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Ticker symbolHUSH
White paper"HUSH Protocol Specification"
Initial release17 November 2016; 5 years ago (2016-11-17)
Latest release3.6.0 / 18 December 2020; 19 months ago (2020-12-18)
Development statusActive
Written inEquihash
Operating systemLinux, Windows, macOS
Source modelOpen Source
Timestamping schemeDelayed Proof of Work
Hash functionEquihash
Block reward3.125 Hush[1]
Block time1.25 minutes[1]
Circulating supply10,438,061 [2]
Supply limit21,000,000[2]
Exchange rate$0.064850[3]
Market cap$676,192[3] Logo.png Search Hush on Amazon.

HUSH, or Hush, is a privacy cryptocurrency focused on censorship-resistant private communications and built using the Zcash Protocol to provide enhanced privacy and fungibility for its users compared to other cryptocurrencies such as Bitcoin.[4][5] Like Bitcoin, Hush has a fixed total supply of 21 million coin and also has the same halving interval.[6][4] Hush has a pre-mine of just 16,000 Hush with a current block reward of 3.125 Hush.[6][4][7]

Hush began as a source code fork of Zcash[6][8] version 1.0.9[4][9] with "transparent" transactions (t-addresses[10][11][12]) as the default and the more secure "shielded" transactions (z-addresses[10][11][12]) were optionally encouraged. On November 30, 2020, the Hush team became the first cryptocurrency to switch from using non-mandatory shielded transactions to only allowing shielded transactions on their blockchain to increase user privacy.


In November 2016, Hush, which was originally called "Zdash"[6][13][14][15][12], was started by Joseph Stuhlman.[13] On November 17, 2016, the Hush network came into existence with the mining of the genesis block (block number 0) of Hush.[6]

On May 30, 2017, Stuhlman left the project and David Mercer (radix42) became the project's lead developer.[13][16][8] radix42 is known as the person that successfully "bugged satoshi to start the first bitcoin mailing list".[13] On July 7, 2017, the Hush team made an announcement on the bitcointalk website regarding Hush and its development timeline. Also, on July 7, 2017, the Hush Headquarters was founded at Regions San Francisco Bay Area, West Coast, Western US.[17]

On February 11, 2018, the HushList Protocol Specification whitepaper was published by Duke Leto and radix42.[13] In October 2018, Hush version 2 launched which integrated Komodo’s dPoW (Delayed Proof-of-Work)[13][9], which is a blockchain technology that notarizes chain data to effectively eliminate the chances of double-spends and 51% attacks.[13][18] Later in 2018, radix42 left the project following disputes with miners and Leto became the project's lead developer.[13]

On June 26, 2019, Hush version 3 launched[19][20][21] which migrated to a new mainnet. On September 27, 2019, Leto first publicized a CVE which affected all Zcash Protocol coins, CVE-2019-16930.[22][23][24][25] This CVE description reads as: "Zcashd in Zcash before 2.0.7-3 allows discovery of the IP address of a full node that owns a shielded address, related to mishandling of exceptions during deserialization of note plaintexts. This affects anyone who has disclosed their zaddr to a third party."

On May 24, 2020, Duke Leto and the Hush Developers released a whitepaper entitled "Attacking Zcash Protocol For Fun And Profit".[26][27][28][29] This whitepaper outlines how the ITM Attack (a linkability attack against shielded transactions) works against Zcash Protocol, which the whitepaper describes as "Metaverse Metadata Attacks".[26][27] The whitepaper explains that Hush is the first cryptocoin to implement a defensive mitigation against it, which is called ”Sietch".[30][12] Sietch is currently running live in production[27][30][12] and is written in C++.[30] Any Zcash Protocol cryptocoin can "upgrade" to the Sietch-enabled Hush Protocol if they choose to mitigate against this type of attack.[30]

On November 30, 2020, the Hush team, at block height 340,000, implemented that all transactions on their blockchain are now only mandatory shielded transactions using z-addresses to increase user privacy.[12][31]


Hush aims to be more than a simple Zcash "clone" through its secure messaging, previously unavailable protocol-level security features, and consistent community focus.[4] Other cryptocurrencies are implementing private messaging (such as LOKI and CCX in the Monero world), however none of these cryptocurrencies have true 51% attack protection as they rely on masternodes. Hush does not run on masternodes and therefore has true 51% attack protection[32]. Hush aims to be a Full Stack Privacy Coin, with smart contracts running on top of the full power of Zero Knowledge data structures that exist in all Zcash forks.[33]


  • Zero Knowledge Core[6][5][12] provides privacy
  • Private Messaging: Hush has technology, called HushChat and Hushlist, which provide state of the art privacy for communication using zk-SNARKS[4][34][35][36][5][12]
  • Safe: Hush uses Komodo Delayed Proof of Work (dPOW) which is 51% attack resistant[6][32][12][21]


  • SilentDragon Wallet: A multi-platform full node wallet and asset platform for transacting and issuance of private or public addresses
  • SilentDragonLite Wallet: A multi-platform Lite wallet[35] which introduced the beta of HushChat[36] to allow secure messaging in version 1.3.4[35]
  • Hushd (daemon) v3: A multi-platform Hush full node server utilizing the Hush blockchain[37]
  • SilentDragon Android: An Android front end to interface with the above mentioned desktop wallets[38]
    • According to the Hush Team's Roadmap, they are working on Android Lite wallet functionality[31]

Hushd Release History[edit]

Version Release Date Features and Notes
Old version, no longer supported: --- Nov 2016 Zdash was created
Old version, no longer supported: 1.0.9-lin Jun 16, 2017 Zdash becomes Hush & initial Linux release
Old version, no longer supported: 1.0.9-mac Sep 16, 2017 Initial Hush MacOS release
Old version, no longer supported: 1.0.9-win Oct 6, 2017 Initial Hush Windows release
Old version, no longer supported: 1.0.12 Oct 15, 2017 ---
Old version, no longer supported: 1.0.13 Feb 19, 2018 Upstream Zcash 1.0.13 merged

TLS support

Fixes network sync issues


Old version, no longer supported: 1.0.14-rc1 Apr 3, 2018 Bugfixes & improved HushList protocol support
Old version, no longer supported: 2.0.0 Apr 3, 2018 Implements Komodo delayed-Proof-of-Work (DPoW)

Various bugfixes and documentation improvements up to and including Zcash 1.0.15 upstream

Old version, no longer supported: 3.0.0 Jun 26, 2019 Migration to new mainnet
Old version, no longer supported: 3.1.0 Sep 15, 2019 Import private keys from old Hush mainnet or other coins

Many improvements and bugfixes from KMD upstream

Updated unix man pages

Linux binaries now install Sapling params system-wide for all users

Old version, no longer supported: 3.1.1 Sep 28, 2019 Metadata leakage emergency release
Old version, no longer supported: 3.2.0 Oct 17, 2019 Full fix for PING/REJECT Zcash CVE (previous release 3.1.1 only fixed REJECT which Hush Core independently discovered)

Pulled in upstream improvements and bugfixes for Superlite/nSPV wallets and Antara Modules (cryptocondtions)

New z_viewtransaction RPC ported from ZEC core (Sprout functionality removed) and extended with additional metadata

Build system fixes, including removing large amounts of dead code that increased maintenance overhead

Old version, no longer supported: 3.2.1 Oct 29, 2019 Updated to latest upstream SuperLite/nSPV features

Merged in latest cryptocondition/Antara module updates from KMD upstream

Updated DNSSeeds

Old version, no longer supported: 3.2.2 Nov 26, 2019 Fix of CVE-2017-18350[40] from ZEC and windows portability fix from KMD upstream

Removed some Sprout code

Fixed some rare edge case bugs in Sapling param finding code

New detection of "corrupt" Sapling params (invalid sizes) helps to give users the correct error in a GUI wallet

Old version, no longer supported: 3.2.3 Dec 14, 2019 Updated build dependencies to their our own fork of the following: libgmp, libsnark, libsodium

New RPC keys are now returned in getblockchaininfo : longestchain and notarized which are now used by the SDL backend

Old version, no longer supported: 3.3.0 Jan 3, 2020 Implements "Sietch" functionality to protect against new metadata attacks

New ability to launch Hush Smart Chains with a single command

Fixes CVE-2019-18936[41] in UniValue dependency: bitcoin/bitcoin#17742

Brings in all core updates and fixes relevant from Komodo (KMD) 0.5.0 Obsidian Dragon including consensus changes

Updates & fixes to all CryptoConditions smart contracts from KMD 0.5.0

Updates to NSPV/Superlite code from KMD 0.5.0

Hush ported from KMD the Travis CI setup to compile code & run tests on every Github push

Enable the creation of z-only (like Pirate) Hush Smart Chains via "-ac_private=1"

Removed more Sprout-specific code from codebase, making things faster and easier to maintain

Update to libsodium 1.0.18

Removes VerusHash from source code to easily generate non-Intel binaries such as ARMv8

Removed large amounts of Proof-of-Stake-related code which is not used in Hush

Ported AFL fuzzing features to our build system from Zcash

New SHA256 SSE4 routines ported from KMD (which was ported from BTC)

Old version, no longer supported: 3.3.1 Jan 18, 2020 Maintenance release fixed a non-consensus bug in sendmany which prevented it from working
Old version, no longer supported: 3.3.2 Apr 8, 2020 ARMv8 support from radix42

Sapling Z address Consolidation

Old version, no longer supported: 3.4.0 June 18, 2020 New Season 4 KMD Notary public keys have been updated (as of Block 245555) key

The code for ENFORCED PRIVACY (aka z2z) has been merged and is set to take effect at Block 340000

Remaining internals code relating to Sprout has been deleted

The new Subatomic Dapp has been ported from KMD, which supports z2z swaps

Merged in various upstream fixes relating to CryptoConditions from KMD upstream

Optimizations and bug fixes to Sapling Consolidation deciduous_tree

Fixes CVE-2018–20586[42] from KMD (which ported it from BTC)

Old version, no longer supported: 3.5.0 Sep 23, 2020 Finalized changes to support the new Blocktime of 75 seconds

Updated the Hush Halving schedule for the next ~120 years (the next 30 halvings)

Greatly improved Sietch implementation, "amnesia zdust" addresses are now generated at run-time

Sietch zdust outputs now always contain "random/encrypted" data which provides plausible deniability AKA deniable encryption

The "-txsend" CLI option was ported, which helps with i2p integration

Old version, no longer supported: 3.5.1 Oct 6, 2020 Optional release implementing TLS 1.3
Old version, no longer supported: 3.5.2 Oct 22, 2020 Optional maintenance release with licensing changes
Current stable version: 3.6.0 Dec 18, 2020 Fixes sync issues near block 340k caused by blocktime halving bug

Increasd in-memory UTXO cache db by 100MB (25%) to increase performance of initial syncing

More secure+private TLS 1.3 implementation

Implements WolfSSL instead of OpenSSL

See Also[edit]

  • zk-SNARKs
  • Crypto-anarchism


  1. 1.0 1.1 "Hush halving".
  2. 2.0 2.1 "Hush Explorer: Speak And Transact Freely". Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  3. 3.0 3.1 "HushCoin Price Chart- coinmarketcap". Retrieved 2020-12-03.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 Mangal, Aaron (12 February 2018). "Hush, a protocol-level privacy coin and secure messenger based on Zcash". Coin Central. Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 RUS, Komodo Platform (2019-06-11). "HUSH- Graphic Contest for the best SilentDragon Wallet logo!". Medium. Retrieved 2020-08-28.
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 Leto, Duke (April 20, 2019). "Hush Version 3 Whitepaper Version 1.0" (PDF). Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  7. "Hush (HUSH) Mining Profit Calculator - WhatToMine". Retrieved 2020-08-28. Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  8. 8.0 8.1 Crypto, Jsho (2017-09-17). "My 5 Favorite Coins Under $5 Million Market Cap". Medium. Retrieved 2020-08-29.
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 "Releases · MyHush/hush". GitHub. Retrieved 2020-08-28.
  10. 10.0 10.1 "Zcash Basics — Zcash Documentation 3.1.0 documentation". Retrieved 2020-08-28.
  11. 11.0 11.1 "address - What's the difference between `z-addr` and `t-addr` type addresses?". Bitcoin Stack Exchange. Retrieved 2020-08-28.
  12. 12.0 12.1 12.2 12.3 12.4 12.5 12.6 12.7 12.8 Grana, Virtu (2020-08-21). "VG's brief Overview — Hush — A Privacy-Focused Ecosystem". Medium. Retrieved 2020-08-28.
  13. 13.0 13.1 13.2 13.3 13.4 13.5 13.6 13.7 "The HUSH Review with Duke Leto". The Daily Chain. 2019-07-26. Retrieved 2020-04-30.
  14. Stuhlman, Joseph (2017-05-01). "Zdash Rebranding TO HUSH". Steemit. Retrieved 2020-04-30. Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  15. ftreporter. "Hush Coin – Developed For The People". FT Reporter. Retrieved 2020-04-30.
  16. Stuhlman, Joseph (2017-05-30). "Effective Immediately, David Mercer (radix42) is the New Lead Dev for HUSH — Steemit". Archived from the original on 2017-05-30. Retrieved 2020-05-01. Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  17. "HUSH HeadQuarters". Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  18. "Security: Delayed Proof of Work (dPoW)". Komodo. 2018-07-03. Retrieved 2020-05-01.
  19. Leto, Duke (Jun 26, 2019). "Release Hush 3.0.0 - MyHush/hush3 - GitHub". GitHub. Retrieved 2020-08-28. Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  20. 20.0 20.1 "Releases · MyHush/hush3". GitHub. Retrieved 2020-08-28.
  21. 21.0 21.1 "r/komodoplatform - HUSH v3". reddit. 2019-06-26. Retrieved 2020-08-28. Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  22. Zmudzinski, Adrian (2019-09-29). "Zcash Bug Could Reveal Shielded Full Nodes' IP Addresses". Cointelegraph. Retrieved 2020-04-08.
  23. "CVE - CVE-2019-16930". Retrieved 2020-04-08.
  24. "Ignore exceptions when deserializing note plaintexts · zcash/zcash@c1fbf8a". GitHub. Retrieved 2020-04-08.
  25. Leto, Duke. "Zcash Metadata Leakage CVE-2019-16930". Retrieved 2020-04-30. Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  26. 26.0 26.1 "Attacking Zcash Protocol For Fun And Profit". Attacking Zcash For Fun And Profit. Retrieved 2020-08-05.
  27. 27.0 27.1 27.2 Whitepaper link:
  28. Leto, Duke; Developers, The Hush (2020). "Attacking Zcash For Fun And Profit".
  29. "r/Monero - This new paper shows new attacks and defenses against Zcash Protocol while also describing a new class of attacks that applies to all privacy coins!". reddit. Retrieved 2020-08-05.
  30. 30.0 30.1 30.2 30.3 MyHush/sietch, My Hush, 2020-05-06, retrieved 2020-08-05
  31. 31.0 31.1 "Hush Roadmap". Retrieved 2020-08-27. Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  32. 32.0 32.1 "The Anatomy Of A 51% Attack And How You Can Prevent One". Komodo. 2018-07-20. Retrieved 2020-04-08.
  33. Bester, Nadja (2017-11-29). "Exclusive Interview with Hush Developers (Part I)". Invest In Blockchain. Retrieved 2020-04-29. Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  34. Mercer, David; Leto, Duke (February 11, 2018). "HushList Protocol Specification Pre-Release Version" (PDF). Retrieved 2020-04-30. Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  35. 35.0 35.1 35.2 "Releases · MyHush/SilentDragonLite". GitHub. Retrieved 2020-08-27.
  36. 36.0 36.1 MyHush/hushchat, My Hush, 2020-08-05, retrieved 2020-08-27
  37. MyHush/hush3, My Hush, 2020-08-25, retrieved 2020-08-27
  38. MyHush/SilentDragonAndroid, My Hush, 2020-08-23, retrieved 2020-08-27
  39. hush. "hush3". Hush: Speak And Transact Freely. Retrieved 2020-12-25.
  40. "CVE - CVE-2017-18350". Retrieved 2020-08-29.
  41. "CVE - CVE-2019-18936". Retrieved 2020-08-29.
  42. "CVE - CVE-2018-20586". Retrieved 2020-08-29.

External Links[edit]

Others articles of the Topics Economics AND Free and open-source software : Marscoin (cryptocurrency), Zamio Cryptocurrency, Australia Cash, MobileCoin, DigiByte, Hush (cryptocurrency), Bitcoin Private

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