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Midwest hip hop

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Midwest hip hop is a regional genre of hip hop music performed by artists from the Midwestern United States. In contrast with its East Coast, West Coast and Southern counterparts, Midwest hip hop has very few constants in style or production.[1][2] One of the main constants is that it is grittier, reflects the times for people in the region and the artists lived the lives they rap about. It aims to be real and non-pretentious. For example, the Headshot Crew's whose former members founded Rhymesayers first album cover describes the improtance of accessiblity to fans. The cover encourages any emcee to challenge them to a to a rap battle and gives a phone number and address where they can be contacted. To this day, Rhymesayers continue to make themselves accessible to fans in this way. ICP has a simmilar relationship with their fans[3][4][5][6] This is most evident in MC Breed's song "That’s Life" which tells stories of people he knew and life growing up in post-General Motors Flint. The Midwest style is also more complex with funkier vibes than what you would hear from the coasts. For example Atmosphere's Slug was influenced by Prince and Detroit Hip Hop was influenced by Parliament Funkadelic. [7][8][9] G-Funk was another genre that had a big influecne on the genre for MC Breed and Bone Thugs and Harmony [10][11] In turn this means there's also a Soul influence on the genre since Prince and Parliament Funkadelic were also Soul [12][13] A main cause for the genre being so difficult to define is due to regions not wanting to appropriate other regions sounds. However it is considered a genre despite this due to the fact that even if the music is not structurally similar, a direct lineage to the OG's of the genre can be drawn through family ties and age-old relationships. This ties all the sounds together to those who first created it [14]


It can be shown that a part of what makes this regional genre is how artists have deeply influenced each other's sounds to add to the sound as whole. One of the first hip hop artists to do Midwest hip hop besides Esham as a genre was DJ Travitron. Two years after Sugarhill Gang's "Rapper's Delight" debuted on the national scene in 1979 DJ Travitron moved to the Twin Cities. The Minneapolis hip-hop scene was nonexistent as was Detroit's.[15][16][6] By the early 1990s Esham gained considerable notoriety in the underground rap scene in Michigan for creating and pioneering the genres of acid rap and wickedshit.[17] Esham was a main influence for ICP and Tech Nine as artists to create their debut albums in the early 90s and have a dark grounded focus similar to but much darker than Travitron's [18] soon after Esham's success with lyrics that addressed peoples to day to day reality partly inspired The Dayton family to start rapping and eventually drop their first album in 1993. In the same year Bone Thugs-n-Harmony added a joyous mournful sound to the dark reality rap Esham had pioneered along with travitron earlier in the 80's while mixing it with chopper.[19][20] Starting in 1995 Rhymesayers entertainment a label created by the hip hop inhreitors of Travitrons sound paved the way for many future talents who had no infrastructure to work with until they came around and would often move to other regions due to this. This further added to rappers carrying on the sound that became midwest hip hop and gave tis characteristics [21] many successful independent rap labels owe their success to Rhymesayers [22] Midwest hip hop's first dose of national popularity came in the mid-90s due to extremely fast-paced rappers known as Choppers [23] such as Bone Thugs-n-Harmony (Cleveland), Twista (Chicago), Tech N9ne (Kansas City), and Eminem (Detroit) [24] Many subsequent acts have or already had also risen to national prominence such as Nelly, D12, Common, Da Brat, Chief Keef, Ye, Kid Cudi, King Von, Big Sean, Juice Wrld, Polo G, Lil Durk, Metro Boomin, and Chance the Rapper but they share very few similarities. Other notable midwest rappers and producers include: Brother Ali, Lupe Fiasco, Royce da 5'9, J Dilla, Liotta, Ramey Dawoud, Tech N9ne, Elzhi, Obie Trice, and up and comers Freddie Gibbs, JayRone, Danny Brown and Manny Phesto.[25]

History of Regional Scenes[edit]


Detroit hip hop began to gain traction the late 1980s with artists like D The Great, Detroit's Most Wanted, Suavey Spy, Mike Fresh, Ace Lee, Eveready Crew, Esham, J to The D, and Silveree. Slum Village emerged from the hip hop scene in Detroit in the mid-1990s. Their first album, Fantastic, Vol. 1 came out in 1997. The producer was J Dilla, who also produced for notable hip-hop acts from around the country, including The Pharcyde, Common, and A Tribe Called Quest. He would later become one of the most sought-after producers in hip-hop, with many of his beats being used posthumously after his death in 2006.

A popular place for rap battles in Detroit is the Hip Hop Shop, located on W 7 Mile.

Despite Detroit being over 85% African American, many of the most famous white rappers, including Eminem, Insane Clown Posse, Kid Rock and Twiztid are from the Detroit area. Trick Trick is widely known and recognized as an important figure in Detroit's underground hip hop scene.

In the mid-1990s, Eminem gained notoriety in Detroit as a battle rapper, and released an album during the early stages of his underground career. Infinite was sold out of the trunk of his car. It struggled to sell or create a buzz despite his success in the battling scene.[26] Angry but determined, Eminem developed his style and recorded the Slim Shady EP, released in 1997.[27] When Eminem traveled to Los Angeles to compete in the 1997 Rap Olympics, he placed in 2nd, and his EP got into the hands of Jimmy Iovine and Dr. Dre, who immediately wanted to sign him.[27] Eminem signed to Aftermath Entertainment and Interscope Records, and in 1999 he released his major-label debut album The Slim Shady LP.[28] The album reached #2 on the Billboard 200 charts and began Eminem's period of commercial success lasting from 1999 until the present.[29] Eminem has become the best-selling hip hop artist of all time[30] and the best-selling artist of the 2000s,[31] thereby making him one of the most significant artists to emerge from the Midwest hip hop scene.

Eminem founded his own record label Shady Records in 1999. He was a member of the Detroit rap group D12 (standing for "Dirty Dozen") and signed them to his label, they would go on to release two successful albums in the early 2000s.[32] Rapper Proof was also part of the group. Alongside his success with D12, he also released two solo albums, I Miss The Hip Hop Shop[33] and Searching for Jerry Garcia.[34] On April 11, 2006, he was fatally shot in a gunfight at a Detroit nightclub.[35] Fellow D12 member Bizarre, also from Detroit, would go on to a solo career as well, having released three solo albums as of 2018.[36] Mr. Porter (previously known as Kon Artis) was also a member of D12, and has had a significant solo career as a producer, producing solo instrumental projects as well as songs for notable artists such as 50 Cent, Snoop Dogg and Eminem.[37]

Eminem also signed Detroit rapper Obie Trice to Shady Records. Trice released his debut album Cheers on the label, followed by Second Round's on Me. In 2008, Trice left the label to found his own Black Market Entertainment, on which he would release two further albums.[38] In 2011, Trice met with Michigan State Senator Virgil Smith, Jr. in order to discuss potential initiatives to help develop the youth talent of Detroit.[39]

Royce da 5'9" is another successful Detroit rapper. He began as an underground rapper, and featured on Eminem's album The Slim Shady LP in 1999. In 2002 he released his debut album, Rock City (named after Detroit); he has gone on to release several successful albums.[40] In addition to his solo career, Royce is known for his membership in the hip hop supergroup Slaughterhouse from 2008 to 2018,[41] and in collaboration with DJ Premier as PRhyme. Royce and Eminem also work as a duo under the moniker Bad Meets Evil, and in 2011 released the EP Hell: The Sequel, which reached #1 on the Billboard 200.[42]

Blade Icewood gained respect as one of Detroit's premier rappers, but was gunned down and murdered in 2005, after his first shooting which left him paralyzed from his chest down. He had a beef for some time with the Eastside Chedda Boyz, a hip hop group from Detroit's east neighborhoods. There was a dispute over the name Chedda Boyz because Blade Icewood claimed that name originated on the west side of the city.

MC Breed, from Flint, is most known for his songs "Ain't No Future in Yo Frontin'" and "Gotta Get Mine" featuring Tupac Shakur. He was on life support for two days in September 2008 after he collapsed during a game of pick-up basketball due to kidney failure. It is unclear if prior health complications were the cause of his death later that year.[43] Another rapper from Flint, Jon Connor, is quickly climbing the rap ladder, has been featured in The Source, and has collaborated with many big names in the rap industry.

In 1993, Ira Dorsey and Raheen Peterson met through their younger brothers. The two began writing together, under the names Bootleg and Shoestring, and created their first song, "Dope Dayton Ave." Rapper Matt Hinkle soon joined the duo under the name Backstabba. The group began working with local producer Steve Pitts and formed The Dayton Family, named after Dayton Street, one of the most crime-ridden streets in their hometown of Flint, Michigan. In between studio sessions, they performed at local clubs and quickly gained notoriety within Flint. The Dayton Family recorded a 12-inch single and soon signed with Atlanta independent record label Po' Broke in 1995. That year, the group released their debut album What's on My Mind? and were featured on No Limits Down South Hustlers: Bouncin' and Swingin' compilation album, which got the trio recognition throughout Southern United States. After the album's release, Hinkle was imprisoned and replaced by Dorsey's younger brother Eric, who performed under the name Ghetto E. Following a year of touring, the group left Po' Broke due to legal problems with the label's producer. In 1996, they released their second album, F.B.I., standing for Fuck Being Indicted, under Relativity Records. The album was later certified gold. The Dayton Family was plagued with various legal problems, including Ira being incarcerated soon after the release of F.B.I., which hindered the amount of work the group released. Both Ira and Peterson released solo albums. Two years later, the group signed with Detroit rapper Esham's Gothom label and released solo albums. The next year, they released Welcome to the Dopehouse under Koch Records.

Big Sean, from Detroit's west side, steadily rose to fame with his mixtapes. In 2007, he was signed to Kanye West's GOOD Music label, and in 2008, Def Jam Recordings. Since then he has had mainstream success. He released Finally Famous in 2011. His mixtape released in September 2012, titled Detroit (mixtape), was called the mixtape of the year. Hall of Fame was released August 27, 2013. In February 2015, he released his third studio album Dark Sky Paradise, becoming his first number 1 album as it debuted atop the Billboard 200.

Nick Speed is another standout in Detroit music, producing for 50 Cent and Danny Brown. In 2013 he released The Beat Down on vinyl and produced A.R.T. the DIA project[44] for legendary Detroit emcee Seven the General, which would be nominated for two Detroit Music Awards with the song "Detroit City Blues" by Seven the General ft. Guilty Simpson and Bizarre going on to become the official promo song for the annual Detroit Design Festival.

Other successful Michigan rappers include Danny Brown, Esham, the duo Insane Clown Posse, the group Twiztid, rapper Seth Patrick,and rapper Xzibit. In 2014, as a part of the Shady Records collaboration album Shady XV, the single "Detroit vs. Everybody" was released. The single featured a range of rappers from Detroit including Royce da 5'9", Big Sean, Danny Brown, Eminem, Trick-Trick and Dej Loaf; and has been described as "a rap rally cry for the Motor City".[45]



Chicago has harbored several locally popular acts since the early 1990s, including Do or Die[46][47][48] and Crucial Conflict; the former being a fast-rapping group associated with Twista, and the latter of which was a group with a decidedly down-home, country sound. Chicago soon became known for more than fast rapping with the rising popularity of Common Sense (now known as simply "Common"), protege of producer No I.D., who put flippant battle raps over a jazzy backdrop. Other rappers in this vein included Vakill, who also gained some notoriety in Chicago. Da Brat, a Chicago native, also had a hit in this period with Jermaine Dupri's label So So Def.

In 2004, Chicago producer and rapper Kanye West broke the scene with his multi platinum debut, The College Dropout on Roc-A-Fella Records. He became an industry commodity, reworking and repopularizing Wu-Tang producer RZA's style of speeding up Soul instrumental and vocal samples to fit hip hop beats. The style became known as "chipmunk soul". The same year, West produced two hits for Twista, "Slow Jamz" and "Overnight Celebrity"; these led to the rapper's first platinum release, Kamikaze. In 2005, Common (having dropped the "Sense" from his name) signed with Kanye's GOOD Music, West also being a student of No I.D. This led to Be, Common's second gold album. West attempted to push longtime associate Rhymefest, a Chicago battle rapper and ghostwriter; his support helped carve the MC a local niche and some national attention. A guest spot on West's 2006 second album, Late Registration, also solidified the buzz of up-and-coming Chicago rapper Lupe Fiasco, whose debut album Food & Liquor was the No. 1 rap album in the country upon its release. His later album The Cool directly references his Chicago roots.

Chicago is currently home to a thriving underground rap-music scene. Blogs such as Fake Shore Drive, SBG (See Beyond Genre), and Midwest Live have become a "vital nerve center" for the local underground rap music scene.[49] A 2009 film, I Am Hip Hop: The Chicago Hip Hop Documentary[50] documented the underground rap-music scene in Chicago from 2004 to 2009. In 2009, the song "Legendary" was released by Chicago rappers Saurus and Bones, Twista, and AK-47 of Do or Die showcasing the Midwest style of fast lyrics over a dark beat.[51][52]

Kevin Beacham a.k.a. Formless compiled and wrote "The Chicago Hip Hop Story" which is featured on the website of Chicago-based hip hop record label Galapagos4.[53]

Other Illinois hip hop artists[edit]

Champaign, Illinois is the home of Christian hip hop group Hostyle Gospel. The group is best known for contributing an aggressive militant approach to Christian hip hop, called Christian battle music.[54]

K.Flay is a hip hop artist from Wilmette, Illinois. She is best known for her billboard hit Life As A Dog which charted 133 on the Billboard 200, 14 on the Top R&B/Hip-Hop Albums chart and number 2 on Nielsen SoundScan Top Heatseekers chart.

Liotta is a hip hop artist from the Illinois suburbs. He is best known for his vintage style production and intricate lyricism. Rap Music Heaven Is An Emcee's Hell is a well-known underground hit within the niche of deep underground Midwest hiphop fans and critics alike.


Bizzy Bone of Bone Thugs-n-Harmony – live in concert

In the early 1990s, five drop outs formed the unit Bone Enterpri$e and took a one way bus ticket to Compton. They went searching for Eazy-E, a pioneer of gangsta rap, and signed to his label. They were signed to Ruthless when they got back to Cleveland for a concert, where they performed for Eazy on the spot. They changed their name to Bone Thugs-n-Harmony consisting of Flesh-N-Bone, Layzie Bone, Wish Bone, Krayzie Bone, Bizzy Bone. While in L.A. they visited The Good Life where they bore witness to the creators of their soon to be new style, a rapid-fire flow and melodic mesh of harmonizing vocals, called Chopping, that they called the Flow Motion.[55][56] They released their LP Creepin on ah Come Up with the smash single "Thuggish Ruggish Bone" and "Foe tha Love of $" featuring Eazy-E. They later had hits like "1st of Tha Month", "Tha Crossroads", Art of War's "Look Into My Eyes", and "If I Could Teach The World" which earned the group their first American Music Awards. Bone Thugs-n-Harmony were the first Midwest rappers to go platinum, which led to a conflict with Chicago rappers as Twista, Do or Die, and Crucial Conflict about stealing their style. They are also the only ones to collaborate with hip hop "Hall of Famers" like The Notorious B.I.G. ("Notorious Thugs"), Tupac Shakur ("Thug Luv"), Big Pun ("When I Die"), and Eazy-E ("Foe tha Love of $") while they were all living, and have sold more than 40 million records only in the U.S. Today they have their own label after contractual difficulties with Ruthless records. Their most recent album, Uni5: The World's Enemy was released in May 2010. They returned as a full group with this album after 10 years of Flesh-n-Bone being in jail, and Bizzy Bone leaving the group twice to build companies 7th Sign Records and IMG Recordings and Distribution, inc.[57]

In 2008, most Northeast Ohio (NEO) Hip-Hop has either a faux-southern sound (usually from inner city Cleveland/Akron), while Youngstown (on the PA Line) preserves a more classic vibe. However, both the Eastern and Western sides of Cleveland itself hold light to a conscious Hip Hop sound coined by artists such as Mos Def and Talib Kweli, while the southern portion of the city holds more to a flashier, more glamorous side of hip hop.

Cleveland was named as top ten hip hop cities, with Ohio being named among America's most hip-hop states, and having the full support of Cleveland Cavaliers star small forward LeBron James's imprint, DeamLife Ent., Cleveland and the whole Northeast Ohio music scene has shown itself as a force in Midwest as well as mainstream hip-hop.

Cleveland remains on the scene with Kid Cudi, who collaborates with a wide array of musicians, Machine Gun Kelly, who signed with Diddy in August 2011, and other notables, such as Chip tha Ripper, (also known King Chip) and Ray Cash.


Many well-known hip-hop artists hail from the southern Ohio city. One of the first was Jibri the Wise One whose 1991 single "The House the Dog Built" gained national airplay on radio and music video programs. Hi-Tek, Kenny P, Mr. Dibbs, Mood, OTR Clique, Five Deez, Boom Bip, Tanya Morgan, Odd Nosdam, Cincinnatiboogotti, Dose One and more of the artists that have gained international prominence. Critics label some of these artists as alternative hip hop while others reflect the typical Cincinnati style of rap which is usually characterized with deep Southern influences as well as its own original contributions.Scribble Jam was a major annual hip hop event hosted in Cincinnati that began in 1996.


Rappers from Ohio's Biggest City include Blueprint and Bow Wow.[citation needed]

Scribble Jam was a major annual hip hop event that began in 1996 in Ohio.

Other Ohio hip hop artists[edit]

Rappers come from other places in the state. Blueprint, Bow Wow, Slim Jesus and Fatty Koo (Columbus), Trippie Redd (Canton), and Stalley (Massillon). Producers from the state are RJD2 (Columbus) and Ampichino & Drama Beats (Akron). Producer/Engineer TrapMoneyBenny (Mentor OH)


Dorian on stage in Los Angeles in July 2016

Indianapolis hip-hop is led by rapper/producer Dorian.[58] In 2015, Dorian signed a digital distribution deal and released two albums: The D.U.C.K. Tape and Every Scar Has A Story.[59] Every Scar Has A Story was co-executive produced by Dorian and fellow Indianapolis native Joey French. Dorian and Joey French met while attending Indiana University.[60] After the audio received 60,000 views on YouTube, Dorian released "Don't Sleep" to music streaming services Spotify, Apple Music and Tidal in August 2016.[61][62] Dorian collaborated with Def Jam signee and Indianapolis rapper Mark Battles for the "Don't Sleep" remix.[63] The music video for "Don't Sleep" premiered on iHeartRadio's WZRL Real 98.3 Indianapolis.[64] Dorian has received FM radio play with his single "Even Love Me" debuting on WRIU 90.3 FM.[65][66] Dorian has 100,000 monthly listeners on Spotify and is currently unsigned.

In 2010, Joey French produced the track "Rumors" on Warner Bros signee Waka Flocka Flame's debut album, Flockaveli.


The Gary & Hammond, Indiana rap scene first started taking form in the mid to late 1990s. The Grind Family was a rap group with around eight members (two from Gary, three from East Chicago, three from Hammond), led by Will Scrilla (who had a relatively successful underground solo career), dubbed "The Midwest Wu-tang", after releasing two underground tapes, the group dissolved after Will Scrilla was incarcerated on murder charges in 1999. Another infamous Gary, Indiana rap trio called CCA released multiple hits that resonated among the streets of Gary, including "Concord Affiliated" and "Street Life", their success was also short lived as all three members were incarcerated for cocaine trafficking and controlling a criminal enterprise. MCGz (Murder Capital Gangsters) another group was one of the first groups from the city of Gary to release physical CD's, the group also dissolved due to gang injunctions. The late 1990s era of Gary rap was highly regarded and talented but often short lived due to the reality of each rapper's street life.

Ric Jilla of Hammond bridged the gap between rap groups like Grind Family and CCA to more modern solo artists, collaborating with the likes of Will Scrilla and Freddie Gibbs, after dropping his hit "Pride of Indiana" he began frequently touring and garnered a large local fan base. Freddie Gibbs began attracting attention in 2008 after his "Live From Gary, Indiana part 2" mixtape, as of today he's the most popular Gary rapper to become mainstream. Despite accusations of falsifying his gangster lifestyle, he has gone on to release multiple albums and EP's, including three tapes with legendary west coast producer Madlib. He was once signed to Young Jeezy's CTE label, but has left due to disagreements.

The Gatekeepers compilation CD was a huge deal in launching the careers of some of Gary's hottest MC's: First Battallion, Father Tyme, Pdot (of Money Baggz Ent), T-Lo G, to name a few.

Topeka, Kansas[edit]

Topeka, Kansas in the late 1980s brewed the Gucci Crew led by Carlos Steele and Vandon Rios whom had minor success locally doing television commercials that extended into Kansas City creating a buzz for a city that was primarily known for its civil rights. DVS Mindz was a popular local outfit that opened for dozens of superstar acts, and received considerable praise for its 2000 debut Million Dolla Broke Niggaz.

Emcee N.I.C.E.

Topeka would later produce a notable rapper, Aulsondro "Novelist" Hamilton Emcee N.I.C.E. who would go on to appear on many recordings as a lead vocalist named Novelist for the group KansasCali and star in an urban family animated cartoon series called Da Jammies. These recordings have appeared on several soundtracks, most notably Crash that won the Oscar for "Best Picture" at the 78th Academy Awards. The music video for the group's song "If I..." would go on to appear in the "Special Features" section of the DVD that sold over 10 million units. That same year, his group also landed on the International Soundtrack of the block buster film Mr. & Mrs. Smith starring Brad Pitt and Angelina Jolie. The duo was also chosen by Billboard Magazine Executive Tamara Coniff to open and perform at the First Annual Billboard Digital Entertainment Awards.[67] Aulsondro's other soundtrack appearances include, ESPN's Once in a Lifetime, Orlando Bloom's Haven, and Jamie Kennedy's Kickin' It Old Skool. Emcee N.I.C.E. as Novelist would also go on to produce and work with the likes of Tupac and NAS co-producing "Thugz Mansion", Aaron Hall, K-Ci Hailey of K-Ci & JoJo, Ginuwine, Yo-Yo, Darius McCrary, James Avery, Tom Lister, Jr. aka Tiny, Kurtis Blow, Alisa Reyes, Lil' JJ, Kim Whitley, Michael Baisden, Ralph Farquhar, and many more.

Novelist is now currently Emcee N.I.C.E. with a new release entitled "Life of The Party" (Dance Remix)[68] that features iconic and controversial actress Stacey Dash & Jus Blake.

Another notable rap group from Topeka, Kansas is PXT GXDS, also known as Pot Gods. The crew consists of rappers Sid Da Kid/Sid Da Goat, Big Red, Lil Pablo, ANUBI$, Pyro, and Wokmane. The group is most widely known for Lil Pablo's hit "Trapeka" and SDK's "I Killed 30 People".

Milwaukee, Wisconsin[edit]

Milwaukee hip hop dates back to the late 1980s. Until the end of the 1990s, the Milwaukee scene was largely confined to the city's North Side. However, as members of the hip hop generation began to attend college in the early 2000s, cultural organizations at the University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee began to invite acts such as Talib Kweli to perform on the East Side campus. The success of these shows led to local groups with similar followings, such as Black Surreal, Black Elephant, Frontline, Dredknox and Rusty P's being booked for on-campus sets as well.[69]

During this time Coo Coo Cal, who had a more typical Midwestern quick-tongued style (albeit, with a noticeably slower delivery) enjoyed moderate commercial success with his debut single "My Projects" and the follow-up "How Does It Feel" which Manager/artist at the time CEO and FOUNDER OF IMG RECORDINGS RICK ROBINSON pka DOUBLE R from the BIZZY BONE presents DOUBLE R 2002.[70] The result is a more artistically driven scene that is centered on the East Side, and a more commercially driven scene that is centered on the North Side.

The East Side scene is characterized by socially and politically charged lyrics, neo-soul influences and the relatively common use of live instrumentation. Acts such as Rico Love, and Gerald Walker have had (or been featured on) moderately successful singles and mixtapes in recent years.

88.9 Radio Milwaukee has acknowledged several hip hop artists during their Milwaukee Music Awards including artists such as ¡¡OYE!![71] Klassik,[72] and Prophetic.

Minneapolis/St. Paul, Minnesota[edit]

Although strictly underground, there existed a subterranean hip hop culture in the Twin Cities starting as early as 1981. Similar to the development of hip hop in the South Bronx, Twin Cities rap started as humble parties with a DJ and an emcee.[73] A DJ named Travitron was comparable to the DJ Kool Herc of the Twin Cities area. Shows took place at many venues, most notoriously Club Hip Hop on Selby Avenue in St. Paul. Other artists and DJs include Disco T, Verb X, Brother Jules, Delite, and Truth Maze. The first real album to come out of the Twin Cities was called The I.R.M. Crew, released in 1985. Graffiti and b-boy crews were also existent in the city. This is the world that the current movers of Twin Cities Hip Hop were brought up in. Funk sound by Prince and The Time influenced rappers.

The main movers of Twin Cities Hip Hop came together to form the group Headshots, a precursor to the Rhymesayers Entertainment label. Members of this group included Slug, I Self Devine, Micranots, Musab, Siddiq, and Ant. Slug was one of the main artists to move into the foreground, setting the tone for the style of music to follow in the years to come.

Since the emergence of Rhymesayers Entertainment, the Minneapolis hip hop scene has seen the local hip-hop scene erupt with talent including Brother Ali, Eyedea, Orikal Uno, the Doomtree collective and Heiruspecs.

The Twin Cities Celebration of hip-hop is an annual event hosted by Yo! The Movement, bringing together people from all walks of life to celebrate the power of community through hip-hop culture. Over the past five years nearly 20,000 people from around the world have taken part in the festival and conference. The Festival has been organised by Founder Toki Wright, Larry Lucio Jr, Claire Redmond, FranzDiego DaHinten, Dimitris Kelly, and Alicia Steele.[74]

Another notable annual event is the Soundset music festival, which started its first year on Memorial Day Weekend in May 2008. It features several big name hip hop acts and had over 14,000 in attendance. For 2009, the Soundset music festival was much larger. Some of the notable performing acts include Atmosphere, Pharcyde, Brother Ali, P.O.S, MF Doom, Manny Phesto, Freeway & Jake One, Immortal Technique, Eyedea & Abilities The Cunninlynguists, Sage Francis, El-P, Heiruspecs, Buck 65, Haiku D'Etat, Blue Scholars, I Self Devine, One Be Lo, Unknown Prophets. Other artists who have performed at Soundset include Snoop Dogg, Aesop Rock, Wiz Khalifa, Method Man & Redman, Hieroglyphics, Cage, De La Soul, Big Boi, Slaughterhouse, Mac Miller, Curren$y, Macklemore & Ryan Lewis, Yelawolf, Face Candy, Fashawn, Murs, Lupe Fiasco, Big K.R.I.T., Ghostface Killah, Raekwon, ASAP Ferg, Kendrick Lamar, Action Bronson, Danny Brown, DJ Premier, Evidence, Schoolboy Q, Joey Badass, Busta Rhymes, Juicy J, Tech N9ne, Guilty Simpson, Dizzy Wright, Sean Price, Open Mike Eagle, R.A. the Rugged Man, Chance The Rapper, 2 Chainz, Tyler the Creator, Earl Sweatshirt, PROF, Grieves, G-Eazy, Flatbush Zombies, Roc Marciano, Nacho Picasso, Allan Kingdom, Dilated Peoples, The Alchemist, and NAS.[75]

Omaha, Nebraska[edit]

Omaha is also home to a growing underground hip hop scene. For a long period of time, the scene was defined by North High School graduate Houston Alexander, aka Scrib or FAS/ONE. In the 1980s he led a hip hop movement in North Omaha called the Scribble Crew as an alliance of graffiti writers who developed a reputation as the top tag artists in the area. The art stands today at 24th and Binney Streets, to 16th and Corby Streets, and other North Omaha locations, and is still respected by the community. His Midwest Alliance act was active through the 1990s and into the new millennium, and is seen as influential on the Omaha scene.[76] Today Alexander is a DJ on a local radio station in Omaha that hosts an independent music show featuring hip hop, and he facilitates an elementary school program that teaches students about hip hop called the "Culture Shock School Tour".[77] Alexander has also been vocal about Omaha's lack of support for its hip hop artists.

OTR Entertainment, a Latin American hip hop collective, has had artists that have collaborated Krazy Race and Armageddon, former member of Fat Joe's Terror Squad and executive producer of Fat Joe's J.O.S.E album.[78] Jerry Wade, aka DJ Kamikaze, was first a member of Omaha's Posse-N-Effect. Their first show was in 1989 in Miller Park in North Omaha.[79] Pigeon John, an increasingly popular Christian rapper, is originally from Omaha.[80] Cerone Thompson, known as Scrybe, has had a number one single on college radio stations across the United States. He has also had several number one hits on the local hip hop station respectively titled, "Lose Control" and "Do What U Do".[81]

Mars Black, perhaps the Omaha rapper with the most national exposure, has released an album on New York City's Team Love Records label. However, in a review of the Mars Black album Folks Music, one reviewer noted that Mars describes the Omaha hip-hop scene as "almost non-existent". Continuing about the album, the reviewer writes, "It's only in such a desolate music environment that his pitiful flow, painfully corny emo-rhymes, and insulting bling-boasts could exist."[82]

Today many hip hop shows are held at the Sokol Auditorium in Omaha's Little Bohemia,[83] as well as The Clabourne, Formally Cleopatra's on Ames Street.


Kansas City[edit]

Several artists are based in Kansas City, Missouri, such as Kutt Calhoun, Skatterman & Snug Brim, Big Scoob, Krizz Kaliko, and most notably, Rich The Factor and Tech N9ne. Tech N9ne has sold over 2,000,000 albums independently. Kansas City is home to successful independent record label Strange Music, owned by Travis O'Guin and Tech N9ne, all of which stated above are part of the label. Also, a notable rapper hailing from Kansas City is Solé. Her first single "4, 5, 6" went Gold, as well as her first featured single "Who Dat" with rapper JT Money, which went Gold as well. She sold over 1,000,000 copies with both singles combined.

Other notable Kansas City rappers include Ramey Dawoud, Mac Lethal, Fat-Tone, Ces Cru, Approach,[84] Secret Levels,Charlie Bi0nic MaddMont Tha Blacc Capone/SiccRidaz, Ron Ron, and Rico Freeman.

The group Deep Thinkers has also been credited with developing the scene in Kansas City, despite a lack of major commercial success.[85]

St. Louis[edit]

St. Louis is one of the most popular cities in Midwest hip hop, with many popular national and international artists such as Nelly and St. Lunatics, Chingy, Toya (aka Lady Lunatic), Huey, Jibbs, Ebony Eyez, Pretty Willie (P-Dub), J-Kwon, Unladylike, Sylk Smoov, Ali, JayRone and Murphy Lee. The St. Louis ("Blues") Bounce sound was also popularized by hip-hop artists such as Nelly, Pretty Willie (P-Dub), Chingy, J-Kwon, Murphy Lee, etc. and their local producers in the first decade of the 2000s.

Metro Boomin started his production career making five beats a day in St. Louis.[86] During high school, his mother would often drive him for over eight hours from St. Louis to Atlanta to collaborate with artists such as OJ da Juiceman, Gucci Mane, and his frequent collaborator Future.[87]

JayRone merged onto the St Louis HipHop Scene through the ranks of Battle rap landing his 2nd mixtape project top 50 in the nation and headlining MTV.Com - Voice Of A Hustler 2 ; which grew into a series that gained high recognition over seas and across the USA. JayRone debut to the Charts with his debut Album Voice of A Hustler 5 which released in Washington DC August 29, 2019. Still independent JayRone is now signed to his own label and is now a anchor in St Louis Music culture & HipHop.

Smino gained recognition and critical acclaim with his 2017 debut album, Blkswn, which was released on March 14 signifying the city's area code.[88] Smino founded the musical collective Zero Fatigue and credits Nelly and the St. Lunatics as major artistic influences.[89] In 2016, the annual Christmas concert and fundraising event "Kribmas", was hosted by Smino in St. Louis. A writer spoke about the event saying, "Kribmas is more than just Smino's homecoming weekend; the rapper's team employs local photographers, videographers, stylists, businesses and artists to put each element of the show together."[90]

Rapper's Delight – The East St. Louis connection[edit]

In 1979, WBLS-FM in New York City and WESL-AM in East St. Louis, Illinois (metro St. Louis) were the first two radio stations in the nation to receive copies of the Sugarhill Gang's ground-breaking commercial blockbuster "Rapper's Delight" for airplay consideration from Sylvia Robinson's Sugar Hill Records. WBLS-FM initially chose not to play the song, however, WESL-AM in East St. Louis made the leap.

"What happened that fall in St. Louis typified the march of "Rapper's Delight" into pop music history. After sending the record to Jim Gates, the programmer of WESL in St. Louis, Sylvia followed up with a series of phone calls. After she persuaded him to give the record a try, listener response took care of the rest. Recalling that magical moment, Robinson says, "That night, a local distributor phoned in with an order for thirty thousand records. It was so bizarre that the next day I called retailers in the market, who confirmed that the record was that much in demand." Station manager at WESL reported, "Everybody wanted to know immediately after it was aired where the record could be bought." Like many other stations around the country, WESL could not play the song enough to satisfy demand and soon had to play the fifteen-minute record twice every hour just to keep the phone lines from jamming".

Source: Hip Hop Matters: Politics, Pop Culture, and the Struggle for the Soul of a Movement[91]

"When Gates put needle to wax on "Rapper's Delight" and the legendary opening verse — "Hip-hop, a hibbit to the hibbit to the hip hip-hop" — blared across the St. Louis airwaves for the first time, it had a profound impact. Not only did the album eventually sell 14 million copies worldwide, it spawned an entire generation of young St. Louis musicians.

A large man with a close-cropped salt-and-pepper Afro and a pencil-thin gray mustache, Gates remembers being stunned by the immediate and frenzied listener response the song inspired. "The phone lines were jammed for hours," he says. "People were calling and saying, 'Where can I get it? Play it over again so I can tape it!' I made one DJ play it twice an hour for three hours — the whole fifteen minutes."

Riverfront Times was unable to locate Sylvia Robinson to comment for this story, and her husband, Joe, died in 2000. But Gates is acknowledged in The Sugar Hill Records Story, a 66-page booklet published in 1999 along with a CD box set to commemorate the twentieth anniversary of "Rapper's Delight," and the Robinsons have credited him in several published accounts as the man who "broke" the song.

"After I convinced him to play the record just once, [listeners] ended up jamming the phone lines," Joe Robinson told Billboard in 1996. "That night, a local distributor phoned in with an order for 30,000 records. It was so bizarre that the next day I called retailers in the market who confirmed that the record was that much in demand."

Source: St. Louis Riverfront Times[92]

Also read: Vanity Fair's Hip Hop Happens[93]

  • Sylk Smoov, who released his self-titled debut album in 1991 that sold 100,000 or more copies. Sylk Smoov was the first rap artist directly out of St. Louis to get national attention. He was the first St. Louis rapper to make music videos, tour, appear in a movie and on the soundtrack, House Party 3, which was produced by DJ Quik, first to make the billboard charts and appeared in numerous worldwide magazines.[94] Sylk Smoov was signed to Total Track Productions/Mercury Records. His hits, "Klientele" and club favorite "Trick Wit a Good Rap" received national attention. His song "Trick wit a Good Rap" has been in weekly rotation in his hometown for over 20 years.
  • Nelly and his St. Lunatics collective which went on to a career driven by commercial singles – many of which were produced early on by St Louis production team Basement Beats. Nelly's "Country Grammar" debut album was released on June 27, 2000, and eventually sold over 10 million copies thus becoming one of the highest selling hip-hop albums of all time. On June 25, 2002, Nelly released "Nellyville", which debuted at No. 1 on US Billboard 200 chart. With 714,000 copies in its first-week of sales, it remained in the top spot for four weeks. "Nellyville" was also nominated for "Album of the Year" at the 2003 Grammys.
  • In 2001, the St. Lunatics consisting of Nelly, Ali, Murphy Lee, Kyjuan and Slo'Down, and City Spud released their debut album, Free City, with hits such as "Summer in the City" and "Midwest Swing". Ali released his solo album, Heavy Starch, in 2002, and Murphy Lee released his solo album, Murphy's Law, in 2003. Nelly and the St. Lunatics, with their bouncy-beat and melodic raps intertwined with catchy hooks, are often credited with helping to put St. Louis and the Midwest on hip hop and record industry radars.
Battle rappers[edit]

St. Louis also has a strong presence of battle rappers. Aye Verb Yung Ill and Hitman Holla B Magic, JayRone & Ooops have consistently ranked amongst the nation's top battle rappers. St. Louis native Big Will[95] is to date the only battle rapper from the Midwest with a string of nine victories on BET's 106 & Park's Freestyle Friday.

Hip hop record labels[edit]
  • Derrty Entertainment, an imprint by Nelly
  • Strange Music, an imprint by Tech N9NE
  • Lady Lion ENT, an imprint by Ebony Eyez
  • Notifi Records, a small independent imprint by Ira Dewitt (wife of St. Louis Cardinals owner Bill DeWitt III). Artist roster includes Ginuwine, Johnny Gill, Aye Verb, Hitman Holla, and Lonny B.
  • The Black 300/Born Ready Records[96]
  • Slot-A-Lot, an imprint by Chingy
  • "'How Bout It Records"', an imprint by Paul Wayne
  • FarFetched,[97] a label started by East St. Louis hip hop duo Scripts & Screws[98]
  • Ethno Entertainment (Los Angeles, Dallas, St. Louis), which has signed Bliss, an up-and-coming rapper from St. Louis[99][100]
  • Full Ride Music Group, formerly X Hustler Music, LLC, an imprint by Thi'sl
  • Roc Don Hq Ent., an imprint by Turkoglu (Cecil C. Clay)
  • Grinderz Incorporated Music, an imprint by artist, songwriter, producer and St. Louis native Larry Byrd
  • Zero Fatigue, a musical collective and record label founded by Smino, with a split-base of Chicago and St. Louis
Hip hop wear influence[edit]

St. Louis rappers have inspired hip hop fashion.

  • Vokal: A popular line of men's clothing, caps, jeans and activewear by Nelly.
Hip hop dance influence[edit]

In 2010, The Urban named The Chickenhead (aka The Monastery or Nina Pop) and the Flap Your Wings (aka "Get Your Eagle on") – two St. Louis hip-hop dance styles – among the 'Top 10 Best Hip Hop Dances'.[101]

  • The (Da) Chickenhead (aka Monastery or Nina Pop)[102] was popularized by Chingy's song, "Right Thurr". The dance resulted in club battles to see who could out-dance the competition.
  • Flap Your Wings (aka The Eagle)[103] was popularized by Nelly's song, "Flap Your Wings". It implored participants to "Drop down and get your eagle on", which was flapping (or a widening of the legs while getting low in a stooping position).
  • The Pop, Lock and Drop It[104] was popularized by Huey's song, "Pop, Lock and Drop It". It is mostly popular among teenagers and preteens.
  • Anthony "Redd" Williams has become one of the most sought-after hip hop dancers in the country. He has danced in videos with Beyoncé ("Get Me Bodied") and Lady Gaga. He has performed with Jennifer Lopez (2011 American Music Awards) and he was sought out by Sean "P Diddy" Combs in his efforts to learn the St. Louis hip-hop dance, the Monastery.[105] According to the St. Louis Post-Dispatch, "Williams is an emerging talent in the world of hip-hop. In the past five years, he has danced in videos with Lady Gaga and Beyoncé, and performed on stage with Daddy Yankee and Corbin Bleu".[105]

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