|Ranbir Raj Kapoor|
Kapoor in Aah, 1953
|Born||Ranbir Raj Kapoor|
14 December 1924
Kapoor Haveli, Peshawar, NWFP, British Indian Empire (present-day Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan)
|Died||2 June 1988 (aged 63)|
New Delhi, India
|Other names||The Showman, The Greatest Show Man of Indian Cinema, Charlie Chaplin of Indian Cinema, Raj Sahab|
|Occupation||Actor, producer, director|
Krishna Malhotra (m. 1946–2018)
|Children||Randhir Kapoor |
Ritu Kapoor Nanda
Rima Kapoor Jain
|Relatives||See Kapoor family|
Raj Kapoor (14 December 1924 – 2 June 1988), also known as "the greatest showman of Hindi cinema", was a noted Indian film actor, producer and director of Indian cinema. Born at Kapoor Haveli in Peshawar to actor Prithviraj Kapoor–he was a prominent member of the Kapoor family–that produced several celebrated Bollywood superstars.
Kapoor is regarded as one of the greatest and most influential actors and filmmakers in the history of cinema. He received multiple accolades, including 3 National Film Awards and 11 Filmfare Awards in India. The Filmfare Lifetime Achievement Award is named after Raj Kapoor. He was a two-time nominee for the Palme d'Or grand prize at the Cannes Film Festival for his films Awaara (1951) and Boot Polish (1954). His performance in Awaara was ranked as one of the top ten greatest performances of all time by Time magazine. His films attracted worldwide audiences, particularly in Asia and Europe. He was called "the Clark Gable of the Indian film industry".
The Government of India honoured him with the Padma Bhushan in 1971 for his contributions to the arts. India's highest award in cinema, the Dadasaheb Phalke Award, was bestowed on him in 1987 by the Government of India.
Early life and background[edit | edit source]
Kapoor was born into a Punjabi Hindu family in 1924 at Kapoor Haveli, a house then owned by his father, in Peshawar, North Western Frontier Province, British India (in modern-day Pakistan), to Prithviraj Kapoor and Ramsarni Devi Kapoor. He was the eldest of six children in the family. He was the grandson of Dewan Basheshwarnath Kapoor and great-grandson of Dewan Keshavmal Kapoor, part of the famous Kapoor family. His brothers were the late actors Shashi Kapoor and Shammi Kapoor. He also had a sister named Urmila Sial. Two other siblings died in infancy. They later on moved from Peshawar into present-day India for residence and for education. His maternal cousin, Juggal Kishore Mehra, was a singer, whose granddaughter, Salma Agha, later became a Bollywood actress.
As Prithviraj moved from city to city early in his career during the 1930s, the family had to move too. Raj Kapoor attended several different schools like Colonel Brown Cambridge School, Dehradun and (St Xavier's Collegiate School), Calcutta  and Mumbai.
Career[edit | edit source]
At the age of ten, he appeared in Bollywood films for the first time, in 1935's Inquilab. Ranbir Raj Kapoor's big break came with the lead role in Neel Kamal (1947) opposite Madhubala in her first role as a leading lady. In 1948, at the age of twenty-four, he established his own studio, R. K. Films, and became the youngest film director of his time making his directorial debut with Aag starring himself, Nargis, Kamini Kaushal and Premnath. In 1949 he co-starred alongside Dilip Kumar and Nargis in Mehboob Khan's hit film Andaz which was his first major success as an actor. He had his first success as producer, director and star of Barsaat released later that year.
He went on to produce and star in several hit films made under his R. K. Banner including Awaara (1951), Shree 420 (1955), Jagte Raho (1956) and Jis Desh Men Ganga Behti Hai (1960), the last was directed by Radhu Karmakar, his longtime cinematographer, and which won Filmfare Award for Best Film. These films established his screen image modeled on Charlie Chaplin's most famous screen persona of The Tramp. Outside of his home productions, his other notable films as a leading actor included Dastan (1950), Anhonee (1952), Aah (1953), Chori Chori (1956), Anari (1959), Chhalia (1960) and Dil Hi To Hai (1963). He also produced the hit social films Boot Polish (1954). and Ab Dilli Door Nahin (1957).
In 1964, he produced, directed and starred in the romantic musical Sangam alongside Rajendra Kumar and Vyjayantimala which was his first film in colour. This was his last major success as a leading actor as his later films like Around the World (1966) and Sapnon Ka Saudagar (1968) with younger starlets Rajshree and Hema Malini were box office flops. In 1965 he was a member of the jury at the 4th Moscow International Film Festival.
In 1970 he produced, directed and starred in his ambitious film Mera Naam Joker which took more than six years to complete. His son Rishi Kapoor made his debut in this film playing the younger version of his character. When released in 1970, it was a box office disaster and put Kapoor and his family into a financial crisis. In later years it was acknowledged as a cult classic. In 1971, he launched his eldest son Randhir Kapoor in the family drama Kal Aaj Aur Kal starring himself, his son Randhir, his father Prithviraj Kapoor as well as Randhir's to-be wife Babita. He launched his second son Rishi Kapoor's career in 1973 when he produced and directed Bobby which was a huge box office success and introduced actress Dimple Kapadia, later a very popular actress; it was the first of a new generation of teen romances. Dimple wore bikinis which was quite unique for Indian films then. In 1975 he acted alongside his son Randhir again in Dharam Karam, which Randhir also directed.
In the latter half of the 1970s and early 1980s he produced and directed films that focused on the female protagonists: Satyam Shivam Sundaram (1978) with Zeenat Aman, Prem Rog (1982) with Padmini Kolhapure and Ram Teri Ganga Maili (1985) which introduced Mandakini. He acted in fewer films by the late 1970s and early 1980s but played a notable supporting role alongside Rajesh Khanna in Naukri (1978) and as the titular character alongside Sanjay Khan in Abdullah (1980). He played a detective in two comedy films: Do Jasoos (1975) and Gopichand Jasoos (1982), both directed by Naresh Kumar (brother of Rajendra Kumar). In 1979 he was a member of the jury at the 11th Moscow International Film Festival. Raj Kapoor's last major film appearance was in Vakil Babu (1982) where he appeared with his younger brother Shashi. A film he had shot and completed in 1982 titled Chor Mandali in which he appeared opposite fellow veteran actor Ashok Kumar remained unreleased due to a legal dispute. His last acting role was a cameo appearance in a 1984 released British made-for-television film titled Kim.
Personal life[edit | edit source]
In May 1946, Raj Kapoor married Krishna Malhotra, who was his first cousin once removed. Krishna's father was Prithviraj Kapoor's maternal cousin. It was a match arranged by their families, according to Hindu traditions. Krishna's brothers, Rajendra Nath, Prem Nath and Narendra Nath, later became actors, and her sister Uma is married to the actor Prem Chopra. The news of Raj Kapoor's marriage was reported in the cine-magazine Filmindia June 1946 issue as, "Raj Kapoor, the talented and versatile son of Prithviraj Kapoor ended his career of wild oats by marrying Miss Krishna Malhotra in the second week of May at Rewa".
Raj and Krishna Kapoor had five children: three sons, actors Randhir, Rishi and Rajiv, and two daughters, Ritu Nanda and Rima Jain. Randhir is married to former actress Babita and is the father of actresses Karishma Kapoor and Kareena Kapoor. Rishi is married to former actress Neetu Singh and is the father of two children, a daughter Riddhima, and a son, the actor Ranbir Kapoor. Raj Kapoor's elder daughter, Ritu Nanda, is the wife of industrialist Rajan Nanda (scion of the family which promoted and controls the Escorts group), and she is the mother of two children. Her son, Nikhil Nanda, is married to Shweta, daughter of actors Amitabh Bachchan and Jaya Bachchan. Raj Kapoor's younger daughter, Rima Jain, is the wife of investment banker Manoj Jain and mother of aspiring actor Armaan Jain.
Both of Kapoor's brothers, all three of Kapoor's sons, two of Kapoor's daughters-in-law and three of Kapoor's grandchildren have been active at various times in the film industry. His granddaughters Karisma and Kareena (daughters of Kapoor's eldest son Randhir), and grandson Ranbir (son of Kapoor's second son Rishi) are the latest Bollywood stars from the Kapoor family, while another of his grandsons, Nikhil Nanda (Kapoor's daughter Ritu's son), is a noted industrialist.
Kapoor had a longtime romantic relationship with the renowned actress Nargis during the 1940s and 1950s, despite being a married man, although neither ever publicly admitted to this. The couple starred in several films together, including Awaara and Shree 420. As Raj would not leave his wife and children, Nargis ended their relationship after Chori Chori and married Sunil Dutt with whom she fell in love on the set of Mother India (1957). Kapoor is also said to have had an affair with top 1960s actress Vyjayantimala during the shooting of Sangam. Vyjayanthimala has denied that she was ever involved with Kapoor. She deemed the whole thing a publicity stunt by Kapoor to promote his film. Kapoor has also been linked with the southern actress Padmini. In 2017, his second son Rishi confirmed his father's affairs in his autobiography Khullam Khulla.
Death[edit | edit source]
Raj Kapoor suffered from asthma in his later years; he died of complications related to asthma in 1988 at the age of 63. He collapsed at the event where he was to receive the Dadasaheb Phalke Award, and was taken to the All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS) for treatment. He was hospitalised for about a month before he succumbed to complications arising from his asthma. At the time of his death, he was working on the movie Henna (an Indo-Pakistan based love story). The film was later completed by his sons Randhir and Rishi Kapoor and was released in 1991.
Legacy[edit | edit source]
Raj Kapoor is appreciated both by film critics and movie fans. Film historians and movie buffs speak of him as the "Charlie Chaplin of Indian cinema," since he often portrayed a tramp-like figure, who, despite adversity, was still cheerful and honest. His fame spread worldwide. He was adored by audiences in large parts of South/Central/Southeast Asia, the former Soviet Union/Bloc, China, the Middle East, and Africa; his movies were global commercial successes. Raj Kapoor had the knack of getting the best out of any one, since he had mastered all departments of film making and even marketing them.[peacock term] His films reflected the era in which they were made.
A postage stamp, bearing his face, was released by India Post to honour him on 14 December 2001. To honour him, a brass statue of his was unveiled at Walk of the Stars at Bandra Bandstand in Mumbai in March 2012.
Many of Raj Kapoor's movies had a patriotic theme. His films Aag, Shree 420 and Jis Desh Men Ganga Behti Hai (In the country where the Ganges flows) celebrated the newly independent India, and encouraged film-goers to be patriots. Raj Kapoor commissioned these famous lyrics for Mera Joota Hai Japani, a song from the movie Shree 420:
- Mera joota hai Japani (My shoes are Japanese)
- Ye patloon Inglistani (These trousers are English)
- Sar pe lal topi Roosi (The red cap on my head is Russian)
- Phir bhi dil hai Hindustani (But still, however, my heart is Indian)
The song is still extremely popular and has been featured in a number of movies since Shree 420 was released. Indian author Mahasweta Devi stopped the show with her inaugural speech at the 2006 Frankfurt Book Fair when she used these lyrics to express her own heartfelt patriotism and debt to her country.
Raj Kapoor was a canny judge of filmi music and lyrics. Many of the songs he commissioned are evergreen hits. He introduced the music directors Shankar-Jaikishan and the lyricists Hasrat Jaipuri and Shailendra. He is also remembered for his strong sense of visual style. He used striking visual compositions, elaborate sets, and dramatic lighting to complete the mood set by the music. He introduced the actresses Nimmi, Dimple Kapadia, and Mandakini, as well as launching and reviving the careers of his sons Rishi, Randhir and Rajiv. Famous for making his actresses reveal the body, not very common then in Indian cinema, it was said his 'show-womanship' matched his showmanship.
The 1967 "Song about yogis" (Russian: Песенка про йогов) by Vladimir Vysotsky mentions Raj Kapoor as one of the three best-known symbols of Indian culture in the Soviet Union, along with Shiva and yoga.
Awards[edit | edit source]
Kapoor had received many awards throughout his career, including 3 National Film Awards, 11 Filmfare Awards and 21 nominations. His films Awaara (1951) and Boot Polish (1954) were nominated for the Palme d'Or at the Cannes Film Festival. His acting in the former was rated as one of the "Top-Ten Performances of all time" by Time Magazine. His film Jagte Raho (1956) also won the Crystal Globe award at the Karlovy Vary International Film Festival.
The Government of India honoured him with the Padma Bhushan in 1971 and the Dadasaheb Phalke Award in 1987 – the highest award for cinematic excellence in India. In 2001, he was honoured with "Best Director of the Millennium" by Stardust Awards. He was named "Showman of the Millennium" by Star Screen Awards in 2002.
In June 2011, Noah Cowan, Artistic Director of TIFF Bell Lightbox, and Sabbas Joseph, Director, Wizcraft along with members of the Kapoor family came together to pay tribute to the life and work of Indian actor, director, mogul and legend Raj Kapoor, as presented in partnership by TIFF (Toronto International Film Festival), the International Indian Film Academy (IIFA), and the Government of Ontario. Indian Mirror Reports suggest Kapoor will be inducted onto the Brampton Walk of Fame in Ontario, Canada.
Association with other artists[edit | edit source]
Khwaja Ahmad Abbas[edit | edit source]
- Awaara (1951)
- Anhonee (1952)
- Shree 420 (1955)
- Jagte Raho (1956)
- Char Dil Char Rahen (1959)
- Mera Naam Joker (1970)
- Bobby (1973)
- Henna (1991)
Shankar-Jaikishan[edit | edit source]
Shankar-Jaikishan were Raj Kapoor's music directors of choice. He worked with them in 20 films in all including 10 of his own films from Barsaat until Kal Aaj Aur Kal. (Jagte Raho with Salil Chowdhury and Ab Dilli Dur Nahin being two exceptions in this period). Only after Jaikishan died, did he turn to a different music director – Laxmikant-Pyarelal for Bobby, Satyam Shivam Sundaram and Prem Rog (later on, his children used Laxmikant-Pyarelal for Prem Granth as well), Rahul Dev Burman for Dharam Karam, and Ravindra Jain for (Ram Teri Ganga Maili and Henna). Raj Kapoor acted in a movie with music by Madan Mohan only once (twice), i.e. Dhoon (1953) & Aashiana (1952), which featured duet Hum Pyaar Karenge by Hemant Kumar and Lata Mangeshkar, the only instance of Hemant Kumar giving playback to Raj Kapoor, and did only one movie with O. P. Nayyar (Do Ustad).
List of films with Shankar-Jaikishan: (18 Films)
- Barsaat (1949)
- Aah (1953)
- Awaara (1951)
- Boot Polish (1954)
- Shree 420 (1955)
- Chori Chori (1956)
- Kanhaiya (1959)
- Main Nashe Men Hoon (1959)
- Jis Desh Men Ganga Behti Hai (1960)
- Aashiq (1962)
- Ek Dil Sao Afsane (1963)
- Sangam (1964)
- Teesri Kasam (1966)
- Around the World (1967)
- Diwana (1967)
- Sapnon Ka Saudagar (1968)
- Mera Naam Joker (1970)
- Kal Aaj Aur Kal (1971)
Nargis[edit | edit source]
Raj Kapoor and Nargis worked together in 16 films including 6 of his own productions.
Mukesh and Manna Dey[edit | edit source]
Mukesh was Raj Kapoor's almost exclusive singing voice in almost all of his films. Also, when Mukesh died, Raj had said, Main ne apni aawaaz ko kho diya... (I have lost my voice...). However Manna Dey has also sung many notable and super-hit songs for Raj Kapoor, for instance in Shree 420 and Chori Chori. Examples of such Manna songs are best illustrated by the following list:
- "Laga Chunri Mein Daag" (Dil Hi To Hai)
- "Ae Bhai Zara Dekh Ke Chalo" (Mera Naam Joker)
- "Dil Ka Haal Sune Dil Wala" (Shree 420)
- "Aaja Sanam Madhur Chandni Mein Hum" (Chori Chori)
- "Jahan Mein Jati Hoon Wahin Chale Aate Ho" (Chori Chori)
- "Yeh Raat Bhigi Bhigi, Yeh Mast Fizayen" (Chori Chori)
- "Masti Bhara Hai Samaan" (Parvarish)
- "Mud Mud Ke Na Dekh" (Shree 420)
- "Chalat Musafir" (Teesri Kasam)
- "Belia Belia Belia" (Parvarish)
- "Lallah Allah Tera Nigehbaan" (Abdullah)
- "Mama O Mama" (Parvarish)
Partial filmography[edit | edit source]
|Inquilab||1935||Yes||Debaki Bose||Child artist|
|Gauri||1943||Yes||Kidar Nath Sharma|
|Jail Yatra||1947||Yes||Gajanan Jagirdar|
|Neel Kamal||1947||Yes||Madhusudan||Kidar Nath Sharma||First starring role as the lead.|
|Aag||1948||Yes||Yes||Director||Kewal Khanna||Himself||Directional debut|
|Sargam||1950||Yes||P L Santoshi|
|Awaara||1951||Yes||Yes||Director||Raj Raghunath||Himself||Nominated- Grand Prize at the 1953 Cannes Film Festival|
|Aah||1953||Yes||Yes||Raj Raibahadur||Raja Nawathe|
|Boot Polish||1954||Yes||Yes||Man asleep on train||Prakash Arora||Uncredited |
Filmfare Award for Best Film
|Shree 420||1955||Yes||Yes||Director||Ranbir Raj/Raj Kumar of Pipli||Himself||National Film Award for Best Feature Film in Hindi|
|Jagte Raho||1956||Yes||Yes||Peasant||Sombhu Mitra and Amit Maitra||Crystal Globe award at the Karlovy Vary International Film Festival in 1956
Nominated – Filmfare Award for Best Actor
|Chori Chori||1956||Yes||Sagar/Sultana Daku||Anant Thakur|
|Sharada||1957||Yes||Chiranjeev / Shekhar||L.V. Prasad|
|Phir Subah Hogi||1958||Yes||Ram Babu||Ramesh Saigal||Nominated – Filmfare Award for Best Actor|
|Parvarish||1958||Yes||Raja J. Singh||S. Bannerjee|
|Anari||1959||Yes||Raj Kumar||Hrishikesh Mukherjee||Filmfare Award for Best Actor|
|Jis Desh Men Ganga Behti Hai||1960||Yes||Yes||Raju||Radhu Karmakar||National Film Award for Best Feature Film in Hindi
Filmfare Award for Best Actor
|Chhalia||1960||Yes||Chhalia||Manmohan Desai||Nominated – Filmfare Award for Best Actor|
|Dil Hi To Hai||1963||Yes||Yusuf/Chand/Khan Sahib||C.L. Rawal|
|Sangam||1964||Yes||Yes||Director, editor||Sundar Khanna||Himself||Filmfare Award for Best Director
Nominated – Filmfare Award for Best Actor
|Teesri Kasam||1966||Yes||Hiraman/Meeta||Basu Bhattacharya||BFJA Awards, Best Actor|
|Mera Naam Joker||1970||Yes||Yes||director, editor||Raju (Joker)||Himself||Filmfare Award for Best Director
Nominated – Filmfare Award for Best Actor
|Kal Aaj Aur Kal||1971||Yes||Yes||Ram Kapoor||Randhir Kapoor|
|Bobby||1973||Yes||Director, editor||None||Himself||Nominated – Filmfare Award for Best Film|
Nominated – Filmfare Award for Best Director
|Dharam Karam||1975||Yes||Yes||Ashok Kumar||Randhir Kapoor|
|Satyam Shivam Sundaram||1978||Yes||Director, Narrator, editor||None||Himself||Nominated – Filmfare Award for Best Director|
|Naukri||1978||Yes||Swaraj Singh||Hrishikesh Mukherjee|
|Prem Rog||1982||Yes||Director, editor||None||Himself||Filmfare Award for Best Director|
|Ram Teri Ganga Maili||1985||Yes||Director, editor, writer||None||Himself||Filmfare Award for Best Film|
Filmfare Award for Best Director
References[edit | edit source]
- "Raj Kapoor: The Greatest Showman". sulekha.com. 18 February 2016.
- "Raj Kapoor and the Golden Age of Indian Cinema". hcl.harvard.edu. 19 February 2015.
- Harris, Craig. Raj Kapoor. Allmusic
- "All-Time 100 Movies". Time. 12 February 2005. Archived from the original on 11 October 2011.
- Film World. T.M. Ramachandran. 1965.
- "Padma Awards" (PDF). Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India. 2015. Retrieved 21 July 2015.
- "Remembering an icon: Prithviraj Kapoor". New Indian Express. 9 September 2010.
- Gooptu, Sharmistha (2010). Bengali Cinema: 'An Other Nation'. Taylor & Francis. p. 124. ISBN 978-0-203-84334-5.
- "Prithviraj Kapoor: A centenary tribute". Daily Times / University of Stockholm. Archived from the original on 5 May 2009. Retrieved 3 November 2007.
- "Prithviraj Kapoor:". Kapoor Family Page. Retrieved 3 November 2007.
- Ultra, Nihil (22 January 2009). "Xaviers 150". The Telegraph (Calcutta). Retrieved 1 May 2016.
- Jain, Madhu (2009). Kapoors: The First Family of Indian Cinema. Penguin Books Limited. p. 78. ISBN 978-81-8475-813-9.
- "Memories through a lens". The Hindu. 6 June 2008. Retrieved 27 April 2014.
- Times, Sanjoy Hazarika, Special To The New York (3 June 1988). "Raj Kapoor, Top Indian Film Star, Is Dead at 64" – via NYTimes.com.
- Kagalwala, Fatema (10 June 2017) Fatema Kagalwala explores how Raj Kapoor personalised Italian neorealism in his work. The Hindu. Retrieved on 20 November 2018.
- "4th Moscow International Film Festival (1965)". MIFF. Archived from the original on 16 January 2013. Retrieved 2 December 2012.
- "Best of Bollywood, South Cinema, TV and Celebs". MSN India.
- Mera Naam Joker: The Complete Story. Suresh kohli. Retrieved on 20 November 2018.
- "11th Moscow International Film Festival (1979)". MIFF. Archived from the original on 3 April 2014. Retrieved 14 January 2013.
- No day, no show – Society & The Arts News. Indiatoday.intoday.in (3 July 2006). Retrieved on 20 November 2018.
- Pradhan, Bharathi S. (13 December 2009). "Bye bye, Bina". The Telegraph (Kolkata). Calcutta, India.
- Patel, Baburao (June 1946). "At Last!". Filmindia. 12 (6): 47. Retrieved 12 August 2015.
- Raj Kapoor's Wife Krishna Raj Kapoor Dies Of A Cardiac Arrest At 87. Ndtv.com. Retrieved on 20 November 2018.
- Patel, Bhaichand (19 November 2007). "Clangorous Liaisons". Outlook India.
- Goyal, Divya (updated 1 October 2018) Exclusive: Rishi Kapoor On What His Mother Said To Nargis About Raj Kapoor Affair – NDTV Movies. Movies.ndtv.com (18 January 2017). Retrieved on 20 November 2018.
- Khubchandani, Lata (15 June 2003). "Raj Kapoor — The Great Showman". The Sunday Tribune.
- Rastogi, Tavishi Paitandy (14 September 2007). "Vyjayanthimala's autobiography leaves Kapoor clan fuming". Hindustan Times. Archived from the original on 5 October 2013. Retrieved 8 June 2013.
- "Rishi Kapoor Reveals Dad Raj Kapoor's Alleged Affairs With His Heroines". NDTV Movies. 17 January 2017.
- "Remembering Indian cinema's greatest showman". movies.rediff.com. Retrieved 22 October 2010.
- "Raj Kapoor movies featured in Google doodle as it celebrates his 90th birth anniversary". 14 December 2014. Archived from the original on 14 December 2014.
- Bharatan, Raju (2010). A Journey Down Melody Lane. Hay House Publishers – India. ISBN 978-81-89988-91-3. Retrieved 9 February 2017.
- В.С.Высоцкий 1967 Песенка про йогов. kacmanat.ru
- "'Raj Kapoor Crescent'". Asian Image. Lancashire UK. 9 June 2011. Retrieved 19 June 2011.
The city will also like to induct Shri Raj Kapoor into the Brampton Hall of Fame, having a star placed there in his honour..
- K. A. Abbas – Films as writer:, Films as director: filmreference.com
Bibliography[edit | edit source]
- Nanda, Ritu (2002). Raj Kapoor: Speaks. Penguin Books India. ISBN 978-0-670-04952-3.
- Bruzzi, Stella; Gibson, Pamela Church (2000). Fashion Cultures: Theories, Explorations, and Analysis. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-20685-3.
- Rajadhyaksha, Ashish; Willemen, Paul. Encyclopedia of Indian Cinema. London: British Film Institute; New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1994
- Kishore, Valicha. The Moving Image. Hyderabad: Orient Longman, 1988
[edit | edit source]
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