is 86%–97% (Idris 2005); 55%–60% with Dahalik and other Tigre dialects (Idris 2010).
dlk Dahalik Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, South, Ethiopian, North Eritrea Northern Red Sea region: Dahlak Archipelago 2,500 (2012 J. McLaughlin) 6b* (Threatened) None known. Reportedly similar to Tigré [tig].
gez Geez Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, South, Ethiopian, North Eritrea Widespread No known L1 speakers in Eritrea. Ethnic population: No ethnic community 9 (Second language only) Ancient Ethiopic, Ethiopic, Ge’ez, Giiz
gez Geez Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, South, Ethiopian, North Ethiopia Scattered No known L1 speakers in Ethiopia. Ethnic population: No ethnic community. Total users in all countries: none known 9 (Second language only) Ancient Ethiopic, Ethiopic, Ge’ez, Giiz ግዕዝ‎ (Gəʿəz)
tig Tigré Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, South, Ethiopian, North Sudan Red Sea state: Tokar and Garora regions; Gedaref and Kassala states 6b* (Threatened)
tir Tigrigna Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, South, Ethiopian, North Eritrea Widespread, especially south and central 3,110,000 in Eritrea (2016), increasing 3 (Wider communication). De facto national working language Habashi, Tigray, Tigrinya
tir Tigrigna Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, South, Ethiopian, North Ethiopia Afar and Amhara regions; Tigray region border areas 4,467,000 in Ethiopia, all users. L1 users: 4,320,000 in Ethiopia (2007 census). L2 users: 147,000. 2,820,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 4,490,000 (2007 census). Total users in all countries: 7,659,780 (as L1: 7,507,780; as L2: 152,000) 2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial working language in Tigray Region (1994, Constitution, Article 47(3)) Beta Israel, Tigray, Tigrie, Tigrinya
tir Tigrigna Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, South, Ethiopian, North Israel Jerusalem district 10,000 in Israel (1994 H. Mutzafi) 7 (Shifting) Beta Israel, Tigrinya, “Falashas” (pej.)
gru Kistane Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, South, Ethiopian, South, Outer, n-Group Ethiopia Oromia region; Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ region: Gurage, Hadiyya, and Kambaata zones, southwest of Addis Ababa 315,500, all users. L1 users: 255,000 (1994 census). L2 users: 60,500. Ethnic population: 364,000 (1994 census). Includes 4,000 Gogot 6a (Vigorous) North Gurage, Soddo, Soddo Gurage Soddo (Aymallal, Aymellel, Kestane, Kistane), Dobi (Dobbi, Goggot, Gogot). Not intelligible with Silt’e [stv] or Sebat Bet Gurage [sgw]. Dobi dialect comprehension of Soddo is 76%, and Soddo speakers’ of Dobi is 90%.
ior Inor Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, South, Ethiopian, South, Outer, tt-Group Ethiopia Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ region: west Gurage zone, Innemor and Endegeny districts 280,000. 50,000 Endegeny 6a (Vigorous) Ennemor Endegeny (Enner). Part of Gurage subgroup of languages.
mys Mesmes Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, South, Ethiopian, South, Outer, tt-Group Ethiopia Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ region: Gurage, Hadiyya, and Kambaata zones No known L1 speakers. One L1 speaker was still living in 2001 (2018 M. Ahland) 9 (Dormant) None known. Related to Sebat Bet Gurage [sgw].
mvz Mesqan Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, South, Ethiopian, South, Outer, tt-Group Ethiopia Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ region: west Gurage zone, Mesqan district, principal villages: Butajira, Hudat, Mesqan, and Mikayelo 195,000 (2007 SIL). Ethnic population: 205,000 (Woreda Farmers’ Cooperatives Office) 6a (Vigorous) Masqan, Meskan
sgw Sebat Bet Gurage Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, South, Ethiopian, South, Outer, tt-Group Ethiopia Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ region: west Gurage zone; Emdibir area (Chaha dialect); Agenna (Ezha dialect); Gura Megenase and Wirir areas (Gura dialect); K’abul and K’want’e (Gyeto dialect); Ch’eza area, mountains north of Chaha and Ezha (Muher dialect) 1,480,000 (2007 census). Ethnic population: 1,860,000 (2007 census) 5 (Developing) Central West Gurage, Gouraghie, Gurage, Guragie, Gurague, West Gurage ሰባት ቤት ጉራጌ‎ (Səbat Bet Gurage) Chaha (Cheha), Ezha (Eza, Izha), Gumer (Gwemarra), Gura, Gyeto, Muher (Muxir). Member of Gurage subgroup of languages.
agj Argobba Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, South, Ethiopian, South, Transversal, Amharic-Argobba Ethiopia Afar and Amhara regions: Berehet, Gusa, Khayr Amba, Melkajillo, Metehara, Shewa Robit, Shonke, and Yimlawo villages area in Rift Valley 46,940, all users. L1 users: 43,700 (2007 census). L2 users: 3,240. 100 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 141,000 (2007 census) 4 (Educational) Argoba Aliyu Amba-Ankober, Shonke-T’allaha, Shagura. Lexical similarity: 53% with Amharic [amh] (Shonke-T’allaha dialect).
amh Amharic Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, South, Ethiopian, South, Transversal, Amharic-Argobba Ethiopia Amhara region: north central; Addis Ababa 25,600,000 in Ethiopia, all users. L1 users: 21,600,000 in Ethiopia (2016 World Factbook). L2 users: 4,000,000. 14,800,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 19,900,000 (2007 census). Total users in all countries: 25,880,630 (as L1: 21,880,630; as L2: 4,000,000) 1 (National). Statutory national language (1994, Constitution, Art 5(2)), also statutory provincial language Abyssinian, Amarigna, Amarinya, Amhara, Ethiopian ኣማርኛ‎ (Amarəñña)
amh Amharic Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, South, Ethiopian, South, Transversal, Amharic-Argobba Israel HaDarom (southern) district: Ashdod, Ashkelon, Beersheba, Kiryat Malachi; HaMerkaz (central) district: LeZion, Netanya, Petah Tikva, Rehovot, Rishon; Hefa district: Hadera, Haifa; Jerusalem district 40,000 in Israel (2005 J. Leclerc) 5* (Dispersed) Beta Israel, “Falasha” (pej.)
zwa Zay Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, South, Ethiopian, South, Transversal, Harari-East Gurage Ethiopia Oromia region: Lake Zway shores and east islands 14,000 (Meyer 2005), decreasing 6b (Threatened) Gelilla, Lak’i, Laqi, Zway None known. Lexical similarity: 61% with Harari [har], 70% with Silt’e [stv] (Bender, M. 1971).
har Harari Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, South, Ethiopian, South, Transversal, Harari-East Gurage Ethiopia Harari region: walled city of Harar; Addis Ababa and Dire Dawa 33,570 in Ethiopia, all users. L1 users: 25,800 in Ethiopia (2007 census). 20,000 in Addis Ababa, outside Harar city (Hetzron 1997). L2 users: 7,770. 2,350 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 31,700 (2007 census). Total users in all countries: 34,890 (as L1: 27,120; as L2: 7,770) 4 (Educational) Adare, Adarinnya, Adere, Aderinya, Hararri, Hareri ሃራሪ‎ (Gey Sinan)
stv Silt’e Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, South, Ethiopian, South, Transversal, Harari-East Gurage Ethiopia Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ region: Silte zone 881,000 (2007 census). Ethnic population: 935,000 (2007 census) 4 (Educational) East Gurage, Selti, Silte, Silti የስልጤ‎ (Yesiltʼe) Enneqor (Inneqor), Ulbarag (Urbareg). Reportedly similar to Wolane [wle].
wle Wolane Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, South, Ethiopian, South, Transversal, Harari-East Gurage Ethiopia Oromia region: southwest of Addis Ababa; Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ region: Gurage zone 70,000 (Meyer 2006) 6a (Vigorous) Olane, Walane, Welene, Wäläne None known. Reportedly similar to Silt’e [stv].
hoh Hobyót Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, South, South Arabian Oman Dhofar governorate: near Yemen border 100 in Oman (1998 H. Mutzafi). Total users in all countries: 200 8a (Moribund) Hewbyót, Hobi, Kalam Rifi None known. Related to and possibly a mixed language with Mehri [gdq] and Shehri [shv].
bhm Bathari Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, South, South Arabian Oman Dhofar governorate: Al Jazeer to Shweymia coastal towns 200 in Oman (2011) 8b (Nearly extinct) Batahari, Bathara Reportedly very similar to Mehri [gdq], some considering it a dialect of Mehri.
bhm Bathari Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, South, South Arabian Yemen Al Mahrah governorate 8b (Nearly extinct) Bathara, Bautahari, Botahari
hss Harsusi Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, South, South Arabian Oman Al Wusta and Dhofar governorates: Jiddat al-Harasis 600 (2011) 7 (Shifting) Harsi ’Aforit, Hersyet, South Arabian None known. Reportedly similar to Mehri [gdq], but usually considered a separate language.
hoh Hobyót Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, South, South Arabian Yemen Al Mahrah governorate: near Oman border 100 in Yemen (2001 J. Leclerc) 8a (Moribund)
shv Jibbali Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, South, South Arabian Saudi Arabia Scattered 34,000 in Saudi Arabia (Leclerc 2011) 6b* (Threatened) Shehri
gdq Mehri Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, South, South Arabian Kuwait Scattered individuals 27,200 in Kuwait (2017) 6b* (Threatened) Mahri
gdq Mehri Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, South, South Arabian Oman Al Wusta and Dhofar governorates: south near Yemen border 84,800 in Oman (2017) 6b* (Threatened) Mahri Nagdi.
gdq Mehri Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, South, South Arabian Saudi Arabia Eastern Province, Najran, and Riyadh regions 20,000 in Saudi Arabia (2012 Al Arabiya) 6b* (Threatened)
gdq Mehri Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, South, South Arabian Yemen Al Mahrah governorate 50,000 in Yemen (2011). Total users in all countries: 182,000 7 (Shifting) Mahri Western Mehri (Mehriyet), Eastern Mehri (Mehriyot). Within main dialects there are also differences between Bedouin and city varieties.
shv Shehri Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, South, South Arabian Oman Dhofar governorate: coastal mountains and plains; Khuriya Muriya islands in Arabian Sea near Fararah 42,400 in Oman (2017). Total users in all countries: 76,400 6b* (Threatened) Ehkili, Geblet, Jibali, Jibbali, Qarawi, Sehri, Shahari, Sheret, South Arabian Central Jibbali, Eastern Jibbali, Western Jibbali. Eastern Jibbali includes Kuria Muria (Baby Jibbali). Reportedly increasingly bilingual in Dhofari Arabic [adf].
sqt Soqotri Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, South, South Arabian Yemen Amanat al Asimah governorate: ’Abd al-Kuri, Darsah, Samha, and Soqotra islands in the Gulf of Aden 70,000 (2015 J. Leclerc) 8a (Moribund) Saqatri, Socotri, Sokotri, South Arabian, Suqutri ’Abd Al-Kuri, Southern Soqotri, Northern Soqotri, Central Soqotri, Western Soqotri.
bxe Ongota Afro-Asiatic, Unclassified Ethiopia Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ region: south Omo zone, 1 village on Weyt’o river west bank 10 (2007) 8b (Nearly extinct) Ifa, “Birale” (pej.), “Birelle” (pej.), “Shanqilla” (pej.)

References[edit]

  • Eberhard, David M., Gary F. Simons, and Charles D. Fennig (eds.). 2019. Ethnologue: Languages of the World. Twenty-second edition. Dallas, Texas: SIL International.