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Ajapa Yoga

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Ajapa Yoga (Sanskrit: अजपायोग, IAST: ajapāyoga) – is one of the Yoga traditions present in the modern world. The leader of this movement, who is called Guru Prasad Paramahansa comes from India.

Ajapa Yoga derives its roots from mythological Indian sages called – Rishis and the doctrine of Shabda Brahman (Sanskrit: शब्दब्रह्मन्, IAST: śabdabrahman), which dates back to the Vedic period, and hence is classified by European religious scholars as representing the Hindu tradition. In terms of sects, however, it draws relatively little from the rich palette of Hinduism as it is based to a greater extent teachings concerning the components and techniques of breathing and inner energy (prana) and is closer to the philosophies of Yoga-darsana and practices of the Upanishad period. Joining Ajapa Yoga is ceremonial in nature and accomplished through initiation (diksha), which is necessary for learning about individual practices such as Kriya which leads to ultimate realization of the true self.

Etymology[edit | edit source]

The word ajapa (Sanskrit: अजपा, IAST: ajapā) consists of two parts:

  • the first element is the letter "a", which in Sanskrit is placed in front of a word to denote negation and thus means "not".
  • the second part is the Sanskrit word "japa", meaning: repetition of a sentence or syllable, e.g., counting the a string of prayer beads (mala) during the recitation of a holy name, etc.

By combining the letter "a" with the word "japa" we get the word ajapa, meaning "what is not repeated". Hence, here the term ajapa means "that which is not repeated". In the variation of yoga called Ajapa, no mantras are repeated; nothing is intentionally repeated; therefore, it is yoga without repetition, i.e., without "japa". Practice proceeds with each breath.

Belief[edit | edit source]

Hindu background[edit | edit source]

Ajapa Yoga is also known in Hindu religious literature as: hansa yoga (Sanskrit: हंस, haṃsa or hansa), Hansa Mantra, Soham Mantra, Ajapa Mantra, Ajapa Gayatri, Atman Mantra, Anahat Mantra, Pumprakryti Mantra, Brahma Mantra, Jiva Mantra, Pranava Mantra, Vidya Mantra and Shivashakti Mantra.[1]. It deriving from the fact that the basic practice used in this yoga is a combination of two sounds called HAN and SA. The Upanishads repeatedly mention the term ajapa (hansa), to which the entire Hamsa Upanishad [2] is dedicated. The term hansa is also used in Hinduism as a term for the spiritual self [3]. The Dhyanabindu Upanishad [4], Nirvana Upanishad [5] and others mention ajapa gayatri as the mantra that gives the yogi self-realization (liberation from samsara). Since the meditation of Ajapa Yoga was described in the sacred books of Hinduism, it may be seen at first glance to be one of many splinter groups of the Hindu religion, which it is not. In the common understanding of Westerners, Ajapa Yoga is more a philosophy or specific breathing technique than a religion. It is a tradition that teaches a specific breathing method focused on physical health, peace of mind, and inner peace, leading ultimately to self-realization.[citation needed]

Patrons[edit | edit source]

The teachings of this tradition [6] state that the key technique derives from the knowledge of mythological Nava Brahmarshi (Sanskrit: नवब्रह्मर्षि, IAST: Nava (nine) Brahmarṣi ):

  1. Marichi (Sanskrit:मरीचि , IAST: Marīci ),
  2. Bhrigu (Sanskrit:भृगु , IAST: Bhṛgu ),
  3. Angiras (Sanskrit:अंगिरा , IAST: Angirā ),
  4. Pulastya (Sanskrit:फुलस्त्य , IAST: Pulastya ),
  5. Pulaha (Sanskrit:फुलह , IAST: Pulaha ),
  6. Kratu (Sanskrit:क्रतु , IAST: Kratu ),
  7. Daksha (Sanskrit:दक्ष , IAST: Dakṣa ),
  8. Atri (Sanskrit:अत्रि , IAST: Atri ),
  9. Vasishtha (Sanskrit:वशिष्ठ , IAST: Vasiṣṭha ).

In observing the world, the Rishis noted the subtle rules governing the totality of the creation. They taught that analogous processes take place in the entire universe, governed by two basic principles (forces): the forces of attraction and repulsion. On any scale of observation, whether the macro (galaxies, planetary systems) or the micro (the atom and the electrons circling around it), certain forces are observed, which in Ajapa Yoga are called the forces of attraction and repulsion. According to the teachings of Ajapa Yoga, the forces of attraction and repulsion also occur during the process of breathing [7] and their proper regulation yields knowledge about the nature of these forces.

The interior of the Brahmarishi temple in Shri Purnanand Ajapa Yoga Sanstahan, Dimna-Jamshedpur, Jharkhand, India.

Qualifications of the master and disciple[edit | edit source]

From its beginnings Ajapa Yoga, was always handed down from Guru to disciple by means of initiation, during which the disciple acquired understanding of the technique of Ajapa Yoga[8]. This form of guidance of the disciple by the Guru continues in the Hindu tradition to the present day. This unconditional devotion of a disciple to his Guru is difficult for modern people to accept, especially those living in Western cultures. Moreover, there are many false "gurus" in our times who exploit their disciples in various ways. A true and completely realized Guru is today an absolute rarity and to find one is becoming increasingly difficult. The self-realized Gurus from the modern line of Ajapa Yoga apply the principles described above, and through initiation they accept the obligation to lead the disciple along the path of spiritual practice (sadhana) to moksha (liberation)[8]. The religion, skin color, or country of the origin of the disciple does not matter to them; it is important only that the candidate is ready to become a disciple and is determined to succeed on the sadhana path by submitting to the will of the Guru and the practice of Ajapa Yoga.[citation needed] An old proverb, "When the disciple is ready, the Master will appear", perfectly reflects the principle of initiation and the readiness of an individual to become a disciple.[citation needed]

History[edit | edit source]

Mythological period[edit | edit source]

The Ajapa Yoga tradition [9] proclaims that the history of the use of Ajapa meditation dates back to ancient times, and that during a certain period of history it was considered to be the highest sadhana on Earth. Although the Indian scriptures mention different spiritual paths that lead to different goals, there are repeated references to one supreme technique, the sole purpose of which is to regain the state of Svarup (Sanskrit: स्वरूप्, IAST: svarūpa) (sva real, true + rūpa form)). Nirukta Tantra says: "Ajapa, the song of breath, gives realization to a yogi"[1]. For thousands of years, Ajapa Yoga was taught by ancient sages, i.e. Rishis or self-realized Gurus to their disciples. [10] Very few details have been written about this, as Ajapa Yoga is based on practice and experience, not on theoretical considerations or the study of books. According to the Ajapa Yoga tradition, with the arrival of modern times of darkness and delusion, in the Kali Yuga era, the pursuit for material objects and sensual pleasures replaced the spiritual search for the goal of life which existed in the previous age, Satya Yuga. When greater attention was paid to external matters than to inner truth, the tradition of Ajapa Yoga ceased to be appreciated in this world. Realizing this, the Rishis created Siddhashrama, a mystical hermitage, which according to a tradition, is located in a secret land deep in the Himalayas [11]. There they preserved their old teachings and guarded their techniques, waiting for the right time to come again to reveal it to the world. Only a very few who deserved this level of spiritual development were in exceptional situations taught this technique by the Siddhashrama masters. For this reason, for thousands of years until the 1960s, the Ajapa Yoga technique was kept secret from the world. This account of the history of this tradition was presented by the first of its propagators[12].

Modern period[edit | edit source]

The contemporary Ajapa Yoga tradition was revealed to a Hindu sadhu named Basanta, who, in the year 1860 came to Siddhashrama[11] in Himalayas. There, Brahmarshi Angiras gave him initiation and Rishi Matang taught him the ancient technique of Ajapa Yoga[13]. After five years spent in this secret hermitage Basanta returned to India and, as Guru Purnananda Paramahansa (often called by his disciples Paramguru Dev), began the mission of teaching Ajapa Yoga in the modern world. His successors were Guru Bhumananda Paramahansa and Guru Janardan Paramahansa (popularly known by his disciples as Guru Dev). In 1969-70, Guru Janardan Paramahansa was a co-organizer and lecturer at the World Conference of Scientific Yoga in New Delhi] [14]. This conference resulted in many contacts with people from the West. In 1970 he accepted an invitation to teach about Ajapa Yoga in the Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences [15]. This moment is acknowledged as the official opening of the idea and Ajapa Yoga technique to Western civilization. On January 6, 1966, Guru Janardan found a newborn boy on the banks of the Ganges River, near Pandu Guha (Sanskrit:पाण्डु गुहा, IAST: pāṇḍu guhā, eng. Pandu Cave), about 1 km from Shri Purnanda Yogashram popularly called Lakshman Jhula Ashram, in the village of Jonk in the Pauri Garhwal district in the state of Uttranchal. He named the boy Guru Prasad and declared [16] that this boy is a self-realized saint who would play a great role in helping humanity. After Guru Janardan's mahasamādhi on April 28, 1980, 14-year-old Guru Prasad became the only Guru of Ajapa Yoga. Currently, Guru Prasad is continuing the teaching of his predecessors, regularly visiting his disciples in ashrams created for him around the world.[citation needed]

Doctrine[edit | edit source]

Control of actions, feelings, and sounds[edit | edit source]

Modern man thinks that he does everything independently, controls everything and makes decisions about his future life, but the Rishis observing the processes going on in the world taught that man is nothing but a puppet [17] of the breath (in the Ajapa Yoga theory, breath, action, activity and movement describe the same process), feelings, and sound. By taking control of one of these three elements, the other two can be controlled, and man can become the author of his own fate, transcending the state of the passive puppet.

The efforts leading to control include:

  • movement, gaving rise to Hatha yoga, which consists of various asanas to change the activity inside the body;
  • feelings, gaving rise to Bhakti yoga; this yoga is mentioned in the Shvetashvatara Upanishad where it means simply participation, devotion, and love for any endeavor;
  • sound, gaving rise to Ajapa Yoga.

In every moment of life, there is a process of breathing and experiencing forces of attraction and forces of repulsion. Along with this activity, subtle internal sounds are created [18]. Ajapa Yoga adepts learn to recognize these sounds in themselves. Every change in human activity evokes a corresponding change in internal sound. Activity (movement) and sound always go together, accompanied by a third thing, feeling [19].
One advantage of using the Ajapa Yoga technique is the ease of sound control. The breathing process takes place at every moment of life and is accompanied by specific sounds. Breath control is a method that can be used during the waking state when consciousness is active. The desired breath sound can be created at any time except the sleep state to control breath and feeling.[citation needed]

Sounds of inhalation and exhalation[edit | edit source]

When the breath comes through the mouth, a clear sound is created "a-ha, a-ha, a-ha". According to the teachings of this tradition, the inhalation of air through the mouth is accompanied by the sound "a" exhalation by the sound "ha". Hence, these two sounds are perceived as natural sounds of breath created when breathing through the mouth. However, when the breath comes through the nose, the sound "um-hum, um-hum, um-hum" is made "um" when inhaling and "hum" when exhaling. This can be verified by listening carefully to the breath. These four sounds "a-ha" and "um-hum" are natural sounds of breath.

Inhalation Exhalation
Mouth
A
HA
Nose
UM
HUM

In examining these four sounds, the Rishis discovered that, when breathing through the mouth "a" is inhaled, and "ha" exhaled, "a" enters the body, and "h + a" exits. Thus, an additional "h" sound appears, which is an inseparable part of the "ha" sound and exits with the exhalation. On the other hand, with the breath through the nose, "um" enters and "h + um" exits. The additional "h" sound appears again, as inseparable part of the "hum" sound going out with the exhalation. This "h" is never inhaled, but we breathe it out with every breath. The Rishis established that the sound "h" represents the vital energy, the life force of man, called Prana in Hinduism[20].

The forces of attraction and repulsion[edit | edit source]

A human being breathes approximately 28,800 times a day, inhaling and exhaling air. There is no life without inhalation (attraction) and exhalation (repulsion). According to Ajapa Yoga, the forces of attraction and forces of repulsion defined in this way are the foundation of the origin and existence of the universe. The knowledge of these forces, attraction and repulsion, according to Ajapa Yoga teachings, can ultimately lead to recognition of the universe.[citation needed]

The Rishis observed that breathing is life, as there is no life without breath, and therefore they started to study the breathing process thoroughly. They observed inhalation and exhalation in people and animals, both healthy and sick, in motion and resting, sleeping and awake. They noticed that each time the breathing process occurred certain natural sounds were produced. They discovered that when prana was expelled with a strong exhalation, loss of life energy, self-confidence, and concentration difficulties occurred. On the other hand, when there was a great deal of this life energy, a deepening breath could be observed. In the repulsion state (exhalation), there was a loss of prana, and life energy and mental efficiency decreased. In the attraction state (inhalation), life energy and the level of concentration increased.[citation needed]

The Rishis observed that the combined sounds of attraction create the Om sound, also known as AUM or pranava. Because the practice of this yoga is carried out with the help of the pranava sounds, it is sometimes called hansa yoga. Ajapa (hansa) (Sanskrit: हंस, haṃsa or hansa) and pranava are inseparable and identical[1]. The Vedas define AUM and basies Ajapa Yoga technique, through which the practitioner connects with AUM using the term Shabda Brahman or Nada Brahman – transcendental sound, or cosmic sound or word. At the ultimate level of Shabda Brahman words become wordless, forms become formless, and all multiplicity unified in Consciousness residing in that transcendent glory extends beyond mind and speech. [21]

In the Upanishads the AUM sound is also called Anahatanada (Sanskrit: अनाहतनाद, [[[IAST]]: Anāhatanāda)[22] [23]. According to Hindu philosophy, the creation of the universe began from the original movement of Brahma, accompanied by the first sound, AUM, which lasts eternally and represents the highest state of consciousness. The Upanishads consider sadhana based on AUM to be the best method to achieve self-realization, which results from the following shlokas:

  • One who chants OM with the intention of "attaining Brahman" will verily attain Brahman[24][25].
  • The Self has the nature of an OM syllable. Meditate on OM as the Self[26].
  • This form of meditation, which was manifested first among all, for the revival of all seekers, was the First Word, the manifestation of Brahman (God): the syllable of OM. Meditation on OM is intended for those who seek liberation. This syllable is the Supreme Brahman[27].
  • God is the OM syllable, the OM syllable is God; the Supreme Knowledge comes from Him[28].
  • OM is Brahman, the Eternal Being. This is the Veda known by those who know Brahman. Through it, what is to be known is known[29].
  • One should meditate on the syllable OM[30].
  • OM is the bow; the individual self is the arrow; Brahman is the target to be hit. It should be hit with great vigilance. Then, one shall merge in Brahman, even as the arrow enters into the target.[31].
  • AUM is Brahma, AUM is Vishnu, AUM is Shiva, AUM is immutable, it is spontaneous light, it is ....[32].

In the present times of Kali Yuga, very few people know the true identity of AUM ( it is difficult to find self-realized people). Most consider the chanting of the AUM sound, either alound or mentally, to be Pranava Sādhanā. According to the Upanishads AUM cannot be pronounced because it is neither a vowel nor a consonant and can not be pronounced with the throat, lips, tongue, palate, or teeth[1]. AUM is referred to as a mystical syllable. Although many comments have been made about sadhana based on pranava their meaning without practical knowledge of the Ajapa Yoga technique remains unclear. According to the Brahmarishis and the self-realized Ajapa Yoga Gurus the practice through which the practitioner unites with the AUM sound in an automatic manner is the only true and effective method of sadhana[1].

Control of energy loss[edit | edit source]

Ajapa Yoga as a method of controlling activity and feelings through sound control, ultimately leads to minimizing the loss of prana. By controlling the loss of prana, the attraction state can be prolnged,thus increasing life energy. This can be achieved by controlling the sound with the Ajapa Yoga technique. This is done only through the breathing sound and does not require any special body postures, exercises, changes in daily schedule, or vegetarian diet. Simple breathing takes place in a natural way, with only a small change in the method of exhalation.[citation needed]

Existential and ultimate goals[edit | edit source]

With practice over days, months, and years, the repulsion state (exhalation) diminishes, and the attraction state (inhalation) increases. This change occurs gradually in a natural way. With a serious approach to the practice, it is possible thanks to this yoga technique to achieve a state of total attraction (AUM state), in which self-realization, denoted by the Sanskrit term Moksha is achieved.
The highest attraction state is the state of immobility. In this state one achieves the highest state of consciousness, the Guru state, which is the final state beyond which nothing exists any longer[6]. This state cannot be described, only experienced. People have tried to describe it to others, using many words ineffectively. Therefore, we encounted many names to describe this state, such as self-realization, liberation, enlightenment, ultimate peace, self understanding, the highest state of consciousness, etc. Sanskrit, also attempting to describe this state, uses various names such as mukti, moksha, Brahma gyan, tattva gyan, nirvana, etc. but none of these words reflects the real, ecstatic Guru state.[citation needed]

This is the ultimate goal on the path of spiritual development, but even when there is no aspiration to achieve a state of complete self-realization, the Ajapa Yoga method enables one, at very least, to control the sound of repulsion. This a way to control the loss of prana and increase your life energy. Regular practice of the Ajapa Yoga breathing technique brings improvement in health, relieves stress, increases vitality, sharpens memory, and brightens thoughts[33].

Practice[edit | edit source]

Ajapa Yoga, as a path of spiritual development, is usually practiced individually. Group practice takes place periodically. It is possible to use some of the techniques during everyday activities, without isolating oneself from the environment or abandoning one’s duties or life activities.

Breath control practice[edit | edit source]

Ajapa Yoga offers a specific type of breathing technique, which is practiced simultaneously with meditation. The process is simple enough that anyone can do it. This breathing technique of Ajapa Yoga can be practiced at any time one is in the waking state, while walking or working, on the way to school, or while relaxing. It is based on clear and easily demonstrated principles, as every practitioner can verify through his or her own experience.
When we are in the waking state, we can easily control the sounds accompanying the inhalation (attraction) and exhalation (repulsion) of air. When we perform our daily duties, we focus mainly on controlling the repulsion associated with the reduction of the "h" sound accompanying the exhaled air. We control this through the conscious generation of a different natural sound in the exhalation process. The breathing process is continuous, but breath control is a conscious process and can be practiced when we are fully aware of the activity. When we are sleeping or emotionally very excited, or when our consciousness is disturbed by intoxicants (such as alcohol, drugs, etc.), we are unable to control ourselves consciously and cannot control our breath. In such a state, there is no way to control breathing or the accompanying sounds, and thus we cannot practice the Ajapa Yoga breathing technique.

Individual practice[edit | edit source]

During the latter part of the day, after finishing work and everyday duties, when the mind becomes calmer, the Ajapa Yoga practitioner proceeds to more intense practice. It is best if he sits (optimally in the lotus or half-lotus position) in one place with the back straight and consciously begins to control the breath. During inhalation (attraction) he focuses on the sound accompanying the entry of the air into the lungs, and during exhalation (repulsion) monitors the corresponding sound. He learns these sounds during diksha[34]. When the practitioner is properly focused on these sounds and no more thoughts are created in the head, he can follow these sounds easily and naturally. However, nowadays, in the time of Kali Yuga, it is difficult to find a person who can control his own mind. Therefore, the intense practice of the Kriyā called Ajapa Yoga is hard inner work rather than pleasure.

Group practice[edit | edit source]

In Ajapa Yoga one always speaks of individual practice, even when in a group where intense Kriyā is being practiced. The only difference between individual and group practice is that the latter gives the practitioner the opportunity to achieve, with less effort, greater focus on the Ajapa Yoga sounds. The Guru, bearing in mind the difficulties encountered by his disciples during practice, established Ashrams and Ajapa Yoga centers where group practice takes place. Group practice can also take place when initiates meet in their homes to celebrate puja and practice kriyā together. However, these are occasional situations and are not recommended by the Guru.

Practice in Ashrams[edit | edit source]

For the good of his disciples, Guru has founded Ashrams to which adepts come for more intense kriyā practice and to attend festivals of Ajapa Yoga.
A stay in the Ashram is characterized by a unique rhythm of life. In addition to daily duties related to maintaining order in the Ashram and individual practice, there is also puja. Three times a day, at 3 am, 9:30 am and at 7 pm, disciples gather in a group and celebrate puja together. This ceremony begins with loud chanting of the OM sound. Following inner silence associated with this chanting, the kriyā practice of the group begins. Puja ends with the singing of Guru Stotram, which consists of selected parts from a Sanskrit hymn called Guru Gita. Puja is an important element of Ajapa Yoga practice, as it is an expression of thanks to the guru for having made adepts of this yoga technique his disciples. Serious involvement in this sadhana of Gurupuja is a very important part not only of group but also individual practice.

Individuals and their functions[edit | edit source]

The meaning of guru[edit | edit source]

For centuries in Indian society, which has traditionally paid great attention to the religious part of life, the position of spiritual masters has always been exceptionally important. The aspect of the Guru was one of the pillars in the cultural architecture of India. Books regulating social relations, which were simultaneously ethical codes (such as Manusmriti), emphasized the significant role of Guru and ordered a show of reverence and respect for him. A popular etymological theory considers the term guru to be based on the syllables gu (गु) and ru (रु), which, it is claimed, stands for darkness and the light that dispels it, respectively.[Note 1] The Guru is seen as the one who "dispels the darkness of ignorance" and guides his disciples.[Note 2][Note 3][37] The Shiva Samhita says: "There is not the least doubt that Guru is father. Guru is mother, and Guru is God even; ....[38]. Thanks to Gurukripa, we achieve everything that is favorable for us"[39]. In ancient times during the Satya Yuga period, this relationship was an intelligible and universally applied principle, and the Gurus, whose knowledge was equal to that of Brahma (the Brahmagyani Gurus) chose from among many aspirants those few who were able to surrender unconditionally to their will and follow their teachings.

Line of succession[edit | edit source]

Guru Prasad, photo taken in 2009 in the Himalayas near Ladakh in India.

In modern times, in the period of Kali Yuga, among people in the material world there is always only one Ajapa Yoga Guru who, when he leaves this world, designates his successor. Perhaps there are other Gurus or sadhus who know the Ajapa Yoga technique, but only one Guru in the Ajapa Yoga line begun by Guru Purnananda Paramahansa has the right to teach this technique and initiate disciples. It is typical of yoga that in a given tradition, many people hold the title of Guru, and the most important of them is also called Guru. However, in Ajapa Yoga the term Guru is not titular, but means that the person called Guru by his disciples is in the highest state of consciousness, in the Guru state. The state of Guru and the person of Guru are then identical.
Guru Purnananda, in bringing knowledge of Ajapa Yoga to the modern world, was the first Brahmagyani Guru who had the right to teach this technique far and wide. Although the technique itself is simple, these days it is difficult to achieve self-realization thereby. Each of the contemporary Ajapa Yoga Gurus sought repeatedly for a perfect student who would be able to attain self-realization through the practice of Ajapa Yoga. Beginning with Guru Purnananda Paramahansa, only two disciples attained this highest state. Each of them continued the teachings of his predecessor and became the world’s Ajapa Yoga Guru. In modern times there have never been two Gurus preaching in the world simultaneously.
The contemporary succession line of Ajapa Yoga Gurus is as follows (dates of function in parenthesis):

  1. Guru Purnananda Paramahansa ( 1860sApril 29, 1928)
  2. Guru Bhumananda Paramahansa (April 29, 1928 – April, 1958)
  3. Guru Janardan Paramahansa (April, 1958 r. – April 28, 1980),
  4. Guru Prasad Paramahansa (April 28, 1980 – to date).

Functionaries at Ajapa Yoga[edit | edit source]

In addition to Guru, there are several varieties of functionaries in Ajapa Yoga today.

  • Siksha ‒ one who, through the intense practice of Kriya, has learned the secrets of Ajapa Yoga and to whom the Guru has given the power to teach Ajapa Yoga.
  • Instructor – one who teaches the fundamentals of Ajapa Yoga, initiating new disciples, and who has been established by the Guru. However, currently there are no instructors in the world.
  • President ‒ in order to facilitate contacts and cooperation with Ajapa Yoga organizations, the structures of these organizations have been standardized. In the USA and Poland, Ajapa Yoga, in relation to the authorities, is represented by the chairman of the organization. The role of the President is to carry out decisions taken by the Guru during his absence from a given country, coordinate the work of centers and Ashrams, and organize visits from the Guru.
  • Ashram Manager ‒ each Ashram has its own manager who supervises its functioning. The manager’s role is not only to see to the upkeep of the Ashram; his duties also include presiding over the Puja rituals three times a day and providing information to those interested in Ajapa Yoga.

Ajapa Yoga celebrations[edit | edit source]

The Gurus have created Ashrams where disciples come to improve the practice of Kriya and to participate in the Ajapa Yoga celebrations. These celebrations are associated with the birthday and mahasamadhi of each Guru of the Ajapa Yoga lineage. Guru Purnima is the only festival of the Hindu tradition celebrated at an Ajapa Yoga Ashrams.

Global reception[edit | edit source]

The Ajapa Yoga Organization, in order to meet the need for spiritual development and cult activities, has created Ashrams with mandir's, and meditation centers. All Ajapa Yoga Ashrams and centers are under the constant supervision of the Ajapa Yoga Guru, currently Guru Prasad. The world’s main Ajapa Yoga Ashram is Shri Purnanand Ajapa Yoga Sansthan, popularly known as Dimna Ashram, located in the Dimna neighborhood of Jamshedpur, in the state of Jharkhand. Guru Prasad spends most of the year at this Ashram, teaching and initiating new disciples. From this location, he supervises three Ashrams in India, one in Bangladesh, and one in the United States. Currently there is only an Ajapa Yoga center in Poland; however, Guru Prasad is planning to create another Ajapa Yoga Ashram in Poland.

Countries of the Indian subcontinent[edit | edit source]

Bangladesh[edit | edit source]

  1. Shri Purnanand Ajapa Yoga Sansthan (known as Jagatpur Ashram)22°28′0.368″N 91°58′42.113″E / 22.46676889°N 91.97836472°E / 22.46676889; 91.97836472 – located 2km from a bus stop in the small town of Pahartali and 30km from the cenre of Chittagong. The Ashram is the site of Guru Purnananda Paramahansa's mahasamadhi.

India[edit | edit source]

Rishi Mandir, Nava Brahmarshis temple in Shri Purnanda Ajapa Yoga Sansthan, Dimna – Jamshedpur.
Lakshman Jhula Ajapa Yoga Ashram.
  1. Shri Purnanand Ajapa Yoga Sansthan (Dimna) (known as Dimna Ashram)22°51′14.764″N 86°14′37.269″E / 22.85410111°N 86.24368583°E / 22.85410111; 86.24368583 – is located in the Dimna neighborhood of Jamshedpur, in the state of Jharkhand. The Dimna Ashram is the site of Guru Janardana Paramahansa's mahasamadhi and the only temple in the world dedicated to the Nava Brahmarshi this temple is popularly known as Rishi Mandir.
  2. Shri Purnananda Yogasharm (knows as Lakshman Jhula Ashram)30°07′23.38″N 78°19′43.90″E / 30.1231611°N 78.3288611°E / 30.1231611; 78.3288611 - is located in Lakshman Jhula, Pauri Garhwal district, in the state of Uttarakhand.
  3. Shri Purnanda Ajapa Yoga Sansthan (Kanpur) (known as Kanpur Ashram)26°31′6.326″N 80°14′29.137″E / 26.51842389°N 80.24142694°E / 26.51842389; 80.24142694 is located in Kanpur in the state of Uttar Pradesh.
  4. Shri Purnanand Ajapa Yoga Sansthan (Kalipur) (known as Kalipur Ashram)26°10′3.281″N 91°43′4.515″E / 26.16757806°N 91.71792083°E / 26.16757806; 91.71792083 is located on the Nilachal hill of Guwahati in the state of Assam. About 1.5 km from Kalipur Ashram is the well-known Kamakhya Temple. The Kalipur Ashram is the site of Guru Bhumananda Paramahana's mahasamadhi.

European and North America countries[edit | edit source]

One of the disciples of Guru Janardan was Gulzarilal Nanda who was the Minister of Home Affairs of India in the years 1963–1966, and also twice he had performed the duties of 2nd Prime Minister of India (from May 27th till June 9th, 1964 and from January 11th till January 24th, 1966). In response to his disciple’s official invitation as the Minister of the Government of India, in June 22nd, 1969 Guru Janardan visited Delhi to take part in founding the Indian Institute of Spiritual Science[14] and give lectures on that occasion. Various people from all over the world visited the Institute and participated in lectures held there. During one of the lectures on Ajapa Yoga that was held by Guru Janardan there was present a man from Czechoslovakia who after listening to the teachings of Guru Janardan desired this science to be presented to his own countrymen. Thus in 1970 Guru Janardan received an invitation from the Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences to present his teachings during a science conference in Prague [41]. This very moment is regarded as the date when the teachings and technique of Ajapa Yoga were for the first time presented to the West. During his stay in Prague Guru Janardan was then officially invited to visit Federal Republic of Germany, United States and Canada. After leaving Prague he travelled into these countries and returned to India only after one year. In these countries he visited mainly big cities where he lectured on sound, God and goal of life. He initiated many disciples during that time.

Visits of Shri Guru Janardan Paramahansa to Czechoslovakia and Federal Republic of Germany[edit | edit source]

No. visit date meeting place with disciples other places visited additional information
1 1970 Prague, Czechoslovakia By invitation from the Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences in Prague
2 1970 Hamburg, Germany
3 1971 Hamburg, Germany Guru Janardan gave lectures about Ajapa Yoga at the University of Hamburg. The interpreter was Ramesh Khandelwal
4 1975 Hamburg and Bad Lauterberg in Germany Guru Janardan also visited the Harz Mountains Guru Janardan was hosted by Tom Krause, at his home on the lake in central Hamburg The interpreter was Shripati Baba.

United States[edit | edit source]

The Ajapa Yoga Foundation became incorporated under the Laws of the State of California by filing its Articles of Incorporation on December 23, 1977. The California Ajapa Yoga Ashram, the only Ajapa Yoga Ashram in North America, is located just outside of Placerville, California. While visiting New York in 1974 Guru Janardan Paramahansa indicated the need for a permanent Ajapa Yoga Ashram in the USA. After reviewing some brochures of California real estate, he suggested that the search for an Ashram begin in Placerville, California, which is located in the foothills of the picturesque Sierra Nevada Mountains between Sacramento and Lake Tahoe. The Ashram occupies twenty acres of land in a very quiet and beautiful countryside, yet is only a five-minute car ride from the nearby town of Placerville. The Foundation is managed by a committee of five members.

  1. Shri Janardan Ajapa Yogashram (known as California Ajapa Yoga Ashram)38°44′52.354″N 120°51′49.438″W / 38.74787611°N 120.86373278°W / 38.74787611; -120.86373278

In the years 1976‒77, the Ajapa Yoga Foundation issued several issues of Ajapa Journals. Thereafter, the two parts of Tattwa Katha were translated into English from the original Bengali language and published in the USA in 1977. These two books explore in detail the science and spiritual teachings of Ajapa Yoga.[42]

Visits of Shri Guru Janardan Paramahansa to North America[edit | edit source]

Shri Guru Janardan Paramahansa was the first Ajapa Yoga Guru in modern times to visited Western countries (Czechoslovakia, West Germany, Canada and the United States). In the years 1970–77, he regularly visited his disciples in North America and gave new initiations. The list of his visits is as follows:

No. visit date meeting place with disciples other places visited additional information
1 1970–1972 Montreal, Canada, Los Angeles, San Francisco, Chicago, Illinois, New York, New York
2 1974–75 Ajapa Yoga Center in Brooklyn, New York California, Montreal On November 24, 1974, Guru Janardan gave live interview for the WBAI radio station. In 1975 Guru Janardan came to North America for the first time in the company of Guru Prasad then a nine-year-old boy.
3 1976 Knoxville, Tennessee, Atlanta, Georgia, Baltimore, Maryland Guru Janardan gave lectures about Ajapa Yoga daily from January 31 to February 5 in Knoxville. He ended his visit to the USA on March 28, 1976.
4 1977 Oakland, California and New York, New York Guru Janardan gave lectures on Ajapa Yoga in April 1977 in Oakland.

Visits of Shri Guru Prasad Paramahansa to North America[edit | edit source]

Shri Guru Prasad Paramahansa has been regularly visiting disciples in North America since 1975. The list of his visits is as follows:

No. visit date meeting place with disciples other places visited additional information
1 February 1981 Placerville, California Ajapa Yoga Ashram
2 October 1983 Placerville, California Ajapa Yoga Ashram Hawaii
3 October 1985 Placerville, California Ajapa Yoga Ashram Hawaii
4 October 1987 Placerville, California Ajapa Yoga Ashram Hawaii
5 September 1991 Placerville, California Ajapa Yoga Ashram On September 14 Guru Prasad first time celebrated birthday of Guru Purnananda on September 14 in California Ajapa Yoga Ashram.
6 October 1993 Placerville, California Ajapa Yoga Ashram
7 June 1994 Placerville, California Ajapa Yoga Ashram
8 June 2001 Placerville, California Ajapa Yoga Ashram
9 October 2003 Placerville, California Ajapa Yoga Ashram
10 October 2007 Placerville, California Ajapa Yoga Ashram
11 October 2009 Placerville, California Ajapa Yoga Ashram Yosemite National Park in California
12 October 15 – November 4, 2014 Placerville, California Ajapa Yoga Ashram Mount Shasta, California
13 May 15 – May 30, 2017 Placerville, California Ajapa Yoga Ashram Sausalito, California, Point Bonita Lighthouse, Marin Headlands The 40th anniversary since the California Ajapa Yoga Ashram was founded

Poland[edit | edit source]

In 1980, Joachim Petzold an Ajapa Yoga instructor, from Germany, was brought to Poland according to the wish of Guru Janardan to teach the Ajapa Yoga technique. On June 13, 1980 he initiated the first Polish disciples. Ajapa Yoga in Poland dates from this day. Ten years later, those who practiced the Ajapa Yoga technique founded the Związek Ajapa Yoga (English: Ajapa Yoga Association). To comply with Polish legislation, the Związek Ajapa Yoga was created to represent Ajapa Yoga to the Polish authorities, with headquarters in Bydgoszcz, Poland. The Association was formally registered with the Ministerstwo Spraw Wewnętrznych i Administracji as a religious association, on April 7, 1990 [43] [44] (entry No. 17 of the Register of Churches and Religious Organizations).

There is one meditation center in Poland, in the village of Ługi (51°51′55.271″N 19°36′27.651″E / 51.86535306°N 19.60768083°E / 51.86535306; 19.60768083), in the municipality of Stryków, Łódź Voivodeship.

Visits of Shri Guru Prasad Paramahansa to Poland[edit | edit source]

Shri Guru Janardan Paramahansa was the first Ajapa Yoga Guru in modern times to visited Western countries. However he never reached Poland, although it was he who indicated Poland as a place in Europe where an Ajapa Yoga Ashram should be built in the future. His successor, Shri Guru Prasad, following the instructions of his predecessor, came to Poland for the first time in 1985. Since then he has visited his disciples regularly in Poland. The list of previous visits is as follows:

No. visit date meeting place with disciples other places visited
1 September 14 – 18, 1985 Szczecin
2 September 17 – 30, 1987 Pilchowo
3 September 16 – 28, 1989 Zalesie
4 October 30 – November 9
November 10 – November 16, 1991
Zalesie
Łódź
5 February 12 – 23
February 24 – 29, 1993
Morzyczyn
Tuszyn
6 June 6 – 9, 1994 Łódź
7 June 5 – 19, 1997 Trzebież
8 May 11 – 23, 2001 meditation center – Ługi Jasna Góra Monastery in Częstochowie, Wieliczka Salt Mine in Wieliczka and Kraków
9 September 23 – October 7, 2003 meditation center – Ługi Kazimierz Dolny, Paradise Cave in Świętokrzyskie Mountains
10 September 25 – October 11, 2007 meditation center – Ługi Białka Tatrzańska, Zakopane, Morskie Oko, Dunajec, Kościeliska Valley
11 September 18 – October 1st., 2009 meditation center – Ługi Nidzica, Elbląg Canal, Frombork, Malbork
12 September 23 – October 15, 2014 meditation center – Ługi Zamek Książ, Szczawno-Zdrój, Project Riese, Jaskinia Niedźwiedzia, Prague
13 May 31 – June 15, 2017 meditation center – Ługi

Bibliography[edit | edit source]

  • Surendranath Sen (1976). Tattwa Katha part I: (A Tale of Truth). Translated by Śraddhananda Swami (from Bengali). Detailed discussion of the theory of Ajapa Yoga, written in Bengali more than 100 years ago by a disciple of Guru Purnanandaji. Translated in 1976 by Guru Janardanji's disciple Shraddhanand Swami. (1st ed.). Placerville, California, USA: Ajapa Yoga Fundation, Shri Janardan Ajapa Yogashram. p. 148.
  • Surendranath Sen (January 1976). Tattwa Katha: A Tale of Truth. Part II. (Recommended only for initiates). Translated by Śraddhananda Swami (from Bengali). Detailed discussion of the theory of Ajapa Yoga, written in Bengali more than 100 years ago by a Guru Purnanandaji's disciple Surendranath Sen. Translated into English in 1976 by Guru Janardanji's disciple Shraddhanand Swami. (1st ed.). Placerville, California, US: Ajapa Yoga Fundation, Shri Janardan Ajapa Yogashram. p. 164.
  • Mitchell H. Radow (1994). Search for Peace (1st ed.). Placerville, California, USA: Ajapa Yoga Fundation, Shri Janardan Ajapa Yogashram. p. 307.
  • Robin Chalek Tzannes (1993). Robin Chalek Tzannes, ed. Guru Janardan Paramahansa Teachings. Translated by from hindi Shraddhanand Swami (1 ed.). Placerville, California, USA: Ajapa Yoga Fundation, Shri Janardan Ajapa Yogashram.
  • Shri Guru Prasad (2009). Nauki Gurudźi 1986 – 2008 (in polski). Translated by Maciej Obiegły (1st ed.). Bydgoszcz, Poland: Związek Ajapa Yoga. p. 97.
  • Guru Bhumananda Paramahansa (March 2010). "Sadhana". Ajapa Yoga - The song of breth (1st ed.). Dimna-Jamshedpur, Jiharkhand, India: Shri Purnanand Ajapa Yoga Sansthan. p. 8.
  • Shri Guru Prasad Paramahansa (1993). "In Siddhashrama". Biography of Guru Purnanada (1st ed.). Placerville, California, USA: Ajapa Yoga Fundation, Shri Janardan Ajapa Yogashram.

Notes[edit | edit source]

  1. "[...] the term is a combination of the two words gu(darkness) and ru (light), so together they mean 'divine light that dispels all darkness.'" [...] "Guru is the light that disperses the darkness of ignorance."[35]
  2. "The etymological derivation of the word guru is in this verse from Guru Gita: 'The root gu stands for darkness; ru for its removal. The removal of the darkness of ignorance in the heart is indicated by the word "guru'" (Note: Guru Gita is a spiritual text in the Markandeya Purana, in the form of a dialog between Siva and Parvati on the nature of the guru and the guru/disciple relationship.) [...] the meanings of gu and ru can also be traced to the Panini-sutras gu samvarane and ru himsane, indicating concealment and its annulment."[36]
  3. "Guru: remover of darkness, bestower of light'"[36]

References[edit | edit source]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 Guru Bhumananda Paramahansa (March 2010). "Sadhana". Ajapa Yoga – The song of breth (1st ed.). Dimna-Jamshedpur, Jiharkhand, India: Shri Purnanand Ajapa Yoga Sansthan. p. 8.
  2. "Hamsa Upanishad". Translated by K. Narayanasvami Aiyar. Vedanta Spiritual Library. Retrieved March 6, 2019.
  3. "Saiva Vidyas (chapter: Ajapa)". Translated by Shankara Bharadwaj Khandavalli. Hindupedia, the Hindu Encyclopedia. Retrieved March 6, 2019.
  4. "Dhyana-Bindu Upanishad". Translated by K. Narayanasvami Aiyar. shloka 61b-63. Vedanta Shastras Library. Retrieved March 6, 2019.
  5. "Nirvana Upanishad". Translated by Prof. A. A. Ramanathan. shloka 36. Vedanta Shastras Library. Retrieved March 6, 2019. (The ascetic) shall meditate on the absence of distinction, based on the Gayatri through the Ajapa Mantra.
  6. 6.0 6.1 Surendranath Sen (1976). Tattwa Katha part I: (A Tale of Truth). Translated by Śraddhananda Swami (from Bengali). Placerville, California, USA: Ajapa Yoga Fundation, Shri Janardan Ajapa Yogashram. p. 110.
  7. Dr. David Frawley. "Shiva and Prana Yoga: Unitary Prana". Shiva: The Lord of Yoga. Lotus Press. Retrieved March 1, 2019. … the dualistic movement of the breath as inhalation and exhalation or the dualistic movement of the mind through attraction and repulsion. ..
  8. 8.0 8.1 "IV. Why We Need Guru in Sadhana". Tattwa Katha: A Tale of Truth. Part II. (Recommended only for initiates). Detailed discussion of the theory of Ajapa Yoga, written in Bengali more than 100 years ago by a Guru Purnananda disciple Surendranath Sen. Translated into English in 1976 by Guru Janardan disciple Shraddhanand Swami. Placerville, California, US: Ajapa Yoga Fundation, Shri Janardan Ajapa Yogashram. January 1976. p. 164.
  9. Mitchell H. Radow (1994). "Epilogue". Search for Peace (1st ed.). Placerville, California, USA: Ajapa Yoga Fundation, Shri Janardan Ajapa Yogashram.
  10. "Origin of Ajapa". Shri Purnanda Ajapa Yoga Sansthan. Retrieved March 1, 2019. Ajapa, a very ancient form of yoga, is a breathing/meditation technique that was taught thousands of years ago by the Rishis of India
  11. 11.0 11.1 Shri Guru Prasad Paramahansa (1993). "A journey to Siddhashrama". Biography of Guru Purnanada (1st ed.). Placerville, California, USA: Ajapa Yoga Fundation, Shri Janardan Ajapa Yogashram.
  12. Shri Guru Prasad Paramahansa (1993). "In Siddhashrama". Biography of Guru Purnanada (1st ed.). Placerville, California, USA: Ajapa Yoga Fundation, Shri Janardan Ajapa Yogashram.
  13. Constance A. Jones; James D. Ryan, Encyclopedia of Hinduism (chapter: Ajapa Yoga Foundation), Facts On File, Inc. An imprint of Infobase Publishing, p. 60, retrieved March 6, 2019, The modern teaching traces back to the 1860s, when Swami Purnananda Paramahansa (1834–1928) learned the ancient technique from Matang Rishi at Siddhashrama, a remote Tibetan monastery. After five years of training, Purnananda returned to Bengal and established ashrams with the purpose of reintroducing Ajapa.
  14. 14.0 14.1 Constance A. Jones; James D. Ryan, Encyclopedia of Hinduism (chapter: Ajapa Yoga Foundation), Facts On File, Inc. An imprint of Infobase Publishing, p. 60, retrieved 2019-03-06, In the 1960s Janardan organized the World Conference of Scientific Yoga in New Delhi, where he made the acquaintance of many Westernes.
  15. Maria Libszowska-Żółtkowska (2001). "ZWIAZEK AJAPA YOGA". Kościoły i związki wyznaniowe w Polsce. Mały słownik (in polski). Warszawa: VERBINUM. p. 193. ISBN 83-7192-112-8.
  16. Robin Chalek Tzannes (1993). "Wywiad dla stacji radiowej WBAI, Nowy Jork, 24 listopada 1974 r". In Robin Chalek Tzannes. Guru Janardan Paramahansa Teachings. Translated by from hindi Shraddhanand Swami (1 ed.). Placerville, California, USA: Ajapa Yoga Fundation, Shri Janardan Ajapa Yogashram.
  17. Surendranath Sen (1976). Tattwa Katha part I: (A Tale of Truth). Translated by Śraddhananda Swami (from Bengali). Placerville, California, USA: Ajapa Yoga Fundation, Shri Janardan Ajapa Yogashram. p. 15–16.
  18. Surendranath Sen (1976). "Four Sounds". Tattwa Katha part I: (A Tale of Truth). Translated by Śraddhananda Swami (from Bengali). Placerville, California, USA: Ajapa Yoga Fundation, Shri Janardan Ajapa Yogashram. p. 150. Also see that wherever activity is present in nature, sound also is present.
  19. Surendranath Sen (1976). "Four Sounds". Tattwa Katha part I: (A Tale of Truth). Translated by Śraddhananda Swami (from Bengali). Placerville, California, USA: Ajapa Yoga Fundation, Shri Janardan Ajapa Yogashram. p. 150. Therefore, activity, feeling and sound (Kriyā, Bhava, Shabda), these three are inseparable.
  20. Surendranath Sen (1976). "Four Sounds". Tattwa Katha part I: (A Tale of Truth). Translated by Śraddhananda Swami (from Bengali). Placerville, California, USA: Ajapa Yoga Fundation, Shri Janardan Ajapa Yogashram. p. 150.
  21. Swami Shraddhananda. Seeing God Everywhere. Vedanta Press. p. 174.
  22. an=no, ahat=instrument, nada=sund, anahatnada=sound without an instrument, sound that is not created, pure original sound
  23. Andrzej Bednarz. "Medytacja ciszy". Medytacja. Teoria i praktyka (in polski). II. Studio Astropsychologii. p. 250. ISBN 83-88351-52-4.
  24. "Taittiriya Upanishad". Translated by Swami Gambhirananda. shloka 1.8.1 (I-viii-1). Advaita Ashram, Kolkatta; Vedanta Spiritual Library. Retrieved March 6, 2019.
  25. "Mandukya Upanishad". Translated by Vidyavachaspati V. Panoli. shloka 1.24 (I.24). Vedanta Spiritual Library. Retrieved March 6, 2019.
  26. "Mandukya Upanishad". Translated by Vidyavachaspati V. Panoli. shloka 8 and 12. Vedanta Spiritual Library. Retrieved March 6, 2019.
  27. "Atharvasikha Upanishad". Translated by P. R. Ramachander. shloka 1:1,2. Vedanta Spiritual Library. Retrieved March 8, 2019.
  28. "Mandukya Upanishad". Translated by Vidyavachaspati V. Panoli. shloka 1,2; I-25. Vedanta Spiritual Library. Retrieved March 8, 2019.
  29. "Brihadaranyaka Upanishad". Translated by Swami Madhavananda. shloka 5.1.1. Advaita Ashram, Kolkatta; Vedanta Spiritual Library. Retrieved March 8, 2019.
  30. "Chandogya Upanishad". Translated by Swami Swahananda (tł.). shloka 1.1.1. Sri Ramakrishna Math, Chennai; Vedanta Spiritual Library. Retrieved March 8, 2019.
  31. "The Mundaka Upanishad" (PDF). Translated by Swami Krishnananda. Mantra No. 4. The Divine Life Society Sivananda Ashram, Rishikesh, India. Retrieved March 8, 2019.
  32. Swami Madhavananda. "Kaivalya Upanishad". shloka 8. Advaita Ashram, Kolkatta; Vedanta Spiritual Library. Retrieved March 8, 2019.
  33. Mitchell H. Radow (1994). "Ajapa Takes Root". Search for Peace (1st ed.). Placerville, California, USA: Ajapa Yoga Fundation, Shri Janardan Ajapa Yogashram. I was very strict about meditating for a short period of fifteen to twenty minutes after returning home from my teaching job. y work was so difficult and stressful that I would often return home tense and irritable. However, as I meditated, I could actually feel the tension leaving my body. At the end of each meditation I felt mentally calm and physically vibrant. The transformation was remarkable.
  34. Grimes, John A. (1996). A concise dictionary of Indian philosophy. SUNY Press. p. 117. ISBN 978-0-7914-3067-5. Retrieved March 9, 2019.
  35. Murray, Thomas R. Moral Development Theories - Secular and Religious: A Comparative Study. (1997). p. 231. Greenwood Press.
  36. 36.0 36.1 Grimes, John. A Concise Dictionary of Indian Philosophy: Sanskrit Terms Defined in English. (1996) p.133. SUNY Press. ISBN 0-7914-3067-7
  37. Krishnamurti, J. The Awakening of Intelligence. (1987) p.139. HarperCollins. ISBN 0-06-064834-1
  38. "THE SIVA SAMHITA". Translated by Rai Bahadur Srisa Chandra Vasu. shloka 3.13. Apurva Krishna Bose of the Indian press. 1914. Retrieved March 10, 2019.
  39. "THE SIVA SAMHITA". Translated by Rai Bahadur Srisa Chandra Vasu. shloka 3.14. Apurva Krishna Bose of the Indian press. 1914. Retrieved March 10, 2019.
  40. Article poornima.html "Guru Poornima (Vyas Puja)" As on 22 July 2013 on www.Sanatan.org
  41. "About Ajapa". What is Ajapa Yoga?. Ajapa Yoga. Retrieved Jun 2, 2019.
  42. "Part 1: Hinduism and related groups / The Ajapa Journal". The American Religions Collection (PDF). Series 3: Nontraditional American Religions. Eastern Religions: Hinduism, Sikhism, and Sant Mat. SUNY Press. 1996. p. 56. ISBN 978-157803-386-1. Retrieved March 13, 2019.CS1 maint: Ignored ISBN errors (link)
  43. "Kościoły i związki wyznaniowe wpisane do rejestru kościołów i innych związków wyznaniowych".
  44. Eugieniusz Sakowicz (2009). "III. Hinduizm 1. Dane historyczno-statystyczne". Religie niechrześcijańskie w Polsce. Religie świata – świat religii (1st ed.). Wydawnictwo Polihymnia. p. 120. ISBN 978-83-7270-673-7.

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