Colonial Rule in India - A Chronology

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A large portion of the content on this website has been collaged from various Wikipedia websites on similar subject.

The Indian subcontinent was subject to imperial processes, such as those of the Mauryas (322–187 BCE), the Kushans (circa 30–230), the Guptas (320–550), and the Mughal (1526–1857), that largely hewed to its geographical boundaries and, in some measure at least, imposed or sought to impose integrating structures of rule across a population dramatically varied in languages, customs, and beliefs.

This is a tabular chronology of events during colonial India, starting from the onset of imperial entities in India. A few other events are chronicled as well for the purpose of an overall perspective of historical timelines. This listing is far from comprehensive, as is only to be expected when dealing with centuries old pre-independence history of a country as complex, diverse, large and mystical as India.

Table (Cat)egories :

(A)rts, Societies, (Ad)minsitration, (B)anks, (BC)Battle with Colonial Powers, (BE)British Empire, (BS)Battle among States, (Bu)siness Houses, (C)elebrities, (Co)lonial India, (D)imonds & Treasure, (Dy)nasties, (E)vent, (Ec)onomy, (Ed)ucation, (Em)perors/Empresses, (F)reedom Fighters, (Fl)ag, Patriotism, (G)overnor Generals & Viceroys, (H)SRA, (HM)HSRA Men, (J)allianwala, (N)ewspapers, (O)pposition to Partition, (P)olitical, (Pa)rtition, (Pr)incely States, Provinces, Zamindars, (R)eligion, (S)ports, (T)echnology, Engineering, Infrastructure, (Tr)ansport, (W)orld Events, (Wh)ite Man's Burden, (W)orld (W)ars

Sn Year /Birth Till Year /Place Cat Event Activity
1 Imperial entities Co Imperial entities of India, (Colonial India):
Entity Number Imperial Entity Era From To
1 Portuguese India 1505 1961
1 Casa da Índia 1434 1833
1 Portuguese East India Company 1628 1633
2 Croatian India 1530 1667
3 Dutch India 1605 1825
4 Danish India 1620 1869
5 British India 1612 1947
5 East India Company 1612 1757
5 Company rule in India 1757 1858
5 British Raj 1858 1947
5 British rule in Burma 1824 1948
5 Princely states 1721 1949
5 Partition of India 1947
6 French India 1668 1954
1 Empires and their area List of largest empires in India:

This is a historical list of the largest empires in India with an area covering more than 1 million square kilometers. An empire involves the extension of a state's sovereignty over external territories. The values given here should generally be interpreted as being only indicative, and not as determining a precise ranking. The calculation of the land area of a particular empire is controversial.

Empire Area in Km2 % area of Republic of India Year of maximum extent
British Raj 4,574,000 139 % 1911
Mughal Empire 4,000,000 122 % 1690
Maurya Empire 3,400,000–5,000,000 103 % – 152 % 250 BC
Republic of India (for comparison) 3,287,263 100 %
Delhi Sultanate 3,200,000 97 % 1312
Maratha Empire 2,500,000 76 % 1760
Kushan Empire 2,000,000–2,500,000 61 % – 76 % 200
Gupta Empire 1,700,000–3,500,000 52 % – 106 % 400
Empire of Harsha 1,000,000 30 % 648
1 1206 1526 Dy The Delhi Sultanate was an Islamic empire based in Delhi that stretched over large parts of the Indian subcontinent for 320 years (1206–1526).

Five dynasties ruled over the Delhi Sultanate sequentially:

  1. The Mamluk dynasty (Delhi) / Slave dynasty (1206–1290),
  2. The Khalji dynasty (1290–1320),
  3. The Tughlaq dynasty (1320–1414),
  4. The Sayyid dynasty (1414–1451), and
  5. The Lodi dynasty (1451–1526).

It covered large swathes of territory in modern-day India, Pakistan, Bangladesh as well as some parts of southern Nepal.

2 1226 1290 BS List of battles of Rajasthan#During the Sultanates of Delhi, Gujarat and Malwa:
  • Siege of Ranthambore (1226) – Iltutmish captured the fort in 1226 CE.
  • Siege of Ranthambore (1236) – Vagbhata Chauhan recaptured Ranthambore during the reign of the Delhi ruler Razia Sultana.
  • Siege of Ranthambore (1248) – Vagabhata Chauhan successfully defended the fort against Sultan Nasiruddin Mahmud Shah.
  • Siege of Ranthambore (1253) – Vagbhata Chauhan repelled another invasion from the Mamluks.
  • Siege of Ranthambore (1259) – Sultan Nasiruddin Mahmud Shah captured Ranthambore from Jaitrasingh Chauhan.
  • Siege of Ranthambore (1283) – Shakti Dev Chauhan recaptured Ranthambore from the Mamluks.
  • Battle of Ranthambore (1290) – Jalal-ud-din Khalji attacked Hammiradeva (Hammir deo) because of his rising power. Jalaludin's forces were defeated by Hammir.
3 1228 1826 Dy Ahom Kingdom (1228–1826) was a kingdom and tribe which rose to prominence in present-day Assam early in the thirteenth century. They ruled much of Assam from the 13th century until the establishment of British rule in 1838.

The Ahom Kingdom (1228–1826) was a late Medieval India kingdom in the Brahmaputra River Valley in Assam. It is well known for maintaining its sovereignty for nearly 600 years and successfully resisting Mughal Empire expansion in Northeast India. Established by Sukaphaa, a Tai prince from Mong Mao, it began as a mong (Mueang) in the upper reaches of the Brahmaputra based on wet rice agriculture. It expanded suddenly under Suhungmung in the 16th century and became multi-ethnic in character, casting a profound effect on the political and social life of the entire Brahmaputra valley. The kingdom became weaker with the rise of the Moamoria rebellion, and subsequently fell to repeated Burmese invasions of Assam. With the defeat of the Burmese after the First Anglo-Burmese War and the Treaty of Yandabo in 1826, control of the kingdom passed into East India Company hands.

The Ahoms brought with them a tribal religion and a language of their own, however they later merged with the Hindu religion. From thirteenth till seventeenth century, repeated attempts were made by the Muslim rulers of Delhi to invade and subdue Ahoms, however the Ahoms managed to maintain their independence and ruled themselves for nearly 600 years.

4 1294 1436 BS List of battles of Rajasthan#During the Sultanates of Delhi, Gujarat and Malwa:
  • Siege of Jaisalmer (1294–1295) – Alauddin Khalji commanded the Khilji army under Jalal-ud-din Khalji and plundered Jaisalmer after a siege that lasted for a year. For some years afterwards Jaisalmer remained abandoned before the surviving Bhatis reoccupied it.
  • Siege of Ranthombore (Alauddin Khalji's conquest of Ranthambore) (1301) – Hammiradeva defeated Alauddin Khalji's generals Ulugh Khan and Nusrat Khan; later, Alauddin defeated Hammiradeva.
  • Siege of Chittorgarh (1303) – Alauddin Khalji defeated Rawal Ratan Singh (Ratnasimha).
  • Siege of Siwana (1308) – Malik Kamaluddin a general of Alauddin Khalji defeated Sheetal deo.
  • Battle of Jalore (Alauddin Khalji's conquest of Jalore) (1310–11) – Alauddin Khalji defeated Kanhad deo (Kanhadadeva) after a long and bloody war.
  • Battle of Chittorgarh (1321) – Rana Hammir Singh defeated Maldev Songara, a vassal of the Tughlaq dynasty and recovered Mewar.
  • Battle of Singoli (1336) – Rana Hammir Singh defeated An Army led by one of Muhammad bin Tughluq General and annexed Ajmer, Ranthambhore, Nagor and Shivapuri.
  • Battle of Sirohi (1434) – Rana Kumbha defeated Rao Sahasmal Deora and captured Basaritgarh, Bhula and areas of Abu.
  • Siege of Mandalgarh (1435–6) – Rana Kumbha (Kumbha of Mewar) captured Mandalgarh fort from Rao Bairisal Hada.
5 1391 1583 Dy Muzaffarids (Gujarat) dynasty

Sultan Muzaffar Shah I, the Governor of Gujarat Sultanate, established the Muzaffarid dynasty in 1391. It expanded rapidly and peaked under Sultan Mahmud I (Mahmud Begada), who lost the Battle of Diu to the Portuguese in 1509.

6 1434 1833 Co Portuguese Casa da India

The Casa da Índia (Portuguese pronunciation: [ˈkazɐ dɐ ˈĩdiɐ], English: India House or House of India) was a Portuguese state-run commercial organization founded during the Age of Discovery, charged with the regulation of International trade and the administration of the Portuguese Empire's territories, colonies, and Factory (trading post)s across India, Africa, and the rest of Asia. Central to the Casa da Índia's objectives was the establishment and protection of a Portuguese Mare clausum (total control of the seas) in the Atlantic Ocean, Indian Ocean, Arabian sea, and the East Indies. It was founded by King Manuel I of Portugal in 1500 to direct Portugal's monopoly of the Spice trade and to manage royal policy for Portuguese India. Following 1503, it absorbed the Casa da Guiné e Mina, an organization founded by Prince Henry the Navigator in 1443, which operated under a similar mandate for Portuguese Africa, thus making the Casa da Índia responsible for the regulation of all Portuguese imperial trade, the administration of Portuguese trade posts and military bases in Asia and Africa, and protection of the Portuguese Crown's commercial interests.

With the discovery of a sea route to India by Vasco da Gama in 1497–99, the spice trade became a new and important activity of the royal trading house, and the old Casa was reorganized into the Casa da India e da Guiné (the first written reference to a Casa da Índia was in a royal letter dated 1501).

7 1442 1455 BS List of battles of Rajasthan#During the Sultanates of Delhi, Gujarat and Malwa:
  • Battle of Mandalgarh and Banas (1442–1446) – A series of battles that took place between Mahmud Khalji of Malwa and Rana Kumbha of Mewar. bloodied by these engagements the Sultan did not attack Mewar for another ten years.
  • Siege of Gagron (February 1444) – Sultan Mahmud besieged Gagron which belonged to Palhan Singh Khichi. Rana Kumbha had sent reinforcements under his commander Dahir, but Dahir died in battle and Palhan was killed by bhils while fleeing from the fort.
  • Siege of Mandore (1454) – Rao Jodha recaptured Mandore from Rana Kumbha.
  • Battle of Abu (1455) – Qutbuddin sent Imadul Mulk to invade Mewar through Abu, but Imadul suffered heavy losses against the Mewari soldiers posted on the hills and was immediately called back.
8 1456 1457 BS List of battles of Rajasthan#During the Sultanates of Delhi, Gujarat and Malwa:
  • Battle of Nagaur (1456) – Rana Kumbha of Mewar defeated the combined armies of Shams Khan (sultan of Nagaur) and Qutbuddin (Sultan of Gujarat) and captured Nagaur, Kasili, Khandela and Shakambhari.
  • Battle of Mandalgarh (1456) – Sultan Mahmud attacked Mandalgarh, he sent 7 detachments to attack the Rana from multiple directions. The Malwa forces under Taj Khan and Ali Khan suffered heavy losses in battle against Rana Kumbha after which Mahmud retreated the next morning.
  • Siege of Mandalgarh (December 1456 – October 1457) – In December Rana Kumbha was forced to move north to confront the sultan of Gujarat, Sultan Mahmud once again attacked Mandalgarh and captured it after a siege.
9 1458 1519 BS List of battles of Rajasthan#During the Sultanates of Delhi, Gujarat and Malwa:
  • Siege of Kumbalgarh (1458–9) – Sultan Mahmud besieged Kumbalgarh but finding the fort too strong he retreated back to Mandu.
  • Battle of Mandalgarh (1467) – Sultan Mahmud invaded Mewar and fought a battle with Rana Kumbha, but retreated after taking heavy losses. This was the last battle fought between the two rivals.
  • Battle of Peepar (1492) – Rao Satal defeated Gudhla Khan, an Afghan general and rescued 140 maidens that had been captured. Rao Satal himself died that night of the wounds received in the battle.
  • Battle of Khatoli (1518) – Rana Sanga defeated Ibrahim Lodhi.
  • Battle of Dholpur (1519) – Rana Sanga defeated Ibrahim Lodhi.
  • Battle of Gagron (1519) – Rana Sanga defeated Mahmud Khalji of Malwa.
10 1490 1686 Dy Bijapur Sultanate, Adil Shahi dynasty 1490–1686

The Adil Shahi or Adilshahi, was a Shia Muslim (Shia Islam), and later Sunni Muslim (Sunni Islam), dynasty founded by Yusuf Adil Shah, that ruled the Sultanate of Bijapur, centred on present-day Bijapur district, Karnataka in India, in the Western area of the Deccan Plateau region of Southern India from 1489 to 1686. Bijapur had been a province of the Bahmani Sultanate (1347–1518), before its political decline in the last quarter of the 15th century and eventual break-up in 1518. The Bijapur Sultanate was absorbed into the Mughal Empire on 12 September 1686, after its conquest by the Emperor Aurangzeb. The founder of the dynasty, Yusuf Adil Shah (1490–1510), was appointed Bahmani governor of the province, before creating a de facto independent Bijapur state.

11 1498 Co Vasco da Gama's First Voyage, (Vasco da Gama#First voyage):

Vasco da Gama, 1st Count of Vidigueira (1460s – 24 December 1524), was a Portuguese explorer and the first European to reach India by sea.

His initial voyage to India (1497–1499) was the first to link Europe and Asia by an ocean route, connecting the Atlantic Ocean and the Indian Ocean and therefore, the Western world and the Orient (Eastern world). This is widely considered a milestone in world history, as it marked the beginning of a sea-based phase of global Multiculturalism. Da Gama's Portuguese discovery of the sea route to India opened the way for an age of global Imperialism and enabled the Portuguese to establish a long-lasting Colonial empire in Asia. The violence and hostage taking employed by da Gama and those who followed also assigned a brutal reputation to the Portuguese among India's indigenous kingdoms that would set the pattern for western colonialism in the Age of Exploration (Age of Discovery). Traveling the ocean route allowed the Portuguese to avoid sailing across the highly disputed Mediterranean Sea and traversing the dangerous Arabian Peninsula.

On 8 July 1497 Vasco da Gama led a fleet of four ships with a crew of 170 men from Lisbon. The sum of the distances covered in the outward and return voyages made this expedition the longest ocean voyage ever made until then, far longer than a full voyage around the world by way of the Equator. After decades of sailors trying to reach the Indies, with thousands of lives and dozens of vessels lost in shipwrecks and attacks, da Gama landed in Calicut on 20 May 1498.

12 1502 Co Vasco da Gama's Second Voyage, (Vasco da Gama#Second voyage):

The follow-up expedition, the 2nd Portuguese India Armada (Cabral, 1500), launched in 1500 under the command of Pedro Álvares Cabral with the mission of making a treaty with the Zamorin of Calicut and setting up a Portuguese factory in the city. However, Pedro Cabral entered into a conflict with the local Arab merchant guilds, with the result that the Portuguese factory was overrun in a riot and up to 70 Portuguese were killed. Cabral blamed the Zamorin for the incident and bombarded the city. Thus war broke out between Portugal and Calicut (Kozhikode).

Vasco da Gama invoked his royal letter to take command of the 4th Portuguese India Armada (Gama, 1502), scheduled to set out in 1502, with the explicit aim of taking revenge upon the Zamorin and force him to submit to Portuguese terms. The heavily armed fleet of fifteen ships and eight hundred men left Lisbon on 12 February 1502.

On reaching India in October 1502, da Gama's fleet set about capturing any Arab vessel he came across in Indian waters, most notoriously the Miri, a pilgrim ship from Mecca, whose passengers he massacred in open water. He then appeared before Calicut, demanding redress for the treatment of Cabral. While the Zamorin was willing to sign a new treaty, da Gama made a call to the Hindu king to expel all Muslims from Calicut before beginning negotiations, which was turned down. The Portuguese fleet then bombarded the city for nearly two days from the sea shore, severely damaging the unfortified city. He also captured several rice vessels and cut off the crew's hands, ears and noses, dispatching them with an insulting note to the Zamorin.

13 1502 Co Vasco da Gama's Second Voyage, (Vasco da Gama#Second voyage):

The violent treatment meted out by da Gama quickly brought trade along the Malabar Coast of India, upon which Calicut (Kozhikode) depended, to a standstill. But the Zamorin nonetheless refused to submit to Portuguese terms, and even ventured to hire a fleet of strong warships to challenge da Gama's armada (which da Gama managed to defeat in a naval battle before Calicut harbor). Da Gama loaded up with spices at Cochin (Kochi) and Cannanore (Kannur), small nearby kingdoms, half-vassal and half-at-war with the Zamorin, whose alliances had been secured by prior Portuguese fleets. The 4th armada left India in early 1503.

14 1503 Co Kingdom of Cochin is taken over by the Portuguese creating the first European settlement in India.:[1][circular reference]
15 1505 Co Dom Francisco de Almeida, also known as the Great Dom Francisco (c. 1450 – 1 March 1510), was a Portuguese nobleman, soldier and explorer. He distinguished himself as a counsellor to King John II of Portugal and later in the wars against the Moors and in the conquest of Granada in 1492.

On 25 March 1505, Francisco de Almeida was appointed as the first governor and viceroy of the Portuguese India (Estado da Índia), on the condition that he would set up four forts on the south western Indian coast: at Anjediva Island, Cannanore (Kannur), Cochin (Kochi) and Quilon (Kollam).

Francisco de Almeida left Portugal with a fleet of 22 vessels with 1,500 men.

Almeida is credited with establishing Portuguese hegemony in the Indian Ocean with his victory at the naval Battle of Diu in 1509.

On 13 September, Francisco de Almeida reached Anjediva Island, where he immediately started the construction of Fort Anjediva. On 23 October, he started, with the permission of the friendly ruler Kōlattiri (Kolathunadu), the building of St. Angelo Fort in Cannanore, leaving Lourenço de Brito in charge with 150 men and two ships.

Francisco de Almeida then reached Cochin (Kochi) on 31 October 1505, with only 8 vessels left. There he learnt that the Portuguese traders at Quilon had been killed. He decided to send his son Lourenço de Almeida with 6 ships, who wantonly destroyed 27 Calicut vessels in the harbour of Quilon. Almeida took up residence in Cochin. He strengthened the Portuguese fortifications of Fort Manuel on Cochin (Fort Kochi).

Before Almeida returned to Portugal he lost his life in a conflict with indigenous people at the Cape of Good Hope in 1510. His only son Lourenço de Almeida had previously been killed in the Battle of Chaul.

16 1506 Co The Battle of Cannanore (Kannur) took place in 1506 off the harbour of Cannanore in India, between the Indian fleet of the Zamorin of Calicut (Kozhikode) and a Portuguese fleet under Lourenço de Almeida, son of the Viceroy Dom Francisco de Almeida.

The Indian fleet, consisting of about 200 ships equipped with cannons manufactured with the help of two Milanese (Duchy of Milan) Italians, was manned by Hindu, Arab, and Turkish crews. This encounter ended in a Portuguese victory. It was followed by another Portuguese success at the Siege of Cannanore (1507) in 1507, but then a Portuguese defeat at the Battle of Chaul in 1508.

17 1507 Co The Siege of Cannanore (1507) was a four-month siege, from April to August 1507, when troops of the local ruler (the Kōlattiri Raja of Cannanore), supported by the Zamorin of Calicut (Kozhikode) and Arabs, besieged the Portuguese garrison at St. Angelo Fort in Cannanore, in what is now the Indian state of Kerala. It followed the Battle of Cannanore, in which the fleet of the Zamorin was defeated by the Portuguese.
18 1508 Co The Battle of Chaul was a naval battle between the Portuguese and an Egyptian Mamluk Sultanate (Cairo) fleet in 1508 in the harbour of Chaul in India. The battle ended in a Mamluk victory. It followed the Siege of Cannanore (1507) in which a Portuguese garrison successfully resisted an attack by Southern Indian rulers. This was the first Portuguese defeat at sea in the Indian Ocean.

Chaul is a former city of Portuguese India, now in ruins. It is located 60 km south of Mumbai, in Raigad district of Maharashtra state in western India.

19 1508 3 Feb W The Christian-Islamic power struggle in Europe and the Middle East. Spills over into the Indian Ocean as Battle of Chaul during the Portuguese-Mamluk War.[1]
20 1509 Co The Battle of Diu was a naval battle fought on 3 February 1509 in the Arabian Sea, in the port of Diu, India, between the Portuguese Empire and a joint fleet of Mahmud Begada the Sultan of Gujarat, the Mamlûk Burji Sultanate (Burji dynasty) of Egypt, and the Zamorin of Calicut (Kozhikode) with support of the Republic of Venice and the Ottoman Empire.

The Portuguese victory was critical: the great Muslim alliance was soundly defeated, easing the Portuguese strategy of controlling the Indian Ocean to route trade down the Cape of Good Hope, circumventing the traditional spice route controlled by the Arabs and the Venetians (Republic of Venice) through the Red Sea and Persian Gulf. After the battle, Portugal rapidly captured key ports in the Indian Ocean including Goa, Ceylon (Sri Lanka), Malacca, and Ormuz (Ormus), crippling the Mamluk Sultanate (Cairo) and the Gujarat Sultanate, greatly assisting the growth of the Portuguese Empire and establishing its trade dominance for more than a century.

The Battle of Diu was a battle of annihilation like the Battle of Lepanto and the Battle of Trafalgar, and one of the most important of world naval history, for it marks the beginning of European dominance over Asian seas that would last until the World War II.

21 1510 20 May Co Portuguese India (to 1961).[1]

Portuguese Catholics conquer Goa to serve as capital of their Asian maritime empire, beginning conquest and exploitation of India by Europeans.[2]

22 1518 BS Kingdom of Mewar under Rana Sanga defeats Lodi Empire under Ibrahim Lodi in the Battle of Khatoli, gains control over north eastern Rajasthan.[1]
23 1519 BS Kingdom of Mewar under Rana Sanga defeats the Malwa Sultanate and the Gujarat Sultanate in the Battle of Gagron, obtains control of Malwa.[1]
24 1519 BS The Kingdom of Mewar under Rana Sanga again defeats Lodi Empire under Ibrahim Lodi in the Battle of Dholpur, extends control up to Agra.[1]
25 1520 BS Vijayanagar Empire under Krishnadevaraya defeats the Sultanate of Bijapur in the Battle of Raichur.[1]
26 1520 1557 BS List of battles of Rajasthan#During the Sultanates of Delhi, Gujarat and Malwa:
  • Siege of Mandsaur (1520) – Sultan Muzaffar Shah II sent an army under Malik Ayaz but failed and retreated to Gujarat.
  • Battle of Bayana (1527) – Babur sent an army to capture Bayana but the Mughals were defeated by Rana Sanga. The Mughals however plundered a temple built by Rana Sanga in the memory of his mother.
  • Battle of Khanwa (1527) – Rana Sanga led the Rajput armies against Babur of Fergana, but was defeated due to treachery by Silhadi of Raisen.
  • Battle of Sohaba (1542) – Rao Maldev Rathore killed Rao Jaitsi in battle and captured Bikaner.
  • Battle of Sammel (1544) – Sher Shah Suri's costly victory against the army of Jaita and Kumpa.
  • Battle of Jodhpur (July 1545) – Rao Maldev Rathore defeated the Afghan garrison in Marwar and reoccupied his lost territories.
  • Battle of Harmada (1557) – Maldev Rathore defeated Udai Singh II and captured Merta City.
27 1520 E Domingo Paes (sometimes spelt Pais; 16th century) was a Portuguese traveller who visited the Vijayanagara Empire, located in the Deccan Plateau in southern India, around 1520. He went there as part of a group of traders from the then colony of Goa. His visit took place during the rule of King Krishnadevaraya and Paes recorded his impressions of Vijayanagara state in his Chronica dos reis de Bisnaga ("Chronicle of the Vijayanagar kings"). His detailed account is one of the few known descriptions of that empire and of its capital, Vijayanagara (Hampi), by a traveller from abroad.
28 1522 Co Portuguese land on the Coromandel Coast.[1]
29 1524 Co Vasco da Gama's Third Voyage, (Vasco da Gama#Third voyage and death):

Setting out in April 1524, with a fleet of fourteen ships, Vasco da Gama took as his flagship the famous large carrack Santa Catarina do Monte Sinai on her last journey to India, along with two of his sons, Estêvão and Paulo. After a troubled journey (four or five of the ships were lost en route), he arrived in India in September.

Vasco da Gama immediately invoked his high viceregent powers to impose a new order in Portuguese India, replacing all the old officials with his own appointments. But Gama contracted malaria not long after arriving, and died in the city of Cochin (Kochi) on Christmas Eve in 1524, three months after his arrival.

As per royal instructions, da Gama was succeeded as governor of India by one of the captains who had come with him, Henrique de Menezes. Da Gama's sons Estêvão and Paulo immediately lost their posts and joined the returning fleet of early 1525. Vasco da Gama's body was first buried at Church of Saint Francis, Kochi, which was located at Fort Kochi in the city of Kochi, but his remains were returned to Portugal in 1539.

30 1526 21 Apr BS Mughal conqueror Babur (1483–1530) defeats the Sultan of Delhi and captures the Koh-i-noor diamond. Occupying Delhi, by 1529 he founds the Indian Mughal Empire (1526-1761), consolidated by his grandson Akbar.[2]

Sultan Ibrahim Lodi, of the Delhi Sultanate, angers local nobles, who respond by inviting Babur, the Mughal ruler of Kabul, to invade Delhi and Agra. The local population, plus the possession of artillery, assists Babur in killing the Sultan (whose soldiers desert him) at the Battle of Panipat.[1]

The First Battle of Panipat (21 April 1526), was fought between the invading forces of Babur and the Lodi dynasty. It marked the beginning of Mughal Empire and the end of Delhi Sultanate. This was the earliest battles involving gunpowder firearms and Field artillery in the Indian subcontinent which were introduced by the [Mughal Empire]].

31 1526 1857 Dy The Age of the Mughal Empire[3]:

The name Mughal or Moghul is a corruption of the Persian word for Mongol, the Central Asian tribe after whom Mongolia is named. The Mughals originated in Central Asia, and were descended from the Mongol Empire ruler Jenghiz Khan (Genghis Khan) and Timur (Tamburlaine), the great conqueror of Asia. They were immensely proud of their pedigree, and it was the memory of Timur's raids on India in the fourteenth century that spurred Babur on to invade. The great cities built by the Mughal emperors at Delhi, Agra and Lahore still retain something of the magnificence that was associated with the Mughal dynasty during the seventeenth century. The Major Mughal Emperors were:

  • Babur (r. 1526–30)
  • Humayun (r. 1530–56)
  • Akbar (r. 1556–1605)
  • Jahangir (r. 1605–27)
  • Shah Jahan (r. 1627–58)
  • Aurangzeb (r. 1658–1707)
32 1526 1857 Dy The Age of the Mughal Empire, Mughal emperors:

Style  : His Imperial Majesty

First monarch  : Babur

Last monarch  : Bahadur Shah Zafar

Formation  : 20 April 1526

Abolition  : 21 September 1857

Residence  : Agra Fort (1526–1639), Red Fort (1639–1857)

Appointer  : Hereditary

33 1526 1857 Dy The Age of the Mughal Empire, Mughal emperors:

– Titular Name, Birth Name, Birth date, Reign, Death

  • Babur (Zahir-ud-din-Muhammad) 14-Feb-1483, Andijan, Uzbeksitan, 20 April 1526 to 26 December 1530, 26 December 1530, aged 47, Agra
  • Humayun (Nasir-ud-din-Muhammad Humayun) 6 March 1508, Kabul, Afghanistan, 26 December 1530 to 17 May 1540, 22 February 1555 to 27 January 1556, 27 January 1556, aged 47, Delhi
  • Akbar-i-Azam (Jalal-ud-din Muhammad) 15 October 1542, Umerkot, Pakistan, 11 Feb-1556 to 27 October 1605, 27 October 1605, aged 63, Agra
  • Jahangir (Nur-ud-din Muhammad Salim) 31 August 1569, Agra, 3 November 1605 to 28 October 1627, 28 October 1627, aged 58, Jammu and Kashmir (union territory)
  • Shahryar Mirza (Salef-ud-din Mohammed Shahryar) 16 January 1605, Agra, 7 November 1627 to 19 January 1628, 23 January 1628, aged 23, Lahore, Pakistan
  • Shah Jahan (Shahab-ud-din Muhammad Khurram) 5 January 1592, Lahore, Pakistan, 19 January 1628 to 31 July 1658, 22 January 1666, aged 74, Agra
  • Alamgir I (Muhy-ud-din Muhammad Aurangzeb) 4 November 1618, Gujarat, 31 July 1658 to 3 March 1707, aged 88, Ahmednagar
  • Muhammad Azam Shah (Qutb-ud-Din Muhammad Azam) 28 June 1653, Burhanpur, India, 14 March 1707 to 8 June 1707, aged 53, Jajau, near Agra
  • Bahadur Shah I (Qutb-ud-Din Muhammad Mu'azzam Shah Alam) 14 October 1643, Burhanpur, India, 19 June 1707 to 27 February 1712, 27 February 1712, aged 68, Lahore
  • Jahandar Shah (Mu'izz-ud-Din Jahandar Shah Bahadur) 9 May 1661, Deccan, India, 27 February 1712 to 11 February 1713, 12 February 1713, aged 51, Delhi
  • Farrukhsiyar (Farrukhsiyar) 20 August 1685, Aurangabad, 11 January 1713 to 28 February 1719, 19 April 1719, aged 33, Delhi
34 1526 1857 Dy The Age of the Mughal Empire, Mughal emperors:

– Titular Name, Birth Name, Birth date, Reign, Death

  • Rafi ud-Darajat (Rafi ud-Darajat) 1 December 1699, 28 February 1719 to 6 June 1719, 6 June 1719, aged 19, Agra
  • Shah Jahan II (Rafi ud-Daulah) Jun-1696, 6 June 1719 to 17 September 1719, 18 September 1719, aged 23, Agra
  • Muhammad Shah (Roshan Akhtar Bahadur) 7 August 1702, Ghazni, Afghanistan, 27 September 1719 to 26 April 1748, 26 April 1748, aged 45, Delhi
  • Ahmad Shah Bahadur (Ahmad Shah Bahadur) 23 December 1725, Delhi, 29 April 1748 to 2 June 1754, 1 January 1775, aged 49, Delhi
  • Alamgir II (Aziz-ud-din) 6 June 1699, Burhanpur, India, 3 June 1754 to 29 November 1759, 29 November 1759, aged 60, Kotla Fateh Shah, India
  • Shah Jahan III (Muhi-ul-millat) 1711, 10 December 1759 to 10 October 1760, 1772, aged 60–61
  • Shah Alam II (Ali Gauhar) 25 June 1728, Delhi, 10 October 1760 to 31 July 1788, 19 November 1806, aged 78, Delhi
  • Mahmud Shah Bahadur Jahan IV (Bidar Bakht) 1749, Delhi, 31 July 1788 to 11 October 1788, 1790, aged 40–41, Delhi
  • Shah Alam II (Ali Gauhar) 25 June 1728, Delhi, 16 October 1788 to 19 November 1806, 19 November 1806, aged 78, Delhi [second reign]
  • Akbar Shah II (Mirza Akbar II) 22 April 1760, Mukundpur, India, 19 November 1806 to 28 September 1837, 28 September 1837, aged 77, Delhi [Titular figurehead under British protection]
  • Bahadur Shah II (Abu Zafar Sirajuddin Muhammad Bahadur Shah Zafar) 24 October 1775, Delhi, 28 September 1837 to 21 September 1857, 7 November 1862, aged 87, Yangon, Myanmar
35 1526 1857 Dy The Age of the Mughal Empire, Mughal emperors:

During the reign of Aurangzeb, the empire, as the world's largest economy, worth over 25% of global GDP, controlled nearly all of the Indian subcontinent, extending from Chittagong in the east to Kabul and Balochistan in the west, Kashmir in the north to the Kaveri River basin in the south.

The last Emperor, Bahadur Shah II (Bahadur Shah Zafar) was deposed by the British and was exiled to Burma (Myanmar) after the Indian Rebellion of 1857.

36 1526 1857 Dy The Age of the Mughal Empire[3]:

Babur, the first Mughal emperor, was born in present-day Uzbekistan, and became ruler of Kabul in Afghanistan. From there, he invaded the kingdom of the Lodi Afghans (Lodi dynasty) in northern India in 1526 and established a dynasty that was to rule for three centuries. Babur was a modest and down-to-earth man whose memoirs, the Baburnama, make fascinating reading. Babur is not known to have patronised the arts, except for architecture.

His son Humayun, however, is credited with bringing artists from Iran to set up the first Mughal painting studio.

Humayun's successor, Akbar , was actively interested in painting, and enthusiastically set up studios which employed mostly local Hindu artists. Mughal painting soon began to evolve in a distinctive way that combined the sophisticated techniques of the Persian artists with the boldness and colour characteristic of the local Indian artists.

Akbar was perhaps the greatest of the 'Great Mughals'. He vastly increased Mughal territory in all directions, capturing the Muslim kingdom of Bengal (Bengal Sultanate) in the East, and Gujarat and the Rajput kingdoms in the West, as well as much of present-day Afghanistan and important territories to the South.

The defeat of the fiercely independent Hindu rajas, the kings of Rajasthan, was one of Akbar's main preoccupations.

37 1526 1857 Dy The Age of the Mughal Empire[3]:

Akbar's son Jahangir was less interested in further extending Mughal territory, and instead gloried in the luxury and riches that the great empire provided.

A true connoisseur of paintings and gems, and a great lover of nature, Jahangir commissioned many of the most beautiful miniatures and precious objects to have been produced in the royal workshops. Paintings no longer showed the glories of war and conquest that Akbar had revelled in, but instead focused on animals, birds and scenes of the leisurely life at court.

Magnificent paintings and works of art were also made for the next emperor, Shah Jahan, who is perhaps best known for building the exquisite Taj Mahal at Agra – a jewelled white marble tomb for his wife, who had died giving birth to their fourteenth child. His love of jewels and jade is well known, and several pieces from his collection are on show, including his magnificent white jade wine cup carved with a goat's head.

Shah Jahan was deposed and imprisoned by his ruthless son Aurangzeb. Aurangzeb was not interested in the arts but in further conquest, and he spent huge sums on military campaigns in the South. Painting and the decorative arts declined under his puritanical and impoverished regime, and many artists left the court and found work with provincial rulers instead.

Emperors after Aurangzeb became more and more ineffectual, and the empire was weakened first by rebel Hindu princes and then by the British, who were becoming increasingly powerful. The Mughal Empire survived in name only until 1858, when the British formally abolished the title of Emperor.

38 1526 1857 Dy The Mughal Empire, one of the states Age of the Islamic Gunpowder empires began in 1526 with the overthrow of Ibrahim Lodhi and encompassed most of South Asia by the late 17th and early 18th centuries. Allied with the local rulers, it extended from Bengal in the east to Kabul in the west, Kashmir in the north to the Kaveri basin in the south, a territory of over 4 million km2 (1.5 million sq mi) at its height. Its population at that time has been estimated at between 110 and 130 million.

In the year 1540, then Mughal Emperor Humayun was defeated by Sher Shah Suri, and forced to retreat to Kabul. Suris and their adviser, the Hindu Emperor Hem Chandra Vikramaditya, also called Hemu, ruled North India from 1540 to 1556. Hemu established a 'Hindu' Empire briefly from Delhi in 1556.

The "classic period[4]" of the Empire started in 1556 with the accession of Akbar the Great and ended with the death of Emperor Aurangzeb in 1707, although the dynasty continued for another 150 years. During this period, the Empire was marked by centralized administration and active culture.

Following 1725 the empire declined rapidly, weakened by wars of succession; famine and local revolts fueled by it; the growth of religious intolerance; the rise of the Maratha Empire; and finally British colonialism. The last Mughal emperor, Bahadur Shah II (Bahadur Shah Zafar), whose rule was restricted to the city of Delhi, was imprisoned and exiled by the British after the Indian Rebellion of 1857.

39 1526 Pr A zamindar, zomindar, zomidar, or jomidar, in the Indian subcontinent was an autonomous or semiautonomous ruler of a state who accepted the Suzerainty of the Emperor of Hindustan. The term means land owner in Persian language. Typically hereditary, zamindars held enormous tracts of land and control over their peasants, from whom they reserved the right to collect tax on behalf of imperial courts or for military purposes.

In the 19th and 20th centuries, with the advent of British imperialism, many wealthy and influential zamindars were bestowed with princely and royal titles such as Maharaja (Great King), Raja/ Rai (King) and Nawab.

During the Mughal Empire, zamindars belonged to the nobility and formed the ruling class. Emperor Akbar granted them mansabs (Mansabdar) and their ancestral domains were treated as Jagirs. Under British colonial rule in India (Presidencies and provinces of British India), the Permanent Settlement consolidated what became known as the zamindari system. The British rewarded supportive zamindars by recognising them as princes. Many of the region's Princely states were pre-colonial zamindar holdings elevated to a greater protocol. However, the British also reduced the land holdings of many pre-colonial princely states and chieftaincy, demoting their status to a zamindar from previously higher ranks of nobility.

Historian Saiyid Nurul Hasan divided the zamindars into three categories:

  1. The Autonomous Rai/ Rajas or Chiefs,
  2. The intermediary zamindars and
  3. The primary zamindars.

The system was abolished during Land reforms in East Pakistan (Bangladesh) in 1950, India in 1951 and West Pakistan in 1959.

40 1527 16 Mar BS The Battle of Khanwa was fought near the village of Khanwa, in Bharatpur district of Rajasthan, on March 16, 1527. It was fought between the invading forces of the first Mughal Emperor Babur and the Rajput forces led by Rana Sanga of Mewar, after the First Battle of Panipat (1526). The victory in the battle consolidated the new Mughal dynasty in India.

On 30 January 1528 Rana Sanga died in Chittor, apparently poisoned by his own chiefs, who held his plans of renewing the fight with Babur to be suicidal. It is suggested that had it not been for the cannon of Babur, Rana Sanga might have achieved a Historic victory against Babur. Babur's cannon put an end to outdated trends in Indian warfare.

41 1529 BS The Battle of Ghaghra, fought in 1529, was a major battle for the conquest of India by the Mughal Empire. It followed the First Battle of Panipat in 1526 and the Battle of Khanwa in 1527. The forces of now Emperor Zahir ud-Din Muhammad Babur of the emerging Mughal Empire were joined by Indian allies in battle against the Eastern Afghan Confederates under Sultan Mahmud Lodi (Lodi dynasty#Mahmud Lodi) and Bengal Sultanate under Nasiruddin Nasrat Shah.
42 1530 E Babur completes his Baburnama, reflecting on society, politics, economics, history, geography, nature, flora and fauna, which to this day is a standard textbook in 25 countries. Babur dies, and is succeeded by his son Humayun.[1]
43 1530 1903 T List of dams and reservoirs in Maharashtra (pre-independence):
  • 1530 Dhamapur Dam, Malvan River, Irrigation
  • 1799 Powai, Mithi River, Bombay, Water Supply
  • 1860 Vihar Dam, Vihar River, Bombay, Water Supply
  • 1871 Ekrukh Dam, Adela River, Solapur, Irrigation, Water Supply
  • 1879 Shirsufal Dam, Pune, Irrigation
  • 1879 Tulshi Dam, Tulshi River, Bombay, Water Supply
  • 1880 Khadakwasla Dam, Mautha River, Pune, Irrigation, Water Supply
  • 1883 Ashti Dam, Mohol, Ashti River, Solapur, Irrigation
  • 1887 Mhaswad Dam, Man River, Satara, Irrigation
  • 1892 Tansa Dam, Tansa, Bombay, Water Supply
  • 1901 Shetfal Dam, Shetfal Nalla, Pune, Irrigation
  • 1903 Khairbandha Dam, Fattepur River, Gondia, Irrigation
44 1531 Co The Siege of Diu (1531) occurred when a combined Ottoman Empire-Gujarat Sultanate force defeated a Portuguese Empire attempt to capture the city of Diu, India in 1531. The victory was partly the result of Ottoman firepower over the Portuguese besiegers deployed by Mustafa Bayram, an Ottoman expert.

Although Diu was successfully defended, victory was short lived: the Portuguese armada was simply diverted towards more exposed Gujarati cities to the east. Ghogha, Surat, Mangrol, Somnath, Bassein, and many smaller settlements were assaulted and sacked, and some never recovered from the attacks.

In 1534, Sultan Bahadur Shah of Gujarat signed a peace treaty (Treaty of Bassein (1534)) with Governor Nuno da Cunha, granting the Portuguese the territory of Bassein (Vasai), including Bombay. In 1535, the Portuguese were allowed to construct a fortress at Diu.

45 1532 BS Ahoms under king Suhungmung defeat Turbak Khan of the Bengal Sultanate in Battle of Hatbor.[1]
46 1534 Bombay Co Bombay ceded to the Portuguese. (History of Bombay under Portuguese rule (1534–1661)#Accession of the islands to the Portuguese)

Sultan Bahadur Shah of Gujarat had grown apprehensive of the power of Humayun. He dispatched his chief officer Xacoes (Shah Khawjeh) to Nuno da Cunha with an offer to hand over the seven islands of Bombay together with Bassein, its dependencies, and revenues by sea and land. On 23 December 1534, the Treaty of Bassein (1534) was signed on board the galleon San Mateos (St. Matthew). Bassein and the seven islands of Bombay were surrendered later by a treaty of peace and commerce between Bahadur Shah and Nuno da Cunha on 25 October 1535, permanently ending the Islamic rule on the islands.

47 1538 Co The Siege of Diu (1538) occurred when an army of the Sultanate of Gujarat under Khadjar Safar, aided by forces of the Ottoman Empire, attempted to capture the city of Diu in 1538, then held by the Portuguese. The Portuguese successfully resisted the four months long siege. It is part of The Ottoman-Portuguese War.

The defeat of the combined Turkish and Gujarati forces at Diu represented a critical setback in Ottoman plans for expanding their influence into the Indian Ocean. Without a suitable base or allies, failure at Diu meant the Ottomans were unable to proceed with their campaign in India, leaving the Portuguese uncontested in the western Indian coast. Never again would the Ottoman Turks ever send so large an armada to India.

48 1539 BS Battle of Chausa fought between Humayun and Sher Shah Suri in which Humayun defeated.[1]
49 1539 R Guru Angad Dev becomes second guru of Sikhs.[1]
50 1540 18 Sep BS Battle of Kannauj fought between Humayun and Sher Shah Suri and Humayun was completely defeated. Humayun lost the Mughal empire to Afghans (Suri Dynasty), and passed 12 years in exile.[1]
51 1540 9 May E Birth of Maharana Pratap Singh of Mewar ( son of Maharana Udai Singh II )[1]
52 1540 R Death of Shri Guru Ravidas[1]
53 1542 15 Oct E Birth of Akbar at Umerkot.[1]
54 1542 E Portuguese Jesuit priest Francis Xavier (1506-1552), most successful Catholic missionary, lands in Goa. First to train and employ native clergy in conversion efforts, he brings Christianity to India, Malay Archipelago and Japan.[2]
55 1545 1819 Dy Arakkal kingdom (Kerala Sultanate, Kingdom of Cannanore, Sultanate of Laccadive and Cannanore) was a Muslim kingdom in Kannur town in Kannur district, in the state of Kerala, South India. The king was called Ali Raja ("the Sea Ruler") and the ruling queen was called Arakkal Beevi.[5] Arakkal kingdom included little more than the Cannanore town and the southern Laccadive Islands (Agatti, Kavaratti, Androth and Kalpeni, as well as Minicoy), originally leased from the Kolattiri. The royal family is said to be originally a branch of the Kolattiri, descended from a princess of that family who converted to Islam. They owed allegiance to the Kolattiri rulers, whose ministers they had been at one time.

• Established 1545, • Annexed to British India 1819.

As the only Muslim rulers in Malabar, they saw the rise of Hyder Ali, de facto ruler of the Mysore Sultanate as the opportunity to increase their own power at the expense of Chirakkal, and invited him to invade Kerala.

Ali Raja Kunhi Amsa II and his successor, Arakkal Bibi Junumabe II, were among Hyder Ali and Tipu Sultan's staunchest allies during the Mysorean occupation of malabar. Afsal Ashraf (Arakkal Sultan) is a living descendant of the Arakkal dynasty at Konni in Pathanamthitta district.

56 1545 22 May E Death of Sher Shah Suri and succeeded by Islam Shah Suri.[1]
57 1546 Co The Second Siege of Diu (1546) was a siege of the Portuguese Indian city of Diu by the Gujarat Sultanate in 1546. It ended with a major Portuguese victory.

At the beginning of the 16th century, the Muslim Sultanate of Gujarat was the principal seapower in India. Gujarat fought the Portuguese fleets in collaboration with the Mamluks. The Portuguese were defeated by a combined Mamluk-Gujarati fleet in 1508, which was in turn destroyed by a Portuguese fleet in the Battle of Diu (1509). By 1536, the Portuguese had gained complete control of Diu, while Gujarat was under attack from the Mughals.

In 1538, the Ottomans, who had taken over Egypt (1517) and Aden (1538), joined hands with the Gujarat Sultanate to launch an anti-Portuguese offensive. They besieged Diu in 1538, but had to retreat.

After the failed siege of 1538, the Gujarati General Khadjar Safar besieged Diu again in an attempt to recapture the island. The siege lasted seven months from 20 April 1546 to 10 November 1546, during which João de Mascarenhas defended Diu.[6]

The siege ended when a Portuguese fleet under Governor João de Castro arrived and routed the attackers.[6]

Khadjar Safar and his son Muharram Rumi Khan (who were probably of Albanian origin) were both killed during the siege.[7]

58 1552 26 May R Guru Amar Das becomes third Guru of Sikhs.[1]
59 1554 22 Nov E Death of Islam Shah Suri.[1]
60 1555 22 May BS Humayun regained the throne of Delhi from the hands of weak successors of Sher Shah.[1]
61 1556 5 Nov BS The Second Battle of Panipat (5 November 1556) was fought on 5 November 1556, between the Hindu emperor of north India, Hemu, and the forces of the Mughal emperor Akbar. Hemu had conquered the states of Delhi and Agra a few weeks earlier by defeating the Mughals led by Tardi Beg Khan at the Battle of Delhi and proclaimed himself Raja Vikramaditya at a coronation in Purana Quila in Delhi. Akbar and his guardian Bairam Khan who, after learning of the loss of Agra and Delhi, marched to Panipat to reclaim the lost territories. The two armies clashed at Panipat not far from the site of the First Battle of Panipat of 1526.

Hemu and his forces held the numerical superiority. However, Hemu was wounded by an arrow in the middle of the battle and fell unconscious. Seeing their leader going down, his army panicked and dispersed. Unconscious and almost dead, Hemu was captured and subsequently beheaded by Bairam Khan. The battle ended in a decisive Mughal victory.

62 1556 E Humayun converts from Sunni Islam to Shia Islam, to gain the alliance of the Shah of Persia. Humayun dies, and is succeeded by his son Akbar.[1]

Akbar (1542-1605), grandson of Babur, becomes third Mughal Emperor at age 13. Disestablishes Islam as state religion and declares himself impartial ruler of Hindus and Muslims; encourages art, culture, religious tolerance.[2]

63 1559 1606 BS List of battles of Rajasthan#During the Mughal Empire:
  • Battle of Ajmer (1559) – Akbar's general Qasim Khan annexed Ajmer from Maldeo Rathore.[8]
  • Battle of Merta (1562) – Akbar with the help of Rajas from Bikaner and Amer defeated Rao Chandra Sen and captured Merta.
  • First Mughal Invasion of Marwar (1562–1583) – Akbar invaded Marwar and occupied Jodhpur. The ruler Rao Chandra Sen continued his struggle until his death in 1581 after which Marwar submitted to Mughal rule in 1583.[9]
  • Siege of Chittorgarh (1567) – Akbar defeated Rao Jaimal and Patta (Rajasthan) (Udai Singh II escaped with his family to Udaipur)
  • Siege of Ranthambore (1568) – A successful siege by Akbar causes the Rajput leader Rao Surjan Hada to surrender Ranthambore Fort.
  • Siege of Siwana (1572) – In 1572 the powerful fort of Siwana which served as Rao Chandrasens capital was captured by the Mughals after a siege of 8 months.[10]
  • Battle of Haldighati (1576) – Maharana Pratap defeated by Akbar.
  • Battle of Dewair (1582) – Maharana Pratap fought against Akbar's Mughals army and defeated them 36,000 mughals surrendered.
  • Battle of Dewair (1606) – Fought in a valley 40 km from Kumbalgarh. Rana Amar Singh defeated and killed Sultan Khan, the Mughal prince Muhammad Parviz fled from the battlefield with his commander Asaf Khan.[11][12]
64 1565 23 Jan BS The Battle of Talikota (23 January 1565) was a watershed battle fought between the Vijayanagara Empire and an alliance of the Deccan sultanates.[13] The defeat of Aliya Rama Raya led to the eventual collapse of the polity and reconfigured Deccan politics.[13]

Rama Raya, after his installation of a patrimonial state and emerging as the ruler, adopted a political strategy of benefiting from the internecine warfare among the multiple successors of the Bahmani Sultanate, and it worked well for about twenty years of his reign.[13][14][15]

Kalyan was the capital of the Chalukyas. Rama Raya sought to control the territory in his bid to gain popular legitimacy by establishing himself as the true heir to Chalukya sovereignty and glory. Other examples included retrofitting of decayed Chalukya complexes and bringing back Chalukya festivals.

However, after a series of aggressive efforts to maintain hold over Kalyan[16] and diplomatic dealings with the Sultanates laden with insulting gestures, the four Muslim Sultanates – Hussain Nizam Shah I and Ali Adil Shah I of Ahmadnagar and Bijapur to the west, Ali Barid Shah I of Bidar in the center, and Ibrahim Quli Qutb Shah Wali of Golkonda to the east – united in the wake of shrewd marital diplomacy and convened to attack Aliya Rama Raya, in late January 1565.[13]

The surviving Vijaynagar forces fled with a large treasury to re-establish their headquarters at Vellore Fort in Tamil Nadu and Chandragiri (Andhra Pradesh) near Tirupathi. It would be here that the British would seek a land grant to establish the English East India Company Fort St. George in Madras.

65 1568 R Paradesi Synagogue, the first Jewish synagogue in India constructed by the Paradesi Jews.[1]
66 1569 BS Akbar captures fortress of Ranthambor, ending Rajput independence. Soon controls nearly all of Rajasthan.[2]
67 1572 BS Akbar annexes Gujarat, also shifts the Mughal capital to Fatehpur Sikri where a new township and citadel containing buildings of a unique all-India character—inspired by the architecture of Bengal, Gujarat, Malwa, Kashmir as well as the Timurid world—is born.[1]
68 1574 1 Sep R Guru Ram Das becomes fourth Guru of Sikhs.[1]
69 1574 BS Akbar annexes Bengal.[1]
70 1581 1 Sep R Guru Arjan Dev becomes fifth Guru of Sikhs.[1]
71 1581 R The Golden Temple:

Groundbreaking – December 1581

Completed – 1589 (Temple), 1604 (with Adi Granth)

The Golden Temple, also known as Harmandir Sahib, meaning "abode of God" or Darbār Sahib, meaning "exalted court", is a gurdwara located in the city of Amritsar, Punjab, India.[17][18] It is the preeminent spiritual site of Sikhism.[17][19]

The gurdwara is built around a man-made pool (sarovar) that was completed by the fourth Sikh Guru, Guru Ram Das in 1577.[20][21] Guru Arjan, the fifth Guru of Sikhism, requested Sai Mir Mian Mohammed, a Muslim Pir of Lahore, to lay its foundation stone in 1589.[22] In 1604, Guru Arjan placed a copy of the Adi Granth in Harmandir Sahib.[17][23] The Gurdwara was repeatedly rebuilt by the Sikhs after it became a target of persecution and was destroyed several times by the Mughal and invading Afghan armies.[17][19]

Maharaja Ranjit Singh after founding the Sikh Empire, rebuilt it in marble and copper in 1809, overlaid the sanctum with Gold foil in 1830. This has led to the name the Golden Temple.[24][25][26]

72 1582 BS Maharana Pratap defeats Mughal Forces of Akbar in Battle of Dewair in present-day Rajasthan[27][1]
73 1586 6 Oct BS Akbar annexes Kashmir.[1]
74 1588 BE In 1588 the English fleet defeats the Spanish Armada and establishes the superiority of English ships and seamanship. England is now ready to enter the race for overseas trade and possessions[28].
75 1588 BE Soon after the defeat of the Spanish Armada in 1588, London merchants presented a petition to Queen Elizabeth I for permission to sail to the Indian Ocean[29]. Permission was granted and in 1591, three ships sailed from Torbay around the Cape of Good Hope to the Arabian Sea on one of the earliest English overseas Indian expeditions. In 1596, three more ships sailed east but were all lost at sea. In 1599, another group of merchants that eventually became known as the Adventurers[30] stated their intention to sail to the East Indies and applied to the Queen for support of the project. Although their first attempt had not been completely successful, they nonetheless sought the Queen’s unofficial approval to continue, bought ships for their venture, and increased their capital.

East India Company#Formation:

The Adventurers[30] convened again a year later. This time they succeeded and on December 31, 1600, the Queen granted a Royal charter to “George, Earl of Cumberland, and 215 Knights, Aldermen, and Burgesses” under the name "Governor and Company of Merchants of London trading with the East Indies"[31]. For 15 years the charter awarded the newly formed company a monopoly on trade with all countries east of the Cape of Good Hope and west of the Straits of Magellan. Anybody who traded in breach of the charter without a license from the Company was liable to forfeiture of their ships and cargo (half of which went to the Crown and the other half to the Company), as well as imprisonment at the “royal pleasure.”

76 1589 E Akbar rules half of India, shows tolerance for all faiths.[2]
77 1595 R Construction is begun on Chidambaram Temple's Hall of a Thousand Pillars in South India, completed in 1685.[2]
78 1595 R Sri Raghavendra Tirtha (1595 – 1671) was a Hindu scholar, theologian and saint. He was also known as Sudha Parimalacharya. His diverse oeuvre include commentaries on the works of Madhva, Jayatirtha and Vyasatirtha, interpretation of the Principal Upanishads from the standpoint of Dvaita and a treatise on Purva Mimamsa. He served as the pontiff of matha at Kumbakonam from 1624 to 1671.[32] Sri Raghavendra swamy was also an accomplished player of the Veena and he composed several songs under the name of Venu Gopala.[33] His shrine at Mantralayam attracts thousands of visitors every year.
79 1599 Co The Governor and Company of Merchants of London trading with the East Indies[31], became much more widely known as the East India Company.

The Company’s charter was a unique case in which colonial power was wielded entirely by a private corporation under license from the British government. It expanded from a few small settlements, eliminated its competitors, among them the Dutch and French, and gradually extended its control until it commanded the entire subcontinent.

The company initially devoted its energy exclusively to expanding its trading influence, but over time it resorted more and more often to military force to achieve its objectives, sometimes, but by no means always, in an attempt to bring peace to the country.

In the aftermath of the Indian Rebellion of 1857, the Company was dissolved and the British Indian Empire began. It was this period that became known as the British Raj, but over time the term has been more generally applied to the entire colonial period. Later, in 1876, Queen Victoria assumed the title of Empress of India. This status remained until India won its independence in 1947, and was partitioned.

80 1600 E "Persian wheel" to lift water by oxen is adopted, one of few farming innovations since Indus Valley civilization.[2]
81 1600 1947 Dy Dynasties in India during the period 1600 ~ 1947, (List of Indian monarchs):
  • Barid Shahi dynasty (1489–1619)
  • Adil Shahi dynasty (1490–1686)
  • Nizam Shahi dynasty (1490–1636)
  • Qutb Shahi dynasty (1518–1687)
  • Ahom dynasty of Assam (1228–1826)
  • Manikya dynasty (c. 1400–1949)
  • Baro-Bhuyan (1576–1632)
  • Vijayanagara Empire (1336–1646)
  • Gatti Mudalis (15th–17th century)
  • Mysore, Wodeyar dynasty (first rule, 1371–1761)
  • Mysore, Hyder Ali's dynasty (1761–1799)
  • Mysore, Wodeyar dynasty (second rule, 1799–1950)
  • Maharajas of Cochin (1503–1964)
  • Mughal Empire (1526–1857)
  • Sisodia (728–1947)
  • Chogyal rulers of Sikkim and Ladakh (1642–1975)
82 1600 1947 Dy Dynasties in India during the period 1600 ~ 1947, (List of Indian monarchs):
  • Maratha Empire (1674–1818)
– Chattrapati Shivaji Maharaj era
– Bhosale Chhatrapatis at Kolhapur (1700–1947)
– Bhosale Chhatrapatis at Satara (1707–1839)
– The Peshwas (1713–1858)
– Bhosale Maharajas of Thanjavur (?–1799)
– Bhosale Maharajas of Nagpur (1799–1881)
– Holkar rulers of Indore (1731–1948)
– Scindia of Gwalior (1731–1947)
– Gaekwad dynasty of Baroda (1721–1947)
83 1600 1947 Dy Dynasties in India during the period 1600 ~ 1947, (List of Indian monarchs):
  • The Muslim vassals of the Mughal / British Paramountcy (1707–1856)
– Nawabs of Bengal (1707–1770)
– Nawabs of Oudh (1719–1858)
– Nizams of Hyderabad (1720–1948)
84 1600 1947 Dy Dynasties in India during the period 1600 ~ 1947, (List of Indian monarchs):
  • Kingdom of Travancore (1729–1949)
  • Sikh Empire (1801–1849)
85 1600 1947 Dy Hindu Dynasties in India during the period 1600 ~ 1947, (List of Hindu empires and dynasties):

(Note: Kingdoms that acted as princely states to the British Empire are not mentioned except for the time period when they exercised sovereign control.)

  • Nagvanshi Dynasty (83–1952)
  • Mallabhum Kingdom (694–1800)
  • Limbuwan (7th century −1774)
  • Chero dynasty (12–18 century)
  • Sutiya Kingdom (1187–1673)
  • Malla Dynasty (1200–1768)
  • Ahom kingdom (1228–1826)
  • Sena Dynasty (13–18 century)
  • Vijayanagara Empire (1336–1646)
  • Kallala dynasty (1404–1789)
86 1600 1947 Dy Hindu Dynasties in India during the period 1600 ~ 1947, (List of Hindu empires and dynasties):

(Note: Kingdoms that acted as princely states to the British Empire are not mentioned except for the time period when they exercised sovereign control.)

  • Koch dynasty (1515–1949)
  • Madurai Nayak dynasty (1529–1736)
  • Thanjavur Nayak kingdom (1532–1673)
  • Gorkha Kingdom, Nepal (1559–1768)
  • Raj Darbhanga (1577–1947)
  • Maratha Empire (1674–1818)
  • Pudukkottai Kingdom (1680–1800)
  • Sivaganga Kingdom (1725–1733)
  • Kingdom of Nepal (1768–2008)
  • Dogra dynasty (1846–1952)
87 1600 1947 Dy George VI, (Albert Frederick Arthur George; 14 December 1895 – 6 February 1952) was King of the United Kingdom and the Dominions of the British Commonwealth from 11 December 1936 until his death in 1952. He was concurrently the last emperor of India until August 1947, when the British Raj was dissolved.

He retained the title "Emperor of India" until 22 June 1948.

88 1600 BE 31 December 1600 British Royal charter forms East India Company, beginning the process that will lead to the subjugation of India under British rule[28][29].

Queen Elizabeth I granted a charter to the East India Company establishing trading posts in cities across India.

89 1602 1664 Dy Shahaji Bhosale (c. 1602–1664) was a military leader of 17th century India, who served the Ahmadnagar Sultanate, the Bijapur Sultanate, and the Mughal Empire at various points in his career. A member of the Bhonsle clan, Shahaji inherited the Pune and Supe jagirs (fiefs) from his father Maloji, who served Ahmadnagar. During the Mughal invasion of Deccan, he joined the Mughal forces and served Emperor Shah Jahan for a brief period. After being deprived of his jagirs, he defected to the Bijapur Sultanate in 1632 and regained control over Pune and Supe. In 1638, he also received the jagir of Bangalore, after Bijapur's invasion of Kempe Gowda III's territories. He eventually became the chief general of Bijapur and oversaw its expansion.[34] His father died in a battle while fighting on the side of Nizamashah, hence he and his brother Sharifji were raised by Maloji's brother, Vithoji Raje.

An early exponent of guerrilla warfare, he brought the house of Bhosale into prominence. He was father of Shivaji, the founder of Maratha Empire. The princely states of Tanjore, Kolhapur, and Satara are also Bhosale legacies.

90 1603 1607 BE Elizabeth I’s successor is James VI and I, King of Scotland. After succeeding to the throne in 1603 he lays plans to colonize North America. The first permanent English settlement on the continent is Jamestown Colony, Virginia, founded in 1607.[28]
91 1605 1825 Co Dutch Colonization (Dutch India):

Dutch India consisted of the settlements and trading posts of the Dutch East India Company on the Indian subcontinent. It is only used as a geographical definition, as there was never a political authority ruling all Dutch India. Instead, Dutch India was divided into the governorates Dutch Ceylon and Dutch Coromandel, the commandment Dutch Malabar, and the directorates Dutch Bengal and Dutch Suratte.

The Dutch Indies, on the other hand, were the Dutch East Indies (present-day Indonesia) and the Dutch West Indies (present-day Suriname and the former Netherlands Antilles).

92 1605 1825 Co Dutch Colonization (Dutch India):

In the second half of the eighteenth century the Dutch lost their influence more and more. The Kew Letters relinquished all Dutch colonies to the British, to prevent them from being overrun by the French. In the famous Battle of Colachel (1741), Travancore king Marthanda Varma's army defeated the Dutch East India Company, resulting in the complete eclipse of Dutch power in Malabar. Although Dutch Coromandel and Dutch Bengal were restored to Dutch rule by virtue of the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1814, they returned to British rule owing to the provisions of the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824. Under the terms of the treaty, all transfers of property and establishments were to take place on 1 March 1825. By the middle of 1825, therefore, the Dutch had lost their last trading posts in India.

93 1605 27 Oct E Akbar dies, and is succeeded by his son Jahangir.[1]
94 1606 25 May R Guru Hargobind becomes sixth guru of Sikhs.[1]
95 1608 P In 1608, Mughal authorities allowed the English East India Company to establish a small trading settlement at Surat (now in the state of Gujarat), and this became the company's first headquarters town.
96 1611 P It was followed in 1611 by a permanent factory at Machilipatnam on the Coromandel Coast, and in 1612 the company joined other already established European trading companies in Bengal in trade.[35]

"Factory (trading post)" (from Latin facere, meaning "to do"; Portuguese: feitoria; Dutch: factorij; French: factorerie, comptoir) was the common name during the medieval and early modern eras for an entrepôt – which was essentially an early form of free-trade zone or transshipment point. At a factory, local inhabitants could interact with foreign merchants, often known as factors.[36] First established in Europe, factories eventually spread to many other parts of the world.

The factories established by European states in Africa, Asia and the Americas from the 15th century onward also tended to be official political dependencies of those states. These have been seen, in retrospect, as the precursors of colonial expansion.

97 1612 1757 Co British East India Company:

The East India Company (EIC) was an English and later British joint-stock company founded in 1600.[37] It was formed to trade in the Indian Ocean region, initially with the East Indies (the Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia), and later with Qing China. The company seized control of large parts of the Indian subcontinent, colonised parts of Southeast Asia and Hong Kong after the First Opium War, and maintained trading posts and colonies in the Persian Gulf Residencies.[38]

The company is also known as the Honourable East India Company (HEIC), East India Trading Company (EITC), the English East India Company or (after 1707) the British East India Company, and informally known as John Company,[39] Company Bahadur,[40] or simply The Company.

Originally chartered as the "Governor and Company of Merchants of London Trading into the East-Indies",[41][42] the company rose to account for half of the world's trade during the mid-1700s and early 1800s,[43] particularly in basic commodities including cotton, silk, indigo dye, sugar, salt, spices, saltpetre, tea, and opium. The company also ruled the beginnings of the British Empire in India.[43][44]

98 1612 P Britain begins presence when East India Company began to open trading posts in the north.

The British East India Company — the Company that Owned a Nation (or Two)[45]:

The East India Company is, or rather was, an anomaly without a parallel in the history of the world. It originated from sub-scriptions, trifling in amount, of a few private individuals. It gradually became a commercial body with gigantic resources, and by the force of unforeseen circumstances assumed the form of a sovereign power, while those by whom its affairs were directed continued, in their individual capacities, to be without power or political influence. — Bentley's Miscellany 43 (1858).

It is a cliché that the Company was a foreign force that imposed itself on Indians, and using its corporate power established an evil rule. The problem with that argument is that many wealthy and influential Indians wanted the Company’s rule. Most Bengalis of the time would not even have seen the British as any more foreign than was the Persian-speaking Nawab. Of course, corporate power helped the Company. But this organization was nothing without Indian help. Its trading operation could never have survived without the collaboration and partnership of thousands of Indian merchants, agents, artisans, bankers and transporters. The Company was the biggest business firm in the world of its time. Some of the most famous entrepreneurs and business families of nineteenth-century India made their money trading with the Company or with European merchants. The Indian merchants and intellectuals of the port cities almost unanimously welcomed company rule. That support — and not Robert Clive’s plunder — helped the British power survive in India. —Tirthankar Roy.

99 1612 P The British East India Company — the Company that Owned a Nation (or Two)[45]:

One of the strangest parts of the history of the British Empire involves that commercial venture generally known as the East India Company, though its original name when founded by royal charter on the very last day of 1600 was the Governor and Company of Merchants of London Trading into the East Indies. As its name suggests, the company was the enterprise of London businessmen who banded together to make money importing spices from South Asia. For centuries the valuable spice trade with the East Indies (as they were long known) relied on land routes across Asia and the Middle East, but by the sixteenth century, the superior navigational technology and skills of the Portuguese for the first time permitted Europeans to cut out intermediaries and hence make themselves far greater profits. The Spanish and Portuguese had a monopoly of the East Indies spice trade until destruction of the Spanish Armada in 1588, which permitted the British and Dutch to seek their share of this wealthy import business.

The company with the long name first entered the spice trade in the form of an old-fashioned or early capitalist venture, essentially conducting each voyage as a separate business venture with its own subsribers or stock-holders. This approach lasted for a dozen years, and then in 1612 the company switched to temporary joint stocks and finally to permanent joint stocks in 1657. Supposedly a monopoly, the company evenentually faced competition from another group of English investors and merchants, and the two merged in 1708 as the United Company of Merchants of England Trading to the [[East Indies].

According to the Encyclopedia Britannica, The company met with opposition from the Dutch in the Dutch East Indies (now Indonesia) and the Portuguese. The Dutch virtually excluded company members from the East Indies after the Amboina Massacre in 1623 (an incident in which English, Japanese, and Portuguese traders were executed by Dutch authorities), but the company's defeat of the Portuguese in India (1612) won them trading concessions from the Mughal Empire. The company settled down to a trade in cotton and silk piece goods, indigo, and saltpetre, with spices from South India. It extended its activities to the Persian Gulf, Southeast Asia, and East Asia.

100 1612 P The British East India Company — the Company that Owned a Nation (or Two)[45]:

English traders frequently engaged in hostilities with their Dutch and Portuguese counterparts in the Indian Ocean. The Company decided to gain a territorial foothold in mainland India with official sanction from both Britain and the Mughal Empire[29].

The requested diplomatic mission launched by James VI and I in 1612 arranged for a commercial treaty that would give the Company exclusive rights to reside and establish factories in Surat and other areas. While Portuguese and Spanish influences in the region were soon eliminated, competition against the Dutch resulted in the Anglo-Dutch Wars of the 17th and 18th centuries.

101 1612 P The British East India Company — the Company that Owned a Nation (or Two)[45]:

The company's encounters with foreign competitors eventually required it to assemble its own military and administrative departments, thereby becoming an imperial power in its own right, though the British government began to reign it in by the late eighteenth century[29]. Before Parliament created a government-controlled policy-making body with the Regulating Act of 1773 and the India Act eleven years later, shareholders' meetings made decisions about Britain's de facto colonies in the East. The British government took away the Company's monopoly in 1813, and after 1834 it worked as the government's agency until the 1857 India Mutiny when the Colonial Office took full control. The East India Company went out of existence in 1873.

During its heyday, the East India Company not only established trade through Asia and the Middle East but also effectively became of the ruler of territories vastly larger than the United Kingdom itself. In addition, it also created, rather than conquered, colonies. Singapore, for example, was an island with very few Malay inhabitants in 1819 when Sir Stamford Raffles purchased it for the Company from their ruler, the Sultan of Johor, and created what eventually became one of the world's greatest trans-shipment ports.

102 1612 Pr Presidencies, Provinces, Princely States, (Presidencies and provinces of British India):

The Provinces of India, earlier Presidencies of British India and still earlier, Presidency towns, were the administrative divisions of British governance in India. Collectively, they have been called British India. In one form or another, they existed between 1612 and 1947, conventionally divided into three historical periods –

  • 1612 and 1757 – East India Company
  • 1757 and 1858 – Company Rule
  • 1858 and 1947 – British Raj

In this sense, "British India" did not include the princely states directly ruled by Indian princes, though under a close eye from the British authorities.

103 1612 1757 Pr Presidencies, Provinces, Princely States, (Presidencies and provinces of British India):

Between 1612 and 1757 the East India Company set up "factories" (trading posts) in several locations, mostly in coastal India, with the consent of the Mughal emperors, Maratha empire or local rulers. Its rivals were the merchant trading companies of Portugal, Denmark, the Netherlands, and France. By the mid-18th century three Presidency towns: Madras, Bombay and Calcutta, had grown in size.

104 1613 P 1613 – 1614

Sir William Hawkins:

British East India Company sets up factory in Masulipatnam and trading post in Surat under Willian Hawkins.

William Hawkins (fl. c. 1600) was a representative of the English East India Company notable for being the commander of Hector, the first company ship to anchor at Surat in India on 24 August 1608. Hawkins travelled to Agra to negotiate consent for a factory from Emperor Jahangir in 1609.[46]

Thomas Roe#Ambassador to the Mughal Empire:

Sir Thomas Roe presents his credentials as ambassador of King James I to the Mughal Emperor Jahangir.

The East India Company persuaded King James I to send Roe as a royal envoy to the Agra court of the Great Mughal Emperor, Jahangir.[47] Roe resided at Agra for three years, until 1619. At the Mughal court, Roe allegedly became a favourite of Jahangir and may have been his drinking partner; certainly he arrived with gifts of "many crates of red wine"[47]:16 and explained to him "What beere was? How made?".[47]:17

The immediate result of the mission was to obtain permission and protection for an East India Company factory at Surat. While no major trading privileges were conceded by Jahingir, "Roe's mission was the beginning of a Mughal-Company relationship that would develop into something approaching a partnership and see the EIC gradually drawn into the Mughal nexus".[47]:19

While Roe's detailed journals[48] are a valuable source of information on Jahangir's reign, the Emperor did not return the favour, with no mention of Roe in his own voluminous diaries.[47]:19

105 1615 Co French India#History:

The first French commercial venture to India is believed to have taken place in the first half of the 16th century, in the reign of King Francis I, when two ships were fitted out by some merchants of Rouen to trade in eastern seas; they sailed from Le Havre and were never heard of again.

In 1604 a company was granted letters patent by King Henry IV, but the project failed. Fresh letters patent were issued in 1615, and two ships went to India, only one returning.

106 1615 P 1615 – 1618 Mughals grant Britain the right to trade and establish factories[49].

The tenth year of the reign of Jahangir was rendered memorable by the arrival of Sir Thomas Roe, as ambassador from James, the king of England, to solicit privileges for the East India Company, then recently established. He landed at Surat, and proceeded by slow journeys to the court, then held at Ajmere, where he was received with greater distinction than had been conferred on any foreign envoy.

Thomas Roe was fascinated by the oriental magnificence of the court, which so completely eclipsed the tinsel pomp of that of his own master. He was dazzled with the profusion of gold and jewels on every side, and, not least, with those which adorned the foreheads of the royal elephants. The emperor dispensed justice daily in person; but he retired in the evening to his cups, which he never left while there was any reason left in him. He was maudlin and easy, and his courtiers were universally corrupt and unprincipled. Military discipline had decayed after the death of Akbar, and the only good soldiers in the army were the Rajpoots and the Afghans.

There was a large influx of Europeans at the capital, and so greatly was Christianity encouraged, that one of the emperor’s nephews had embraced it, and the Emperor himself had an image of Christ and the Virgin in his rosary.

107 1616 BS Susenghphaa, ruler of the Ahom kingdom defeats Mughal forces in a land and naval battle at Bharali, Assam.[50][1]
108 1619 E Jaffna kingdom is annexed and Sri Lanka's ruling dynasty deposed by Portuguese Catholics who, between 1505 and 1658, destroy most of the island's Hindu temples.[2]
109 1620 1869 Co Danish Colonization (Danish India):

Danish India was the name given to the colonies of Denmark (Denmark–Norway before 1814) in India, forming part of the Danish colonial empire. Denmark–Norway held colonial possessions in India for more than 200 years, including the town of Tharangambadi in present-day Tamil Nadu state, Serampore in present-day West Bengal, and the Nicobar Islands, currently part of India's union territory of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. The Danish and Norwegian presence in India was of little significance to the major European powers as they presented neither a military nor a mercantile threat.[51] Dano-Norwegian ventures in India, as elsewhere, were typically undercapitalised and never able to dominate or monopolise trade routes in the same way that British, French, and Portuguese ventures could.[52][53]

110 1620 Co Danish Colonization (Danish India):

Danish trade director, Robert Crappe and 13 of his crew escaped a ship wreck, making it to shore where they were captured by Indians and taken to the Nayak of Tanjore (now Thanjavur in Tamil Nadu). The Nayak (Raghunatha Nayak) turned out to be interested in trading opportunities, and Crappe negotiated a treaty granting them the village of Tranquebar (or Tharangamabadi),[54] the right to construct a "stone house" (Fort Dansborg), and permission to levy taxes.[55] This was signed as treaty of 19 November 1620.[56]

In Tranquebar they established Dansborg and installed Captain Crappe as the first governor (opperhoved) of Danish India.[57] The treaty was renewed on 30 July 1621, and afterwards renewed and confirmed on the 10 May 1676, by Shivaji the founder of the Maratha Empire.[56]

111 1620 Co Danish Colonization (Danish India):

Fort Dansborg (Danish: Dansborg), locally called Danish Fort (Tamil: டேனியக் கோட்டை, romanized: Ṭēṉiyak kōṭṭai), is a Danish fort located in the shores of Bay of Bengal in Tranquebar (Tharangambadi) in the South Indian state of Tamil Nadu. Fort Dansborg was built in the land ceded by Thanjavur king Ragunatha Nayak in an agreement with Danish Admiral Ove Gjedde in 1620 and acted as the base for Danish settlement in the region during the early 17th century. The fort is the second largest Danish fort after Kronborg.

The fort was sold to the British in 1845 and along with Tranquebar, the fort lost its significance as the town was not an active trading post for the British.

112 1625 Co Danish Colonization (Danish India):

By 1625 a factory had been established at Masulipatnam (present-day Krishna district of Andhra Pradesh), the most important emporium in the region. Lesser trading offices were established at Pipli and Balasore. Despite this, by 1627 the colony was in such a poor financial state that it had just three ships left and was unable to pay the agreed-upon tribute to the Nayak, increasing local tensions. The Danish-Norwegian presence was also unwanted by English and Dutch traders who believed them to be operating under the protection of their navies without bearing any of the costs. Despite this, they could not crush Danish-Norwegian trade, due to diplomatic implications related to their respective nations' involvement in the European wars.[58]

113 1627 28 Oct E Jahangir announces "Chain of Justice" outside his palace that anyone can ring the bell and get a personal hearing with the emperor.

Jahangir's constitution was completely exhausted by a life of indulgence, and expired in Lahore on the 28th of October, 1627, in the sixtieth year of his age[49].

He was contemporary with James I the First of England. Not only was their reign of the same duration, but there was a remarkable accordance in their characters. They were both equally weak and contemptible, both the slaves of favourites and of drink, and, by a singular coincidence, they both launched a royal decree against the use of tobacco, then recently introduced into England and India, and, in both cases, with the same degree of success.

114 1628 1633 Co Portuguese East India Company:

The Portuguese East India Company (Portuguese: Companhia do commércio da Índia or Companhia da Índia Oriental) was a short-lived ill-fated attempt by Philip III of Portugal to create a national chartered company to ensure the security of Portuguese interests in India in the face of increasing influence by the Dutch and English following the personal union of the Portuguese and Spanish Crowns.

115 1630 E Over the next two years, millions starve to death as Shah Jahan (1592-1666), fifth Mughal Emperor, empties the royal treasury to buy jewels for his "Peacock Throne".[2]
116 1630 6 Aug E Life of Sivaji, valiant general and tolerant founder of Hindu Maratha Empire (1674-1818). Emancipates large areas confiscated by Muslims, returning them to Hindu control. First Indian ruler to build a major naval force.[2]

Shivaji Bhonsale I (19 February 1630 – 3 April 1680[59]), also referred to as Chhatrapati Shivaji, was an Indian ruler and a member of the Bhonsle Maratha clan. Shivaji carved out an enclave from the declining Adilshahi sultanate of Bijapur that formed the genesis of the Maratha Empire. In 1674, he was formally crowned the Chhatrapati (emperor) of his realm at Raigad.

Over the course of his life, Shivaji engaged in both alliances and hostilities with the Mughal Empire, the Sultanate of Golkonda and the Sultanate of Bijapur, as well as with European colonial powers. Shivaji's military forces expanded the Maratha sphere of influence, capturing and building forts, and forming a Maratha navy. Shivaji established a competent and progressive civil rule with well-structured administrative organisations. He revived ancient Hindu political traditions and court conventions and promoted the usage of the Marathi language.

Shivaji's legacy was to vary by observer and time, but nearly two centuries after his death, he began to take on increased importance with the emergence of the Indian independence movement, as many Indian nationalists elevated him as a proto-nationalist and hero of the Hindus.[60]

117 1639 T Fort St. George, India (or historically, White Town[61]) is the first English (later British) fortress in India, founded in 1639[62] at the coastal city of Madras, the modern city of Chennai. The construction of the fort provided the impetus for further settlements and trading activity, in what was originally an uninhabited land.[63] Thus, it is a feasible contention to say that the city evolved around the fortress.[64]

The East India Company (EIC), which had entered India around 1600 for trading activities, had begun licensed trading at Surat, which was its initial bastion. However, to secure its trade lines and commercial interests in the spice trade, it felt the necessity of a port closer to the Malaccan Straits, and succeeded in purchasing a piece of coastal land, originally called Chennirayarpattinam or Channapatnam, where the Company began the construction of a harbour and a fort. The fort was completed on 23 April 1644 at a cost of £3,000,[65] coinciding with St George's Day, celebrated in honour of the patron saint of England. The fort, hence christened Fort St George, faced the sea and some fishing villages, and it soon became the hub of merchant activity. It gave birth to a new settlement area called George Town (historically referred to as Black Town), which grew to envelop the villages and led to the formation of the city of Madras. It also helped to establish English influence over the Carnatic and to keep the kings of Arcot and Srirangapatna, as well as the French forces based at Pondichéry, at bay. In 1665, after the EIC received word of the formation of the new French East India Company, the fort was strengthened and enlarged while its garrison was increased.[66]

118 1640 BS Rani Karnavati of the Garhwal Kingdom repels and defeats invasion attempt by Mughal army of Shah Jahan.[67][1]

Though King Mahipati Shah died young in 1631,[68] after his death his Rani Karnavati, ruled the kingdom on the behalf of her very young seven-year-old son, Prithvipati Shah. She ruled over for many years to come, during which she successfully defend the kingdom against invaders and repelled an attack of Mughal army of Shah Jahan led by Najabat Khan in 1640, over the time she earned the nickname 'Nakti Rani' (Nak-Kati-Rani) as she had the habit of cutting the noses of the invaders, as the Mughal invaders of the period realised.[69]

119 1640 Co Danish Colonization (Danish India#Dutch influence (1640-1649)):

Denmark-Norway attempt to sell Fort Dansborg to the Dutch for a second time.

120 1640 1948 Pr Arni Jagir was a Jagir and a permanently settled zamindari estate that existed in the North Arcot subdivision of the North Arcot district of the erstwhile Madras Presidency in British India from 1640 to 1948.[70][71]

Arni jagir was granted to Vedaji Bhaskar Rao Pant by the Shahaji in 1640. Shivaji having failed in his negotiation, Sultanate of Bijapur took Arni and various other forts, and forcibly occupied the whole of Shahji's jagir in the Mysore.[72] The Jagir of Arni was again granted as a gift to Vedaji Bhaskar pant by the Sultanate of Bijapur.[73]

After the Battle of Arnee, a treaty was signed in 1762 between the Nawab of Arcot and Pratap Singh, Rajah of Tanjore. This was guaranteed by the Government of Fort St. George and confirmed by the East India Company. This once again restored and confirmed the Jagir to Thirumala I Rao Sahib under the 5th Article of the Treaty.[74]

121 1642 Co Danish Colonization (Danish India#Dutch influence (1640-1649)):

Danish-Norway colony declares war on Mughal Empire and commences raiding ships in the Bay of Bengal. Within a few months they had captured one of the Mogul emperor's vessels, incorporated it into their fleet (renamed Bengali Prize) and sold the goods in Tranquebar for a substantial profit.

122 1643 Co Danish Colonization (Danish India#Dutch influence (1640-1649)):

Willem Leyel, designated the new leader of the colony by the company directors in Copenhagen arrives aboard the Christianshavn.[75] Holland and Sweden declare war on Denmark-Norway.

123 1644 E Shivaji takes oath of Independence at Raireshwar.[1]
124 1644 8 Mar R Guru Har Rai becomes seventh guru of Sikhs.[1]
125 1645 Co Danish Colonization (Danish India#Dutch influence (1640-1649)):

Danish-Norway factory holdings fall increasingly under Dutch control. The Nayak of Tanjore sends small bands to raid Tranquebar.

126 1647 Co British Colonization – Expansion:[76]

The Company, which benefited from the imperial patronage, soon expanded its commercial trading operations, eclipsing the Portuguese Estado da Índia, which had established bases in Goa, Chittagong, and Bombay. Portugal later ceded this land to England as part of the dowry of Catherine de Braganza, King Charles II’s wife. The East India Company (EIC) also launched a joint attack with the Dutch United East India Company on Portuguese and Spanish ships off the coast of China, which helped secure their ports in China. By 1647, the company had 23 factories and 90 employees in India. The major factories became the walled forts of Fort William in Bengal, Fort St George in Madras, and Bombay Castle. With reduced Portuguese and Spanish influence in the region, the EIC and Dutch East India Company entered a period of intense competition, resulting in the Anglo-Dutch Wars of the 17th and 18th centuries.

127 1647 E Shah Jahan completes Taj Mahal in Agra beside Yamuna River. Its construction has taken 20,000 laborers 15 years, at a total cost equivalence of US$25 million.[2]
128 1648 Co Danish Colonization (Danish India#Dutch influence (1640-1649)):

Christian IV, patron of the colony, dies. Danish East India Company bankrupt.

129 1650 Co Danish Colonization (Danish India#Abandonment and isolation (1650–1669)):

Although the company had been abolished, the colony was a royal property and still held by a garrison unaware of court developments back at home. As the number of Danes-Norwegians declined through desertions and illness, Portuguese and Portuguese-Indian natives were hired to garrison the fort until eventually, by 1655, Eskild Anderson Kongsbakke[77] was the commander and sole remaining Dane in Tranquebar.[78]

130 1650 R Roberto de Nobili (1577-1656), Portuguese Jesuit missionary noted for fervor and intolerance, arrives in Madurai, declares himself a brahmin, dresses like a Hindu monk and composes Veda-like scripture extolling Jesus.[2]
131 1651 BE Navigation Acts#Navigation Act 1651:

The great Navigation Act is passed[79]. This and other Navigation Acts eventually create a closed economy between Britain and its colonies. All colonial exports have to be shipped on English ships to the British market, and all colonial imports have to come by way of England[28].

The Navigation Act 1651, long titled An Act for increase of Shipping, and Encouragement of the Navigation of this Nation, was passed on 9 October 1651[80] by the Rump Parliament led by Oliver Cromwell. It authorized the Commonwealth to regulate England's international trade, as well as the trade with its colonies.[81] It reinforced long-standing principles of national policy that English trade and fisheries should be carried in English vessels.

The Act banned foreign ships from transporting goods from Asia, Africa or America to England or its colonies; only ships with an English owner, master and a majority English crew would be accepted. It allowed European ships to import their own products, but banned foreign ships from transporting goods to England from a third country elsewhere in the European sphere. The Act also prohibited the import and export of salted fish in foreign ships, and penalized foreign ships carrying fish and wares between English posts. Breaking the terms of the act would result in the forfeiture of the ship and its cargo.[82] These rules specifically targeted the Dutch, who controlled much of Europe's international trade and even much of England's coastal shipping. It excluded the Dutch from essentially all direct trade with England, as the Dutch economy was competitive with, not complementary to the English, and the two countries, therefore, exchanged few commodities. This Anglo-Dutch trade, however, constituted only a small fraction of total Dutch trade flows.

132 1655 BE Invasion of Jamaica:

An expedition sent by Oliver Cromwell wrests control of Jamaica from Spain. English settlers bring in vast numbers of enslaved Africans to work the sugar estates on the island[28].

133 1657 R Dara Shikoh, also known as Dara Shukoh, (20 March 1615 – 30 August 1659)[83][84] was the eldest son and heir-apparent of the Mughal emperor Shah Jahan.[85] Dara was designated with the title Padshahzada-i-Buzurg Martaba ("Prince of High Rank")[86] and was favoured as a successor by his father and his older sister, Princess Jahanara Begum. In the war of succession which ensued after Shah Jahan's illness in 1657, Dara was defeated by his younger brother Prince Muhiuddin (later, the Emperor Aurangzeb). He was executed in 1659 on Aurangzeb's orders in a bitter struggle for the imperial throne.[87]

Dara Shikoh#Intellectual pursuits:

Dara Shikoh developed a friendship with the seventh Sikh Guru, Guru Har Rai.

Dara Shikoh devoted much effort towards finding a common mystical language between Islam and Hinduism. Towards this goal he completed the translation of fifty Upanishads from their original Sanskrit into Persian in 1657 so that they could be studied by Muslim scholars.[88][89]

His translation is often called Sirr-e-Akbar ("The Greatest Mystery"), where he states boldly, in the introduction, his speculative hypothesis that the work referred to in the Qur'an as the "Kitab al-maknun" or the hidden book, is none other than the Upanishads.[90] His most famous work, Majma-ul-Bahrain ("The Confluence of the Two Seas"), was also devoted to a revelation of the mystical and pluralistic affinities between Sufic and Vedantic speculation.[91] The book was authored as a short treatise in Persian in 1654–55.[92]

134 1658 E Shah Jahan completes Taj Mahal, Jama Masjid, and Red Fort. Imperial treasuries drained by architectural and military overexpenditures. Shah Jahan put under house arrest, and is succeeded by his son Aurangzeb.[1]
135 1658 E Zealous Muslim Aurangzeb (1618-1707) becomes Mughal Emperor. His discriminatory policies toward Hindus, Marathas and the Deccan kingdoms contribute to the dissolution of the Mughal Empire by 1750.[2]
136 1659 19 Feb BS Shivaji's ill-equipped and small Maratha army defeat numerically much larger Adilshahi troops at the Battle of Pratapgarh marking the first victory of the Maratha Empire. Shivaji personally kills Adilshahi commander Afzal Khan (general).[1]
137 1660 13 Jul BS Maratha army of 600 defeats a much larger army of the Bijapur Sultanate of 10,000 in the Battle of Pavan Khind, near the city of Kolhapur.[1]
138 1660 E Frenchman Francois Bernier reports India's peasantry is living in misery under Mughal rule.[2]
139 1661 BE The first permanent British settlement on the African continent is made at James Island (later Kunta Kinteh Island) in the Gambia River, which becomes a key post in the transatlantic slave trade[28].
140 1661 Co Portuguese Princess Catherine of Braganza brings Bom Bahia[93] to King Charles II of England as part of her marriage dowry.

Bombay transferred from Portuguese to British rule as part of Catherine of Braganza’s dowry to Charles II in 1661. It rose to become India's largest city, driven in large part by its status as a leading cotton trading market and shipping port.

In spite of being relatively poor, Charles easily assumed the role of King of England and he left it to his new government to work through the intricacies of choosing a wife who would bring the greatest political and economic benefit to him and to England.

Catherine of Braganza#Marriage:[94]

Negotiations for the marriage began during the reign of King Charles I, were renewed immediately after the Restoration, and on 23 June 1661, in spite of Spanish opposition, the marriage contract was signed. England secured Tangier (in North Africa) and the Seven Islands of Bombay (in India), trading privileges in Brazil and the East Indies, religious and commercial freedom in Portugal, and two million Portuguese crowns (about £300,000). In return Portugal obtained British military and naval support (which would prove to be decisive) in her fight against Spain and liberty of worship for Catherine.[95] She arrived at Portsmouth on the evening of 13–14 May 1662,[95] but was not visited there by Charles until 20 May. The following day the couple were married at Portsmouth in two ceremonies – a Catholic one conducted in secret, followed by a public Anglican service.[95]

Catherine also popularised tea-drinking in Britain.

141 1661 6 Oct R Guru Har Krishan becomes eight guru of Sikhs.[1]
142 1664 BE The Dutch trade New Amsterdam (New York City) for a British island in Southeast Asia[28][96].
143 1664 Co French colonization (French India):

French India, formally the Établissements français dans l'Inde (English: French Settlements in India), was a French colony comprising five geographically separated enclaves on the Indian Subcontinent that had initially been factories of the French East India Company. Beginning in the second half of the 17th century, they were de facto incorporated into the Republic of India in 1950 and 1954. The enclaves were Pondichéry, Karikal, Yanaon (Andhra Pradesh) on the Coromandel Coast, Mahé on the Malabar Coast and Chandernagor in Bengal. The French also possessed several loges ('lodges', tiny subsidiary trading stations) inside other towns, but after 1816, the British denied all French claims to these, which were not reoccupied.

France was the last of the major European maritime powers of the 17th century to enter the East India trade. Six decades after the foundation of the English and Dutch East India companies (in 1600 and 1602 respectively), and at a time when both companies were multiplying factories (trading posts) on the shores of India, the French still did not have a viable trading company or a single permanent establishment in the East.

144 1665 11 Jun BS The Treaty of Purandar (1665) was signed on June 11, 1665, between the Jai Singh I, who was commander of the Mughal Empire, and Maratha Shivaji. Shivaji was forced to sign the agreement after Jai Singh besieged Purandar fort. When Shivaji realised that war with the Mughal Empire would only cause damage to the empire and that his men would suffer heavy losses, he chose to make a treaty instead of leaving his men under the Mughals.

Following are the main points of the treaty:

  1. Shivaji kept twelve forts, along with an area worth an income of 100,000 (1 lakh) huns.
  2. Shivaji was required to help the Mughals whenever and wherever required.
  3. Shivaji's son Sambhaji was tasked with the command of a 5,000-strong force under the Mughals.
  4. If Shivaji wanted to claim the Konkan area under Bijapur's control, he would have to pay 4 million (40 lakh) hons to the Mughals.
  5. He had to give up his forts at Purandar, Rudramal, Kondana, Karnala, Lohagad, Isagad, Tung, Tikona, Rohida fort, Nardurga, Mahuli, Bhandardurga, Palaskhol, Rupgad, Bakhtgad, Morabkhan, Manikgad (Raigad), Saroopgad, Sagargad, Marakgad, Ankola, Songadh, and Mangad.

Along with these requirements, Shivaji agreed to visit Agra to meet Aurangzeb for further political talks.

145 1665 P Fort St. George, India#History:

In 1665, after the East India Company (EIC) received word of the formation of the new French East India Company, the fort was strengthened and enlarged while its garrison was increased.[66]

The Fort is a stronghold with 6 metres (20 ft) high walls that withstood a number of assaults in the 18th century. It briefly passed into the possession of the French from 1746 to 1749, but was restored to Great Britain under the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle, which ended the War of the Austrian Succession.

146 1665 20 Mar R Guru Tegh Bahadur becomes ninth Guru of Sikhs.[1]
147 1668 1954 Co French India:

By 1950, the total area measured 510 km2 (200 sq mi), of which 293 km2 (113 sq mi) belonged to the territory of Pondichéry. In 1936, the population of the colony totalled 298,851 inhabitants, of which 63% (187,870) lived in the territory of Pondichéry.[97]

148 1668 Bombay Co British East India Company leased the seven islands of Mumbai from Charles II.

Mumbai was given to the British as part of Catherine of Braganza’s royal dowry when she married King Charles II of England.

The original Seven Islands of Bombay handed over to England were as follows:

  • Isle of Bombay
  • Colaba
  • Old Woman's Island (Little Colaba)
  • Mahim
  • Mazagaon
  • Parel
  • Worli

The Anglo-Portuguese marriage treaty was dated 23rd June 1661, ratified on 28th August, 1661 and the marriage took place on 31st May, 1662. But none of these dates are quite as significant as 27th March, 1668.

It was in this day, that King Charles II declared the East India Company (EIC) “the true and absolute Lords and Proprietors of the (Bombay) Port and Island …. At the yearly rental of 10 Pounds, payable to the Crown”, writes Samuel T Sheppard in his book “Bombay”.[98]

King Charles was happy to hand over the territory which has been the cause of much trouble and expense because of constant friction with the Portuguese over port dues. In return for Bombay, he received a loan of 50,000 Pounds at 6% interest from the EIC.

149 1668 Co French colonization (French India#History):

La Compagnie française des Indes orientales (French East India Company) was formed under the auspices of Cardinal Richelieu (1642) and reconstructed under Jean-Baptiste Colbert (1664), sending an expedition to Madagascar.

In 1667 the French India Company sent out another expedition, under the command of François Caron (who was accompanied by a Persian named Marcara), which reached Surat in 1668 and established the first French factory in India.[99][100]

150 1669 23 Nov BS Jats defeats the Mughal Empire in the Battle of Tilpat takes control of Mathura.[1]
151 1669 Co French colonization (French India):

In 1669, Marcara succeeded in establishing another French factory at Masulipatam. In 1672, Fort Saint Thomas was taken but the French were driven out by the Dutch. Chandernagore (present-day Chandannagar) was established in 1692, with the permission of Nawab Shaista Khan, the Mughal governor of Bengal. In 1673, the French acquired the area of Pondicherry from the qiladar of Valikondapuram under the Sultan of Bijapur, and thus the foundation of Pondichéry was laid.

By 1720, the French had lost their factories at Surat, Masulipatam and Bantam to the British East India Company.

152 1669 Co Danish Colonization (Danish India#Abandonment and isolation (1650–1669)):

Kongsbakke's reports, sent to Denmark via other European vessels, finally convinced the Danish-Norwegian government to relieve him. The frigate Færø was dispatched to India, commanded by Capt Sivardt Adelaer, with an official confirmation of his appointment as colony leader. It arrived May 1669 — ending 19 years of isolation.

153 1670 BE For the British, by this time there are British American colonies in New England, Virginia, and Maryland and settlements in the Bermudas, Honduras, Antigua, Barbados, and Nova Scotia, Canada[28].
154 1670 P In an act aimed at strengthening the power of the East India Company (EIC), King Charles II granted the EIC (in a series of five acts around 1670) the rights to[101]....
  1. Autonomously acquire territory,
  2. Mint money,
  3. Command fortresses and troops and form alliances,
  4. Make war and peace, and
  5. Exercise both civil and criminal jurisdiction over the acquired areas.

These decisions would eventually turn the EIC from a trading company into de facto an administrative agent with wide powers granted by the British government.

155 1670 Bombay T First printing press imported to Mumbai by Parsi businessman Bhimjee Parikh.

Bhimji Parekh or Bhimji Parikh (1610–1680) was an Indian businessman.[102] He was born in 1610 in Surat. He is remembered today primarily for having introduced the first printing press,[103] to Bombay in 1674–75.[104] Bhimji intended to use this printing press for "the common good" of printing "ancient manuscripts" that would be "useful or at least grateful to posterity".[105]

156 1670 Tr Bombay Dockyard (Royal Navy) or formally His Majesty's Indian Dockyard, Bombay was originally a naval facility developed by the East India Company beginning in 1670. It was formally established as a Royal Navy Dockyard in 1811 and base of the East Indies Station when the Department of Admiralty in London took over it. The yard was initially managed by the Navy Board through its Resident Commissioner, Bombay until 1832 when administration of the yard was taken over by the Board of Admiralty, it was closed in 1949.
157 1671 BS Ahom kingdom defeats the Mughal Empire in the Battle of Saraighat, takes back control of Guwahati.[1]
158 1672 February BS Maratha forces under Prataprao Gujar defeat a Mughal army twice its size in the Battle of Salher.[1]
159 1672 Dy Anwaruddin Khan (1672 – 3 August 1749), also known as Muhammad Anwaruddin, was the 1st Nawab of Arcot of the second Dynasty. He was a major figure during the first two Carnatic Wars.

He was also Subedar of Thatta from 1721–1733.

160 1672 Bombay R In Bombay, Consecration of the first Tower of Silence and first Fire temple (Hirji Vachha Agiary, now defunct)[106].
161 1673 Co French colonization (French India):

On 4 February 1673, Bellanger de l'Espinay, a French officer, took up residence in the Danish Lodge in Pondichéry, thereby commencing the French administration of Pondichéry. In 1674 François Martin, the first Governor, initiated ambitious projects to transform Pondichéry from a small fishing village into a flourishing port-town. The French, though, found themselves in continual conflict with the Dutch and the English. The case of France was upheld for many years at the court of the Sultan of Golconda, Qutb Shah, by a French Huguenot physician named Antoine d'Estremau.

162 1674 6 Jun BS Forces led by Shivaji defeat Aurangzeb's troops, and establishes Maratha Empire. Shivaji is crowned Chhatrapati.[1]
163 1674 1818 Dy The Peshwa was the appointed (and later hereditary) Prime Minister of the Maratha Empire of the Indian subcontinent. Originally, the Peshwas served as subordinates to the Chhatrapati (the Maratha king); later, under the Bhat family, they became the de facto leaders of the Maratha Confederacy with the Chhatrapati becoming a nominal ruler.[107] During the last years of the Maratha Empire, the Peshwas themselves were reduced to titular leaders, and remained under the authority of the Maratha nobles and the British East India Company.

Formation : 1674, Abolished: 3 June 1818

All the Peshwas during the rule of Chhatrapati Shivaji, Sambhaji and Rajaram belonged to Deshastha Brahmin community.[108][109] The first Peshwa was Moropant Pingle, who was appointed as the head of the Ashta Pradhan (council of eight ministers) by Chhatrapati Shivaji, the founder of the Maratha Empire. The initial Peshwas were all ministers who served as the chief executives to the king. The later Peshwas held the highest administrative office and also controlled the Maratha confederacy. Under the Chitpavan Brahmin Bhat family, the Peshwas became the de facto hereditary administrators of the Confederacy. The Peshwa's office was most powerful under Baji Rao I (r. 1720–1740). Under Peshwa administration and with the support of several key generals and diplomats, the Maratha Empire reached its zenith, ruling major areas of India. The subsequent Peshwas brought in autonomy and as a result later on many provinces were controlled and administered by the Maratha nobles such as Scindias and Gaekwads.

164 1674 1818 Dy The Maratha Empire or the Maratha Confederacy was a power that dominated a large portion of the Indian subcontinent in the 18th century. The empire formally existed from 1674 with the coronation of Shivaji as the Chhatrapati and ended in 1818 with the defeat of Peshwa Bajirao II at the hands of the British East India Company. The Marathas are credited to a large extent for ending Mughal Rule over most of the Indian subcontinent.[110][111][112]
165 1675 Bombay R The Bombay Devi temple built near the main landing site on the former Bori Bunder creek or inlet, against the north wall of the English Fort Saint George by a Hindu woman also named Mumba.[106]

The creek and fort are now deteriorated to a point at which they are but derelict reminders of the city's past. The temple, on the other hand, is still active.[113].

166 1675 R Guru Tegh Bahadur, the ninth Guru of Sikhs is executed in Delhi by the order of Aurangzeb for his support for the Kashmiri Hindus to practice their religion.Guru Gobind Singh becomes tenth Guru of Sikhs.[1]
167 1678 P St. Mary's Church, Chennai is the oldest Anglican church in India. It was built between 1678 and 1680 on the orders of the then Agent of Madras Streynsham Master.

It is located at Fort St George in Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. It lies East of Suez and also the oldest British building in India.[114] The church is popularly known as 'Westminster Abbey of the East'.[115]

168 1679 E Aurangzeb levies Jizya tax on non-believers, Hindus.[2]
169 1679 1680 BS List of battles of Rajasthan#During the Mughal Empire:
  • Second Mughal Invasion of Marwar (1679–1707) – Aurangzeb took Marwar under his direct control after the death of Maharaja Jaswant Singh. The Rathore army under Durgadas Rathore carried out a relentless struggle against the occupying forces. In 1707 after the death of Aurangzeb, Durgadas defeated the local Mughal force and reoccupied Jodhpur and their lost territories.[116]
  • Battle of Udaipur (1680) – Aurangzeb attacked Mewar and plundered Udaipur, the citizens were safely escorted to the aravalli hills by Rana Raj Singh but 63 temples in and around Udaipur were plundered and many villages were burned down by Aurangzeb's general Taj Khan. The Mughal army was eventually starved out of Mewar because of the scorched earth techniques and guerrilla warfare used by the Rana. Aurangzeb after a failed campaign left Mewar to his son Akbar and retreated to Ajmer.[117]
170 1680 1707 BS List of battles of Rajasthan#During the Mughal Empire:
  • Battle of Aravalli hills (1680) – In the second half of 1680, after several months of such setbacks, Aurangzeb decided on an all-out offensive. Niccolao Manucci, an Italian gunner in the Mughal army, says: "for this campaign, Aurangzeb put in pledge the whole of his kingdom." Three separate armies, under Aurangzeb's sons Akbar, Azam and Muazzam, penetrated the Aravalli hills from different directions. However, their artillery lost its effectiveness while being dragged around the rugged hills and both Azam and Muazzam were defeated by the Rajputs under Durgadas Rathore and Rana Raj Singh.[118]
  • Battle of Jodhpur (1707) – Durgadas Rathore took advantage of the disturbances following the death of Aurangzeb in 1707 to seize Jodhpur and eventually evict the occupying Mughal force out of Marwar.[119]
171 1680 3 Apr E Shivaji dies of fever at Raigad.[1]
172 1680 20 Jul E Sambhaji becomes 2nd Chhatrapati of the Maratha Empire.[1]
173 1681 BS Aurangzeb invades the Deccan.[1]
174 1682 August BS Ahom kingdom defeats the Mughal Empire in the Battle of Itakhuli, takes back control of Kamrup region.[1]
175 1686 1690 BC Child's War was a war between the English East India Company and the Mughal Empire of India, ruled by emperor Aurangzeb, which lasted from 1686 to 1690.

Result: Mughal victory. English East India Company fined.

The Anglo-Mughal War,[120][121] also known as Child's War, was the first Anglo-Indian war on the Indian subcontinent.

The English East India Company had been given a monopoly and numerous fortified bases on western and south-eastern coast of the Mughal India by the Crown, which was permitted by the local governors. In 1682, William Hedges was sent on the behalf of the Company to negotiate with the governor of the proto-industrialised Bengal Subah, Shaista Khan, and to obtain a firman, an imperial directive that would allow the English company regular trading privileges across the Mughal provinces.

In 1685, after some breaking of negotiations by Sir Josiah Child, Bt, the Governor of Bengal reacted by increasing the tributaries of the trade with the north-east from 2% to 3.5%. The company refused the newly introduced taxes and began to try and get the province of Bengal to accept new terms.

The East India Company navy blockaded several Mughal ports on the western coast of India and engaged the Mughal Army in battle. The blockade started to effect major cities like Chittagong, Madras and Mumbai, which resulted in the intervention of Emperor Aurangzeb, who seized all the factories of the company and arrested members of the East India Company Army, while the Company forces commanded by Sir Josiah Child, Bt captured further Mughal trading ships.[122]

Ultimately the Company was forced to concede by the armed forces of the Mughal Empire and the company was fined 150.000 rupees (roughly equivalent to today's $4.4 million). The company's apology was accepted and the trading privileges were reimposed by Emperor Aurangzeb.[123][124][125]

In 1682 the English East India Company sent William Hedges to Shaista Khan, the Mughal governor of Bengal Subah, in order to obtain a firman: an imperial directive that would grant the Company regular trading privileges throughout the proto-industrialised Mughal Empire, the world's largest economy of that time. After the intervention of the company's governor in London, Sir Josiah Child, with Hedges's mission, causing Emperor Aurangzeb to break off the negotiations. After that Child decided to go to war against the Mughals.[126]

176 1686 BS The Sikandara was plundered by Rajaram Jat. Even the skelaton of Akbar the great,was taken out and the bones were consumed to flames.[1]
177 1686 BS Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb demolishes all temples in Mathura, said to number 1,000. (During their reign, Muslim rulers destroy roughly 60,000 Hindu temples throughout India, constructing mosques on 3,000 sites.)[2]
178 1688 P The Anglo-Mughal War:

In 1685 Admiral Nicholson was sent out with twelve ships of war, carrying 200 pieces of cannon and a body of 600 men, to be reinforced by 400 from Madras. His instructions were to capture and fortify Chittagong, for which purpose 200 additional guns were placed on board, to demand the cession of the encompassing territory, to conciliate the Zamindars and Taluqdars, to establish a mint, and to enter into a treaty with the ruler of Arakan. But the fleet was dispersed during the voyage, and several of the vessels, instead of steering for Chittagong, entered the Hooghly, and being joined by English troops from Madras, anchored off the Company's factory.

The arrival of so formidable an expedition alarmed Shaista Khan, and he offered to compromise his differences with the English; but an unforeseen event brought the negotiation to an abrupt close. Three English soldiers, strolling through the marketplace of Hooghly, quarrelled with Mughal officials, and were severely beaten. After that Nicholson dispatched a force to capture the town.[127]

In 1686, new negotiations started in Chuttanutty which the Mughals intentionally prolonged till their troops could be assembled to attack the English encampment, and English commander Job Charnock retired with his soldiers and establishments to the island of Ingelee, at the mouth of the Hooghly River. It was a low and deadly swamp, covered with long grass, without any fresh water. In three months 50% of the English troops had died from disease.[127]

In 1688, an English fleet was dispatched to blockade the Mughal harbours in the Arabian Sea on the western coast of India. Merchantmen containing Muslim pilgrims to Mecca (as part of the hajj) were among those captured. Upon hearing of the blockade, Emperor Aurangzeb Alamgir decided to resume negotiations with the English. However, the Company sent out reinforcements commanded by Captain Heath who on his arrival disallowed the treaty then pending and proceeded to Balasore which he bombarded unsuccessfully. He then sailed to Chittagong; but finding the fortifications stronger than he had anticipated, landed at Madras.[127]

After that Emperor Aurangzeb issued orders for the occupation of the East India Company possessions all over the subcontinent, and the confiscation of their property. As a result, possessions of East India Company were reduced to the fortified towns of Madras and Bombay.[127][128]

179 1689 E Sambhaji dies, Rajaram I becomes the third Chhatrapati of the Maratha Empire.[1]
180 1689 P The Anglo-Mughal War:

In 1689, the strong Mughal fleet from Janjira commanded by the Sidi Yaqub and manned by Mappila from Ethiopian Empire blockaded the East India Company fort in Bombay, Fort William.[129] After a year of resistance, a famine broke out due to the blockade, the Company surrendered, and in 1690 the company sent envoys to Aurangzeb's court to plea for a pardon and to renew the trade firman. The company's envoys had to prostrate themselves before the emperor, pay a large imperial fine of 1,50,000 rupees, and promise better behavior in the future. Emperor Aurangzeb then ordered Sidi Yaqub to lift the Siege of Bombay and the company subsequently re-established itself in Bombay and set up a new base in Calcutta.[126]

181 1693 Co French colonization (French India):

In 1693 the Dutch captured Pondichéry and augmented the fortifications. The French regained the town in 1699 through the Treaty of Ryswick, signed on 20 September 1697.

The Peace of Ryswick, or Rijswijk, was a series of treaties signed in the Dutch city of Rijswijk between 20 September and 30 October 1697. They ended the 1688 to 1697 Nine Years' War between France, and the Grand Alliance, which included England, Spain, Austria, and the Dutch Republic.

182 1696 Co Danish Colonization (Danish India#The Second Danish East India Company (1670–1732)):

Trade between Denmark-Norway and Tranquebar now resumed, a new Danish East India Company was formed, and several new commercial outposts were established, governed from Tranquebar: Oddeway Torre on the Malabar coast in 1696, and Dannemarksnagore at Gondalpara, southeast of Chandernagore in 1698. The settlement with the Nayak was confirmed and Tranquebar was permitted to expand to include three surrounding villages.

183 1696 R Kashi Vishwanath Temple which was dedicated to Shiva; the presiding deity of the city of Varanasi, one of the holiest Hindu sites of pilgrimage, had been plundered, desecrated, demolished & converted into Gyanvapi Mosque on the orders of the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb in 1696.
184 1696 1720 T Fort William, India is a fort in Hastings, Calcutta (Kolkata). It was built during the early years of the Bengal Presidency of British India. It sits on the eastern banks of the Hooghly River, the major distributary of the River Ganges. One of Kolkata's most enduring Raj-era edifices, it extends over an area of 70.9 hectares.

The fort was named after King William III.[130] In front of the Fort is the Maidan, the largest park in the city. An internal guard room became the Black Hole of Calcutta.

  • Type: Fortress, garrisoned and armoured Army Headquarters.
  • Controlled by: Bengal Subah (before 1757), British East India Company (1757–1858), British Raj (1858–1947), Indian Army (Current holding)
  • Built: 1696–1702,
  • In use: 1781 – present,
  • Battles/wars: Battle of Plassey (1757)
185 1698 Co East India Company#Trade monopoly:

The prosperity that the officers of the company enjoyed allowed them to return to Britain and establish sprawling estates and businesses, and to obtain political power. The company developed a lobby in the English parliament. Under pressure from ambitious tradesmen and former associates of the company (pejoratively termed Interlopers by the company), who wanted to establish private trading firms in India, a deregulating act was passed in 1694.[131]

This allowed any English firm to trade with India, unless specifically prohibited by act of parliament, thereby annulling the charter that had been in force for almost 100 years. When the East India Company Act 1697 (9 Will. c. 44) was passed in 1697, a new "parallel" East India Company (officially titled the English Company Trading to the East Indies) was floated under a state-backed indemnity of £2 million.[132] The powerful stockholders of the old company quickly subscribed a sum of £315,000 in the new concern, and dominated the new body. The two companies wrestled with each other for some time, both in England and in India, for a dominant share of the trade.[131]

It quickly became evident that, in practice, the original company faced scarcely any measurable competition. The companies merged in 1708, by a tripartite indenture involving both companies and the state, with the charter and agreement for the new United Company of Merchants of England Trading to the East Indies being awarded by Sidney Godolphin, 1st Earl of Godolphin.[133] Under this arrangement, the merged company lent to the Treasury a sum of £3,200,000, in return for exclusive privileges for the next three years, after which the situation was to be reviewed. The amalgamated company became the United Company of Merchants of England Trading to the East Indies.[131]

With the advent of the Industrial Revolution, Britain surged ahead of its European rivals. Britain’s growing prosperity, demand, and production had a profound influence on overseas trade. The EIC became the single largest player on the British global market. Following the Seven Years’ War (1756–63) and the defeat of France, French ambitions on Indian territories were effectively laid to rest, thus eliminating a major source of economic competition for the EIC. The Company, with the backing of its own private well-disciplined and experienced army, was able to assert its interests in new regions in India without facing obstacles from other colonial powers, although it continued to experience resistance from local rulers.

186 1699 3 Oct R Guru Gobind Singh, the 10th Guru of Sikhs creates Khalsa, the saint-soldier at Anandpur Sahib, Punjab.[1]
187 1700 3 Mar E Rajaram I dies, is succeeded by Shivaji II as Chhatrapati of the Maratha Empire.[1]
188 1700 Ec Timeline of the economy of the Indian subcontinent#Mughal era:

The Indian subcontinent, under Mughal Emperor's Aurangzeb policies based on Islamic economics, becomes the world's largest economy, and the most important center of manufacturing in International trade, ahead of Qing dynasty, China.

Worth 25% of the world's industrial (Secondary sector of the economy) output, it signalled the Proto-industrialization.

189 1702 D Thomas Pitt, President of Fort St George, Madras (in office 7 July 1698 – 18 September 1709), acquires the Pitt Diamond, later sold to the Regent of France, the Duc d'Orleans, for 135,000 Pounds.

Now known as The Regent Diamond it is a 140.64-carat (28.128 g) diamond owned by the French state and on display in the Louvre, worth as of 2015 £48,000,000. It is widely considered the most beautiful and the purest diamond in the world.

Thomas Pitt was the grandfather of William Pitt, 1st Earl of Chatham ("Pitt the Elder") and was great-grandfather of Pitt the Younger, both prime ministers of Great Britain.

190 1702 P In the year 1702, Daud Khan Panni the Mughal Empire's local Subedar of the Carnatic, besieged and blockaded Fort St. George, India for more than three months. The governor of the fort Thomas Pitt was instructed by the British East India Company to vie for peace.
191 1706 Co Danish Colonization (Danish India):

Frederick IV, king of Denmark-Norway sends two Danish missionaries to India, Heinrich Plütcshau and Bartholomäus Ziegenbalg – the first Protestant (Lutheran) missionaries in India. Previously priests had not attempted to convert, and Indians denied entry to European churches. Arriving in 1707, they were not welcomed by their countrymen who suspected them of being spies.[134]

Ziegenbalg gains converts among the Indians who, by royal decree, are freed to encourage further Christianisation amongst the Indians. Christianity becomes associated with lower caste people and rejected by upper caste Hindus.

192 1707 13 Feb E Birth of Suraj Mal son of Badan Singh

Maharaja Suraj Mal (13 February 1707 – 25 December 1763) or Sujan Singh, was a Hindu Jat ruler of Bharatpur in Rajasthan, India. Under him, the Jat rule covered the present-day districts of Agra, Aligarh, Alwar, Bharatpur, Bulandshahr, Dholpur, Etah, Etawa, Faridabad, Firozabad, Ghaziabad, Gurgaon, Hathras, Jhajjar, Kanpur, Mainpuri, Mathura, Mewat, Meerut, Muzaffarnagar, Palwal, Rewari, and Rohtak.[135][136]

A contemporary historian had described him as "the Plato of the Jat tribe" and by a modern writer as the "Jat Odysseus", because of his "political sagacity, steady intellect and clear vision".[137] The Jats, under Suraj Mal, overran the Mughal garrison at Agra. Suraj Mal was killed in an ambush by the Rohilla troops on the night of 25 December 1763 near Hindon River, Shahadra, Delhi.[136] In addition to the troops stationed at his forts, he had an army of 25,000 infantry and 15,000 cavalry when he died.[136]

193 1707 3 Mar E Death of Aurangzeb the mughal monarch.[1]
194 1708 1710 BS List of battles of Rajasthan#During the Mughal Empire:
  • Annexation of Amer (January 1708) – Bahadur Shah I marched with a large army and annexed Amer without a war. Raja Jai Singh was forced to retreat with his army. Amber was named Mominabad by the Mughal emperor.[138]
  • Battle of Merta (February 1708) – Bahadur Shah I's general Mihrab Khan defeated Ajit Singh of Marwar. The Mughal emperor was advised to stay in Ajmer as the Mughals were wary of the guerrilla tactics of Durgadas. Ajit Singh however went against the advice of Durgadas Rathore and directly confronted the large Mughal army. The Mughals bombarded the Rathor horsemen with cannons and rockets and forced them to retreat after heavy losses. Jodhpur was once again occupied by the Mughals. Ajit Singh received "special robes of honour" and a jewelled scarf from the Emperor for his bravery shown in battle.[139]
  • Rajput Rebellion (September 1708–10) – The three Rajput Raja's of Amber, Udaipur and Jodhpur made a joint resistance to the Mughals. The Rajputs first expelled the commandants of Jodhpur and Bayana and recovered Amer by a night attack. They next killed Sayyid Hussain Khan Barha in the battle of Sambhar (1709). Raja Ajit Singh also attacked Ajmer and forced its governor to pay tribute. Sayyid Hidayatullah, the governor of Ranthambore was also defeated, bringing a danger to the Mughal capital itself. Bahadur Shah I, then in the Deccan was forced to patch up a truce with the Rajput Rajas (1710).[140]
195 1708 1722 BS List of battles of Rajasthan#During the Mughal Empire:
  • Battle of Kama (1708) (October 4–7, 1708) – Ajit Singh Kachwaha, the Rajput zamindar of Kama defeated the combined armies of Mughals and Jats. The Mughal-Jat army numbered 18,000 while the Kachwahas had 10,000 horsemen. After a bitter fight the Mughal faujdar Raza Bahadur was killed and the Jat leader Churaman was forced to flee to Thun.[141][142][143]
  • Jai Singh II's campaign against the Jats (1718–1722) – The Jats under Churaman had been actively looting and plundering in the Agra district due to which the Mughals had to close the roads to Delhi and Agra for the safety of the traders. In 1718 Sawai Jai Singh II was appointed by the Mughal emperor to destroy the Jat stronghold of Thun. Jai Singh surrounded the fort and was about to breach it when the Sayyid brothers, who were rivals of the Jaipur raja, made a separate peace with the Jats on behalf of the emperor. Jai Singh was forced to withdraw in disgust. Two years later Churaman died and his son Mokham Singh succeeded him. Mokhams first step as a ruler was to imprison his cousin Badan Singh. Badan asked for help from Sawai Jai Singh II. Jai Singh readily set upon Thun and captured it after a six-month siege. Mokham was forced to flee and Badan Singh was made the Raja of Deeg on the condition that he pays tribute.[144]
196 1708 7 Oct R Guru Granth Sahib becomes Guru of Sikhs.[1]
197 1709 Bombay R Banaji Limji Agiary:

In Bombay, First attested private Parsi Adaran (in the home of Banaji Limji)[106].

Continues to be the oldest continuously-burning Zoroastrian Fire temple in Mumbai (now in the Banaji Limji Agiary, Fort).

Situated less than a kilometre away from the temple, Maneckji Seth Agiary (1733) is the second-oldest fire temple in Mumbai.

198 1710 BS Sikh army under Banda Singh Bahadur defeats Mughal Empire in the Battle of Chappar Chiri and establishes Sikh rule from Lahore to Delhi.[1]
199 1714 1727 Em George I of Great Britain:

George I (George Louis; German: Georg Ludwig; 28 May 1660 – 11 June 1727) was King of Great Britain and Ireland from 1 August 1714 and ruler of the Duchy and Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Hanover) within the Holy Roman Empire from 23 January 1698 until his death in 1727. He was the first British monarch of the House of Hanover.

200 1715 1767 F Puli Thevar was a Tamil

Polygar who ruled Nerkattumseval, situated in the Sankarankoil taluk, Tirunelveli, Tamil Nadu[145][146]. He is notable for leading a revolt against Company rule at 1757 in India.[147][148]

Ondiveeran and Venni Kaladi were the generals of Thevar's army, and he was the first Indian to fight against the British.[149]

201 1719 Co Danish Colonization (Danish India#The Second Danish East India Company (1670–1732)):

Bartholomäus Ziegenbalg attempts to learn as much as possible of the language of the inhabitants of Tranquebar, hiring tutors to learn Portuguese and Tamil, and buying Hindu texts. He finds ways to create rifts in the local society in collusion with a few new converts to Christianity. He eventually writes the first Tamil glossary, Tamil-German dictionary, and translations of Hindu books. He translates parts of the Bible into Tamil. He completes the New Testament in prison, and the Old Testament later. Receiving funds from Europe he sets up a printing press and prints Tamil Bibles and books. He becomes the first book printer in India and produces paper. He establishes a seminary for Indian priests in Tranquebar before his death in Tranquebar 1719.

This mission leads to missionaries spreading outside the colony, despite opposition from the kings of Tranquebar.

Bartholomäus Ziegenbalg#Death and legacy:

Ziegenbalg was troubled by ill health his entire life, a condition aggravated by his work in the mission field. He died on 23 February 1719, at the age of thirty-six, in Tranquebar. His last 13 years were spent laying the foundations for German scholarship in Tamil that continues to this day. Ziegenbalg is buried at the New Jerusalem Church, which he helped establish in 1718 at Tranquebar.[150][151]

202 1720 Co Chaul:

Chaul is a former city of Portuguese India, now in ruins. It is located 60 km south of Mumbai, in Raigad District of Maharashtra state in western India.

During the later 17th and early 18th centuries Portuguese India declined economically and politically, and Chaul lost its former importance. As the power of the Mughal Empire declined in the early 18th century, the Marathas expanded their control of central and western India. The Portuguese colony of Kalyan was captured by the Marathas in 1720, and in 1737 the Maratha general Angria began a concerted campaign to capture the remaining Portuguese territories. Chaul and the Morro de Chaul came under siege in March 1739, but the siege was raised in October. After the capture of Baçaim in 1740, a peace treaty was concluded, and on 18 September 1740, Chaul was ceded by treaty to the Marathas. The city was subsequently abandoned and left in ruins.

The village of Korlai, near the ruins of Chaul, is still home to speakers of Portuguese Creole.

203 1720 1782 Dy Hyder Ali, Haidarālī (c. 1720 – 7 December 1782) was the Sultan and de facto ruler of the Kingdom of Mysore in southern India. Born as Hyder Ali Khan, he distinguished himself militarily, eventually drawing the attention of Mysore's rulers. Rising to the post of Dalavayi (commander-in-chief) to Krishnaraja Wodeyar II, he came to dominate the titular monarch and the Mysore government. He became the de facto ruler of Mysore as Sarvadhikari (Chief Minister) by 1761. During intermittent conflicts against the East India Company during the First and Second Anglo–Mysore Wars, Hyder Ali distinguished himself in military tactics, being the innovator of military use of the iron-cased Mysorean rockets. He also significantly developed the Mysorean economy.

Though illiterate, Hyder Ali earned an important place in the history of southern India for his administrative acumen and military skills. He concluded an alliance with the French, and used the services of French workmen in raising his artillery and arsenal. His rule of Mysore was characterised by frequent warfare with his neighbours and rebellion within his territories. This was not unusual for the time as much of the Indian subcontinent was then in turmoil. He left his eldest son, Tipu Sultan, an extensive kingdom bordered by the Krishna River in the north, the Eastern Ghats in the east and the Arabian Sea in the west.[152]

204 1720 E Bajirao I appointed by Shahu Maharaj as Peshwa (prime minister) who would later expand the Maratha empire to cover most of present-day India.[1]
205 1721 1955 Ad British Prime Ministers during Imperialism, (List of prime ministers of the United Kingdom#From 1721):

The office of prime minister developed in Britain in the 18th century, when King George I ceased attending meetings of his ministers and it was left to powerful premiers to act as government chief executive. Sir Robert Walpole is generally considered to have been Britain’s first prime minister. This is a chronologically ordered list of the british prime ministers, from the earliest to 1950s ....

  • Sir Robert Walpole (1721–42)
206 1721 1955 Ad British Prime Ministers during Imperialism, (List of prime ministers of the United Kingdom#From 1721):
  • Spencer Compton (1742–43)
  • Henry Pelham (1743–54)
  • Thomas Pelham-Holles (1754–56; 1st time)
  • William Cavendish (1756–57)
  • Thomas Pelham-Holles (1757–62; 2nd time)
  • John Stuart (1762–63)
  • George Grenville (1763–65)
  • Charles Watson Wentworth (1765–66; 1st time)
  • William Pitt, the Elder (1766–68)
  • Augustus Henry Fitzroy (1768–70)
207 1721 1955 Ad British Prime Ministers during Imperialism, (List of prime ministers of the United Kingdom#From 1721):
  • Frederick North (1770–82)
  • Charles Watson Wentworth (1782; 2nd time)
  • William Petty-Fitzmaurice (1782–83)
  • William Henry Cavendish-Bentinck (1783; 1st time)
  • William Pitt, the Younger (1783–1801; 1st time)
  • Henry Addington (1801–04)
  • William Pitt, the Younger (1804–06; 2nd time)
  • William Wyndham Grenville (1806–07)
  • William Henry Cavendish-Bentinck (1807–09; 2nd time)
  • Spencer Perceval (1809–12)
208 1721 1955 Ad British Prime Ministers during Imperialism, (List of prime ministers of the United Kingdom#From 1721):
  • Robert Banks Jenkinson (1812–27)
  • George Canning (1827)
  • Frederick John Robinson (1827–28)
  • Arthur Wellesley (1828–30; 1st time)
  • Charles Grey (1830–34)
  • William Lamb (1834; 1st time)
  • Arthur Wellesley (1834; 2nd time)
  • Sir Robert Peel (1834–35; 1st time)
  • William Lamb (1835–41; 2nd time)
  • Sir Robert Peel (1841–46; 2nd time)
209 1721 1955 Ad British Prime Ministers during Imperialism, (List of prime ministers of the United Kingdom#From 1721):
  • John Russell (1846–52; 1st time)
  • Edward Geoffrey Stanley (1852; 1st time)
  • George Hamilton-Gordon (1852–55)
  • Henry John Temple (1855–58; 1st time)
  • Edward Geoffrey Stanley (1858–59; 2nd time)
  • Henry John Temple (1859–65; 2nd time)
  • John Russell (1865–66; 2nd time)
  • Edward Geoffrey Stanley (1866–68; 3rd time)
  • Benjamin Disraeli (1868; 1st time)
  • William Ewart Gladstone (1868–74; 1st time)
210 1721 1955 Ad British Prime Ministers during Imperialism, (List of prime ministers of the United Kingdom#From 1721):
  • Benjamin Disraeli (1874–80; 2nd time)
  • William Ewart Gladstone (1880–85; 2nd time)
  • Robert Cecil (1885–86; 1st time)
  • William Ewart Gladstone (1886; 3rd time)
  • Robert Cecil (1886–92; 2nd time)
  • William Ewart Gladstone (1892–94; 4th time)
  • Archibald Philip Primrose (1894–95)
  • Robert Cecil (1895–1902; 3rd time)
  • Arthur James Balfour (1902–05)
  • Henry Campbell-Bannerman (1905–08)
211 1721 1955 Ad British Prime Ministers during Imperialism, (List of prime ministers of the United Kingdom#From 1721):
  • H.H. Asquith (1908–16)
  • David Lloyd George (1916–22)
  • Bonar Law (1922–23)
  • Stanley Baldwin (1923–24; 1st time)
  • Ramsay Macdonald (1924; 1st time)
  • Stanley Baldwin (1924–29; 2nd time)
  • Ramsay Macdonald (1929–35; 2nd time)
  • Stanley Baldwin (1935–37; 3rd time)
  • Neville Chamberlain (1937–40)
  • Winston Churchill (1940–45; 1st time)
  • Clement Attlee (1945–51)
  • Sir Winston Churchill (1951–55; 2nd time)
212 1721 BE Attingal Outbreak:

Attingal Outbreak (Anjengo Revolt; April–October 1721) refers to the massacre of 140 East India Company soldiers by native Indians and the following siege of Fort Anjengo. The Attingal Outbreak is often regarded as the first organized revolt against British authority in Malabar, Cochin and Travancore. The main reasons behind the resentment was large scale corruption and the manipulation of black pepper prices by the Company.

The chief factor at the Anjengo factor, Gyfford refused to hand over the customary gifts meant for the Rani of Attingal to the agents of the local feudal lords (Pillamar) and tried to hand them directly to the Rani at the head of a force of 140 soldiers on 15 April 1721. This show of force had the opposite effect and the local people rebelled, attacked and destroyed the entire force and then laid siege to the fort. Gunnar Ince led the defence of the fort for six months till the arrival of the Company's troops from the English controlled Tellicherry.

Following the turn of events, the Company and the Rani of Attingal entered into an agreement under which;

  • the Company was compensated for all losses sustained during the attack on Anjengo
  • was also given the sole monopoly of trade in pepper
  • the right to erect factories in places of its choice
213 1721 1949 Pr British India – Princely State:

A princely state, also called native state, feudatory state or Indian state (for those states on the subcontinent), was a vassal state[153] under a local or indigenous or regional ruler in a subsidiary alliance with the British Raj. Though the history of the princely states of the subcontinent dates from at least the classical period of Indian history, the predominant usage of the term princely state specifically refers to a semi-sovereign principality on the Indian subcontinent during the British Raj that was not directly governed by the British, but rather by a local ruler, subject to a form of indirect rule on some matters. The imprecise doctrine of paramountcy allowed the government of British India to interfere in the internal affairs of princely states individually or collectively[154] and issue edicts that applied to all of India when it deemed it necessary.

At the time of the British withdrawal, 565 princely states were officially recognised in the Indian subcontinent,[155] apart from thousands of zamindari estates and jagirs. In 1947, princely states covered 40% of the area of pre-independence India and constituted 23% of its population.[156] The most important states had their own British Political Residencies: Hyderabad of the Nizams, Mysore and Travancore in the South followed by Jammu and Kashmir, and Sikkim in the Himalayas, and Indore in Central India. The most prominent among those – roughly a quarter of the total – had the status of a salute state, one whose ruler was entitled to a set number of gun salutes on ceremonial occasions.

214 1721 1947 Dy Gaekwad dynasty (Former Monarchy) 1721–1947

The Gaekwads of Baroda (also spelled as Gaikwads, Guicowars, Gaekwars) are Hindu Marathas who trace their origins to Dawadi village near Poona (modern Pune) to a Maratha clan by the name of Matre, which means Mantri meaning Minister.[157] Gaekwad dynasty of the Maratha Empire are originally of Kunbi origin.[158] A dynasty belonging to this clan ruled the princely state of Baroda in western India from the early 18th century until 1947.[159] The ruling prince was known as the Maharaja Gaekwad of Baroda. With the city of Baroda (Vadodara) as its capital, during the British Raj its relations with the British were managed by the Baroda Residency. It was one of the largest and wealthiest princely states existing alongside British India, with wealth coming from the lucrative cotton business as well as rice, wheat and sugar production.[160]

215 1721 1818 Dy The Holkar dynasty was a Maratha clan of Dhangar origin in India.[161][162][163][164] The Holkars were generals under Peshwa Baji Rao I, and later became Maharajas of Indore in Central India as an independent member of the Maratha Empire until 1818. Later, their kingdom became a princely state under the protectorate of British India.

The dynasty was founded with Malhar Rao, who joined the service of the Peshwas of the Maratha Empire in 1721, and quickly rose to the rank of Subedar. The name of the dynasty was associated with the title of the ruler, who was known informally as Holkar Maharaja.

216 1721 13,14 Nov E Madras cyclone occurs.
217 1721 S In 1721 AD, a bunch of British sailors decided to play a game of Cricket on India’s western seaboard, Cambay. Cricket became the first English sport introduced in India[165].
218 1723 1805 Dy Travancore Kingdom:

King Marthanda Varma inherited the small feudal state of Venad in 1723 and built it into Travancore, one of the most powerful kingdoms in southern India. Marthanda Varma led the Travancore forces during the Travancore-Dutch War of 1739–46, which culminated in the Battle of Colachel. The defeat of the Dutch by Travancore is considered the earliest example of an organised power from Asia overcoming European military technology and tactics.[166] Marthanda Varma went on to conquer most of the petty principalities of the native rulers .

Travancore#The_Mysore_invasion:

Marthanda Varma's successor Karthika Thirunal Rama Varma (1758–1798), who was popularly known as Dharma Raja, shifted the capital in 1795 from Padmanabhapuram to Thiruvananthapuram. Dharma Raja's period is considered as a Golden Age in the history of Travancore. He not only retained the territorial gains of his predecessor Marthanda Varma, but also improved and encouraged social development. He was greatly assisted by a very efficient administrator, Raja Kesavadas, who was the Diwan of Travancore.

Travancore often allied with the English East India Company in military conflicts.[167] During Dharma Raja's reign, Tipu Sultan, the de facto ruler of Mysore and the son of Hyder Ali, attacked Travancore in 1789 as a part of the Mysore invasion of Kerala. Dharma Raja had earlier refused to hand over the Hindu political refugees from the Mysore occupation of Malabar, who had been given asylum in Travancore. The Mysore army entered the Cochin kingdom from Coimbatore in November 1789 and reached Trichur in December. On 28 December 1789 Tipu Sultan attacked the Nedunkotta (Northern Lines) from the north, causing the Battle of the Nedumkotta (1789), resulting in the defeat of Mysore army.

Commander-in-chief Raja Kesavadas led Travancore to victory despite being outnumbered. This attack led to Travancore joining the British against Tipu in the Third Battle of Carnatic.

Pazhassi Raja, Velu Thampi Dalawa (Velayudhan Chempakaraman Thampi) and Paliath Achan, later leaders of Travancore, fought the British East India Company but lost. Travancore became a British ally in 1805 following a treaty between British Resident Colonel (later General) Colin Macaulay and Diwan Velu Thampi Dalawa.

219 1724 1948 Pr Hyderabad State, also known as Hyderabad Deccan,[168] was a princely state located in the south-central region of India with its capital at the city of Hyderabad. It is now divided into the state of Telangana, the Hyderabad-Karnataka region of Karnataka, and the Marathwada region of Maharashtra, in present-day India.

The state was ruled from 1724 to 1857 by the Nizam, who was initially a viceroy of the Mughal empire in the Deccan. Hyderabad gradually became the first princely state to come under British paramountcy signing a subsidiary alliance agreement. During British rule in 1901 the state had an average revenue of Rs.417,00,000, making it the wealthiest princely state in India.[169] The native inhabitants of Hyderabad Deccan, regardless of ethnic origin, are called "Mulki" (countryman), a term still used today.[170][171]

The dynasty declared itself an independent monarchy during the final years of the British Raj. After the Partition of India, Hyderabad signed a standstill agreement with the new dominion of India, continuing all previous arrangements except for the stationing of Indian troops in the state. Hyderabad's location in the middle of the Indian union, as well as its diverse cultural heritage, was a driving force behind India's annexation of the state in 1948.[172] Subsequently, Mir Osman Ali Khan, the 7th Nizam, signed an instrument of accession, joining India.[173]

220 1724 1948 Pr Nizam of Hyderabad:

The Nizams were the 18th-through-20th-century rulers of Hyderabad. Nizam of Hyderabad (Niẓām ul-Mulk, also known as Asaf Jah) was the title of the monarch of the Hyderabad State (as of 2019 divided between the state of Telangana, Hyderabad-Karnataka region of Karnataka and the Marathwada region of Maharashtra). Nizam, shortened from Nizam-ul-Mulk, meaning Administrator of the Realm, was the title inherited by Asaf Jah I. He was the viceroy of the Great Mughal in the Deccan, the premier courtier in Mughal India in 1724, and the founding "Nizam of Hyderabad".

The Asaf Jahi dynasty was founded by Mir Qamar-ud-Din Siddiqi (Asaf Jah I), who served as a viceroy of the Deccan under the Mughal Empire from 1713 to 1721. He intermittently governed the region after Emperor Aurangzeb's death in 1707. In 1724 Mughal control weakened, and Asaf Jah became virtually independent of the Mughal Empire; Hyderabad would then become a tributary of the Maratha Empire, losing a series of battles through the 18th century.[174][175][176]

When the East India Company achieved paramountcy over the Indian subcontinent, they allowed the Nizams to continue to rule their princely states as client kings. The Nizams retained internal power over Hyderabad State until 17 September 1948, when Hyderabad was integrated into the new Indian Union.[177] The Asaf Jah dynasty had only seven rulers; however there was a period of 13 unstable years after the rule of the first Nizam when three of his sons (Nasir Jung, Muzafar Jung and Salabath Jung) ruled. They were never officially recognised[by whom?] as rulers. The seventh and last Nizam, Mir Osman Ali Khan, fell from power when India annexed Hyderabad in 1948 which is known as operation polo or police action[178]

221 1724 1948 Pr Nizam of Hyderabad:

By the time of its annexation, Hyderabad was the largest and most prosperous one among all the princely states. It covered 82,698 square miles (214,190 km2) of fairly homogeneous territory and had a population of roughly 16.34 million people (as per the 1941 census), of which a majority (85%) was Hindu. Hyderabad State had its own army, airline, telecommunication system, railway network, postal system, currency and radio broadcasting service. [179][180][181] Hindus were also given highest of the government posts; like 2-time Prime Minister of Hyderabad – Maharaja Sir Kishen Pershad, Maharaja Chandu Lal and Raja Sham Raj I. Raja Sham Raj II, a member of H. E. H Nizam's Executive Council. The position of Kotwal was also given to a Hindu, Raja Bahadur Venkatarama Reddy.[182]

222 1724 1948 Pr Nizam of Hyderabad:

The Asaf Jahis were prolific builders. Their palaces are listed below:

  • Chowmahalla Palace – Official residence of early Nizams
  • Purani Haveli
  • King Kothi Palace
  • Mahboob Mansion
  • Falaknuma Palace
  • Bella Vista
  • Hill Fort Palace
  • Chiran Palace
  • Saifabad Palace
  • Hyderabad House, New Delhi
  • Nizam Palace, Kolkata
223 1724 1948 Pr Nizam of Hyderabad: List of Nizams of Hyderabad (1724–1948)
  • Nizam-ul-Mulk, Asaf Jah I (Mir Qamar-ud-din Khan), 20 August 1671 to 1 June 1748
  • Nasir Jung (Mir Ahmed Ali Khan), 26 February 1712 to 16 December 1750
  • Muzaffar Jung (Mir Hidayat Muhi-ud-din Sa'adullah Khan), – to 13 February 1751
  • Salabat Jung (Mir Sa'id Muhammad Khan), 24 November 1718 to 16 September 1763
  • Nizam-ul-Mulk, Asaf Jah II (Mir Nizam Ali Khan), 7 March 1734 to 6 August 1803
  • Sikander Jah, Asaf Jah III (Mir Akbar Ali Khan), 11 November 1768 to 21 March 1829
  • Nasir-ud-Daula, Asaf Jah IV (Mir Farqunda Ali Khan), 25 April 1794 to 16 May 1857
  • Afzal-ud-Daula, Asaf Jah V (Mir Tahniyath Ali Khan), 11 October 1827 to 26 February 1869
  • Asaf Jah VI (Mir Mahbub Ali Khan), 17 August 1866 to 29 August 1911
  • Asaf Jah VII (Mir Osman Ali Khan), 6 April 1886 to 24 February 1967
224 1725 E Jesuit Father Hanxleden compiles first Sanskrit grammar in a European language.[2]
225 1726 1947 Dy Scindia dynasty (anglicized from Shinde and also spelled popularly as Shinde in Maharashtra), is a Hindu Maratha dynasty of Kunbi origin that ruled the erstwhile State of Gwalior. It had the patel-ship of Kumberkerrab in Wai. It was founded by Ranoji Scindia, who started as a "slipper-bearer" of the Peshwa Bajirao I.[183][184][185][186] Ranoji and his descendents along with their rivals the Holkars, played a leading role during the Maratha ascendency in North india during the 18th century. The Gwalior state was a princely state under the British Raj during the 19th and the 20th centuries. After India's independence in 1947, several members of the Sindhia family went on to join Indian politics.

Scindia#Maratha Period:

The Scindia dynasty was founded by Ranoji Scindia, who was the son of Jankojirao Scindia, the Patil of Kanherkhed, a village in Satara District, Maharashtra.[187] Peshwa Baji Rao's career saw the strengthening of the Maratha Empire. Ranoji was in charge of the Maratha conquests in Malwa in 1726. Ranoji established his capital at Ujjain in 1731. His successors included Jayajirao, Jyotibarao, Dattajirao, Jankojirao, Mahadji Shinde and Daulatrao Scindia.The Scindias became a major regional power in the latter half of the 18th century, and figured prominently in the three Anglo-Maratha Wars.They held sway over many of the Rajput states, and conquered north India. In 1818, after accepting the terms of a subsidiary alliance with the British, the family shifted their base from Ujjain to The Gwalior.

226 1727 1760 Em George II of Great Britain (George Augustus; German: Georg August; 30 October / 9 November 1683 – 25 October 1760) was King of Great Britain and Ireland, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Hanover) and a prince-elector of the Holy Roman Empire from 11 June 1727 (O.S.) until his death in 1760.
227 1728 28 Feb BS Bajirao I defeats the combined forces of the Mughal Empire and the Nizam of Hyderabad in the Battle of Palkhed.[1]
228 1728 1759 F Maveeran Alagumuthu Kone Yadav[citation needed] (11 July 1710 – 19 July 1759), from Kattalankulam in Thoothukudi District, was an early Chieftain and freedom fighter against the British presence in Tamil Nadu. Born into a Konar family, he became a military leader in the town of Ettayapuram, and was defeated in battle there against the British and Maruthanayagam's forces. He was executed in 1759.[188][189]
229 1729 Co Danish Colonization (Danish India#The Second Danish East India Company (1670–1732)):

Danish-Norwegian King forces the Danish East India Company to loan him money. His failure to repay the loan and inconsistency of Indian trade forces the company into liquidation.

230 1730 Co Danish Colonization (Danish India#Trade stabilizes under Danish Asiatic Company (1732–1772)):

1730s : Denmark's Chinese and Indian trade stabilizes, with cargo from India dominated by cotton fabrics from the Coromandel Coast and Bengal.

231 1730 1796 F Rani Velu Nachiyar (3 January 1730 – 25 December 1796) was a queen of Sivaganga estate from c. 1780–1790. She was the first Indian queen to wage war with the East India Company in India.[190][191] She is known by Tamils as Veeramangai ("brave woman").[192]
232 1731 1754 Co Yanaon or Yanam was one of the five settlements of French India between 1731 and 1954.

Yanaon was a Dutch colony prior to French takeover in the 1720s. Indigo wells (Neelikundilu) are still found in the west of Yanam. The Dutch built a fort, which they used to store their currency, minted at nearby Neelapalli. The location of the fort is today referred to by locals as the Saali Kota or Saalivandru, meaning "shawl-hut", since after the demise of the Dutch, the building was taken over by cloth weavers.

The region was presented to a French General, the Marquess of Bussy, by the king of Vizianagaram, Pusapati Peda Vijaya Rama Raju (1670–1756) as a token of gratitude for Bussy's help in his fight against the rulers of Bobbili. There remains a street named after Bussy in Yanam.

Actually, it was in 1750 when French leader de Bussy was staying with entire battalion near Hyderabad. Many soldiers have died due to some disease (Small pox). He was running with financial crisis. Vijaya Rama Raju of Vizianagaram helped him to overcome financial crisis and rebuild his battalion.

233 1732 Co Danish Colonization (Danish India#Trade stabilizes under Danish Asiatic Company (1732–1772)):

King Christian VI signs charter of new Asiatic Company with 40-year monopoly on Asian trade with India and China. Both previous companies had failed due to the lack of continuity in trade. This time, the intention of the investors was "to place this Asiatic Trade in Our Realms and Territories on a more constant footing in time to come".[193]

234 1735 Bombay T In Bombay, Start of shipbuilding industry (Wadia docks, Duncan docks)[106].
235 1735 Tr The Bombay ShipYard (Bombay Dockyard) was established in 1735 by the East India Company, which brought in shipwrights from their base at Surat in order to construct vessels using Malabar teak. One of their number, Lovji Nusserwanjee Wadia, was (along with several generations of his descendants) a key figure in the success of the Yard, as indicated in The New Cambridge History of India: Science, Technology and Medicine in Colonial India:[194]

Between the seventeenth and early nineteenth centuries Indian shipyards produced a series of vessels incorporating these hybrid features. A large proportion of them were built in Bombay, where the Company had established a small shipyard. In 1736 Parsi carpenters were brought in from Surat to work there and, when their European supervisor died, one of the carpenters, Lowji Nuserwanji Wadia, was appointed Master Builder in his place. Wadia oversaw the construction of thirty-five ships, twenty-one of them for the Company. Following his death in 1774, his sons took charge of the shipyard and between them built a further thirty ships over the next sixteen years. The Britannia, a ship of 749 tons launched in 1778, so impressed the Court of Directors when it reached Britain that several new ships were commissioned from Bombay, some of which later passed into the hands of the Royal Navy. In all, between 1736 and 1821, 159 ships of over 100 tons were built at Bombay, including 15 of over 1,000 tons. Ships constructed at Bombay in its heyday were said to be ‘vastly superior to anything built anywhere else in the world’.

236 1736 BS Maratha Empire under Bajirao defeats Mughal Empire, in response for an appeal for help from Chhatrasal, ruler of Bundelkhand in the Battle of Malwa.[1]
237 1737 16 Mar BS Marathas under Bajirao I defeat the Mughal Empire in the Battle of Delhi (1737).[1]
238 1737 24 Dec BS Marathas defeat a combined army of the Mughal Empire, Nizam of Hyderabad, Nawab of Awadh and Nawabs of Bhopal in the Battle of Bhopal.[1]
239 1737 S Originating in England, cricket came to India with the East India Company – an English company formed to develop trade in Asia.

According to British sailor Clement Downing[195]’s “A History of the Indian Wars,”[196] written in 1737, the first cricket match in India was played between sailors like him in 1721 in Khambhat, near India’s western seaboard.

240 1739 1746 BC The Travancore–Dutch War was a war between the Dutch East India Company (VOC) and the Indian kingdom of Travancore, culminating in the Battle of Colachel in 1741.

In the early 18th century, the Malabar Coast region of present-day Kerala was divided among several small chiefdoms. In the 1730s, Marthanda Varma, the ruler of Travancore, adopted an expansionist policy, and conquered several territories from these small states. This threatened the interests of the Dutch East India Company's command at Malabar, whose spice trade depended on procurement of spices from these states.[197] The ruler of Deshinganad (present-day Kollam) requested the Dutch support against an impending attack from Travancore, stating that he would surrender to Marthanda Varma if the Dutch refused to help him.[198]

241 1739 BC Marathas under Bajirao I defeat the Portuguese in the Battle of Vasai, Portuguese army and administration pulled out of Baçaim (Vasai) (17 February – 16 May).[1]
242 1739 1806 F Jayakrushna Rajaguru Mohapatra (29 October 1739 – 6 December 1806) popularly known as Jayi Rajaguru[199] was a prominent figure of the Indian independence movement in the state of Odisha. A princely-priest by profession at the court of the Khurda kingdom, Rajaguru revolted against the British Raj in the province. Whilst collaborating with the Marathas to recapture the British-occupied province, a Maratha messenger was caught by the British army and Rajaguru's secret strategies got exposed. Upon failure of his removal from the king's court, the British force attacked the fort of Khurda and captured Rajaguru. He was later sentenced to death by tying his legs to the branches of a banyan tree in Baghitota, Midnapore.[200][201]

He is supposedly known, in written history, as first martyr of India against the British. However, this is disputed because he was mainly fighting against the threat imposed by the British towards the seizure of his feudal lands, rather than for the independence of either Odisha or India. However, later, the Paika Rebellion, under Bakshi Jagabandhu, is thought to be the first rebellion among Odias against the British.[202]

In September 1804 the King of Khurda was deprived of the traditional rights of Jagannatha Temple which was a serious shock to the King and the people of Odisha. Consequently, in October 1804 a group of armed Paikas attacked the British at Pipili. This event alarmed the British force. In the meantime, Rajaguru requested all the Kings of the State to join hands for a common cause against the British. The Kings of Kujanga, Kanika, Harishapura, Marichipura and others made an alliance with the King of Khurda and prepared themselves for the battle.

Finally, the historical fight occurred between the military of Khurda and the British. Fight continued for a long period and Rajaguru was arrested from the Khurdha fort and was taken to Barabati fort. He made his all out effort to keep his king safe but finally, Mukunda Deva-II was arrested on 3 January 1805. Then Rajaguru and the King were sent to Midnapore Jail from Cuttack, fearing further violence in the State.

243 1739 D Sacking of Delhi by the Persian Nadir Shah and the loot of all is treasures (Nader Shah's invasion of India):

Emperor Nader Shah, the Shah of Persia (1736–47) and the founder of the Afsharid dynasty of Persia, invaded Northern India, eventually attacking Delhi in March 1739. His army had easily defeated the Mughals at the Battle of Karnal and would eventually capture the Mughal capital in the aftermath of the battle.[203]

The city was sacked for several days. An enormous fine of 20 million rupees was levied on the people of Delhi. Muhammad Shah handed over the keys to the royal treasury, and lost the Peacock Throne, to Nader Shah, which thereafter served as a symbol of Persian imperial might. Amongst a treasure trove of other fabulous jewels, Nader also gained the Koh-i-Noor and Darya-i-Noor ("Mountain of Light" and "Sea of Light", respectively) diamonds; they are now part of the British and Iranian Crown Jewels, respectively. Nader and his Afsharid troops left Delhi in the beginning of May 1739, but before they left, he ceded back all territories to the east of the Indus, which he had overrun, to Muhammad Shah.[204] The sack of the city and defeat of the Moghuls was made easier since both parties were originally from Persian cultures.[205] Nader's army took roughly 120 billion US dollars in purchasing power today from Delhi back to Persia. It took 20,000 mules and 20,000 camels to carry off the treasure. When Nader was traveling back to Iran, bandits descended on his huge caravan at night to steal animals carrying jewels and gold. In response, Nader burned down villages suspected of harboring the criminals.[206]

Till date, these are the only jewels that could have been conclusively traced back to Nadir Shah’s sack of Delhi in 1739[207]:

  • Koh-i-Noor (Mountain of Light); current location : British Crown Jewels, London
  • Orlov or Orloff (also referred as one of the eyes of the idol at Srirangam Temple, Tamil Nadu.); current location : Diamond Fund, Moscow
  • Golconda d'[208] or diamond; current location : Dunklings Jewellers, Melbourne, Australia
  • Daria-i-Noor (Sea of Light); current location : Iranian Crown Jewels, Central Bank of Iran, Tehran or Sonali Bank, Dhaka
  • Noor-ul-Amin (Light of the Eye); current location : Iranian Crown Jewels, Central Bank of Iran, Tehran
  • Taj-e-Mah[209][210] (Crown of the Moon); current location : Iranian Crown Jewels, Central Bank of Iran, Tehran
  • Shah Diamond; current location : Diamond Fund, Moscow
  • Shah Jahan Diamond; current location : H.H. Sheikh Naseer Al-Sabah, Kuwait
  • Akbar Shah Diamond (Also called Shepherd's Stone); current location : H.H. Samarjitsinh Gaekwad of Vadodara Royal Family
  • Timur's Ruby; current location : British Crown Jewels, London

An unknown vast majority of the precious stones that Nadir Shah took with him is simply untraceable and most are probably lost in the passage of time.

244 1740 Ad A Subsidiary alliance, in South Asian history, was a tributary alliance between an Indian state and a European East India Company. The system of subsidiary alliances was pioneered by the French East India Company governor Joseph François Dupleix, who in the late 1740s established treaties with the Nizam of Hyderabad and other Indian princes in the Carnatic region.

The method was subsequently adopted by the British East India Company, with Robert Clive negotiating a series of conditions with Mir Jafar following his victory in the 1757 Battle of Plassey, and subsequently those in the 1765 Treaty of Allahabad, as a result of the Company's success in the 1764 Battle of Buxar. A successor of Clive, Richard Wellesley, 1st Marquess Wellesley initially took a non-interventionist policy towards the various Indian states which were allied to the British East India Company, but later adopted, and refined the policy of forming subsidiary alliances.

245 1740 May BS Raghoji I Bhonsle of the Maratha Empire defeats and kills Dost Ali Khan the Mughal Nawab of Arcot in the Battle of Damalcherry.[211]
246 1741 BC The Battle of Colachel (or Battle of Kulachal) was fought on 10 August 1741 [O.S. 31 July 1741][212][213]

between the Indian kingdom of Travancore and the Dutch East India Company, during the Travancore-Dutch War. King Marthanda Varma's (1729–1758) forces defeated the Dutch East India Company's forces led by Admiral Eustachius De Lannoy on 10 August 1741.

It was the first time in Indian history that an Asian country defeated a European naval force. The Dutch never recovered from the defeat and no longer posed a large colonial threat to India.[214]

247 1741 BS Siege of Trichinopoly (1741):

The Siege of Trichinopoly took place in early 1741 during an extended series of conflicts between the Nawab of Arcot and the Maratha Empire for control over parts of what is now southern India. Raghuji Bhonsle's Maratha army successfully starved out the town, compelling the surrender of Chanda Sahib on 26 March 1741.

248 1741 1759 BS List of battles of Rajasthan#Post-Mughal rule:
  • Battle of Gangwana (1741) – 1,000 Rathor cavaliers of Bhakt Singh fought a combined army of a 100,000 men consisting of Mughals, Kachwahas, Chauhans, Jadauns, Sisodias and Jats. In this battle Bhakt Singh was defeated but his cavalry charge killed and injured thousands of his foes. Sir Jadunath Sarkar quotes that – "the battle front was like tigers upon a flock of sheep". According to Harcharandas more than 12,000 men were slain in the battlefield.[215][216][217]
  • Battle of Rajmahal (1747) – Ishvari Singh of Jaipur defeated a coalition of armies led by Jagat Singh of Mewar.[218]
  • Battle of Bagru (1748) – Madho Singh I defeated Ishvari Singh.[219]
  • Battle of Raona (1750) – The Mughal Empire invaded Marwar but were repelled by the armies of Raja Ram singh Rathore and Ishwari Singh Kachwaha.[220]
  • Battle of Luniawas (1750) – Bhakt Singh challenged his nephew Ram Singh for the throne of Marwar. Ram Singh hired a large contingent of Afghan and Baloch Musketeers from Sindh to defeat his uncle, he further formed a powerful army in Jodhpur and appointed Sher Singh Rathor, a veteran general of Marwar to defeat the usurper. At first Ram Singhs general Sher Singh Rathor pushed Bhakt Singh 4 miles back and almost forced him to retreat, 2000 Rathors of Bhakt Singh fell in the battle with 9 Rathor nobles and Bhakt Singh was severely injured by spear and bullet wounds, but Bhakt Singh made a fierce counterattack which killed Sher Singh and most of Ram Singhs commanders making the battle a costly victory for Bhakt Singh.[221][222]
  • Battle of Ajmer (1752) – On May 1752 Jayapa Sindhia and Ram Singh attacked Ajmer, sacked it and massacred the populace. Upon learning of the invasion, Bhakt Singh marched with his army and camped 8 miles away from Ajmer. He waited till July and then attacked Jayappa. Bhakt Singh blocked the surrounding paths and placed his guns on a hill, he then bombarded the Marathas, upon receiving heavy casualties, the Marathas fled along with the army of Ram Singh.[223]
  • Battle of Kumher (1754) – Suraj Mal Jat ruler of Bharatpur defeated the combined armies of Marathas and Mughals.
  • Siege of forts of Barwara and Tonk (1757) – Peshwa Raghunath Rao and Malhar Rao Holkar laid siege on the forts of Barwara and Tonk. They were defeated by the Rajput garrison of these forts under Maharaja Sawai Madho Singh.
  • Battle of Kakor (1759) – The Rajput forces of Madho Singh of Jaipur defeated and repulsed the Holkar forces of Malhar Rao Holkar led by the veteran Gangadhar Tantiya in present day Kakor, Uniara, Tonk district, Rajasthan.[224]
249 1741 Co French colonization (French India):

From their arrival until 1741, the objectives of the French, like those of the British, were purely commercial. During this period, the French East India Company peacefully acquired Yanam (about 840 kilometres or 520 miles north-east of Pondichéry on Andhra Coast) in 1723, Mahe on Malabar Coast in 1725 and Karaikal (about 150 kilometres or 93 miles south of Pondichéry) in 1739. In the early 18th century, the town of Pondichéry was laid out on a grid pattern and grew considerably. Able governors like Pierre Christophe Le Noir (1726–1735) and Pierre Benoît Dumas (1735–1741) expanded the Pondichéry area and made it a large and rich town.

250 1743 BS Siege of Trichinopoly (1743):

The Siege of Trichinopoly (March 1743 – August 1743) was part of an extended series of conflicts between the Nizam of Hyderabad and the Maratha Empire for control of the Carnatic region. On 29 August 1743, after a six-month siege, Murari Rao surrendered, giving Nizam ul Mulk (Nizam) the suzerainty of Trichinopoly. By the end of 1743, the Nizam had regained full control of Deccan. This stopped the Maratha interference in the region and ended their hegemony over the Carnatic. The Nizam resolved the internal conflicts among the regional hereditary nobles (Nawabs) for the seat of governor (Subedar) of Arcot State, and monitored the activities of the British East India company and French East India Company by limiting their access to ports and trading.

251 1744 1763 BC The Carnatic Wars were a series of military conflicts in the middle of the 18th century in India's coastal Carnatic region, a dependency of Hyderabad State, India. Three Carnatic Wars were fought between 1746 and 1763.

The conflicts involved numerous nominally independent rulers and their vassals, struggles for succession and territory; and included a diplomatic and military struggle between the French East India Company and the British East India Company. They were mainly fought within the territories of Mughal India with the assistance of various fragmented polities loyal to the "Great Moghul".

As a result of these military contests, the British East India Company established its dominance among the European trading companies within India. The French company was pushed to a corner and was confined primarily to Pondichéry. The East India Company's dominance eventually led to control by the British Company over most of India and eventually to the establishment of the British Raj.

252 1744 1763 BC The Carnatic Wars:

The Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb died in 1707. He was succeeded by Bahadur Shah I, but there was a general decline in central control over the empire during the tenure of Jahandar Shah and later emperors. Nizam-ul-Mulk established Hyderabad as an independent kingdom. A power struggle ensued after his death between his son, Nasir Jung, and his grandson, Muzaffar Jung, which soon involved foreign powers eager to expand their influence. France aided Muzaffar Jung while Britain aided Nasir Jung. Several erstwhile Mughal territories were autonomous such as the Carnatic, ruled by Nawab Dost Ali Khan, despite being under the legal purview of the Nizam of Hyderabad. French and British support soon became intertwined with the affairs of the Nawab. Dost Ali's death sparked a power struggle between his son-in-law Chanda Sahib, supported by the French, and Muhammad Ali, supported by the British.[225]

One major instigator of the Carnatic Wars was the Frenchman Joseph François Dupleix, who arrived in India in 1715, rising to become the French East India Company's governor in 1742. Dupleix sought to expand French influence in India, which was limited to a few trading outposts, the chief one being Pondicherry on the Coromandel Coast. Immediately upon his arrival in India, he organized Indian recruits under French officers for the first time, and engaged in intrigues with local rulers to expand French influence. However, he was met by the equally challenging and determined young officer from the British Army, Robert Clive.

"The Austrian War of Succession in 1740 and later the war in 1756 automatically led to a conflict in India ... and British reverses during the American War of Independence (1775–1783) in the 1770s had an impact on events in India."[225]

253 1746 1748 BC First Carnatic War (1746–1748):

The First Carnatic War (1746–1748) was the Indian theatre of the War of the Austrian Succession and the first of a series of Carnatic Wars that established early British dominance on the east coast of the Indian subcontinent. In this conflict the British and French East India Companies vied with each other on land for control of their respective trading posts at Madras, Pondicherry, and Cuddalore, while naval forces of France and Britain engaged each other off the coast. The war set the stage for the rapid growth of French hegemony in southern India under the command of French Governor-General Joseph François Dupleix in the Second Carnatic War.

Carnatic Wars#First Carnatic War (1746–1748):

In 1740 the War of the Austrian Succession broke out in Europe. Great Britain was drawn into the war in 1744, opposed to France and its allies. The trading companies of both countries maintained cordial relations in India while their parent countries were bitter enemies on the European continent. Dodwell writes, "Such were the friendly relations between the English and the French that the French sent their goods and merchandise from Pondicherry to Madras for safe custody."[226] Although French company officials were ordered to avoid conflict, British officials were not, and were furthermore notified that a Royal Navy fleet was en route. After the British initially captured a few French merchant ships, the French called for backup from as far afield as Isle de France (now Mauritius), beginning an escalation in naval forces in the area. In July 1746 French commander La Bourdonnais and British Admiral Edward Peyton fought an indecisive action off Negapatam, after which the British fleet withdrew to Bengal. On 21 September 1746, the French captured the British outpost at Madras. La Bourdonnais had promised to return Madras to the British, but Dupleix withdrew that promise, and wanted to give Madras to Anwar-ud-din after the capture. The Nawab then sent a 10,000-man army to take Madras from the French but was decisively repulsed by a small French force in the Battle of Adyar. The French then made several attempts to capture the British Fort St. David at Cuddalore, but the timely arrivals of reinforcements halted these and eventually turned the tables on the French. British Admiral Edward Boscawen besieged Pondicherry in the later months of 1748, but lifted the siege with the advent of the monsoon rains in October.[225]

With the termination of the War of Austrian Succession in Europe, the First Carnatic War also came to an end. In the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle (1748), Madras was given back to the British in exchange for the French fortress of Louisbourg in North America, which the British had captured. The war was principally notable in India as the first military experience of Robert Clive, who was taken prisoner at Madras but managed to escape, and who then participated in the defence of Cuddalore and the siege of Pondicherry.The French still retained their position as the protectors of Nizams of Hyderabad

254 1746 BC The Battle of Madras or Fall of Madras took place in September 1746 during the War of the Austrian Succession when a French force attacked and captured the city of Madras from its British garrison.

French forces occupied Madras until the end of hostilities when it was exchanged for the British conquest of Louisbourg in North America as part of the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle. One of the British defenders, Robert Clive made his name by escaping from the French captors and carrying news of the city's fall to his superiors at Fort St David.

The French occupied the town for the duration of the war. Despite Dupleix's promise earlier to hand the territory over to the Nawab of the Carnatic, Dupleix refused to do so.[227] A force of 10,000 sent by the Nawab to enforce the agreement was routed by a small French force led by Captain Louis Paradis at the battle of Adyar on 24 October 1746. The French subsequently tried to take Fort St David but found the resistance much tougher, and were ultimately forced to withdraw.

The Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle that ended the war made provision for Madras to be returned to the British in exchange for Louisbourg in Acadia which had been captured by British forces in 1745.[228] The French besieged Madras again in 1759, this time without success.

255 1746 BC The Battle of Adyar (also the Battle of Adyar River) took place on 24 October 1746.[229] The battle was between the French East India Company men and Nawab of Arcot forces over the St. George Fort, which was held by the French. It was part of the First Carnatic War between the English and the French.[230][231]

Mahfuz Khan's troops fled and the Battle of the Adyar River, which began on the morning of 24 October 1746, ended that evening with the French retaining control over Fort St. George.[232]

The humiliating defeat made the Nawab realize the impotency of Indian armoury against European techniques of warfare. According to William Dalrymple (historian), it was immediately clear that nothing in the Mughal armoury could match the techniques of 18th century European warfare, particularly the “invention of screws for elevating the guns gave the artillery greater precision and increased the fire power of the foot soldier, giving them an edge in the battle against the cavalry.”[citation needed] It showed that a small body of infantry armed with the new flintlock muskets and bayonets and supported by quick-firing mobile artillery, could now scatter a whole army just as easily as they could in Europe.

This battle is a turning point in Indian history because for the first time, techniques of 18th century European warfare, developed in Prussia and tested on the battlefields of France and Flanders, had been tried out in India.[citation needed]

256 1746 BS Chhota Ghallughara ("Smaller Massacre") was a massacre of a significant proportion of the Sikh population by the Mughal Empire. Jaspat Rai's brother Lakhpat Rai with Mughal army killed an estimated 7,000 Sikhs in these attacks.[233]

Chhōtā Ghallūghārā is distinguished from the Vaddā Ghallūghārā, the greater massacre of 1762.[234]

257 1748 1801 F The Marudhu Pandiyars[235] (Periya Marudhu and Chinna Marudhu) were chieftains of Sivagangai, Tamil Nadu, India, towards the end of the 18th century. They were known for fighting against the East India Company.[236] They were finally executed by the EIC after being captured by them.

Maruthu Brothers were good in aerodynamics and invented many variants of spears and Valari, a variant of the boomerang.

258 1748 W In 1740 India appeared to be relatively tranquil. In the north the Persian Nader Shah’s invasion (1739) had proved to be only a large-scale raid[237].

In the Deccan the Niẓām al-Mulk provided some measure of stability. In Western India the Marathas were dominant. However, there was competition between Marathas, Mughals, and local rulers for political supremacy in the Deccan. There was a sense of impending change in the air; the Mughal emperor was sickly, the nizam was aged, and the Marathas were active and ambitious.

It was on this scene that events in Europe precipitated an Anglo-French struggle in India.[238] The War of the Austrian Succession began with Frederick II of Prussia’s seizure of Silesia in 1740; France supported Prussia, and from 1742 England supported Austria. The stage thus set, the English decided that the French Indian trade was too powerful to be left alone; the neutrality of previous years was therefore abandoned. Both sides depended on sea power for success, but it was the French who moved first—with an improvised fleet from Mauritius, Bertrand-François Mahé de La Bourdonnais, drove the British in alarm to Bengal and captured Madras after a week’s siege in September 1746. Quarrels between La Bourdonnais and the governor of Pondicherry, Joseph François Dupleix, marred this unexpected success, but an English attack on Pondicherry was repelled. Then the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle (1748), which ended the war, returned Madras to the British in exchange for Cape Breton Island in North America.

The Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle (1748), sometimes called the Treaty of Aachen, ended the War of the Austrian Succession, following a congress assembled on 24 April 1748 at the Free Imperial City of Aachen.

The two main protagonists in the war, Britain and France, opened peace talks in the Dutch city of Breda in 1746. Agreement was delayed by British hopes of improving their position; when this failed to occur, a draft treaty was agreed on 30 April 1748. A final version was signed on 18 October 1748 by Britain, France, and the Dutch Republic.

259 1749 1754 BC Second Carnatic War (1749–1754) (Carnatic Wars):

Though a state of war did not exist in Europe, the proxy war continued in India. On one side was Nasir Jung, the Nizam and his protege Muhammad Ali, supported by the British, and on the other was Chanda Sahib and Muzaffar Jung, supported by the French, vying to become the Nawab of Arcot. Muzaffar Jung and Chanda Sahib were able to capture Arcot while Nasir Jung's subsequent death allowed Muzaffar Jung to take control of Hyderabad. Muzaffar's reign was short as he was soon killed, and Salabat Jung became Nizam. In 1751, however, Robert Clive led British troops to capture Arcot, and successfully defend it. The war ended with the Treaty of Pondicherry, signed in 1754, which recognised Muhammad Ali Khan Walajah as the Nawab of the Carnatic. Charles Godeheu replaced Dupleix, who died in poverty back in France.[225]

260 1749 BS The Battle of Ambur (3 August 1749) was the first major battle of the Second Carnatic War.[239]

The battle was initiated by Muzaffar Jung and supported by Joseph François Dupleix and led by Chanda Sahib, who sought to overthrow Anwaruddin Muhammed Khan, the Nawab of the Carnatic, for supporting Nasir Jung's claim to be Nizam of Hyderabad. French forces were decisive in giving the allies victory; Anwaruddin Muhammed Khan was killed in the battle and Chanda Sahib seized control of the Carnatic.

261 1750 1784 F Tilka Manjhi (11 February 1750 – 1784)

Tilka Majhi was an Indian freedom fighter the first Adivasi leader from Manjhi Community. He was considered as second fighter after Maharana Pratap. He took up arms against the British in the 1784, around 70 years before Mangal Pandey. He organized the Adivasis to form an armed group to fight against the resource grabbing and exploitation of British.[240]

262 1750 Bombay T Asia's first dry dock built by Lovji Nusserwanjee Wadia in Bombay[106].
263 1750 Tr The Wadia Group is one of the oldest conglomerates of India. The group was founded by Parsi Lovji Nusserwanjee Wadia in 1736. Lovji Wadia secured contracts with the British East India Company to build ships and docks in Bombay in 1736.[241] This, and subsequent efforts, would result in Bombay becoming a strategic port for the British colonial undertakings in Asia.

The Bombay dry-dock, the first dry-dock in Asia, was built by Lovji and his brother Sorabji in 1750.

264 1751 BC The Battle of Arnee (or Battle of Arni) took place at Arnee (now Arani, India) on 3 December 1751 during the Second Carnatic War.

A British-led force under the command of Robert Clive defeated and routed a much larger Franco-Indian force under the command of Raza Sahib.[242] The French troops were guarding a convoy of treasure. Clive took up a position in swampy ground, crossed by a causeway in which the convoy was forced to pass. The French were thrown into disorder and forced to retreat, but night saved them from total destruction. The treasure, however, was captured.

265 1751 BS The Siege of Trichinopoly (1751–52) was conducted by Chanda Sahib, who had been recognized as the Nawab of the Carnatic by representatives of the French East India Company, against the fortress town of Trichinopoly, held by Muhammed Ali Khan Wallajah.[243]

In March 1751 Chanda again began moving south from the Carnatic capital of Arcot, again with French support. The size of his force prompted the British at Madras to send additional troops toward Trichinopoly to intercept Chanda. After a brief encounter near Valikondapuram in July, the outnumbered British retreated to Trichinopoly. Chanda followed with his main army, and began besieging the fortress town. Siege operations were principally conducted by the French contingent, first under D'Auteuil, and the later under Law.

In an attempt to relieve the siege, the British in Madras sent Captain Robert Clive with a small force to occupy Arcot, which Chanda had left inadequately defended. Chanda detached 4,000 of his siege force in an attempt to recover Arcot; this attempt famously failed, propelling Clive into a more prominent role in India.

The siege was eventually lifted, and the tables turned, in April 1752 with the arrival of British reinforcements led by Stringer Lawrence and including Clive. On 9 April Lawrence made a junction with troops sent out of Trichinopoly and made it inside the lines. Two days later he led a sortie against the besiegers, prompting Law to lift the siege and retreat to the isle of Srirangam.

The British then seized the opportunity to act against an indecisive opponent, and besieged and the French on the island. Chanda eventually negotiated a surrender to Tanjorean forces that had arrived to assist the British, believing this to be preferable to surrendering to the British. The Tanjoreans violated their promises to assist in his escape and beheaded him on 14 June. Law surrendered the French troops on the same day.

266 1751 P Robert Clive (1725–74), aged 26, seizes Arcot in modern day Tamil Nadu as French and British fight for control of South India.

The Siege of Arcot (23 September – 14 November 1751) took place at Arcot, India between forces of the British East India Company led by Robert Clive and forces of Nawab of the Carnatic, Chanda Sahib, assisted by a small number of troops from the French East India Company. It was part of the Second Carnatic War.

267 1752 BS Chanda Sahib (died 12 June 1752) Nawab of the Carnatic between 1749 and 1752. Initially he was supported by the French during the Carnatic Wars. After his defeat at Arcot in 1751, he was captured by the Marathas of Thanjavur and executed.

He was the son-in-law of the Nawab of Carnatic Dost Ali Khan,[244] under whom he worked as a Dewan.

Chanda Sahib, an ally of the French, annexed the Madurai Nayaks and was declared the "Nawab", bringing Tanjore and Tinnevelly into the dominions of the Mughal Empire.

He was weakened by constant Maratha attacks and was defeated by Muhammed Ali Khan Wallajah. After his forces were defeated by Robert Clive and the Maratha Empire, he attempted to recoup his losses but was beheaded in a mutiny by Hindu subjects in the Tanjore army.[245][246]

268 1752 Co Danish Colonization (Danish India):

1752 – 1791 – Pepper procurement lodge established at Calicut.

269 1753 10 May BS Jats under Suraj Mal defeat the Mughal Empire in the Capture of Delhi (1753).[1]
270 1753 1805 F Pazhassi Raja (3 January 1753 – 30 November 1805) was born as Kerala Varma and was also known as Cotiote Rajah and Pychy Rajah. He was a warrior Hindu prince and de facto head of the kingdom of Kottayam, otherwise known as Cotiote, in Malabar, India, between 1774 and 1805. His struggles with the East India Company is known as the Cotiote War. He is popularly known as Kerala Simham (Lion of Kerala) on account of his martial exploits.

He used guerrilla warfare to fight British in Cotiote War (Kottayathu war) across a span of thirteen years from 1793 to 1806 to preserve the independence and unity of his kingdom and was killed in 1805 in a gun-fight at Mavila Thodu in the present-day Kerala-Karnataka border.

271 1754 BS The Treaty of Pondicherry was signed in 1754 bringing an end to the Second Carnatic War. It was agreed and signed in the French settlement of Puducherry in French India. The favoured British candidate Mohamed Ali Khan Walajan was recognized as the Nawab of the Carnatic.[247] Despite intending to be a lasting solution, a Third Carnatic War broke out just two years later in 1756.
272 1754 BS Bharatpur State defeat the Marathas in Battle of Kumher (20 January – 18 May).[1]
273 1754 Co French colonization (French India):

Soon after his arrival in 1741, the most famous governor of French India, Joseph François Dupleix, began to cherish the ambition of a French territorial empire in India in spite of the pronounced uninterested attitude of his distant superiors and of the French government, which didn't want to provoke the British. Dupleix's ambition clashed with British interests in India and a period of military skirmishes and political intrigues began and continued even in rare periods when France and Great Britain were officially at peace. Under the command of the Marquis de Bussy-Castelnau, Dupleix's army successfully controlled the area between Hyderabad and Cape Comorin. But then Robert Clive arrived in India in 1744, a British officer who dashed the hopes of Dupleix to create a French empire in India.

After a defeat and failed peace talks, Dupleix was summarily dismissed and recalled to France in 1754.

274 1754 Co Danish Colonization (Danish India):

November 1754 – A meeting of Danish-Norwegian officials is held in Tranquebar. A decision is made to colonise the Andaman and Nicobar Islands to plant pepper, cinnamon, sugarcane, coffee and cotton.

275 1755 Co Danish Colonization (Danish India):

December 1755 – Danish-Norwegian settlers arrive on Andaman Islands. The colony experiences outbreaks of malaria that saw the settlement abandoned periodically until 1848, when it was abandoned for good. This sporadic occupation led to encroachments of other colonial powers onto the islands including Austria and Britain.[248]

276 1756 BC The Black Hole of Calcutta was a dungeon in Fort William, Calcutta measuring 4.30 × 5.50 ⁠metres (14 × 18 ⁠⁠feet), in which troops of Siraj ud-Daulah, the Nawab of Bengal, held British prisoners of war on the night of 20 June 1756.[249][250]:58 John Zephaniah Holwell, one of the British prisoners and an employee of the East India Company, said that, after the fall of Fort William, the surviving British soldiers, Indian sepoys, and Indian civilians were imprisoned overnight in conditions so cramped that many people died from suffocation and heat exhaustion, and that 123 of 146 prisoners of war imprisoned there died.[251] Modern historians believe that 64 prisoners were sent into the Hole, and that 43 died there.[252]

According to Hong-Yee Chiu, an astrophysicist at NASA, the Black Hole of Calcutta was the inspiration for the term black hole referring to objects resulting from the gravitational collapse of very heavy stars. He recalled hearing physicist Robert Dicke in the early 1960s compare such gravitationally collapsed objects to the prison.[253]

277 1756 1763 BC Third Carnatic War (1756–1763) (Carnatic Wars#Third Carnatic War (1756–1763)):

The outbreak of the Seven Years' War in Europe in 1756 resulted in renewed conflict between French and British forces in India. In this time the Fench were facing many financial problems. The Third Carnatic War spread beyond southern India and into Bengal where British forces captured the French settlement of Chandernagore (now Chandannagar) in 1757. However, the war was decided in the south, where the British successfully defended Madras, and Sir Eyre Coote decisively defeated the French, commanded by the comte de Lally at the Battle of Wandiwash in 1760. After Wandiwash, the French capital of Pondicherry fell to the British in 1761.[225]

The war concluded with the signing of the Treaty of Paris in 1763, which returned Chandernagore and Pondichéry to France, and allowed the French to have "factories" (trading posts) in India but forbade French traders from administering them. The French agreed to support British client governments, thus ending French ambitions of an Indian empire and making the British the dominant foreign power in India.

278 1756 Co French colonization (French India):

In spite of a treaty between the British and French agreeing not to interfere in regional Indian affairs, their colonial intrigues continued. The French expanded their influence at the court of the Nawab of Bengal and increased their trading activity in Bengal. In 1756, the French encouraged the Nawab (Siraj ud-Daulah) to attack and take the British Fort William in Calcutta. This led to the Battle of Plassey in 1757, where the British decisively defeated the Nawab and his French allies, resulting in the extension of British power over the entire province of Bengal.

279 1756 Co Danish Colonization (Danish India):

1 January 1756 – The Nicobar Islands are declared Danish-Norwegian property under the name Frederiksøerne (Frederick's Islands).

1756–1760 – All colonisation efforts on the islands fail with settlers wiped out by malaria. Danish-Norwegian claims to the islands were later sold to the British.

280 1756 1805 F Dheeran Chinnamalai (17 April 1756 – 31 July 1805) was a Palayakkarar Pattakarar of Kongu Nadu, now in western Tamil Nadu, who fought against the British East India Company.

Chinnamalai engaged in guerrilla warfare and defeated the British in battles at Cauvery in 1801, Odanilai kangeyam in 1802 and Arachalur in 1804.[254]

Dheeran Chinnamalai Gounderwas betrayed by his cook Nallapan and was captured by the British in 1805. Nallappan usurped the title of Nallasenapthi Sarkarai Manradiar with British support. Some sources say he was hanged at Sankagiri Fort on 2 August 1805, as also were his two brothers; other sources give the date as 31 July on the day of Aadi Perukku.[255][256]

281 1756 1763 W The Seven Years' War was a global conflict that involved all 5 European great powers of the time – Kingdoms of Great Britain, Prussia and France, Habsburg Monarchy of Austria and Russian Empire – plus many of Europe's middle powers and spanned 5 continents, affecting Europe, Americas, West Africa, India, and Philippines.[257]

The Seven Years' War (1756–1763) began as a conflict between Great Britain and France in 1754, when the British sought to expand into territory claimed by the French in North America. The war came to be known as the French and Indian War, with both the British and the French and their respective Native American allies fighting for control of territory. Hostilities were heightened when a British unit led by a 22-year-old Lt. Colonel George Washington ambushed a small French force at the Battle of Jumonville Glen on 28 May 1754. The conflict exploded across the colonial boundaries and extended to Britain's seizure of hundreds of French merchant ships at sea.

The colonial conflict mainly between France and Britain took place in India, North America, Europe, the Caribbean isles, the Philippines, and coastal Africa. Over the course of the war, Great Britain gained enormous areas of land and influence at the expense of the French.

Seven Years' War#India:

In India, the outbreak of the Seven Years' War in Europe renewed the long running conflict between the French and the British trading companies for influence on the subcontinent. The French allied themselves with the Mughal Empire to resist British expansion. The war began in Southern India but spread into Bengal, where British forces under Robert Clive recaptured Calcutta from the Nawab Siraj ud-Daulah, a French ally, and ousted him from his throne at the Battle of Plassey in 1757. In the same year, the British also captured Chandernagar, the French settlement in Bengal.[258] In the south, although the French captured Cuddalore, their siege of Madras failed, while the British commander Sir Eyre Coote decisively defeated the Comte de Lally at the Battle of Wandiwash in 1760 and overran the French territory of the Northern Circars. The French capital in India, Pondicherry, fell to the British in 1761; together with the fall of the lesser French settlements of Karikal and Mahé this effectively eliminated French power in India.[259]

Seven Years' War#Outcomes:

The war ended with two separate treaties dealing with the two different theaters of war. The Treaty of Paris between France, Spain and Great Britain ended the war in North America and for overseas territories taken in the conflict. The 1763 Treaty of Hubertusburg ended the war between Saxony, Austria and Prussia.

The Anglo-French hostilities were ended in 1763 by the Treaty of Paris, which involved a complex series of land exchanges across the globe. In India, the British retained the Northern Circars, but returned all the French trading ports. The treaty, however, required that the fortifications of these settlements be destroyed and never rebuilt, while only minimal garrisons could be maintained there, thus rendering them worthless as military bases. Combined with the loss of France's ally in Bengal and the defection of Hyderabad to the British as a result of the war, this effectively brought French power in India to an end, making way for British hegemony and eventual control of the subcontinent.[260] France's navy was crippled by the war. Only after an ambitious rebuilding program in combination with Spain was France again able to challenge Britain's command of the sea.[261]

282 1757 16 Jan BS Maratha Empire defeats Durrani Empire, in the Battle of Narela.[1]
283 1757 23 Jun BE British colonial administrator Robert Clive overthrows the nawab, or ruler, of Bengal in the Battle of Plassey on June 23. This victory makes Clive the virtual master of Bengal[28][29].
284 1757 BS Battle of Bobbili: (Part of the Military transactions of the French East India Company)

On January 24, 1757, Bussy with his army and the army of Pusapati Vijayarama Gajapati Raju I in tow marched towards the Bobbili fort. The army of Gopalakrishna Ranga Rao was no match for the combined armies of Marquis de Bussy-Castelnau and Pusapati Vijayarama Gajapati Raju I. Gopalakrishna Rayudu was led by his Army General Tandra Paparayudu and his army, who put up a brave fight till the end. The French General knew that it would be impossible to reach Bobbili via Rajam as Paparayudu was camping there and took a different route to reach the fort. Rani Mallamma Devi, wife of Ranga Rao and sister of Paparayudu, sent a message to him on coming to know of the enemy's advance towards the fort. However, the enemy intercepted the courier and the message did not reach Paparayudu.

Meanwhile, Ranga Rao and his men after defending the fort for several hours realised that the enemy could not be contained for long. Ranga Rao did not want the women and children in the fort to be at the mercy of the enemy. He ordered them to be sacrificed. Rani Mallamma Devi committed suicide. When the news reached him, Tandra Paparayudu rushed to the demolished fort and saw his sister and the entire family lying on the ground in a pool of blood. Seething with vengeance he took an oath to kill Pusapati Vijayarama Gajapati Raju I.[262]

285 1757 12 Feb BS Jats defeats Durrani Empire, in the Battle of Bharatpur (1757).[1]
286 1757 11 Aug BS Maratha Empire defeats Rohilla Afghans in the Battle of Delhi (1757), captures Delhi.[1]
287 1757 1858 Co British Company rule in India:

Company rule in India (sometimes, Company Raj,[263] "raj", lit. "rule" in Hindi[264]) refers to the rule or dominion of the British East India Company on the Indian subcontinent. This is variously taken to have commenced in 1757, after the Battle of Plassey, when the Nawab of Bengal surrendered his dominions to the Company,[265] in 1765, when the Company was granted the diwani, or the right to collect revenue, in Bengal and Bihar,[266] or in 1773, when the Company established a capital in Calcutta, appointed its first Governor-General, Warren Hastings, and became directly involved in governance.[267] The rule lasted until 1858, when, after the Indian rebellion of 1857 and consequent of the Government of India Act 1858, the British government assumed the task of directly administering India in the new British Raj.

288 1757 1858 Co British Company rule in India:

Chronology

  • 1757: 24 Parganas of the Sundarbans annexed to Clive after the Battle of Plassey.[268]
  • 1760: Northern Circars annexed.
  • 1765: After defeat of Nawab Wazir of Oudh at the Battle of Buxar, Major Hector Munro "obtained from the emperor" Shah Alam II the diwani, or right of revenue collection, of Bengal, Bihar, and Orissa.[268]
  • 1773: "New territories acquired" from the Raja of Banares.[269]
  • 1775: Nawab of Ghazipur defeated.[citation needed]
  • 1795: Asaf Jah II the Nizam of Hyderabad was defeated at the Battle of Kharda,[270] after the Maratha-Mysore War.
  • 1799: Fall of Mysore after Siege of Seringapatam (1799);[269] Nawab of Kadapa and Nawab of Kurnool annexed.
  • 1801: Nawab of the Carnatic (of Arcot and Nellore),[271] Nawab of Junagarh, and Rohilkhand of Lower Doab annexed.
  • 1803: Rohilkhand of Upper Doab annexed; nonresistance from the Emperor; Nawab of Bhawalpur accepts borders with British India.
289 1757 1813 Ec Three phases of British exploitation of India[272]:

The 1st Phase or Mercantile Phase from 1757 up to 1813– This phase was marked by direct plunder. The East India Company used it monopoly of trade which functioned through ‘investments’ of Indian revenues to buy Indian products at low rates. These goods were then exported to Europe and England. So in essence, the East India Company bought Indian products from the revenues they collected mainly from Bengal and then exported them. Taking advantage of the political power the British now could dictate the prices of the goods that they needed to export. The servants of the Company amassed enormous fortunes by engaging in the illegal trade till the time this was banned by Lord Cornwallis. The revenues of Bengal were exploited till the introduction of the Permanent Settlement in 1793.

Also see Sn: 315, 426 and 1558

290 1757 P The Battle of Plassey 23 June 1757. Bengal annexed by the British East India Company.

British under Robert Clive defeat Nawab Siraj-ud-Daulah to become rulers of Bengal, the richest province in India.

The Battle of Plassey was a decisive victory of the British East India Company over a much larger force of the Nawab of Bengal and his French[273] allies on 23 June 1757, under the leadership of Robert Clive. The battle helped the Company seize control of Bengal. Over the next hundred years, they seized control of most of the Indian subcontinent, Myanmar, and Afghanistan.

The battle took place at Palashi (Anglicised version: Plassey) on the banks of the Hooghly River, about 150 kilometres (93 mi) north of Calcutta and south of Murshidabad, then capital of Bengal (now in Nadia district in West Bengal). The belligerents were the Nawab Siraj-ud-Daulah, the last independent Nawab of Bengal, and the British East India Company. He succeeded Alivardi Khan (his maternal grandfather). Siraj-ud-Daulah had become the Nawab of Bengal the year before, and he had ordered the English to stop the extension of their fortification. Robert Clive bribed Mir Jafar, the commander-in-chief of the Nawab's army, and also promised to make him Nawab of Bengal. Clive defeated Siraj-ud-Daulah at Plassey in 1757 and captured Calcutta.[274]

291 1757 P The control of rich Bengal gained in the aftermath of the Battle of Plassey brought India into the public spotlight in Britain, and Parliament established regulations to manage the affairs of the East India Company. Although some wanted the Company’s territories to be taken over by the British state, the eventual compromise asserted that the Company could act as a sovereign power on behalf of the Crown while subject to oversight and regulation by the British government and parliament.
292 1757 1857 P In the hundred years from the Battle of Plassey in 1757 to the Indian Rebellion of 1857, the EIC began to function more as an administrator and less as a trading concern. The proliferation of the Company’s power chiefly took two forms:[275]
  1. The outright annexation of Indian states and subsequent direct governance of the underlying regions, or
  2. Asserting power through treaties in which Indian rulers acknowledged the Company’s hegemony in return for limited internal autonomy.
293 1757 1858 Pr Presidencies, Provinces, Princely States, (Presidencies and provinces of British India):

During the period of Company rule in India, 1757–1858, the Company gradually acquired sovereignty over large parts of India, now called "Presidencies". However, it also increasingly came under British government oversight, in effect sharing sovereignty with the Crown. At the same time, it gradually lost its mercantile privileges.

294 1758 28 Apr BS Maratha Empire led by Raghunathrao and Mahadaji Shinde defeats Durrani Empire in the Battle of Attock (1758), captures Attock.[1]
295 1758 8 May BS Maratha Empire led by Raghunathrao, Malhar Rao Holkar and Tukoji Rao Holkar defeats Durrani Empire in the Battle of Peshawar (1758), captures Peshawar.[1]
296 1758 Co French colonization (French India):

Subsequently, France sent Lally-Tollendal to recover the lost French possessions and drive the British out of India. Lally arrived in Pondichéry in 1758, had some initial success and razed Fort St. David in Cuddalore District to the ground in 1758, but strategic mistakes by Lally led to the loss of the Hyderabad region, the Battle of Wandiwash, and the siege of Pondicherry in 1760. In 1761, the British razed Pondichéry to the ground in revenge for the French depredations; it lay in ruins for four years. The French had lost their hold now in South India too.

297 1759 BE Britain’s capture of Quebec during the French and Indian War virtually ends France’s power in North America[28].
298 1759 BS Maratha Empire supported by Sikh Sukerchakia Misl defeats Durrani Empire in the Battle of Lahore (1759).[1]
299 1760 BC The Battle of Wandiwash was a battle in India between the French and the British in 1760. The battle was part of the Third Carnatic War fought between the French and British colonial empires, which itself was a part of the global Seven Years' War. It took place it Vandavasi in Tamil Nadu. Having made substantial gains in Bengal and Hyderabad, the British, after collecting a large amount of revenue, were fully equipped to face the French in Wandiwash, whom they defeated.

The French, commanded by the Comte de Lally, were burdened by a lack of naval support and funds, and therefore attempted to regain the fort of Vandavasi, now in Tamil Nadu. While attempting to do so, they were attacked by British forces commanded by Sir Eyre Coote, and in the ensuing battle, the French were decisively defeated. (Wandiwash is the Anglicised pronunciation of Vandavasi.[276])

The Battle of Wandiwash resulted in the British capture of Chetpattu (Chetpet), Tirunomalai (Thiruvannaamalai), Tindivanam and Perumukkal.[277] As a consequence of the engagement, the French in South India, under the command of general Marquis de Bussy-Castelnau, were then restricted to Pondichéry, where they surrendered on 22 January 1761. The collapse of the French position in India was one of the events that compelled France to sign the Treaty of Paris, reducing the French to little more than traders in India, and effectively ending further French imperial ambitions in that country. Britain, on the other hand, established its supremacy in India over other European powers after this battle.

300 1760 BS Marathas comprehensively defeat the Nizam.

Maratha Empire reaches its zenith.[1]

301 1760 1820 Em George III (George William Frederick; 4 June 1738 – 29 January 1820) was King of Great Britain and Ireland from 25 October 1760 until the union of the two kingdoms on 1 January 1801, after which he was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland until his death in 1820.
302 1760 1799 F Veerapandiya Kattabomman[278] was an 18th-century Tamil Palayakarrar and chieftain

in Tamil Nadu, India. He refused to accept the sovereignty of the British East India Company and waged a war against them. He was captured by the British with the help of the ruler of the kingdom of Pudukottai, Vijaya Raghunatha Tondaiman, and at the age of 39 he was hanged at Kayathar on 16 October 1799.[279]

303 1761 BS The Third Battle of Panipat took place on 14 January 1761 at Panipat, about 97 km (60 miles) north of Delhi, between the Maratha Empire and the invading Afghan army (of Ahmad Shah Durrani), supported by four Indian allies, the Rohillas under the command of Najib-ud-daulah, Afghans of the Doab region, and the Nawab of Awadh, Shuja-ud-Daula.

This began 40 years of anarchy in northwestern India and cleared the way for British supremacy. It was the last major battle between South Asian-headed military powers until the creation of Pakistan and India in 1947.

To save their kingdom, the Mughals once again changed sides and welcomed the Afghans to Delhi. The Mughals remained in nominal control over small areas of India but were never a force again. The empire officially ended in 1857 when its last emperor, Bahadur Shah II, was accused of being involved in the Indian Rebellion and exiled.

The Marathas' expansion was delayed due to the battle, and the damage done to the Maratha morale from the initial defeat caused infighting to break out within the empire. They recovered their position under the next Peshwa Madhavrao I and were back in control of the north, finally occupying Delhi by 1771. However, after the death of Madhavrao, due to infighting and external conflicts with the East India Company, their political status as an empire only officially ended in 1818 after three wars against the forces of the East India Company.

Meanwhile, the Sikhs—whose rebellion was the original reason Ahmad invaded—were left largely untouched by the battle. They soon retook Lahore. When Ahmad Shah returned in March 1764 he was forced to break off his siege after only two weeks due to a rebellion in Afghanistan. He returned again in 1767 but was unable to win any decisive battle. With his own troops complaining about not being paid, he eventually lost the region to the Sikh Khalsa Raj, who remained in control until 1849 when it was annexed by the East India Company.

Ref: The First Battle of Panipat on 21 April 1526, was fought between the invading forces of Babur and the Lodi dynasty. It took place in north India and marked the beginning of the Mughal Empire and the end of the Delhi Sultanate. This was one of the earliest battles involving gunpowder firearms and field artillery in the Indian subcontinent which were introduced by Mughals in this battle.[280]

Ref: The Second Battle of Panipat was fought on 5 November 1556, between the Hindu emperor of north India, Hemu, and the forces of the Mughal emperor Akbar. Hemu had conquered the states of Delhi and Agra a few weeks earlier by defeating the Mughals led by Tardi Beg Khan at the Battle of Delhi and proclaimed himself Raja Vikramaditya at a coronation in Purana Quila in Delhi. Akbar and his guardian Bairam Khan who, after learning of the loss of Agra and Delhi, marched to Panipat to reclaim the lost territories. The two armies clashed at Panipat not far from the site of the First Battle of Panipat of 1526.

Hemu and his forces held the numerical superiority. However, Hemu was wounded by an arrow in the middle of the battle and fell unconscious. Seeing their leader going down, his army panicked and dispersed. Unconscious and almost dead, Hemu was captured and subsequently beheaded by Bairam Khan. The battle ended in a decisive Mughal victory.

304 1761 BS The Battle of Sialkot (1761) was fought between Durrani Empire and Sukerchakia Misl of Dal Khalsa in 1761.

Timur Shah Durrani advanced with his troops to punish the Sikhs but he was repulsed in the battle fought at Chenab River. Following repulsion, Timur Shah Durrani withdrew under siege to Sialkot, northeast of Punjab capital of Lahore. He was further attacked by the Sikhs at Sialkot. The attack was so ferocious that Timur Shah Durrani lost most of his men in the attack. But he, along with his remaining army, continued to battle the Sikhs. The Sikhs were very effective in the battle as they were using guerilla warfare hit-and-run tactics on the Afghan army. Soon, the Sikhs surrounded Sialkot and started a blockade from supplies coming from Kabul to Sialkot. The blockade was very effective as it started to starve the Afghan army who were running low on food. The food shortage made the Durranis desperate to escape from Sialkot. Soon, Timur Shah Durrani found an opening and led his army out of Sialkot. His tired and weary army was starved into surrendering and they quickly withdrew. However the Sikhs did not chase them. Instead, they captured Sialkot. The Afghans along with Timur Shah Durrani had ran off to Kabul therefore the battle was a clear victory for the Sikhs.

After defeat at Sialkot, the Afghans were defeated by the Sikhs at the Battle of Gujranwala (1761) in the same year.

305 1761 BS The Battle of Gujranwala (1761) was fought between the Durrani Empire and the Sikh Confederacy on September 1761.[281]

Ahmad Shah Durrani raided India in 1761 and defeated the Marathas in the Third Battle of Panipat in January 1761. He then returned to Kabul and appointed Khawaja Abid Khan[282] the Afghan Governor of Lahore.[283] He wished to defeat the Sikhs in order to secure Afghan positions in the entire Punjab region but was defeated by a Sikh army under Charat Singh in the Battle of Sialkot (1761).

As soon as Nur-ud-din arrived on the banks of the Chenab, he came into conflict with Sardar Charat Singh of the Sukerchakia Misl. Charat Singh, anticipating the trouble, had ready moved from his headquarters at Gujranwala to arrest the further progress of the Afghan general. He was assisted by the other Sikh Misldars who had made a common cause with him. Thus assuming the defensive with his army of trained men, Charat Singh awaited the onslaught of the Afghans whom after a battle of considerable duration he repulsed. He followed up his victory by maintaining a vigorous pursuit of the fugitives.

The Afghans, about 12,000 in number, fleeing pellmell, took refuge in the stronghold of Sialkot. The town was immediately besieged and the strictness of the watch was such as supplies gave out and the garrison was brought to the verge of starvation. Nur-ud-din, finding his men demoralized and starving, abandoned them to their fate and disguised as a beggar sought refuge in flight. The garrison immediately surrendered, and were allowed to depart in peace.

This victory over the well-trained troops of the greatest soldier of the day placed Charat Singh in the front rank of the Sikh leaders, while the booty of Sialkot brought him a quantity of artillery and baggage. He had also brought a handful of Punjabi Muslim women with him as war booty in which many of these women were to be sold into the Heera Mandi.[284] When all was over, Charat Singh made a triumphant entry into his capital, Gujranwala.[285]

306 1761 BS Hyder Ali became dalwai Dalavayi of Mysore by force in 1761 displacing the Wadiyar dynasty which had previously ruled the Kingdom.
307 1761 1787 BS List of battles of Rajasthan#Post-Mughal rule:
  • Battle of Mangrol (1761) – Madho Singh of Jaipur fought Malhar Rao Holkar. The Jaipur army had 10,000 men while the Holkar army had 6,000 men from Indore and 3,000 men supplied by the Rao of Kota. After a 2-day battle the Jaipur army was completely destroyed. However Malhar Rao was not able to plunder Dhundhar for long as he was recalled to Bundelkhand because of rebellions and threats of invasion by Shuja-Ud-Daula of Awadh.[286]
  • Battle of Maonda and Mandholi (1767) – Jaipur forces defeat the forces of Bharatpur.[287]
  • Battle of Kama (1768) – Madho Singh I invaded Bharatpur at the head of 16,000 men where he defeated jat leader Jawahar Singh again on 29 February 1768.[288][289]
  • Battle of Tunga or Battle of Lalsot (1787) – Combined forces of Jaipur and Jodhpur Vs Maratha forces of Mahadaji Shinde. The bloody three-day battle at Tunga ended in a stale-mate.[290]
308 1762 BS Vadda Ghalughara:

Vadda Ghalughara (The Great Massacre}} ) was the mass-murder of the unarmed Sikhs by the Afghan forces of the Durrani Empire during the years of Afghan influence in the Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent owing to the repeated incursions of Ahmad Shah Durrani in February 1762.[291] It is distinguished from the Chhota Ghalughara (the Smaller Massacre). Mostly non-combatants, were killed in the event,[292] and an estimated that 10,000 to 20,000 Sikhs were killed on 5 February 1762.[293][294]

The Vadda Ghalūghārā was a dramatic and bloody massacre during the campaign of Afghanistan's (Durrani Empire) provincial government based at Lahore to wipe out the Sikhs, an offensive that had begun with the Mughals and lasted several decades.[295]

309 1763 BC The Patna massacre of 1763 was the killing of 45[296] members of the East India Company, mainly English, on 6 October 1763,[297] in Patna, India, on the order of Nawab Mir Qasim. These men had been imprisoned by Mir Qasim since William Ellis' failed attempt to seize Patna for the East India Company on 25 June and in its aftermath. Following Mir Qasim's defeat, a pillar was erected over the site of the well into which their bodies were thrown[298] and over the houses where the massacre was committed, but nowadays a hospital stands over where the monument was[299]

200 sepoys, previously in the pay of the East India Company, and also imprisoned after the failed seizure of Patna and its aftermath, were also killed for refusing to join the ranks of Mir Qasim, though they are not traditionally included in the massacre narrative. Doctor William Fullerton, a Scottish surgeon in the East India Company, survived the Patna Massacre due to the intercession of Ghulam Hussain Khan,[300] and may have been the only survivor of the massacre.

310 1763 BE The Treaty of Paris (1763), also known as the Treaty of 1763, was signed on 10 February 1763 by the kingdoms of Great Britain, France and Spain, with Portugal in agreement, after Great Britain and Prussia's victory over France and Spain during the Seven Years' War.

The signing of the treaty formally ended conflict between France and Great Britain over control of North America (the Seven Years' War, known as the French and Indian War in the United States),[301] and marked the beginning of an era of British dominance outside Europe.[302] Great Britain and France each returned much of the territory that they had captured during the war, but Great Britain gained much of France's possessions in North America. Additionally, Great Britain agreed to protect Roman Catholicism in the New World. The treaty did not involve Prussia and Austria as they signed a separate agreement, the Treaty of Hubertusburg, five days later[28].

311 1763 10 Aug BS Maratha Empire led by Madhavrao I defeats the Nizam of Hyderabad in the Battle of Rakshasbhuvan and gains territory.[1]
312 1763 25 Dec E Suraj Mal dies.[1]
313 1764 BC The Battle of Buxar was fought on 22/23 October 1764, between the forces under the command of the British East India Company, led by Hector Munro, and the combined armies of Mir Qasim, Nawab of Bengal till 1764; the Nawab of Awadh Shuja-ud-Daula; and the Mughal Emperor Shah Alam II accompanied by Raja Balwant Singh of Kashi.[303] The battle was fought at Buxar, a "small fortified town" within the territory of Bihar, located on the banks of the Ganga river about 130 kilometres (81 mi) west of Patna; it was a decisive victory for the British East India Company. The war had been brought to an end by the Treaty of Allahabad in 1765.
314 1765 Ad Panchayati raj:

In the time of the Rigveda (1700 BC), evidences suggest that self-governing village bodies called 'sabhas' existed. With the passage of time, these bodies became panchayats (council of five persons). Panchayat were functional institutions of grassroots governance in almost every village. The Village Panchayat or elected council had large powers, both executive and judicial.

The British were not generally concerned with local administration, but left that to the local rulers, and thus didn't interfere with existing panchayati systems, nor induce the rulers to consider more democratic institutions at the local level.[304] The rulers were interested in the creation of 'controlled' local bodies, which could help them in their trading interests by collecting taxes for them.

315 1765 Ad Panchayati raj:

The panchayat was destroyed by the East India Company when it was granted the office of Diwan in 1765 in Bengal by the Mughal Emperor as part of reparation after his defeat at Buxar. As Diwan the Company took two decisions. The first was that it abolished the village land record office and created a company official called Patwari. The Patwari became the official record keeper for a number of villages. The second was the creation of the office of magistrate and the abolition of village police. The magistrate carried out policing functions through the Darogha who had always been a state functionary under the Faujdar. The primary purpose of these measures was the collection of land revenue by fiat. The depredations of the Patwari and the Darogha are part of our folklore and it led to the worst famine in Bengal. The effects of the famine lingered right to the end of the 18th century. These two measures completely disempowered the village community and destroyed the panchayat. After 1857 the British tried to restore the panchayat by giving it powers to try minor offences and to resolve village disputes. But these measures never restored the lost powers of the village community."[305]

316 1765 Co French colonization (French India):

In 1765 Pondichéry was returned to France in accordance with a 1763 peace treaty with Britain. Governor Jean Law de Lauriston set to rebuild the town on its former layout and after five months 200 European and 2000 Tamil houses had been erected. In 1769 the French East India Company, unable to support itself financially, was abolished by the French Crown, which assumed administration of the French possessions in India. During the next 50 years, Pondichéry changed hands between France and Britain with the regularity of their wars and peace treaties.

317 1765 1809 F Velu Thampi Dalawa (6 May 1765 – 1809)

Thampi Chempakaraman Velayudhan of Thalakulam (1765–1809) was the Dalawa or Prime Minister of the Indian kingdom of Travancore between 1802 and 1809 during the reign of Bala Rama Varma Kulasekhara Perumal. He is best known for being one of the earliest individuals to rebel against the British East India Company's supremacy in India.

He is simply referred as Velu Thampi. In the famous Battle of Quilon, Velu Thampi led a battalion of 30,000 soldiers and attacked a local garrison of the British.

318 1765 P The Treaty of Allahabad was signed on 12 August 1765,[306] between the Mughal Emperor Shah Alam II, son of the late Emperor Alamgir II, and Robert Clive, of the East India Company, in the aftermath of the Battle of Buxar of 22 October 1764. The treaty was handwritten by I'tisam-ud-Din, a Bengali Muslim scribe and diplomat to the Mughal Empire.[307]

The Treaty marked the political and constitutional involvement and the beginning of British rule in India.[308] Based on the terms of the agreement, Alam granted the East India Company Diwani rights, or the right to collect taxes on behalf of the Emperor from the eastern province of Bengal-Bihar-Orissa. These rights allowed the Company to collect revenue directly from the people of Bengal, Bihar, and Orissa. In return, the Company paid an annual tribute of twenty-six lakhs of rupees (equal to 260,000 pounds sterling) while securing for Shah Alam II the districts of Kora and Allahabad. The tribute money paid to the emperor was for the maintenance of the Emperor's court in Allahabad. The accord also dictated that Shah Alam be restored to the province of Varanasi as long as he continued to pay a certain amount of revenue to the Company. Awadh was returned to Shuja-ud-Daulah, but Allahabad and Kora were taken from him. The Nawab of Awadh Shuja ud Daulah also had to pay fifty lakhs of rupees as war indemnity to the East India Company.

Moreover, the two signed an alliance by which the Company promised to support the Nawab against outside attacks provided he paid for services of the troops sent to his aid. This alliance made the Nawab dependent on the Company. This was a turning point in Indian history.

After the 1765 Treaty of Allahabad, the British built their garrison at the Allahabad Fort which became their military headquarters after they took over the city in 1801.

319 1765 P Weakened Mughal Emperor Shah Alam II issues a diwani that replaces his own revenue officials in the provinces of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa with the East India Company's.[309][310]
320 1767 BC First Anglo-Mysore War begins, in which Hyder Ali of Mysore defeats the combined armies of the East India Company, the Marathas and the Nizam of Hyderabad.

The First Anglo–Mysore War (1766–1769) was a conflict in India between the Sultanate of Mysore and the East India Company. The war was instigated in part by the machinations of Asaf Jah II, the Nizam of Hyderabad, who sought to divert the company's resources from attempts to gain control of the Northern Circars.

Hyder Ali, apparently emboldened by the agreement with the British, engaged in war with the Marathas in 1770, and asked the British support them if and when the Marathas penetrated Mysorean territory.[311] The British refused to assist him, even though they were also drawn into conflict with the Marathas in the 1770s. Hyder's battles did not fully end until 1779, when the Marathas negotiated an alliance with him and the Nizam for united action against the British. This led to the beginning of the Second Anglo-Mysore War in 1780.[312] This conflict devastated much of the Carnatic, and also failed to decisively resolve differences between Mysore and the British. Resolution occurred in 1799 with the defeat and killing of Hyder's son Tipu Sultan, and the restoration of the Wodeyars as British clients.

321 1767 BC Victory and occupation of the Kathmandu Valley by Gorkha king, Prithvi Narayan Shah, starting with the Battle of Kirtipur, resulted in the shift of the capital of his kingdom from Gorkha to Kathmandu, and subsequently the empire that he and his descendants built came to be known as Nepal (Battle of Kathmandu).

Also, the invasion of the wealthy Kathmandu Valley provided the Gorkha army with economic support for furthering their martial ambitions throughout the region.

322 1767 T The Survey of India is India's central engineering agency in charge of mapping and surveying.[313] Set up in 1767[314] to help consolidate the territories of the British East India Company, it is one of the oldest Engineering Departments of the Government of India. Its members are from Survey of India Service cadre of Civil Services of India and Army Officers from the Indian Army Corps of Engineers. It is headed by the Surveyor General of India.

The history of the Survey of India dates back to the 18th Century. "First modern scientific survey of India" was undertaken by W. Mather in 1793–96 on instructions of Superintendent of Salem and Baramahal, Col. Alexander Read. The present Dharmapuri district, Krishnagiri district and North Arcot in western Tamil Nadu were then called Baramahal.[315]

323 1769 BS Prithvi Narayan Shah, ruler of Gorkha principality, conquers Nepal Valley; moves capital to Kathmandu, establishing present-day Hindu nation of Nepal.[2]
324 1769 BC In 1766 war with the British broke out and Hyder Ali's forces came close to capturing Madras, before his attacks began to falter. The war ended three years later with the Treaty of Madras in April 1769. This provided the mutual restoration of all conquests and for mutual aid and alliance in a defensive war.
325 1770 1832 B Bank of Hindostan (1770–1832), a now defunct bank, is considered as among the first modern banks in Colonial India. It was established by the agency house of Alexander and Co.. In India, the paper currency was first issued during British East India Company rule. The first paper notes were issued by the private banks such as Bank of Hindustan and the presidency banks during late 18th century. Via the Paper Currency Act of 1861[316], the British Government of India was conferred the monopoly to issue paper notes in India.

The first bank of India was the “Bank of Hindostan”, established in 1770 and located in the then, Indian capital, Calcutta. However, this bank failed to work and ceased operations in 1832. It was liquidated in 1830–32.

326 1770 E Great Bengal famine of 1770, estimated to have caused the deaths of about 10 million people.[317] Warren Hastings's 1772 report estimated that a third of the population in the affected region starved to death. The famine is attributed to failed monsoon and exploitative policies of the East India Company.[318]
327 1771 P Marathas recapture Delhi:

Capture of Delhi (1771) is the battle where the forces of Mahadji Shinde captured Delhi and the Mughal Emperor Shah Alam II was restored to the throne. Marathas capture Delhi by defeating Afghans under Najib ad-Dawlah (Najib Khan). With this battle they regained their lost supremacy (Maratha Resurrection) in North India after the Third Battle of Panipat and conquered much of the lost territories which they lost after the Third Battle of Panipat.

In the Third Battle of Panipat, the Maratha Empire suffered a serious blow at the hands of the Muslim axis of the Durrani Empire, Nawab of Awadh, and Rohillas under Najib ad-Dawlah. After the death of Peshwa Balaji Baji Rao Bhat, Madhavrao I became Peshwa under the regency of Raghunathrao Bhat.

Mahadji's victory over Jats of Mathura, Rajputs of Rajasthan and Pashtun-Rohillas of Rohilkhand (in the western part of present-day Uttar Pradesh state) re-established the Marathas in the northern India.

328 1772 1947 Ad List of capitals of India#Modern period:

From 1772 to 1911, Calcutta was the capital of British India.

The East India Company (EIC), formally (1600–1708) Governor and Company of Merchants of London Trading into the East Indies, or (1709–1873) United Company of Merchants of England Trading to the East Indies, landed in Surat in 1608 to open their first ‘factory’, and by 1623 had established factories at Broach, Agra, and Masulipatam (Machilipatnam). The Company was soon attracted to Bengal given the flourishing prosperity and agricultural riches of the region. Also, The Company needed a port to conduct their trade out of, so Calcutta emerged as the best choice.

Calcutta (Kolkata) eventually became the capital of British India and remained the capital till 1911. Lahore was the capital of the Sikh Empire.

In 1858, Allahbad (now Prayagraj) became the capital of India for a day when it also served as the capital of North-Western Provinces. On this day, the East India Company handed over the nation's administration to the British monarchy in the city.

329 1772 1947 Ad List of capitals of India#Modern period:

Between 1864 and 1939, Shimla also served as the summer capital of the British Raj. The British authorities preferred to administer the nation from the cool confines of this beautiful hill station during the summer months when the Gangetic plains become unbearably hot.

On 12 December 1911, King George V and Queen Mary visited Delhi. It is during this Delhi Durbar that the British monarch announced that the Raj intended to move its capital from Calcutta to Delhi and that the latter would be remodelled.

On February 13, 1931, Delhi was formally inaugurated as the capital of India by Lord Irwin, Viceroy of British India.

Apart from the fact that Calcutta represented the eastern extreme of a sprawling country making it difficult to administer, the growing resistance to the British in Bengal made the move an imperative one.

Not only was Delhi’s location central, it also held a great cultural significance having been the capital of the Pandavas themselves (as the ancient city of Indraprastha).

330 1772 1833 F Birth of Raja Ram Mohan Roy.

Raja Ram Mohan Roy (22 May 1772 – 27 September 1833) was one of the founders of the Brahmo Sabha, the precursor of the Brahmo Samaj, a social-religious Reform movement in the Indian subcontinent. He was given the title of Raja by Akbar II, the Mughal emperor. His influence was apparent in the fields of Politics, Public administration, Education reforms and religion. He was known for his efforts to abolish the practices of Sati (practice) and Child marriage in India. Raja Ram Mohan Roy is considered to be the "Father of the Bengal Renaissance" by many historians.

In 2004, Roy was ranked number 10 in BBC's poll of the Greatest Bengali of all time. The List includes ....

  1. Sheikh Mujibur Rahman (Politicain)
  2. Rabindranath Tagore (Author)
  3. Kazi Nazrul Islam (author)
  4. A. K. Fazlul Huq (Politician)
  5. Subhas Chandra Bose (Politician)
  6. Begum Rokeya (Social Reformer)
  7. Sir Jagadish Chandra Bose (Scientist)
  8. Abdul Hamid Khan Bhashani (Politician)
  9. Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar (Social Reformer)
  10. Raja Ram Mohan Roy (Social Reformer)
  11. Syed Mir Nisar Ali Titumir (Rebel Activist)
  12. Lalon Shah (Philosopher)
  13. Satyajit Ray (Filmmaker)
  14. Amartya Sen (Economist)
  15. Bengali language movement Martyrs (University Students)
  16. Muhammad Shahidullah (Educationist)
  17. Swami Vivekananda (Religious Leader)
  18. Atiśa Dipankara (Religious Preacher)
  19. Ziaur Rahman (Military Personnel)
  20. Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy (Politician)
331 1772 1785 G Warren Hastings – Governor

Was the first Governor of Bengal (Presidency of Fort William, India). In 1750 he joined the British East India Company as a clerk and sailed out to India, reaching Calcutta in August 1750. In 1814 he made a Privy Counsellor.

Following occured during his tenure as Governor ....

  • Zamindars were given judicial powers; establishment of civil and criminal courts in each district.
  • In 1781, he founded the Calcutta Madrasa, for promotion of Islamic studies. The Aliah University (AU) is one of the oldest modern-style educational institutes in Asia, and first in India. It was set up in October 1780 by Warren Hastings, the British Governor general of East India Company near Sealdah in Calcutta. A number of titles were used for it, such as Islamic College of Calcutta, Calcutta Madrasah, Calcutta Mohammedan College and Madrasah-e-Aliah. Of these, Calcutta Mohammedan College was that used by Warren Hastings
  • He founded The Asiatic Society of Bengal with William Jones (philologist) in 1784.
  • Warren Hastings was known for his expansionist policy. His administration witnessed the Rohilla War, the First Anglo-Maratha War and the Second Anglo-Mysore War.
  • The First Rohilla War (1774) : Rohilkand was a small kingdom situated in between Oudh and the Marathas. Its ruler was Hafiz Rahmat Khan. He concluded a defensive treaty in 1772 with the Nawab of Oudh fearing an attack by the Marathas. But no such attack took place. But, the Nawab demanded money. When Rahmat Khan evaded, the Nawab with the help of the British invaded Rohilkand. Warren Hastings, who sent the British troops against Rohilkhand, was severely criticized for his policy on the Rohilla affair.
332 1772 P British establish their capital in Calcutta.
333 1773 Ad Regulating Act of 1773

The Regulating Act of 1773 (formally, the East India Company Act 1772) was an Act of the Parliament of Great Britain intended to overhaul the management of the East India Company's rule in India.[319]

The Act did not prove to be a long-term solution to concerns over the company's affairs; Pitt's India Act was therefore subsequently enacted in 1784 as a more radical reform. It marked the first step towards parliamentary control over the company and centralised administration in India.

334 1773 E Narayanrao Peshwa is murdered by his uncle Raghunathrao's wife in front of Raghunathrao.[1]
335 1773 P British East India Company obtains monopoly on the production and sale of Opium in Bengal.

Lord North's Regulating Act of 1773 passed in Parliament.

Warren Hastings appointed as first Governor-General of India.

336 1774 Ad Supreme Council of Bengal[320][321] was the highest level of executive government in British India from 1774 until 1833: the period in which the East India Company, a private company, exercised political control of British colonies in India. It was formally subordinate to both the East India Company's Court of Directors (board) and to the British Crown.[322]

The Supreme Council was established by the British government, under Regulating Act of 1773. It was to consist of five members, including the Governor General, and was appointed by the Court of Directors (board) of the East India Company.[323] At times it also included the British military Commander-in-Chief of India (although this post was usually held concurrently by the Governor General). Hence the council was also known as Governor-General-in-Council.

The Saint Helena Act 1833 (Charter Act of 1833) formally separated the East India Company from political control, and established the new Council of India.

337 1774 E Chief Justice of the Maratha Empire, Ram Shastri passes death sentence against the ruling Peshwa Raghunathrao for murdering his nephew.[1]
338 1775 1782 BC The First Anglo-Maratha War (1775–1782) was the first of three Anglo-Maratha Wars fought between the British East India Company and Maratha Empire in India. The war began with the Treaty of Surat and ended with the Treaty of Salbai.

The Treaty of Salbai, was signed on 17 May 1782, and was ratified by The British Governor-General in Bengal, Warren Hastings in June 1782 and by Nana Phadnavis in February 1783. The treaty ended the First Anglo-Maratha War, restored the status quo, and established peace between the two parties for 20 years.

339 1775 1783 BE The American Revolution takes place. The American colonists prevail in the war, and Britain recognizes the United States as an independent nation[28].
340 1775 1783 W The American Revolutionary War (April 19, 1775 – September 3, 1783), also known as the Revolutionary War or the American War of Independence, was initiated by delegates from thirteen American colonies of British America in Congress against Great Britain over their objection to Parliament's taxation policies and lack of colonial representation. From their founding in the 1600s, the colonies were largely left to govern themselves. The cost of victory in the 1754 to 1763 French and Indian War and the 1756 to 1763 Seven Years' War left the British government deeply in debt; the colonies, where the war was fought, equipped and populated the British forces there at the cost of millions of their own funds.

Washington expressed astonishment that the Americans had won a war against a leading world power, referring to the American victory as "little short of a standing miracle".[324] The conflict between British subjects with the Crown against those with the Congress had lasted over eight years from 1775 to 1783. The last uniformed British troops departed their last east coast port cities in Savannah, Charleston, and New York City, by November 25, 1783. That marked the end of British occupation in the new United States.[325]

341 1776 P Thanjavur (Tanjore, in south India) was taken by Lord Wellesley (Richard Wellesley, 1st Marquess Wellesley) in 1776
342 1777 Ad Indian Army Corps of Engineers:

The Indian Army Corps of Engineers provides combat engineering support, develops infrastructure for armed forces and other defence organisations and maintains connectivity along the borders, besides helping the civil authorities during natural disasters.[326] College of Military Engineering, Pune (CME) is the premier technical and tactical training institution of the Indian Army Corps of Engineers.

The Corps consists of three groups of combat engineers, namely ....

  • The Madras Sappers,
  • The Bengal Sappers and
  • The Bombay Sappers.

It has a long history dating back to the mid-18th century. The earliest existing subunit of the Corps (18 Field Company) dates back to 1777 while the Corps officially recognises its birth as 1780 when the senior-most group of the Corps, the Madras Sappers were raised. A group is roughly analogous to a regiment of the Indian infantry, each group consisting of a number of engineer regiments. The engineer regiment is the basic combat engineer unit, analogous to an infantry battalion. Besides the combat engineers, the Corps mans and operates major engineering organisations such as the Military Engineer Services,[327] the Border Roads Organisation (BRO), the Married Accommodation Project and the Survey of India.[328]

343 1777 1858 F Kunwar Singh (13 November 1777– 26 April 1858; also known as Babu Kunwar Singh and Kuer Singh) was a leader during the Indian Rebellion of 1857. He belonged to a family of the Ujjainiya clan of the Parmar Rajputs of Jagdispur, currently a part of Bhojpur district, Bihar, India.

At the age of 80, he led a selected band of armed soldiers against the troops under the command of the British East India Company. He was the chief organiser of the fight against the British in Bihar. He is popularly known as Veer Kunwar Singh.[329]

344 1777 N First newspaper published in Bombay by Rustom Kersaspjere[106].
345 1778 1829 F Kittur Chennamma (23 October 1778 – 2 February 1829)[330] was the Indian queen (rani) of Kittur, a princely state in present-day Karnataka. She led an armed rebellion against the British East India Company in 1824 in defiance of the doctrine of lapse in an attempt to maintain Indian control over the region, but was defeated and died imprisoned. One of the first female rulers to rebel against British rule, she has become a folk hero in Karnataka and symbol of the independence movement in India.

Along with her lieutenant Sangolli Rayanna, Chennamma employed the guerrilla warfare technique and fought fiercely, taking many British soldiers by surprise.

She led an armed force against the British East India Company in 1824 in defiance of the doctrine of lapse in an attempt to maintain Indian control over the region, but was defeated in the third war and died imprisoned.

346 1779 BC Maratha sardar Mahadji Shinde routs the East India Company army at the Battle of Wadgaon. War ends with the restoration of status quo as per Treaty of Salbai.[1]
347 1780 1784 BC Second Anglo-Mysore War begins.

The Second Anglo–Mysore War was a conflict between the Kingdom of Mysore and the British East India Company from 1780 to 1784. At the time, Mysore was a key French ally in India, and the conflict between Britain against the French and Dutch in the American Revolutionary War sparked Anglo–Mysorean hostilities in India. The great majority of soldiers on the company side were raised, trained, paid and commanded by the company, not the British government. However, the company's operations were bolstered by Crown troops sent from Britain, and by troops sent from Hanover,[331] which was also ruled by Britain's King George III.

Following the British seizure of the French port of Mahé in 1779, Mysorean ruler Hyder Ali opened hostilities against the British in 1780, with significant success in early campaigns. As the war progressed, the British recovered some territorial losses. Both France and Britain sent troops and naval squadrons from Europe to assist in the war effort, which widened later in 1780 when Britain declared war on the Dutch Republic. In 1783 news of a preliminary peace between France and Britain reached India, resulting in the withdrawal of French support from the Mysorean war effort. The British consequently also sought to end the conflict, and the British government ordered the Company to secure peace with Mysore. This resulted in the 1784 Treaty of Mangalore, restoring the status quo ante bellum under terms that company officials, such as Warren Hastings, found extremely unfavourable.

348 1780 29 Jan N Hicky's Bengal Gazette or the Original Calcutta General Advertiser, English, Weekly

Hicky's Bengal Gazette or the Original Calcutta General Advertiser was an English-language weekly newspaper published in Kolkata (then Calcutta), the capital of British India. It was the first newspaper printed in Asia, and was published for two years, between 1780 and 1782, before the East India Company seized the newspaper's types and printing press. Founded by James Augustus Hicky, a highly eccentric Irishman who had previously spent two years in jail for debt, the newspaper was a strong critic of the administration of Governor General Warren Hastings. The newspaper was important for its provocative journalism and its fight for free expression in India.[332]

Hicky began publication of Hicky's Bengal Gazette on 29 January 1780, having first printed a prospectus announcing that he would begin printing a newspaper. The idea of printing a newspaper in India had been floated twelve years earlier by the Dutch Adventurer William Bolts, but Hicky was the first to execute the concept. Hicky's newspaper was printed once a week on Saturday, and retailed for Re 1. Its circulation was estimated to be around four hundred copies per week, although possibly more.[333]

Hicky's Bengal Gazette ceased publication on 30 March 1782 when its types were seized by an order of the Supreme Court. The next week, its types and printing press were publicly auctioned and sold to The India Gazette.

The newspaper became famous not only among the British soldiers posted in India at that time but also inspired Indians to write newspapers of their own.

349 1780 18 Nov N The India Gazette; or, Calcutta Public Advertiser, English, Weekly

Published in Calcutta, the capital of British India. It was the second newspaper printed in India. Founded by Bernard Messink and Peter Reed, two East India Company employees, the paper was a strong supporter of the administration of the Governor General Warren Hastings, and a rival to India's first newspaper Hicky's Bengal Gazette. It was founded on 18 November 1780.

350 1780 T Mysorean rockets were an Indian military weapon, the first iron-cased rockets successfully deployed for military use. The Mysorean army, under Hyder Ali and his son Tipu Sultan, used the rockets effectively against the British East India Company during the 1780s and 1790s. Their conflicts with the company exposed the British to this technology, which was then used to advance European rocketry with the development of the Congreve rocket in 1805.

The Mysoreans successfully used these iron-cased rockets against the larger forces of the British East India Company during the Anglo-Mysore Wars.

351 1781 BC Hyder Ali's son, Tipu Sultan, defeats British forcses.
352 1781 BC Maratha Empire defeats forces of the British East India Company in the Battle of Bhorghat.[1]
353 1782 1831 F Syed Mir Nisar Ali (27 January 1782 – 19 November 1831), better known as Titumir, was a Bengali peasant-leader, who developed a strand of Muslim nationalism coupled with agrarian and political consciousness. He is famed for having built a large bamboo fort (Basher Kella in Bengali) in Narikelberia village, to resist the British, which passed onto Bengali folk legend.[334][335][336] Although originating in West Bengal (present-day India), he is a celebrated figure in Bangladesh.[337]

He led a campaign against the British-rule in India, during the 19th century.

After the storming of the fort by British soldiers, Titumir died of his wounds on 19 November 1831.

354 1782 P In 1782 Hyder Ali suddenly died and Tipu Sultan became king of Mysore.
355 1782 Bombay T The Hornby Vellard was a project to build a causeway uniting all seven islands of Bombay into a single island with a deep natural harbour. The project was started by the governor William Hornby in 1782 and all islands were linked by 1838. The word vellard appears to be a local corruption of the Portuguese word vallado meaning fence or embankment.[338]

The purpose of this causeway was to block the Worli creek and prevent the low-lying areas of Bombay from being flooded at high tide. The cost was estimated at about ₹100,000. It was completed in 1784 and was one of the first major civil engineering projects that transformed the original seven islands of Bombay into one island.

According to some accounts, Hornby ordered the work to be started after the East India Company turned down his proposal; and continued as Governor till the end of his term in 1785, ignoring the suspension notice sent to him.[339]

356 1783 1785 G Charles Joseph Patissier, Marquis de Bussy-Castelnau (8 February 1718 or 8 February 1720 – 7 January 1785) or Charles Joseph Patissier de Bussy was the Governor General of the French colony of Pondicherry from 1783 to 1785. He served with distinction under Joseph François Dupleix in the East Indies, receiving the Order of Saint Louis.

He contributed to the recovery from Britain of Pondicherry in 1748, and was named in 1782 to lead all French military forces beyond the Cape of Good Hope. He coordinated his operations with Pierre André de Suffren and fought against the British during the Indian campaigns of the American War of Independence.

357 1784 Calcutta A The Asiatic Society is an organisation founded during the British Raj in India to enhance and further the cause of "Oriental research", in this case, research into India and the surrounding regions. It was founded by the philologist William Jones on 15 January 1784 in a meeting presided over by Justice Robert Chambers in Calcutta, the then capital of the British Raj.

At the time of its foundation, this Society was named as Asiatick Society. In 1825, the society was renamed as "The Asiatic Society". In 1832 the name was changed to The Asiatic Society of Bengal and again in 1936 it was renamed as The Royal Asiatic Society of Bengal. Finally, on 1 July 1951, the name of the society was changed to its present one. The Society is housed in a building at Park Street in Kolkata (Calcutta). The Society moved into this building during 1808.

In 1823, the Medical and Physical Society of Calcutta was formed and all the meetings of this society were held in the Asiatic Society.

358 1784 BC The Treaty of Mangalore was signed between Tipu Sultan and the British East India Company on 11 March 1784. It was signed in Mangalore and brought an end to the Second Anglo-Mysore War.

The Second Anglo-Mysore War broke out for a number reasons, primarily though it was because Hyder Ali the de facto ruler of Mysore considered the British (since they provided no aid in Mysore’s defensive war with the Maratha’s) in breach of the treaty of April 1769. The great advantage of the treaty to Tipu Sultan (which allowed him to claim victory) was the psychological impact of the actual treaty on the British. The Commissioner for the British East India Company in Madras had to go to Mangalore, a recent reconquest of Tipu's, on the opposite coast of India, to sign the treaty. The humiliation of the Treaty (coupled with the recent loss of the Thirteen Colonies, in America) made the British determined to defeat and humble Tipu Sultan.

The Treaty of Mangalore in Britain was seen by many as the beginning of the end of the British East India Company. As a result, stock prices in the Company dived and the British East India Company began to fail. This was of great concern to the British government since its trade represented a sixth of the British national income. It was decided to fix the problems through what is now called Pitt's India Act. This act solved the issues of corruption and it invested powers in the Governor-general to act in the interest of King and Country to stop an issue like the Treaty of Mangalore from happening again.

359 1784 4 Mar N The Calcutta Gazette, English

Calcutta Gazette was an English newspaper in Bengal founded by a colonial officer Francis Gladwin in 1784. It was one of the first newspapers in India.[340][341][342][343]

Calcutta Gazette was founded by Francis Gladwin, an officer in the British East India Trading company and an orientalist. Its first issue was published on 4 March 1784. The newspaper became an important medium for the publication of public information. The Gazette initially charged the government for advertisements but stopped after the government provided the Gazette with free postal circulation and free postage. The government withdrew this in 1787. In January 1787, Francis Gladwin gave control of the company to Arthur Muir, Herbert H. Harrington and Edmond Morris. The three were civilians involved with the newspaper. In June 1815 the Government Gazette was created by the Bengal Military Orphan Society[344]. All government advertisements were diverted to the Government Gazette from the Calcutta Gazette. Private advertisers also left the newspaper and advertising revenue declined. Employees at the newspaper went on strike. In June 1818 the Calcutta Gazette was sold to the owner of the Calcutta Morning Post, Heatly.

On 29 September 1818 Heatly stopped publication of the Calcutta Gazette in favor of a new newspaper founded by James Silk Buckingham called the Calcutta Journal.[345]

360 1784 P William Pitt the Younger passes the Pitt's India Act 1784 to bring the East India Company under Parliament's control.

Judge and linguist Sir William Jones (philologist) founds The Asiatic Society (The Royal Asiatic Society of Bengal).

361 1785 1786 G Sir John Macpherson, 1st Baronet (c. 1745 – 12 January 1821), from Sleat, Isle of Skye, Scotland, was a Scottish administrator in India.

He was the acting Governor-General of Bengal from 1785 to 1786.

362 1785 12 Oct N Madras Courier, English

It was the first newspaper to be published in Madras, Madras Presidency, British India and one of the first in India. It was the leading newspaper of its time and was the officially recognized newspaper for printing Government notifications. It first appeared in the English language on 12 October 1785. It was started by Richard Johnston. Hugh Boyd was its first Editor.[346][347][348][349][350][351]

The paper ceased publishing on 19 January 1819.[352]

363 1786 A Sir William Jones uses the Rig Veda term Aryan ("noble") to name the parent language (now termed Indo-European) of Sanskrit, Greek, Latin and Germanic tongues.[2]
364 1786 Ad District collectors in Bengal were made responsible for settling the revenue and collecting it.[1]
365 1786 1793 G Lord Cornwallis – Governor:

Charles Cornwallis, 1st Marquess Cornwallis, introduced ....

  • Permanent Settlement of Bengal (also called Zamindari system). It was an agreement between East India Company and Bengali landlords to fix revenues to be raised from land.
  • Police reforms according to which each district was divided into 400 square miles and placed under a police superintendent.
  • Civil Services in India.
366 1786 P In 1786 Charles Cornwallis, 1st Marquess Cornwallis was made a Knight Companion of the Most Noble Order of the Garter.[353] The same year he accepted appointment as Governor-General and commander in chief in India. He had in 1782 been offered the governor-generalship only, but refused the post until he also received military command as well.[354]

[Cornwallis surrendered after about three weeks' siege to General Washington and the French commander, the Comte de Rochambeau, on 19 October 1781.[355] Cornwallis, apparently not wanting to face Washington, claimed to be ill on the day of the surrender, and sent Brigadier General Charles O'Hara in his place to surrender his sword formally. Washington had his second-in-command, Benjamin Lincoln, accept Cornwallis's sword.[356]

Cornwallis returned to Britain with Benedict Arnold, and they were cheered when they landed in Britain on 21 January 1782.[357] His surrender did not mark the end of the war, though it ended major fighting in the American theatre. Because he was released on parole, Cornwallis refused to serve again until the war came to an end in 1783.]

367 1787 BE British Committee for the Abolition of the Slave Trade is formed, marking the beginning of the end of slavery.[2]
368 1787 1858 F Ahmadullah Shah:

Leader of various battles for freedom like Battle of Chinhat, Siege of Lucknow, Capture of Lucknow, Chapati Movement.

Ahmadullah Shah (1787 – 5 June 1858) famous as Maulavi of Faizabad, famous freedom fighter and was a leader of the Indian Rebellion of 1857. Maulavi Ahmadullah Shah was known as the Lighthouse of Rebellion in Awadh region.[358] British officers like George Bruce Malleson and Thomas Seaton made mentions about the courage, valour, personal and organizational capabilities of Ahmadullah. G. B. Malleson mentions Ahmadullah repeatedly in the History of Indian Mutiny, a book written in 6 volumes covering Indian revolt of 1857.[359][360] Thomas Seaton describes Ahmadullah Shah as:

A man of great abilities, of undaunted courage, of stern determination, and by far the best soldier among the rebels.

— Thomas Seaton, [361]

With being a practicing Muslim, he was also an epitome of religious unity and Ganga-Jamuna culture of Faizabad. In the rebellion of 1857, royalties like Nana Sahib and Khan Bahadur Khan fought alongside Ahmadullah.[362]

The British could never catch Maulavi alive. The price of 50,000 pieces of silver was announced to capture him. Finally the king of Powayan Raja Jagannath Singh killed Maulvi, beheaded and presented his head to the British for which Raja Jagannath was paid the announced prize.[363] Next day, the head of Maulvi was hanged at Kotwali.[364]

369 1787 1795 P British Parliament impeaches Warren Hastings, Governor-General of Bengal (1774–85), for misconduct.

The Impeachment of Warren Hastings, the first Governor-General of Bengal, was attempted between 1787 and 1795 in the Parliament of Great Britain. Hastings was accused of misconduct during his time in Calcutta, particularly relating to mismanagement and personal corruption. The impeachment prosecution was led by Edmund Burke and became a wider debate about the role of the East India Company and the expanding empire in India. The trial became a debate between two radically opposed visions of empire—one represented by Hastings, based on ideas of absolute power and conquest in pursuit of the exclusive national interests of the colonizer, versus one represented by Burke, of sovereignty based on a recognition of the rights of the colonized.[365]

Burke brought forward 22 charges against Hastings. The most important of them were related to the Rohilla War, the Case of Nanda Kumar, the treatment of Raja Chait Singh of Benares and the pressures on the Begums of Oudh.

The trial did not sit continuously and the case dragged on for seven years. When the eventual verdict was given Hastings was overwhelmingly acquitted. It has been described as "probably the British Isles' most famous, certainly the longest, political trial".[366]

Hastings was financially ruined by the impeachment and was left with debts of £70,000. He received pension from the Company and lived till 1818.

Hastings held no further public office, but was regarded as an expert on Indian matters and was asked to give evidence to parliament on the subject in 1812. After he had finished giving his testimony, the members all stood up in an almost unprecedented act for anyone other than the royal family.[367]

370 1788 BE The British Empire gains new settlements in Australia. The empire’s Canadian colonies grow as loyalists from the United States emigrate to Canada after the American Revolution[28].
371 1789 Co Danish Colonization (Danish India):

The Andaman Islands became a British possession.

372 1789 N Bombay Herald (Bombay Gazette), English

Bombay Herald (established in 1789)[368] was among the first English newspapers published from Bombay, India.[368]

Initially found in 1789 as the "Bombay Herald", the newspaper's name was changed to "Bombay Gazette" in 1791.[369] It remained the leading paper of the city for a long time and covered important events such as the first session of the Indian National Congress in 1885. The Bombay Gazette and Bombay Courier were the earliest English language Indian newspapers published in Bombay (now Mumbai).

The newspaper continued to be published up to the early 1900s.

Bombay Gazette started printing paper on silk from 26 April 1841.

Surviving copies of the Bombay Gazette can be found in the British Library (Colindale collection).[370]

The owners and editors of Bombay Gazette included the British journalist and politician, James Mackenzie Maclean,[371] Adolphus Pope (1821), Fair (1826), Francis Warden (1827), R. X. Murphy (1833), Grattan Geary (1890), Sir Frank Beaman[372] and Galium (1840). It was not unheard of for its proprietors to include British civil servants.[373]

In 1911, Sir Pherozeshah Mehta and Benjamin Horniman attempted to purchase Bombay Gazette, to counteract the influence of another newspaper The Times of India, and to give a voice to Indian nationalists, but his attempts were thwarted by one of the directors, Sir Frank Beaman, which led Mehta to establish a separate newspaper, The Bombay Chronicle in 1913.[372]

373 1790 1792 BC The Third Anglo-Mysore War:

The Third Anglo–Mysore War (1790–1792) was a conflict in South India between the Kingdom of Mysore and the British East India Company, Kingdom of Travancore, Maratha Empire, and the Nizam of Hyderabad. It was the third of four Anglo–Mysore Wars.[374]

Among the preliminary terms that Cornwallis insisted on was that Tipu surrender two of his sons as hostages as a guarantee for his execution of the agreed terms. On 26 February his two young sons were formally delivered to Cornwallis amid great ceremony and gun salutes by both sides. Cornwallis, who was not interested in significantly extending the company's territory, or in turning most of Mysore over to the Mahrattas and Hyderabad, negotiated a division of one half of Mysorean territory, to be divided by the allies, in which the company's acquisition would improve its defences. He later wrote, "If we had taken Seringapatam and killed Tippoo, [...] we must either have given that capital to the Marattas (a dangerous boon) or have set up some miserable pageant of our own, to be supported by the Company's troops and treasures, and to be plundered by its servants."[375] The territories taken deprived Mysore of much of its coastline; Mysore was also obligated to pay some of the allied war costs.

On 18 March 1792 Tipu agreed to the terms and signed the Treaty of Seringapatam, ending hostilities.[376]

374 1790 1806 BS List of battles of Rajasthan#Post-Mughal rule:
  • Battle of Patan (1790) – The Battle of Patan was fought on 20 June 1790 between the Scindias of Gwalior and the Kachwahas of Jaipur, and resulted decisive victory of Maratha forces. The Marathas under Holkar and General de Boigne defeat the Rajputs of Jaipur and Mughals at the Battle of Patan, where 3000+ Rajput cavalry is killed and the entire Mughal unit vanquished. The defeat crushes Rajput hope of independence from external influence.
  • Battle of Merta (1790) – Marathas under Mahadaji Shinde defeated the army of Maharaja Vijay Singh.
  • Battle of Fatehpur (1799) – The Battle of Fatehpur was fought in March 1799 between the Maratha Kingdom of Gwalior supported by General George Thomas and the Rajput Kingdom of Jaipur under Sawai Pratap Singh and Rora Ram Ji Khawas which resulted in a decisive Jaipur victory.[377]
  • Battle of Malpura (1800) – Marathas under Daulat Rao Sindhia defeated Maharaja Sawai Pratap Singh.[378]
  • Siege of Mehrangarh (1806) – Man Singh of Marwar defeated the armies of Jaipur, Mewar and Bikaner so comprehensively that Jagat Singh of Jaipur had to pay a sum of Rs. 2,00,000 to secure his safe passage. In honour of Man Singhs victory over Jaipur the Jai Pol, or victory gate was built in the fort in 1808.
375 1791 Ed Charles Cornwallis, 1st Marquess Cornwallis#Reforms's attitude toward the lower classes did, however, include a benevolent and somewhat paternalistic desire to improve their condition ....
  • He introduced legislation to protect native weavers who were sometimes forced into working at starvation wages by unscrupulous company employees;
  • Outlawed child slavery;
  • Established in 1791 a Sanskrit college for Hindus that is now the Government Sanskrit College in Benares;[379]
  • Established a mint in Calcutta that, in addition to benefiting the poor by providing a reliable standard currency, was a forerunner of India's modern currency.[380]
376 1792 BC Britain's Cornwallis defeats Tipu Sahib, Sultan of Mysore and most powerful ruler in South India, main bulwark of resistance to British expansion in India.[2]
377 1792 Calcutta S Calcutta Cricket & Football Club (CC&FC)

The Calcutta Cricket & Football Club (CC&FC) is a Multisports club based in Kolkata, India. It was founded in 1792 as a cricket institution,[381] adding the football and rugby sections when it merged with Calcutta F.C. in 1965.[382]

The Club was founded as the "Calcutta Cricket Club Clippers" by British expatriates who had come over with the British East India Company.[383] It is known to have been in existence by 1792.[382][384]

During its first years of existence, the Calcutta Cricket Club played its home games near river Hooghly but it was not until 1841 when the institution got land to establish its venue. Later it was merged with the Calcutta Football Club (where both footballs, rugby and association were practised)[382] and the Ballygunge Cricket Club over the years to become the "Calcutta Cricket and Football Club" in 1965.[382]

Run by the British, Calcutta Football Club was once one of the leading football teams and had a great rivalry specially with Mohun Bagan. Other rivals were Mohammedan Sporting, Aryan and Dalhousie.

It has arguably the most picturesque cricket ground in Kolkata. Recent evidence in the form of an article in Hickey's Bengal Gazette, suggests the club existed in 1780 – which would make it the oldest cricket club in the world.

378 1793 Ad British under Charles Cornwallis, 1st Marquess Cornwallis introduces the 'Permanent Settlement' of the land revenue system.

Its best known provision was the Permanent Settlement (or the zamindari system enacted in 1793), which established a revenue collection scheme that lasted until the 20th century.The Permanent Settlement was introduced first in Bengal and Bihar and later in the south district of Madras and Varanasi. The system eventually spread all over northern India by a series of regulations dated 1 May 1793. These regulations remained in place until the Charter Act of 1833.[385]

The system, as codified in these regulations, provided that the East India Company’s service personnel be divided into three branches:

  1. Revenue,
  2. Judicial, and
  3. Commercial.

Revenues were collected by zamindars, native Indians who were treated as landowners. This division created an Indian landed class that supported British authority.[385]

This “Permanent Settlement” provided the British with an Indian landed class interested in supporting British authority. The higher ranks of the services were restricted to the British, thus depriving the Indians of any responsible office. As a whole, the system gave social and political stability to Bengal at the price of neglecting the rights of the lesser landholders and undertenants and of excluding Indians from any responsible share in the administration.

One consequence of the code was that it instituted a type of racism, placing the British as an elite class on top of the complex status hierarchy of caste and religion that existed in India at the time.

The system failed in the long run due to operational difficulty as well as because the Permanent Settlement did not take account of the seasonal and precarious nature of Bengali agriculture. The Company also did not understand the structural issues as well as the society.[386]

The other two systems prevalent in India were the Ryotwari System and the Mahalwari System.

379 1793 1798 G John Shore, 1st Baron Teignmouth (5 October 1751 – 14 February 1834) was a British official of the East India Company who served as Governor-General of Bengal from 1793 to 1798. In 1798 he was created Baron Teignmouth in the Peerage of Ireland.

He followed policy of non-intervention. I

Introduced Charter Act of 1793.

380 1793 1861 R Birth of Rani Rashmoni, one of the pioneers of the Bengali Renaissance.

Rani Rashmoni (24 September 1793 – 19 February 1861) was the founder of the Dakshineswar Kali Temple, Kolkata and remained closely associated with Sri Ramakrishna Paramhansa after she appointed him as the priest of the temple. Her other construction works include the construction of a road from Subarnarekha River to Puri for the pilgrims, Babughat (also known as Babu Rajchandra Das Ghat), Ahiritola Ghat and Nimtala ghat for the everyday bathers at the Ganges. She also offered considerable charity to the Imperial Library (now the National Library of India), the Hindu College (now Presidency University).[387]

381 1793 Calcutta S The Calcutta Racket Club is a squash and racquet club in Kolkata, India. It was founded in 1793, making it one of the oldest rackets clubs in the world, and the first in the subcontinent.[388][389] Of its seven squash courts, two are glass-backed international standard tournament courts.
382 1794 Ed The College of Engineering, Guindy (CEG) is a public engineering college in Chennai, India and is Asia's oldest technical institution, founded in 1794. It is also the oldest technical institution to be established outside Europe.[390][391]

Due to the growing need for surveyors by the East India Company, the 'School of Survey' was established in a building near Fort St. George on the suggestion of Michael Topping in 1794. This school was one of the first of its kind in the country and it started out with 8 boys. It became the Civil Engineering School in 1858 and was renamed College of Engineering in 1859, with the inclusion of a mechanical engineering course. The college was shifted for a short period to Kalasa Mahal, Chepauk, before settling at its present location in 1920 as College of Engineering, Guindy.[392]

College of Engineering, Guindy is one of the first institutes in India to offer degrees in Mechanical Engineering, Electrical Engineering, Telecommunication, Highway engineering|Highway Engineering and Printing Technology and Materials Science and Engineering.

383 1794 Ed List of Indian engineering colleges before Independence:
  • 1794 College of Engineering, Guindy
  • 1847 Thomason College od Cicil ENgineering, now Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee
  • 1854 College of Engineering, Pune
  • 1856 Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology, Shibpur
  • 1857 University of Bombay, Bombay
  • 1881 Faculty of Technology and Engineerng, Maharaja Sayajirao University, Vadodara
  • 1886 College of Engineering, Bihar, now National Institute of Technology, Patna
  • 1887 Veermata Jijabai Technological Institute, Victoria Jubilee Technical Institute, Bombay
  • 1905 Jadavpur University, Calcutta
  • 1911 Indian Institute of Science, Tata Institute, Bangalore
  • 1914 University College of Science and Technology, Rajabazar, Calcutta
  • 1917 College of Engineering, now University Visvesvaraya College of Engineering, Bangalore
  • 1919 Government College of Engineering and Leather Technology, Calcutta
  • 1919 Banaras Engineering Colleg, now Indian Institute of Technology (BHU) Varanasi
384 1794 Ed List of Indian engineering colleges before Independence:
  • 1920 Harcourt Butler Technical University, Kanpur
  • 1921 PEC University of Technology, Chandigarh
  • 1926 Andhra University, Visakhapatnam
  • 1926 Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad
  • 1929 University College of Engineering, Osmania University, Hyderabad
  • 1929 Annamalai University, Tamil Nadu
  • 1933 Institute of Chemical Technology, Bombay
  • 1939 College of Engineering, Trivandrum
  • 1941 Government College of Engineering and Ceramic Technology, Calcutta
  • 1941 Delhi Polytechnic, Delhi
  • 1942 Laxminarayan Institute of Technology
  • 1945 Arthur Hope College of Technology, Coimbatore. Now know as Government College of Technology, Coimbatore
  • 1946 JNTU College of Engineering, Anantapur
  • 1946 National Institute of Engineering, Mysore
  • 1947 Government Engineering College, Jabalpur
385 1795 11 Mar BS Maratha Empire defeats the Nizam of Hyderabad in the Battle of Kharda, Nizam ceded territory.[1]
386 1795 13 Aug E Death of Ahilyabai Holkar:

Ahilyabai Holkar (31 May 1725 – 13 August 1795)[393] was the hereditary noble sardar of the Maratha Empire, India. Ahilya was born in the village of Chondi in Jamkhed, Ahmednagar, Maharashtra. She moved the seat of her kingdom to Maheshwar, south of Indore on the Narmada River.

Ahilyabai's husband Khanderao Holkar was killed in the battle of Kumher in 1754. Twelve years later, her father-in-law, Malhar Rao Holkar died. A year after that she took over the affairs of Holkar fief. She tried to protect her land from plundering invaders. She personally led armies into battle. She appointed Tukoji Rao Holkar as the Chief of her militia.

Ahilyabai was a great pioneer and builder of Hindu temples. She built hundreds of temples and Dharmashalas throughout India. Her greatest achievement was to rebuild the Kashi Vishwanath Temple in 1780, which was dedicated to Shiva; the presiding deity of the city of Varanasi, one of the holiest Hindu sites of pilgrimage, that had been plundered, desecrated, demolished & converted into Gyanvapi Mosque on the orders of the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb in 1696.[394]

387 1796 E Ching-Thang Khomba moves Manipur's capital to Kangla.[1]

Ningthou Ching-Thang Khomba (also Rajarshi Bhagya Chandra, Jai Singh Maharaja) (1748–1799) was a Meitei monarch of the 18th century CE. The inventor of the Ras Lila dance, with his daughter Shija Lailoibi playing as Radha at the first performance, he is a legendary figure in Manipur,[395] and much of his actions as King had been mythologized. He is also credited with spreading Vaishnavism in Manipur State after his grandfather Pamheiba made Hinduism the official religion and for creating a unified Manipur.[396]

388 1798 3 Dec BS Fourth Anglo-Mysore War begins.

The Fourth Anglo–Mysore War was a conflict in South India between the Kingdom of Mysore against the British East India Company and the Hyderabad Deccan in 1798–99.[397]

This was the final conflict of the four Anglo-Mysore Wars. The British captured the capital of Mysore. The ruler Tipu Sultan was killed in the battle. Britain took indirect control of Mysore, restoring the Wodeyar Dynasty to the Mysore throne (with a British commissioner to advise him on all issues). Tipu Sultan's young heir, Fateh Ali, was sent into exile. The Kingdom of Mysore became a princely state in a subsidiary alliance with British India covering parts of present Kerala-Karnataka and ceded Coimbatore, Dakshina Kannada and Uttara Kannada to the British.

The victors, rather than partitioning the country, forced Tipu's family into exile and restored control of Mysore to the Wodeyars.

389 1798 1831 F Sangolli Rayanna (15 August 1796 – 26 January 1831) was an Indian military Shetsanadi (Sainik) and warrior in the Kittur princely state of the Karnataka. He was the Shetsanadi of the Kingdom of Kittur ruled at the time by Rani Chennamma and fought the British East India Company till his death.

Sangolli Rayanna participated in the 1824 rebellion and was arrested by the British, who released him later.[398] He continued to fight the British and wanted to install the adopted son of King Mallasarja and Rani Chennamma, namely Shivalingappa as the ruler of Kittur.[399] He mobilised local people and started a guerilla type war against the British.[399] He and his guerrilla army moved from place to place, burnt government offices, waylaid British troops and plundered treasuries.[399] Most of his land was confiscated and what remained of it was heavily taxed. He taxed the landlords and built up an army from the masses. The British troops could not defeat him in open battle. Hence, by treachery, he was caught in April 1830 and tried by the British; and sentenced to death.[399] Shivalingappa, the boy who was supposed to be the new ruler, was also arrested by the British.[399]

Rayanna was executed by hanging from a Banyan tree about 4 kilometers from Nandagad in Belagavi district on 26 January 1831.[400]

390 1798 1805 G Richard Colley Wellesley, 1st Marquess Wellesley – Governor.

He first made his name as Governor-General of India between 1798 and 1805, and he later served as Foreign Secretary in the British Cabinet and as Lord Lieutenant of Ireland. He was the fifth Governor-General of India (1798–1805). In 1799, while portraying his enemy as a cruel tyrant needing to be put down, he invaded Mysore and defeated Tipu Sultan, the Sultan of Mysore, in a major battle.

As Governor-General, he ....

  • Adopted the policy of Subsidiary alliance – a system to keep the Indian rulers under control and to make British the supreme power.
  • Opened College to train the Company’s servants in Calcutta. So, Known as the Father of Civil Services of India.
  • Founded the Fort William College at Calcutta.

Subsidiary alliance was introduced by Lord Wellesley in 1798 to bring princely states under the control of the British[401]. In this system, an Indian ruler had to maintain British troops in his state, either by giving some of his territories or by paying for the maintenance of the troops. They had to maintain a British resident at their courts. This system allowed the British to maintain a large army at the expense of the local rulers.

391 1799 BS The Sikh Khalsa Army (Punjabi: Sikh Khalsa Fauj):

Also known as Khalsa or simply Sikh Army was the military force of the Khalsa, formed in 1598 by Guru Hargobind. It was a cavalry unit until the time of Guru Gobind Singh ji. From Maharaja Ranjit Singh on the army was modernized on Franco-British principles.[402]

It was divided in three wings:

  • The Fauj-i-Khas (elites),
  • Fauj-i-Ain (regular force) and
  • Fauj-i-Be Qawaid (irregulars).[402]

Due to the lifelong efforts of the Maharaja and his European officers, it gradually became a prominent fighting force of Asia.[403][402]

392 1799 BS List of battles involving the Sikh Empire#Battles fought by Sikhs:
  • Battle of Rohilla (1621) : Campaign by the Mughal Empire against the growing influence of the Sikhs.
  • Battle of Kartarpur (1635) : Siege of Kartarpur by the Mughal Empire.
  • Battle of Amritsar (1634) : Campaign by Mughal's Mukhlis Khan against Guru Hargobind and the Sikhs in 1628.
  • Battle of Lahira (1634) : Mughal Empire and Sikhs.
  • Battle of Bhangani (1688) : Guru Gobind Singh's (10th Guru) army and Bhim Chand (Kahlur) of Bilaspur near Paonta.
  • Battle of Nadaun (1691) : Raja Bhim Chand of Bilaspur, supported by Guru Gobind Singh and the Mughals under Alif Khan
  • Battle of Guler (1696) : Fought between the armies of Sikh Guru Gobind Singh and Mughal forces aided by Rajas of the Sivalik Hills.
  • Battle of Basoli (1702) : Mughal Empire and Sikhs. Mughals was defeated in the bloody Battle of Nirmohgarh.
  • Battle of Anandpur (1700) : Armies of Sikh Guru Gobind Singh and Mughal forces aided by Nawab of Bahawalpur.
  • Battle of Nirmohgarh (1702) : Sikhs and the Mughal Empire.
  • Battle of Anandpur (1701) : Sikhs and Rajas of the Sivalik Hills.
  • First Battle of Chamkaur (1702) : The Khalsa, led by Guru Gobind Singh, and coalition forces of Mughals led by Wazir Khan.
  • First Battle of Anandpur (1704)
  • Second Battle of Anandpur (1704)
  • Battle of Sarsa (1704)
  • Second Battle of Chamkaur (1704) The Khalsa, led by Guru Gobind Singh, and coalition forces of Mughals led by Wazir Khan.
393 1799 BS List of battles involving the Sikh Empire#Battles fought by Sikhs:
  • Battle of Muktsar[404][405][406][407][408] (1705) : or Battle of Khidrāne Dee Dhāb took place on 29 December 1705, following the siege of Anandpur. In 1704, Anandpur was under an extended siege by the allied forces of the Mughals and the hill chiefs.
  • Battle of Sonepat (1709) : Sikhs and Mughal Empire
  • Battle of Ambala (1709) : In 1709, Battle of Ambala was fought and Sikhs captured Ambala from Mughals.[409]
  • Battle of Samana (1709) : Banda Singh Bahadur and Wazir Khan
  • Battle of Chappar Chiri[406] (1710) : Sikhs and Mughal Empire
  • Battle of Sadhaura (1710) : Sikhs and Mughal army. It was terrible defeat for Mughals.
  • Battle of Rahon (1710) : Sikhs and Mughals.
  • Battle of Lohgarh (1710) : After Mughal Emperor Bahadur Shah's army recaptured Sirhind from the Sikhs, the Mughal army moved towards Lohgarh, where they engaged with the Sikhs.
  • Battle of Jammu (1712) : A surprise attack by Mughal General Zakariya Khan Bahadur, Sikhs were pursued all the way north to Jammu
  • Kapuri expedition :
  • Battle of Jalalabad (1710) : Mughal forces of Jalal Khan and Sikh forces of Banda Singh Bahadur.
  • Siege of Gurdaspur or Battle of Gurdas Nangal (1715) : Major campaign of the new Mughal Emperor Farrukhsiyar.
394 1799 BS List of battles involving the Sikh Empire#Battles fought by Sikhs:
  • Attack on Nadir Shah (1739)[410]
  • Killing Massa Ranghar
  • Killing Jaspat Rai[411][412]
  • Siege of Amritsar (1748)
  • Killing Salabat Khan[413] (1644) : In 1644, Amar Singh Rathore was enraged by an attempt by the Mughal emperor to levy a fine on him for an unauthorized absence. In the emperor's presence, he stabbed and killed Salabat Khan, who had been asked to collect the fine.
  • Siege of Ram Rauni[414] (1748) : The Sikhs gathered in Amritsar on Diwali,1748. Adina Beg proceeded towards Amritsar and besieged Ram Rauni. Mir Mannu came down from Lahore with an army to assist Beg in the siege. Jassa Singh used the good offices of Diwan Kaura Mal and had the siege lifted. The fort was strengthened and re-named Ramgarh. Jassa Singh, having been designated the Jathedar of the fort, became popular as Ramgarhia.
  • Skirmish of Gohalwar
  • Battle of Amritsar (1757)
  • Battle of Lahore (1759) : Durrani Empire and Maratha Empire assisted by forces of local Sikh Sukerchakia Misl of Punjab.
  • Battle of Sialkot (1761) : Durrani Empire and Sukerchakia Misl of Dal Khalsa.
  • Battle of Gujranwala (1761) : Durrani Empire and the Sikh Confederacy.
  • Sikh Occupation of Lahore[415] (1761) : Sikhs besieged Lahore after facing no opposition from Durrani forces.
  • Sikh holocaust (1762) or Vadda Ghalughara or Battle of Kup : Mass-murder of unarmed Sikhs by Afghan forces of Durrani Empire during the years of Afghan influence in the Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent.
  • Battle of Harnaulgarh (1762) : Durrani Empire and Sikh Misls of Dal Khalsa.
  • Skirmish of Amritsar (1762) : Vadda Ghalughara, ("The Great Massacre") was the mass-murder of the unarmed Sikhs by the Afghan forces of the Durrani Empire during the years of Afghan influence in the Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent owing to the repeated incursions of Ahmad Shah Durrani in February 1762.[416] It is distinguished from the Chhota Ghalughara (the Smaller Massacre). Mostly non-combatants, were killed[417] in the event and an estimated that 10,000 to 20,000 Sikhs were killed on 5 February 1762.[293][294]
  • Battle of Sialkot (1763) : Durrani Empire and Sukerchakia Misl.
  • Battle of Sirhind (1764) : Durrani Empire and Ahluwalia Misl.
  • Rescue of Brahmin Girl[418] (1769)
395 1799 BS List of battles involving the Sikh Empire#Battles fought by Sikhs:
  • Capture of Delhi and Red Fort (1783)[419]
  • Battle of Amritsar (1797)
  • Battle of Gujrat (1797)
  • Battle of Amritsar (1798)
  • Battle of Kasur
  • Battle of Jammu (1808)
  • Gurkha-Sikh War (1809) : A small conflict between forces of the Gurkha Kingdom of Nepal and Sikh Empire.
  • Battle of Attock (1813)
  • Battle of Multan (1818)
  • Battle of Shopian (1819)
  • Battle of Balakot (1831)
  • Battle of Peshawar (1834)
  • Battle of Jamrud (1837)
  • Sino-Sikh War (1841–1842)
  • Battle of Mudki (1845)
  • Battle of Ferozeshah (1845)
  • Battle of Baddowal (1846)
396 1799 BS List of battles involving the Sikh Empire#Battles fought by Sikhs:
  • Battle of Aliwal (1846)
  • Battle of Sobraon (1846)
  • Battle of Chillianwala (1849)
  • Battle of Ramnagar (1848)
  • Siege of Multan (1848–1849)
  • Battle of Gujrat (1849)
397 1799 Co Danish Colonization (Danish_India#The Golden Age of Danish India (1772–1807)):

Dispute between Denmark-Norway and Britain over the rights of a neutral nation to carry out trade with foreign colonies to which it did not normally have access during peacetime. Essentially, Britain was trying to prevent Denmark from carrying out the trade of countries Britain was at war with. At the time Denmark-Norway was able to make exorbitant profits from fetching colonial products from French and Dutch possessions in the Indian Ocean and discharging them into the European market through Copenhagen.

398 1799 1849 Dy The Sikh Empire (also Sikh Khalsa Raj or Sarkar-i Khalsa) was a state originating in the Indian subcontinent, formed under the leadership of Maharaja Ranjit Singh, who established an empire based in the Punjab.[420] The empire existed from 1799, when Maharaja Ranjit Singh captured Lahore, to 1849 and was forged on the foundations of the Khalsa from a collection of autonomous Sikh misls.[421][422] At its peak in the 19th century, the Empire extended from the Khyber Pass in the west to western Tibet in the east, and from Mithankot in the south to Kashmir in the north. Religiously diverse, with an estimated population of 3.5 million in 1831 (making it the 19th most populous country at the time),[423] it was the last major region of the Indian subcontinent to be annexed by the British Empire.
399 1799 BC Tipu Sultan is killed in battle against 5,000 British soldiers who storm and raze his capital, Srirangapatnam (Seringapatnam).
400 1799 BC Polygar Wars:

The Polygar Wars or Palaiyakkarar Wars were wars fought between the Polygars (Palaiyakkarars) of the former Tirunelveli Kingdom in Tamil Nadu, India and the British East India Company forces between March 1799 to May 1802 or July 1805. The British finally won after carrying out gruelling protracted jungle campaigns against the Polygar armies. Many lives were lost on both sides and the victory over the Polygars brought large parts of the territories of Tamil Nadu under British control, enabling them to get a strong hold in Southern India.

The suppression of the Polygar rebellions of 1799 and 1800-1805 resulted in the liquidation of the influence of the chieftains. Under the terms of the Carnatic Treaty (31 July 1801), the British assumed direct control over Tamil Nadu. The Polygar system which had flourished for two and a half centuries came to a violent end and the company introduced a Zamindari settlement in its place.

401 1800 13 Mar E Death of Nana Fadnavis:

Nana Phadnavis (also Fadanvis and Furnuwees and abbreviated as Phadnis) (February 12, 1742 – March 13, 1800), born Balaji Janardan Bhanu, was an influential minister and statesman of the Maratha Empire during the Peshwa administration in Pune, India. James Grant Duff states that he was called "the Maratha Machiavelli" by the Europeans.[424]

402 1800 Ed Fort William College (also known as the College of Fort William) was an academy of oriental studies and a centre of learning, founded on 10 July 1800 by Lord Wellesley, then Governor-General of British India, located within the Fort William complex in Calcutta. Wellesley backdated the statute of foundation to 4 May 1800, to commemorate the first anniversary of his victory over Tipu Sultan at Seringapatam.[425][426] Thousands of books were translated from Sanskrit, Arabic, Persian, Bengali, Hindi, and Urdu into English at this institution.

This college also promoted the printing and publishing of Urdu books.

403 1800 1835 F U Tirot Sing (birth date not known – July 17 1835)

also known as U Tirot Sing Syiem born in the year 1802 and died in the year 1835, was one of the chiefs of the Khasi people in the early 19th century. He drew his lineage from the Syiemlieh clan. He was Syiem (chief) of Nongkhlaw, part of the Khasi Hills. His surname was Syiemlieh. He was a constitutional head sharing corporate authority with his Council, general representatives of the leading clans within his territory. Tirot Sing declared war and fought against British for attempts to take over control of the Khasi Hills.[427]

He died on 17 July 1835.[428]

404 1800 F Maruthu Pandiyar

The Marudhu Pandiyars[429] (Periya Marudhu and Chinna Marudhu) were chieftains of Sivagangai, Tamil Nadu, India, towards the end of the 18th century. They were known for fighting against the East India Company.[430]

At least 56 years before the Great Rebellion broke out in 1857, the Maruthu brothers, rulers of Sivagangai, Tamil Nadu, fought for the independence from the emerging British rule. They waged a war and were successful in capturing three districts. But the British called upon additional troops from Britain and defeated the Maruthu brothers in two successive battles.

They along with the war leader Sivagangai and many of their family members, were captured at Cholapuram and were killed at Tiruppattur. They were hanged in the fort of Tirupattur, which is now Sivaganga district, Tamil Nadu, on 24 October 1801.[431] The burial of Maruthu Padiyars is located at Sivagangai .

405 1800 S Polo

India is the birthplace of modern polo.[432] The modern game of polo is derived from Manipur, where the game was known as 'Sagol Kangjei', 'Kanjai-bazee', or 'Pulu'.[433][434] It was the anglicised form of the last, referring to the wooden ball that was used, which was adopted by the sport in its slow spread to the west.

The first polo club in India was established at Silchar, Assam in 1834.[432] In 1862, the oldest polo club still in existence, Calcutta Polo Club, was established by two British soldiers, Sherer and Captain Robert Stewart.[435]

From the 1800s to the 1910s, a host of teams representing Indian principalities dominated the international polo scene.[436] Prominent teams of the period included Alwar, Bhopal, Bikaner, Jaipur, Hyderabad, Patiala, Jodhpur, Kishengarh and Kashmir. The majority of the Cavalry regiments of the British Army and the British Indian Army also fielded teams, the most prominent amongst them were the Central India Horse (CHI), Prince Albert Victor Own Cavalry (PAVO’s Cav), the Inniskilling Dragoon Guards, the 10th Royal Hussars, the 15th Lancers, and the 17/21st Lancers. The Jaipur team won all the open tournaments in Britain and the Indian Championship in 1933 creating a record that is unlikely to be broken. The team also won the Indian Open Championship every year from 1930 to 1938.[432]

406 1801 12 Apr BS Maharaja Ranjit Singh establishes Khalsa rule of Punjab from Lahore. Khalsa army liberates Kashmiri Pandits and invades Afghanistan via the Khyber Pass.[1]
407 1801 1868 Co Danish Colonization (Danish India#Napoleonic Wars and decline):

During the Napoleonic Wars, Denmark-Norway practiced a policy of armed neutrality whilst carrying French and Dutch goods from the Dutch East Indies to Copenhagen. This led to the English Wars during which Britain destroyed the Danish-Norwegian fleet, devastated the Danish East India Company's India trade, and occupied Dansborg and Frederiksnagore from 1801 to 1802, and again, from 1808 to 1815. In 1814 Norway gained independence from Denmark.

Italy made an attempt at buying the Nicobar Islands from Denmark between 1864 and 1868. The Italian Minister of Agriculture and Commerce Luigi Torelli started a negotiation that looked promising, but failed due to the unexpected end of his Office and the first La Marmora Cabinet. The negotiations were interrupted and never brought up again.

The Danish colonies went into decline, and the British ultimately took possession of them, making them part of British India: Serampore was sold to the British in 1839, and Tranquebar and most minor settlements in 1845 (11 October 1845 Frederiksnagore sold; 7 November 1845 other continental Danish India settlements sold); on 16 October 1868 all Danish rights to the Nicobar Islands, which since 1848 had been gradually abandoned, were sold to Britain.

408 1801 Bombay R In Bombay, Siddhivinayak temple built at Prabhadevi[106].

The Shree Siddhivinayak Ganapati Mandir is a Hindu temple dedicated to Lord Shri Ganesh. It is located in Prabhadevi, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India.[437] It was originally built by Laxman Vithu and Deubai Patil on 19 November 1801. It is one of the richest temples in India.[438]

409 1801 W India invasion fears (The Great Game):

At the start of the 19th century, the Indian subcontinent was ruled in part by independent princely states and in part by the company rule of the British East India Company. During the 19th century a political and diplomatic confrontation developed between Britain and Russia over Afghanistan which later became known as "The Great Game". Russia was fearful of British commercial and military inroads into Central Asia, and Britain was fearful of Russia adding the "jewel in the crown", India, to the vast empire that Russia was building in Asia. This resulted in an atmosphere of distrust and the constant threat of war between the two empires.[439][440] [441] If Russia were to gain control of the Emirate of Afghanistan, it might then be used as a staging post for a Russian invasion of India.[439][442]

Napoleon had proposed a joint Franco-Russian invasion of India to his Imperial Majesty Paul I of Russia.[443] In 1801 Paul, fearing a future action by the British against Russia and her allies in Europe, decided to make the first move towards where he believed the British Empire was weakest. He wrote to the Ataman of the Don Cossacks Troops, Cavalry General Vasily Petrovich Orlov, directing him to march to Orenburg, conquer the Central Asian Khanates, and from there invade India.[444] Paul was assassinated in the same year and the invasion was terminated. Napoleon tried to persuade Paul's son, Tsar Alexander I of Russia, to invade India; however Alexander resisted. In 1807, Napoleon dispatched General Claude Matthieu, Count Gardane on a French military mission to Persia, with the intention of persuading Russia to invade India. In response, Britain sent its own diplomatic missions in 1808, with military advisers, to Persia and Afghanistan under the capable Mountstuart Elphinstone, averting the French and possible Russian threat. However, Britain was left with concerns about being able to defend India.[443]

410 1801 W India invasion fears (The Great Game):

In 1810, Lieutenant Henry Pottinger and Captain Charles Christie undertook an expedition from Nushki (Balochistan) to Isfahan (Central Persia) disguised as Muslims. The expedition was funded by the East India Company and was to map and research the regions of "Beloochistan" (Balochistan) and Persia because of concerns about India being invaded by French forces from that direction.[445] After the disastrous French invasion of Russia in 1812 and the collapse of the French army, the threat of a French invasion through Persia was removed.

411 1802 1852 T Great Trigonometrical Survey (1802–1852) was started by British surveyor Col. William Lambton on 10 April 1802 from St. Thomas Mount in Chennai to foothills of Himalayas. 36 inch huge half ton weight Theodolite was used, which took 57 days to measure the 12-km base line. This 5-decade project was completed under Survey General Lt. George Everest in the year 1852.

The Great Trigonometrical Survey was a project which aimed to survey the entire Indian subcontinent with scientific precision. It was begun in 1802 by the British infantry officer William Lambton, under the auspices of the East India Company.[446] Under the leadership of his successor, George Everest, the project was made the responsibility of the Survey of India. Everest was succeeded by Andrew Scott Waugh and after 1861 the project was led by James Walker, who oversaw its completion in 1871.

Among the many accomplishments of the Survey were the demarcation of the British territories in India and the measurement of the height of the Himalayan giants: Everest, K2, and Kanchenjunga. The Survey had an enormous scientific impact as well, being responsible for one of the first accurate measurements of a section of an arc of longitude, and for measurements of the geodesic anomaly which led to the development of the theories of isostasy.

The native surveyors made use of in the Himalayas, especially in Tibet (where Europeans were not allowed), were called pandits, who included the cousins Nain Singh Rawat and Krishna Singh Rawat.[447][448][449]

Pioneering mathematician and Surveyor Radhanath Sikdar measured Mount Everest in 1852, with a height of 29,002 feet. Modern measurements indicate the height is 29,037 feet. This is regarded as the beginning of a new age of systematic topographical mapping in India succeeding the classical age, and the founding of one of the oldest survey and mapping agencies in the world.

Surveyor General of India was Colonel Sir George Everest (b.1790-d.1866) under whom GTS was completed and Mount Everest was named in his honour.

412 1803 1805 BC Second Anglo-Maratha War results in British capture of Delhi and control of large parts of India.

The Maratha Empire at that time consisted of a confederacy of 5 major chiefs who were engaged in internal quarrels ....

  • The Peshwa (Prime Minister) at the capital city of Poona,
  • The Gaekwad dynasty chief of Baroda,
  • The Scindia chief of Gwalior,
  • The Holkar chief of Indore, and
  • The Bhonsle chief of Nagpur.

Second Anglo-Maratha War#Conclusion@

Several treaties were signed between the Maratha Chiefs and The British ....

  • 31 December 1802 – Treaty of Bassein[450] by Baji Rao of Poona. This treaty would become the "death knell of the Maratha Empire",
  • 17 December 1803 – Treaty of Deogaon[451] by Raghoji II Bhonsale of Nagpur after the Battle of Argaon,
  • 30 December 1803 – Treaty of Surji-Anjangaon by the Daulat Scindia after the Battle of Assaye and Battle of Laswari,
  • 24 December 1805 – The Treaty of Rajghat by Yashwantrao Holkar. Forced Holkar to give up Tonk, Rampura, and Bundi.
413 1803 P Varanasi in the north was ceded to the British in 1803
414 1803 1899 T General Sir Arthur Cotton:

General Sir Arthur Thomas Cotton KCSI (15 May 1803 – 24 July 1899) was a British general and irrigation engineer.

Cotton devoted his life to the construction of irrigation and navigation canals throughout British India. He helped many people by building the Dowleswaram Barrage (Rajamahendravaram), the Prakasam Barrage and the Kurnool Cuddappah Canal (K. C. Canal). His dream was only partially realised, but he is still honoured in parts of Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu for his efforts.[452] The Sir Arthur Cotton Museum has been built in his honour in Rajamahendravaram, Andhra Pradesh. The museum holds approximately one hundred images and 15 machine tools that Cotton used when constructing the barrage in Andhra Pradesh from 1847 to 1852.

He entered the Madras Engineers in 1819 and fought in the First Burmese War. He was knighted in 1861.

An evangelist, he was the father of fellow evangelist Elizabeth Hope.

He started his career with the Ordnance Survey at Bangor, North Wales, in January 1820, where he was praised for his reports. In 1821 he was appointed for service in India, where he was initially attached to the Chief Engineer to Madras. He was later appointed as an Assistant Engineer to Superintending Engineer of the Tank Department.

415 1803 1899 T General Sir Arthur Cotton:

Cotton conducted a marine survey of the Pamban passage between India and Ceylon. He was promoted to the rank of captain in 1828, and was put in charge of investigation for the Cauveri Scheme. He started working to remove the soil settling in Kallanai Dam and with the model of the dam he built the Upper Dam in Cauveri in Mukkombu, near Tiruchirapalli. He constructed the Lower Anaicut Dam in Anaikarai. The success of these projects paved the way for further important projects on the Godavari and Krishna Rivers.

Cotton recalled how, from analysing the Kallanai Dam and its foundations, his group learned how to construct foundations in a sandbed. In 1844, Cotton recommended the construction of an "anicut" (a dam made in a stream for maintaining and regulating irrigation)[453] and prepared plans for Visakhapatnam port. In 1847, the work on the Godavari anicut was started.

In 1848 he proceeded to Australia due to ill health and handed over the charge to Captain Orr. In 1850 he returned to India and was promoted to the rank of colonel. He succeeded in completing the magnificent project on the Godavari river at Rajamahendravaram in 1852. After completing the Godavari anicut Cotton shifted his attention to the construction of the aqueduct on Krishna River. The project was sanctioned in 1851 and completed by 1855. After completing the Krishna and Godavari anicuts, Cotton envisaged the storage of the Krishna and Godavari river waters.

In 1858, Cotton came up with even more ambitious proposals such as connecting all major rivers of India, and interlinking of canals and rivers. He suggested drought-relief measures for Odisha. Arthur Cotton retired from service in 1860 and left India. He was knighted in 1861. He visited India in 1862 and 1863 and offered advice on some river valley projects.

416 1803 1899 T General Sir Arthur Cotton:

His work in India was much appreciated and he was honoured with KCSI (Knight Commander of the Order of the Star of India) in 1877. He became a much-revered figure in the state of Andhra Pradesh for his contribution in irrigating the area of land also known as Konaseema.

Cotton was hated by his administrative superiors—thanks to his loving attitudes towards the people of India.[454] At one point, impeachment proceedings were initiated by his superiors for his dismissal.[455]

Going through the famine and cyclone-ravaged districts of Godavari, Cotton was distressed by the sight of famished people of the Godavari districts.[456] It was then that he put in process his ambitious plans to harness the waters of the Godavari river for the betterment of the community.

In 1878, Cotton had to appear before a House of Commons Committee to justify his proposal to build an anicut across the Godavari.[457] A further hearing in the House of Commons followed by his letter to the then Secretary of State for India reveals his ambition to build the anicut across the Godavari. His letter concluded: "My Lord, one day's flow in the Godavari river during high floods is equal to one whole year's flow in the Thames of London".[458] Cotton almost despaired at the British Government's procrastination in taking along this project.

417 1803 1899 T General Sir Arthur Cotton:

According to Gautam Pingle, an Indian policymaker, the idea of interlinking of rivers in India to form a national water grid, an idea which had gained much attention from the Indian government and policy-makers at the turn of the 21st century, was in fact an idea that is more than 120 years old as it was first envisioned by Arthur Cotton.[459]

418 1804 Bombay A The Asiatic Society of Mumbai (formerly Asiatic Society of Bombay) is a learned society in the field of Asian studies based in Mumbai, India. It can trace its origin to the Literary Society of Bombay which first met in Mumbai on 26 November 1804, and was founded by Sir James Mackintosh. It was formed with the intention of "promoting useful knowledge, particularly such as is now immediately connected with India". After the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland was established in London in 1823, the Literary Society of Bombay became affiliated with it and was known as the Bombay Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society (BBRAS) since 1830. The Bombay Geographical Society merged with it in 1873, followed by the Anthropological Society of Bombay in 1896. In 1954, it was separated from the Royal Asiatic Society and renamed the Asiatic Society of Bombay.[460]
419 1805 1847 F Uyyalawada Narasimha Reddy (24 November 1806 – 22 February 1847) was an Indian freedom fighter. Son of a former Telugu Palegaadu Mallareddy and Seethamma, Narasimha Reddy was born in Rupanagudi village, Uyyalawada mandal of Kurnool district. He and his commander-in-chief Vadde Obanna were at the heart of the rebellion against the British in 1847, where 5,000 peasants rose up against the British East India Company in Kurnool district. They were protesting against the changes introduced by the British to the traditional agrarian system in the first half of the nineteenth century. These changes include the introduction of the ryotwari system and other attempts to maximize revenue through exploiting lower-status cultivators by depleting their crops and leaving them impoverished.

He killed over 3,000 British people during the course of the revolt.[461]

Warrants were issued for the arrest of nearly 1,000 of the freedom fighters, of which 412 were released without charge. A further 273 were bailed and 112 were convicted. Reddy, too, was convicted and in his case received the death penalty. On 22 February 1847, he was executed in Koilkuntla in front of a crowd of over 2000 people.[461]

420 1805 1807 G Sir George Barlow, 1st Baronet, GCB (20 January 1763 – 18 December 1846)[462] served as Acting Governor-General of India from the death of Lord Cornwallis in 1805 until the arrival of Lord Minto in 1807.

The important event which took place in his time was Mutiny of Vellore in 1806 in which the Indian soldiers killed many English officials.

He was appointed to the Bengal Civil Service in 1778, and in 1788 carried into execution the permanent settlement of Bengal.

When the Marquess of Cornwallis died in 1805, Sir George Barlow was nominated provisional governor-general, and his passion for economy and retrenchment in that capacity has caused him to be known as the only governor-general who diminished the area of British territory; but his nomination was rejected by the home government, and Lord Minto was appointed. Subsequently, Barlow was created governor of Madras, where his want of tact caused a mutiny of the British officers of the Madras Army in 1809, similar to that which had previously occurred under Robert Clive.

421 1805 1834 Pr The Ceded and Conquered Provinces constituted a region in northern India that was ruled by the British East India Company from 1805 to 1834;[463] it corresponded approximately—in present-day India—to all regions in Uttar Pradesh state with the exception of the Lucknow and Faizabad divisions of Awadh; in addition, it included the Delhi territory and, after 1816, the Kumaun division and a large part[464] of the Garhwal division of present-day Uttarakhand state.[463] In 1836, the region became the North-Western Provinces (under a Lieutenant-Governor), and in 1904, the Agra Province within the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh.[463]
422 1806 P The Vellore mutiny on 10 July 1806 was the first instance of a large-scale and violent mutiny by Indian sepoys against the East India Company, predating the Indian Rebellion of 1857 by half a century. The revolt, which took place in the South Indian city of Vellore, lasted one full day, during which mutineers seized the Vellore Fort and killed or wounded 200 British troops. The mutiny was subdued by cavalry and artillery from Arcot. Total deaths amongst the mutineers were approximately 350; with summary executions of about 100 during the suppression of the outbreak, followed by the formal court-martial of smaller numbers.[465]
423 1807 1833 BE Slavery Abolition Act 1833:

The slave trade is abolished in British colonial possessions in 1807 and slavery itself in Britain’s dominions by 1833[28].

The Slavery Abolition Act 1833 (3 & 4 Will. IV c. 73) abolished slavery in parts of the British Empire. This Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom expanded the jurisdiction of the Slave Trade Act 1807 and made the purchase or ownership of slaves illegal within the British Empire, with the exception of "the Territories in the Possession of the East India Company", Ceylon (now Sri Lanka), and Saint Helena. The Act was repealed in 1997 as a part of wider rationalisation of English statute law; however, later anti-slavery legislation remains in force.

424 1807 BS Hari Singh Nalwa, commander of the Sikh Khalsa Army of the Sikh Empire defeats the Durrani Empire in the Battle of Kasur, the first in a series of battles.[1]
425 1807 1813 G Gilbert Elliot-Murray-Kynynmound, 1st Earl of Minto, PC, FRSE (23 April 1751 – 21 June 1814), known as Sir Gilbert Elliott until 1797, was a British diplomat and politician who sat in the House of Commons between 1776 and 1795. He was viceroy of the short-lived Anglo-Corsican Kingdom from 1793 to 1796 and went on to become Governor-General of India between July 1807 and 1813.

He concluded the Treaty of Amritsar (1809) with Maharaja Ranjit Singh.

426 1808 1877 C Ardaseer Cursetjee Wadia FRS (6 October 1808 – 16 November 1877) was an Indian Parsi shipbuilder and engineer belonging to the Wadia ship building family.[466]

He is noted for having been the first Indian to be elected a Fellow of the Royal Society. He is also recorded as having introduced several (at the time) novel technologies to the city of Bombay (now Mumbai), including gas lighting, the sewing machine, steam pump-driven irrigation and electro-plating.[467] He was also the first Parsi to have visited America in 1851.[468]

427 1809 25 Apr BC The East India Company signs the first Treaty of Amritsar with Ranjit Singh.

The Treaty of Amritsar of 1809 was an agreement between the British East India Company and Maharaja Ranjit Singh, the Sikh leader who founded the Sikh empire. Among the outcomes was that Singh gained a carte blanche to further consolidate his territorial gains north of the Sutlej river at the expense both of other Sikh chiefs and their peers among the other dominant communities. It was a pact between Charles T. Metcalfe and Maharaja Ranjit Singh.[469]

Ranjit Singh (1780-1839) was a Sikh warrior who had been establishing a kingdom in what was at that time northern India. He had established a capital at Lahore in 1799 when he defeated Zaman Shah, an Afghan leader, and this emphasised his status among the Sikhs. He proclaimed himself maharajah of the Punjab in 1801 and expanded his territories to such an extent that by 1808 he had control of an area bounded by Gujarat, Ludhiana and Multan. He had Malwa, on the south side of the Sutlej river, as his next target but the Sikh chiefs in that area appealed to the British for protection. The protection was forthcoming and the British, who until recently had been occupied in Hindustan obtaining victory in the Second Anglo-Maratha War, attempted to resolve the issue using diplomacy. This failed, Singh invaded Malwa in September 1808 and in February 1809 the British successfully attacked Singh's forces there. Realising his relative military weakness, Singh conceded with the Treaty of Amritsar. They promised that they will not interfere his affairs .[470]

Although the terms of the treaty prevented Singh from any further territorial expansion south of the Sutlej, they also permitted him complete freedom of action to the north of it. This enabled him to extract tribute from less powerful chieftains, including Jats and other Sikhs, and ultimately to gain control of areas such as Peshawar and Kashmir. The unification of these territories, which was aided by him Westernising his armies, formed the Sikh empire that last until British subjugation in 1849.[471][472]

428 1809 BS The Gurkha–Sikh War was a small conflict between the forces of the Gurkha Kingdom of Nepal and the Sikh Empire in 1809 under Maharaja Ranjit Singh.
429 1810 Bombay T On 19 June 1810, in Bombay, HMS Minden floated, first Royal Navy ship built outside the British Isles and from the deck of which the lyrics of "The Star-Spangled Banner" (US National Anthem) would be composed[106].
430 1810 Tr Jamsetjee Bomanjee Wadia[473] of the Wadia Group built the ship HMS Minden (1810). She was launched from the Duncan Docks on 19th June, 1810 in Bombay, India, and was built of teak.

She was named after the German town Minden and the Battle of Minden of 1759.

HMS Minden (1810)#Service history:

Minden sailed from Bombay on 8 February 1811 on her first cruise,[474] under the command of Edward Wallis Hoare,[475] and manned by the crew of the Russell. In March she sailed from Madras to take part in the invasion of Java. On 29 July two of her boats, under the command of Lieutenant Edmund Lyons, with only 35 officers and men aboard, attacked and captured the fort covering the harbour of Marrack, to the westward of Batavia.[475] The Naval General Service Medal with the clasp "30 July Boat Service 1811" was issued to survivors of this action in 1848. The Dutch and French forces in Java surrendered in September. Minden then sailed for the UK and escorted convoys to the East Indies, the Cape of Good Hope, South America, and the coast of Africa.[474]

Minden saw service during the War of 1812 in the Chesapeake Bay.[476] Some accounts state that Francis Scott Key was aboard Minden when he wrote the poem "Defense of Fort M'Henry", which became the lyrics for "The Star-Spangled Banner".[477] [478]

In late July 1816 Minden sailed from Plymouth Sound, as part of an Anglo-Dutch fleet that made an attack on Algiers on 27 August.[474] The Naval General Service Medal with the clasp "Algiers" was issued to survivors of this battle in 1848.

Minden then sailed for the East Indies, and was reported to be at Trincomalee in 1819. In July 1830 Minden was at Plymouth. She was commissioned there on 19 March 1836 and sailed for the Tagus joining the British squadron. In 1839 she was at Malta, returning to Plymouth in early 1840.[474]

431 1811 28 Oct E The death of Yashwantrao Holkar

Yashwant Rao Holkar (1776-1811), belonging to the Holkar dynasty of the Maratha Empire was the Maharaja of the Maratha Empire. He was a gifted military leader and educated in accountancy as well as literate in Persian and Marathi.[479]

432 1812 1892 F Maulvi Liaquat Ali

Captured Khusro Bagh in Allahabad and declared "independence" of India.

Maulvi Liaquat Ali was a Muslim religious leader from Allahabad (Prayagraj), in the state of Uttar Pradesh in present-day India. He was one of the leaders in the revolt against the British in 1857, in what is now known as the First Indian war of Independence, or the uprising of 1857. This war was also known as the First War of Independence.[480][481][482] As one of the most prominent leaders, Maulvi Liaqat Ali belonged to Village Mahgaon in Pargana Chail of District Prayagraj. He was a religious teacher, an upright pious Muslim, and a man of great courage and valour. His family traced their descent from the Zainabi Jafri branch of Hashmis which had their offshoots at Jaunpur and other places. He was a humble and simple man but when he took the reins of the freedom struggle, he became a dreadful enemy of the British.

The Zamindars of Chail were his relatives and followers, and they supported Maulvi with their men and ammunition. Consequently, it was with great difficulty that the British regained control of the city of Allahabad after the Maulvi captured the[483] Khusro Bagh and declared the independence of India Khusro Bagh became the headquarters of the sepoys under Maulvi Liaquat Ali who took charge as the Governor of liberated Allahabad. however, the Mutiny was swiftly put down and Khusro Bagh was retaken by the British in two weeks.

He escaped from Allahabad after the British recaptured the city, but was caught after 14 years in September 1871 at Byculla railway station in Mumbai.[484] He was tried and sentenced to death, but died in captivity in Rangoon on 17 May 1892. He had married and had a daughter. Her descendants and further generations are still found in and around Pargana Chail and some migrated to Pakistan after independence.[485]

433 1813 13 Jul BS Dewan Mokham Chand and Hari Singh Nalwa, commanders of the Sikh Khalsa Army of the Sikh Empire defeat the Durrani Empire in the Battle of Attock.[1]
434 1813 1858 Ec Three phases of British exploitation of India[272]:

The 2nd phase coincided with the ‘Industrial revolution in England (1813– 1858) — It was the age of Free Trade capitalist exp1oitation. The English manufacturers were given, a boost by the Charter Act of 1813. Indian markets were opened up for English imports and India became a source of raw materials. It is popularly said that this was the period when ‘the home-land of cotton was inundated with cotton (from abroad.)’. The cotton manufacturers of Lancashire benefitted the most and in the next ‘thirty years’ time Indian cotton industry was destroyed. The constant drain was affecting the purchasing power of the Indians and this would have blocked India as the market for English products. To resolve this, commercialization of agriculture was introduced (though this alone was not the reason for commercialization of agriculture) Laying of the railways from 1850s under Lord Dalhousie opened the interior markets of India for English products and enhanced the capacity of India as a source of raw materials for the English industries.

Also see Sn: 202, 426 and 1558

435 1813 1823 G Francis Rawdon-Hastings, 1st Marquess of Hastings, KG, PC (English: /ˈrɔːrdɒn/; 9 December 1754 – 28 November 1826), styled The Honourable Francis Rawdon from birth until 1762, Lord Rawdon between 1762 and 1783, The Lord Rawdon from 1783 to 1793 and The Earl of Moira between 1793 and 1816, was an Anglo-Irish politician and military officer who served as Governor-General of India from 1813 to 1823.

He had also served with British forces for years during the American Revolutionary War and in 1794 during the War of the First Coalition. He took the additional surname "Hastings" in 1790 in compliance with the will of his maternal uncle, Francis Hastings, 10th Earl of Huntingdon.[486]

He was appointed Governor-General of the Presidency of Fort William, effectively the Governor-General of India, on 11 November 1812. His tenure as Governor-General was a memorable one, overseeing ....

  • The victory in the Gurkha War (1814–1816).
  • The final conquest of the Marathas in 1818.
  • He confirmed the purchase of Singapore from the Sultan of Johor, by Sir Stamford Raffles, in January 1819.

He also ....

  • Ended the policy of non-intervention, which was followed by Sir John Shore.
  • Abolished the censorship of press.
  • Introduced Ryotwari and Mahalwari system in Bombay.
436 1813 Tr HMS Cornwallis (1813) a 74-gun third rate ship of the line of the Royal Navy, launched on 12 May 1813 at Bombay. She was built of teak.

HMS Cornwallis was the ship on which the Treaty of Nanking, ceding Hong Kong to England, was signed. The Treaty of Nanking (Nanjing) was a peace treaty which ended the First Opium War (1839–1842) between the United Kingdom and China on 29 August 1842. It was the first of what the Chinese later called the unequal treaties.

437 1814 1816 BC The Anglo-Nepalese War (1 November 1814 – 4 March 1816), also known as the Gurkha War, was fought between the Gurkhas of the Gorkha Kingdom (present-day Nepal) and the British forces of the East India Company (EIC, present-day India). Both sides had ambitious expansion plans for the mountainous north of the Indian subcontinent. The war ended with the signing of the Treaty of Sugauli in 1816 AD, which ceded some Nepalese controlled territory to the EIC.

The British war effort was led by the East India Company and supported by a coalition of native states; the Garhwal Kingdom, the Patiala State and the Kingdom of Sikkim against the Kingdom of Gorkha. The Kingdom of Gorkha's war effort was led mostly by the Thapa Kaji.

438 1814 BC During the war in Nepal in 1814, in which the British attempted to annex Nepal into the Empire, Army officers were impressed by the tenacity of the Gurkha soldiers and encouraged them to volunteer for the East India Company.

Gurkhas served as troops of the Company in ....

  • The Pindaree War (Third Anglo-Maratha War) of 1817,
  • Bharatpur, Nepal in 1826,
  • The First Anglo-Sikh War in 1846 and
  • The Second Anglo-Sikh War in 1848.

During the Sepoy Mutiny in 1857, the Gurkha regiments remained loyal to the British, and became part of the British Indian Army on its formation. The 2nd Gurkha Rifles (The Sirmoor Rifles) and the 60th Rifles famously defended Hindu Rao's house.

439 1814 1859 F Tatya Tope (1814 – 18 April 1859)

Tantia Tope was one of the Indian rebellions of 1857. He served as a general and led a group of Indian soldiers against the British. He was an ardent follower of Nana Sahib of Bithoor (Bithur) and continued to fight on his behalf when Nana was forced to retreat by the British army. Tantia even forced General Charles Ash Windham to retreat from Kanpur and helped Rani of Jhansi to retain Gwalior.[487]

440 1814 1859 F Tatya Tope

Tantia Tope also spelled as Tatya Tope[488] (16 February 1814 – 18 April 1859), was a general in the Indian Rebellion of 1857 and one of its notable leaders. Despite lacking formal military training, Tantia Tope is widely considered as the best and most effective rebel general.[488]

Born as Ramachandra Panduranga Yawalkar to a Marathi Deshastha Brahmin[489] family, in Yeola, (near Nasik). Tantia took on the title Tope, meaning commanding officer. His first name Tantia means General. A personal adherent of Nana Saheb of Bithur, he progressed with the Gwalior contingent after the British reoccupied Kanpur (then known as Cawnpore) and forced General Windham to retreat from the city. Later on, Tantia Tope came to the relief of Rani Lakshmibai of Jhansi and with her seized the city of Gwalior. However, he was defeated by General Napier's British Indian troops at Ranod and after a further defeat at Sikar, he abandoned the campaign.[490]

According to an official statement, Tantia Tope's father was Panduranga, an inhabitant of Jola Pargannah, Patoda Zilla Nagar, in present-day Maharashtra.[491] Tope was a Maraṭha Vashista Brahman by birth.[491] In a government letter, he was said to be the minister of Baroda, while he was held identical to Nana Saheb in another communication.[491] A witness at his trial described Tantia Tope as "a man of middling stature, with a wheat complexion and always wearing a white chukri-dar turban".

Tantia Tope was executed by the British Government at Shivpuri on 18 April 1859.

441 1814 15 Jan R "Atmiya Sabha" is established by Raja Ram Mohan Roy.

Atmiya Sabha was a philosophical discussion circle in India. The association was started by Ram Mohan Roy in 1814 in Kolkata (then Calcutta). They used to conduct debate and discussion sessions on philosophical topics, and also used to promote free and collective thinking and social reform. The foundation of Atmiya Sabha in 1814 is considered as the beginning of the modern age in Kolkata.[492][493] In 1823, the association became defunct.[494]

442 1815 BC The Treaty of Sugauli (also spelled Sugowlee, Sagauli, Soogoulee), the treaty that established the boundary line of Nepal, was signed on 2 December 1815 and ratified by 4 March 1816 between the East India Company and Raj Guru Gajaraj Mishra with Chandra Shekhar Upadhaya for Nepal following the Anglo-Nepalese War of 1814–16. The treaty represented a Nepali Peace collaboration to the British and contained the cession of Nepal's western territory to the British East India Company.[495][496]

As per the treaty, Nepal lost all Sikkim (including Darjeeling), the territories of Kumaon and Garhwal and Western Terai. The Mechi River became the new eastern border and the Mahakali river the western boundary of the kingdom.

443 1815 T Shimla (earlier spelt Simla) came into existence when the ‘Gurkha wars’ ended in 1815–16 and the victorious British decided to retain certain pockets as military outposts and sanatoriums.[497]

The first house in Shimla was built in 1822 and is known as ‘Kennedy House’, the residence of Captain Charles Pratt Kennedy, the then political officer to the Hill State.

In 1864, Shimla was officially declared the summer capital of British India – a status it retained up to India’s independence in 1947. The decision on Partition was taken in this city in 1947. The historic Indo-Pak Shimla accord was also signed here on 3 July 1972.

A remarkable feature of Shimla is its railway station at an altitude of 2075 metres (6820 ft) and nestled in forests of deodar, pine, asphodel, hyacinth, celandine, fir, Himalayan oak, carmine & rhododendron trees. It was constructed in 1903 under the supervision of the then Chief Engineer and agent of the Kalka–Shimla railway (KSR) H S Harington[498].

The scenic Kalka Shimla Railway, a narrow gauge track, is listed in the Guinness Book of Records for the steepest rise in altitude in a distance of 96 km.[499]

444 1816 Co French colonization (French India):

In 1816, after the conclusion of the Napoleonic Wars, the five establishments of Pondichéry, Chandernagore, Karaikal, Mahe and Yanam and the lodges at Machilipatnam, Kozhikode and Surat were returned to France. Pondichéry had lost much of its former glory, and Chandernagore dwindled into an insignificant outpost to the north of the rapidly growing British metropolis of Calcutta. Successive governors tried, with mixed results, to improve infrastructure, industry, law and education over the next 138 years.

445 1816 1872 F Ram Singh Kuka (3 February 1816 – 18 January 1872)

Ram Singh Kuka was a social reformer. He is credited as being the first British Indian to use non-cooperation and boycott of British goods and services as a political tool.[500][501][502]

Like Mahadev Govind Ranade, he too, understood the importance of social reforms in order to stand strong against the British rule. Hence Ram Singh Kuka gave much importance to social reforms.

446 1817 1818 BC Third Anglo-Maratha War, also known as the Pindari War.

After the Second Anglo-Maratha War, Shinde and Holkar had lost many of their territories to the British. They encouraged the Pindaris, who were mostly cavalry to raid the British territories. The Pindaris frequently raided villages in Central India – the result was that Central India was being rapidly reduced to the condition of a desert because the peasants were unable to support themselves on the land. They had no option but to join the robber bands or starve. Pindari raids on British territory followed in 1816 and 1817. Francis Rawdon-Hastings saw that there could not be peace or security in India until the predatory Pindaris were extinguished.[503]

The Third Anglo-Maratha War (1817–1819) was the final and decisive conflict between the British East India Company (EIC) and the Maratha Empire in India. The war left the Company in control of most of India. It began with an invasion of Maratha territory by British East India Company troops,[504] and although the British were outnumbered, the Maratha army was decimated. The troops were led by Governor General Hastings, supported by a force under General Thomas Hislop. Operations began against the Pindaris, a band of Muslim mercenaries and Marathas from central India.

British victories were swift, resulting in the breakup of the Maratha Empire and the loss of Maratha independence. The Peshwa was defeated in the battles of Khadki and Koregaon. Several minor battles were fought by the Peshwa's forces to prevent his capture.[505]

The Peshwa was eventually captured and placed on a small estate at Bithur, near Kanpur. Most of his territory was annexed and became part of the Bombay Presidency.

447 1817 BC The Battle of Kirkee (Battle of Khadki), also known as or The Battle of Ganeshkhind, took place at modern day Khadki, India on 5 November 1817 between the forces of the British East India Company and the Maratha Empire under the leadership of Mudhoji II Bhonsle (Appasaheb Bhonsle). The Company forces achieved a decisive victory, and Khadki later became a military cantonment under the British rule.
448 1817 BC The Paika Rebellion, also called the Paika Bidroha. It was an armed rebellion against Company rule in India in 1817.

In September 1804, the King of Khordha, Kalinga was deprived of the traditional rights of Jagannath Temple which was a serious shock to the King and the people of Odisha. Consequently, in October 1804 a group of armed Paiks attacked the British at Pipili. This event alarmed the British force. Jayee Rajguru, the chief of Army of Kalinga requested all the kings of the state to join hands for a common cause against the British. Rajguru was killed on 6 December 1806. After Rajguru's death, Bakshi Jagabandhu commanded an armed rebellion.

The Paikas rose in rebellion under their leader Bakshi Jagabandhu and, projecting Lord Jagannath as the symbol of Odia unity, the rebellion quickly spread across most of Odisha before being put down by the Company's forces. It is considered by some to be the first Indian armed movement to gain independence, replacing the prevailing view of the first one being the Indian Rebellion of 1857.[506]

449 1817 20 Jan Ed Presidency University, Kolkata, formerly known as Hindu College and Presidency College, is a public state university located in College Street, Kolkata. Established in 1817, it is probably the oldest institution in the India to have no religious connection.
450 1817 Calcutta Ed Presidency University, Kolkata:

The college was formally opened on Monday, 20 January 1817 with 20 'scholars'. The foundation committee of the college, which oversaw its establishment, was headed by Raja Ram Mohan Roy.

The newly established college mostly admitted Hindu students from affluent and progressive families, but also admitted non-Hindu students such as Muslims, Jews, Christians and Buddhists

451 1818 BC The Battle of Koregaon (also called the Battle of Koregaon Bhima) was fought on 1 January 1818 between the British East India Company and the Peshwa faction of the Maratha Confederacy, at Koregaon Bhima.

A 28,000-strong force led by Peshwa Baji Rao II whilst on their way to attack the company-held Pune, were unexpectedly met by an 800-strong Company force that was on its way to reinforce the British troops in Pune. The Peshwa dispatched around 2,000 soldiers to attack the force which sought entrenchment in Koregaon. Led by Captain Francis Staunton, the Company troops defended their position for nearly 12 hours, before the Peshwa's troops ultimately withdrew, fearing the imminent arrival of a larger British force.

The battle was part of the Third Anglo Maratha war, a series of battles that culminated in the defeat of the Peshwa rule and subsequent rule of the British East India Company in nearly all of Western, Central and Southern India.[507] There is a "victory pillar" (obelisk) in Koregaon commemorating the battle.[508]

Neither side achieved a decisive victory in the battle.[509] Shortly after the battle, Mountstuart Elphinstone described it as a "small victory" for the Peshwa.[510] Nevertheless, the East India Company government praised the bravery of its troops, who could not be overpowered despite being outnumbered.[509]

Notwithstanding this, the battle being one of the last ones to be fought in the Third Anglo-Maratha War, is since recognised as a Company victory after the war ended with Peshwa's defeat.[509]

452 1818 BC Rasalgad Fort.

This fort was in the captivity of Morè (clan) of Javli from whom Shivaji Maharaj captured this fort. In 1818 British forces captured it from the Peshwas

453 1818 March–June BS Sikh Empire defeats the Durrani Empire and captures Multan after the Siege of Multan (1818).[1]
454 1818 31 Dec BC The Third Anglo-Maratha War ends with the defeat of Bajirao II and the end of the Maratha Empire, leaving the East India Company with control of almost the whole of India.
455 1818 D The Nassak Diamond (also known as the Nassac Diamond[511] and the Eye of the Idol[512]) is a large, 43.38 carats (8.676 g) diamond that originated as a larger 89 carat diamond in the 15th century in India.[513] Found in Golconda mines of Kollur and originally cut in India, the diamond was the adornment in the Trimbakeshwar Shiva Temple, near Nashik, in the state of Maharashtra, India from at least 1500 to 1817.[513] The British East India Company captured the diamond through the Third Anglo-Maratha War and sold it to British jewellers Rundell and Bridge in 1818.[513] Rundell and Bridge recut the diamond in 1818,[514] after which it made its way into the handle of the 1st Marquess of Westminster's dress sword.[513]
456 1818 N Calcutta Journal, English

James Silk Buckingham (25 August 1786 – 30 June 1855) was a Cornish-born British author, journalist and traveller, known for his contributions to Indian journalism. He was a pioneer among the Europeans who fought for a liberal press in India.

In 1821, his Travels in Palestine was published, followed by Travels Among the Arab Tribes in 1825.[515] After years of wandering he settled in India, where he established a periodical, the Calcutta Journal, in 1818. This venture at first proved highly successful, but in 1823 the paper's outspoken criticisms of the East India Company led to the expulsion of Buckingham from India and to the suppression of the paper by John Adam, the acting governor-general in 1823. His case was brought before a select committee of the House of Commons in 1834, and a pension of £500 a year was subsequently awarded to him by the East India Company as compensation.

457 1819 Ed The Hon Mountstuart Elphinstone FRSE (6 October 1779 – 20 November 1859) was a Scottish statesman and historian, associated with the government of British India. He later became the Governor of Bombay (now Mumbai) where he is credited with the opening of several educational institutions accessible to the Indian population. Besides being a noted administrator, he wrote books on India and Afghanistan.

In 1819, Elphinstone was appointed Lieutenant-Governor of Bombay, a post he held until 1827. During his tenure, he greatly promoted education in India, at a time when opinion in Britain was against educating the "natives". He may fairly be regarded as the founder of the system of state education in India. One of his principal achievements was the compilation of the "Elphinstone code".[516] He also returned many lands that had appropriated by the British to the Raja of Satara.

Spurred on by his advanced views, the wealthy native inhabitants of Bombay founded, by public subscriptions, the Elphinstone College in his honour.

One of his principal achievements was the compilation of the "Elphinstone code". The Elphinstone code of the year 1827 introduce a uniform scheme of criminal law and after six years in 1833 an Act was passed providing for the enactment of laws. The first law commission was appointed with the law member of the Governor general in council[517].

Elphinstone was a great believer in education at a time when opinion in Britain was against educating the ‘natives’. He belonged to the ‘Liberal School’, which stood for the introduction of Western ideas and values but only if integrated with traditional institutions and people’s sentiments. With this template of integrating old and the new, Elphinstone’s next major contribution was the foundation of schools and colleges and the present system of higher education in Maharashtra dates back to Elphinstone’s minutes of 1823, which stressed the need for establishing schools for teaching English and the European sciences. Along with educated Indians, he started the ‘Native School and School Book Committee’ to raise funds for the purpose[518].

458 1819 N Sambad Kaumudi, Bengali, Weekly

Ceased publication in 1836.

Sambad Kaumudi was a Bengali weekly newspaper published from Kolkata in the first half of the 19th century by Ram Mohan Roy. It was a noted pro-Reformist publication that actively campaigned for the abolition(stop) of the Sati Pratha.

In the prospectus for the Sambad Kaumudi, published in English and Bengali in November 1821, Ram Mohan appealed to his countrymen to lend him "the support and patronage of all who feel themselves interested in the moral and intellectual improvement of our countrymen". In the same prospectus, he further stated that religious, moral and political matters, domestic occurrence, foreign as well as local intelligence including original communications on various hitherto unpublished interesting local topics, etc. would be published in the Sambad Kaumudi every Tuesday.

Although Ram Mohan Roy was the owner, Kaumudi was actually published in the name of Bhabani Charan Bandyopadhyay.[519] The latter soon found Ram Mohan's ideas too radical and parted company to start a rival newspaper called Samachar Chandrika, which became an organ of orthodox Hinduism.

According to different source, Kaumudi was started by Tarachand Dutta and Bhabani Charan Bandopadhyay.[520]

459 1819 T Malabar Hill is a hillock and upmarket residential neighbourhood in South Mumbai, Maharashtra, India. Malabar Hill is the most exclusive residential area in Mumbai.[521]

Malabar Hill is the location of the Walkeshwar Temple, founded by the Silhara kings. The original temple was destroyed by the Portuguese, but rebuilt again in 1715 by Rama Kamath, and by 1860, 10 to 20 other temples were built in the region.[522]

Mountstuart Elphinstone built the first bungalow in Malabar Hill while he was Governor of Bombay, between 1819 and 1827. Following his example, the place soon became an affluent locality, as it remains today.[522]

460 1820 Ad The Ryotwari system was a land revenue system in British India, introduced by Thomas Munro in 1820 based on system administered by Captain Alexander Read in the Baramahal District. It allowed the government to deal directly with the cultivator ('ryot') for revenue collection and gave the peasant freedom to cede or acquire new land for cultivation. The peasant was assessed for only the lands that he cultivated.[523][524]
461 1820 C Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar CIE (26 September 1820 – 29 July 1891),[525] born Ishwar Chandra Bandyopadhyay, was an Indian educator and social reformer.[526] His efforts to simplify and modernise Bengali prose were significant. He also rationalised and simplified the Bengali alphabet and type, which had remained unchanged since Charles Wilkins and Panchanan Karmakar had cut the first (wooden) Bengali type in 1780. He is considered the "father of Bengali prose".[527]

He was the most prominent campaigner for Hindu widow remarriage, petitioning the Legislative council despite severe opposition, including a counter petition (by Radhakanta Deb and the Dharma Sabha) which had nearly four times as many signatures.[528][529] Even though widow remarriage was considered a flagrant breach of Hindu customs and was staunchly opposed, Lord Dalhousie personally finalised the bill and the Hindu Widows' Remarriage Act, 1856 was passed.[530][531]

He so excelled in his undergraduate studies of Sanskrit and philosophy at Sanskrit College in Calcutta, that Cambridge mathematician Anil Kumar Gain (who founded Vidyasagar University) gave him the honorific title "Vidyasagar" ("Ocean of Knowledge"; from Sanskrit, Vidya "knowledge" and Sagar "ocean").[532]

462 1820 E First Indian immigrants arrive in the US.[2]
463 1820 1830 Em George IV (George Augustus Frederick; 12 August 1762 – 26 June 1830) was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and King of Hanover from the death of his father, King George III, on 29 January 1820 until his own death ten years later. From 1811 until his accession, he served as regent during his father's final mental illness.
464 1820 1879 F Begum Hazrat Mahal (1820 – 7 April 1879)

Also called as Begum of Awadh, was the second wife of Nawab of Awadh Wajid Ali Shah. She rebelled against the British East India Company during the Indian Rebellion of 1857. She finally found asylum in Nepal onto Hallaur, she died in 1879 Nepal. After her husband had been exiled to Calcutta, she took charge of the affairs in the state of Awadh and seized control of Lucknow. She made her son, Prince Birjis Qadr, the Wali (ruler) of Awadh; However, she was forced to abandon this role after a short reign.[533]

Working along with leaders like Nana Saheb and Maulavi of Faizabad, Begum Hazrat Mahal rebelled against the British during the revolt of 1857. She rebelled against the demolition of temples and mosques before retreating to Nepal.

465 1820 1927 T Irrigation Systems completed before Independence[534] ….
  • 1820 Western Yamuna Canal system, Haryana
  • 1856 Upper Gang Canal system, Uttar Pradesh
  • 1859 Upper Bari Doab Canal, Punjab
  • 1873 Sirhind Canal, Punjab
  • 1874 Sone Canal[535] system, Bihar
  • 1880 Lower Gang Canal system, Uttar Pradesh
  • 1880 Eastern Yamuna Canal system, Uttar Pradesh
  • 1889 Cauvery Delta[536] system, Tamil Nandu
  • 1890 Godavari Delta system, Andhra Pradesh
  • 1898 Krishna Delta system, Andhra Pradesh
  • 1926 Sarda Canal system, Uttar Pradesh
  • 1927 Gang Canal, Rajasthan
466 1822 Ad The Mahalwari system was introduced by Holt Mackenzie in 1822.[537] The other two systems were the Permanent Settlement in Bengal in 1793 and the Ryotwari system in 1820. It covered the states of Punjab, Awadh and Agra, parts of Orissa, and Madhya Pradesh. During the 1800s, the British established control over the administrative machinery of India. The System of Land Revenue acted as a chief source of income of the British. Land was one of the most important source of income for the British. Thus, they used land to control the entire Revenue system, strengthening their economic condition in India.

The word "Mahalwari" is derived from the Hindi word Mahal, which means house, district, neighbourhood or quarter.[538] This system consisted of landlords or lambardars claiming to represent entire villages or even groups of villages. Along with the village communities, the landlords were jointly responsible for the payment of the revenues. But, there was individual responsibility. The land included under this system consisted of all land of the villages, even the forestland, pastures etc.

This system was prevalent in the parts of Uttar Pradesh, the North Western province, parts of Central India and Punjab.[539]

467 1822 N Mirat-ul-Akhbar, Persian, Weekly

Mirat-ul-Akhbar (Persian: Mirror of News) was a Persian language journal founded and edited by Raja Rammohan Roy.[540] The newspaper was first published on 12 April 1822.[541] It was published on a weekly basis on Fridays.[541] The newspaper folded on 4 April 1823.[541]

468 1822 N The Bombay Samachar, Gujarati and English, Daily.

is the oldest continuously published newspaper in India. Established in 1822 by Fardunjee Marzban, it is published in Gujarati and English.[542]

The Bombay Samachar, Asia's oldest continuously published newspaper, was first published on the first of July 1822 and comprised three small quarto sheets. 10 inches by 8 inches, and a half sheet supplement in all containing 14 pages of printed matter.

A weekly till 1832, a bi-weekly till 1855 and a daily since then, it continued to grow and has gone on to become one of Western India's premier newspapers, well read by a large segment of Gujarati-speaking people both in India and abroad. The founder, a Parsi scholar and priest by the name of Fardunjee Marzban, was a pioneer not only of journalism in Western India but of all Gujarati printed literature. He founded the first native press in 1812 and in 1814 brought out a Gujarati Calendar, fully 6 years before the first Bengali calendar was printed and published in Calcutta. He then went on to bring out his Newspaper, the Bombay Samachar, in 1822.

469 1822 N The Bombay Samachar, Gujarati and English, Daily.

Fardunjee Marzban must have started all his concerns in auspicious moments, for all, his press, his calendar and his paper exist to the present day in very good and flourishing condition. Respected by both the British and Indian Government for its fair, frank, objective and critical analysis of events, the Mumbai Samachar played a very important role during India's struggle for independence being often quoted by freedom fighters like Mahatma Gandhi, Jawaharlal Nehru, Vallabhbhai Patel and others.

From its inception the editorial policy was to objectively report events in a fair and honest manner and not to sensationalize news, sobriety and independence of views being a characteristic which still stands. Another notable feature of this paper which holds good to this day is the policy to allow numerous small advertisers to advertise their products on the front page rather than allow only one advertiser to occupy what is commonly referred to as solus position.

470 1822 Bombay N First vernacular language newspaper in Bombay, Bombay Samachar published by Fardunjee Marzban. India's oldest newspaper still being published[106].
471 1823 Calcutta A The Medical and Physical Society of Calcutta was a society of British officials, mostly physicians, formed on March 1, 1823. The society published a quarterly journal[543] and met at the Asiatic Society.[544] The journal published articles on diseases prevailing in India and their links with environment and sanitation. Prominent members included Sir James Ranald Martin who was instrumental in publishing medico-topographical reports of British India and establishing links between environment and health, and deforestation[545] and William Brooke O'Shaughnessy, who published one of the first medical uses of marijuana in the journal of the society.[546] There are few records of the journal after 1857.

The society was also referred to as Medical and Physical Society of Bengal and Calcutta Medical and Physical Society.[547]

472 1823 14 Mar BS Sikh Empire defeats the Emirate of Afghanistan and the Nawab of Amb to annex Peshawar Valley.
473 1823 Ed Oldest Medical Colleges (List of medical colleges in India before independence):
  • 1823 Ecole de Medicine de Pondicherry, Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research, JIPMER
  • 1835 Calcutta Medical College, Calcutta, Medical College and Hospital, Kolkata
  • 1835 Madras Medical College, Madras
  • 1846 Osmania Medical College, Hyderabad
  • 1900 Christian Medical College, Vellore
  • 1911 King George's Medical University, Lucknow
  • 1925 Patna Medical College and Hospital, Patna
474 1823 1828 G William Amherst, 1st Earl Amherst, GCH, PC (14 January 1773 – 13 March 1857) was a British diplomat and colonial administrator. He was Governor-General of India between 1823 and 1828.

His tenure was known for ....

  • First Anglo-Burmese War (1824–26) and
  • Mutiny of Barrackpur (1824)
475 1824 1948 Co British rule in Burma:

British rule in Burma lasted from 1824 to 1948, from the successive three Anglo-Burmese wars through the creation of Burma as a Province of British India to the establishment of an independently administered colony, and finally independence. The region under British control was known as British Burma. Various portions of Burmese territories, including Arakan (Rakhine State) or Tenasserim were annexed by the British after their victory in the First Anglo-Burmese War; Lower Burma was annexed in 1852 after the Second Anglo-Burmese War. The annexed territories were designated the minor province (a chief commissionership) of British India in 1862.[548]

After the Third Anglo-Burmese War in 1885, Upper Burma was annexed, and the following year, the province of Burma in British India was created, becoming a major province (a lieutenant-governorship) in 1897.[548] This arrangement lasted until 1937, when Burma began to be administered separately by the Burma Office under the Secretary of State for India and Burma. British rule was disrupted during the Japanese occupation of much of the country during World War II. Burma achieved independence from British rule on 4 January 1948.

Burma is sometimes referred to as "the Scottish Colony" owing to the heavy role played by Scotsmen in colonising and running the country, one of the most notable being Sir James Scott.

Anglo-Burmese Wars:

The Anglo-Burmese Wars were a clash between two expanding empires, the British Empire against the Konbaung Dynasty that became British India‘s most expensive and longest war, costing 5–13 million pounds sterling (£400 million – £1.1 billion as of 2019) and spanning over 6 years. There have been three Burmese Wars or Anglo-Burmese Wars:

  • First Anglo-Burmese War (1824 to 1826)[549]
  • Second Anglo-Burmese War (1852 to 1853)
  • Third Anglo-Burmese War (1885)
476 1824 1859 F Nana Sahib (19 May 1824 – 24 September 1859)

Born as Dhondu Pant, was an Indian Peshwa of the Maratha empire, aristocrat and fighter, who led the rebellion in Kanpur (Kanpur) during the Indian Rebellion of 1857. As the adopted son of the exiled Maratha Peshwa Baji Rao II, Nana Saheb believed that he was entitled to a pension from the East India Company, but the underlying contractual issues are rather murky. The Company's refusal to continue the pension after his father's death, as well as what he perceived as high-handed policies, compelled him to revolt and seek independence from company rule in India. He forced the British garrison in Kanpur to surrender, then executed the survivors, gaining control of Kanpur for a few days, sending a hard-hitting message to the British camp. He later disappeared, after his forces were defeated by a British force that recaptured Kanpur. He went to the Nepal Hills in 1859, where he is thought to have died.

Nana Sahib was also known as an able administrator and is said to have led around 15,000 Indian soldiers.

477 1824 1883 R Dayananda Saraswati (12 February 1824 – 30 October 1883) was an Indian philosopher, social leader and founder of the Arya Samaj, a reform movement of the Vedic dharma. He was the first to give the call for Swaraj as "India for Indians" in 1876, a call later taken up by Lokmanya Tilak.[550][551] Denouncing the idolatry and ritualistic worship, he worked towards reviving Vedic ideologies. Subsequently, the philosopher and President of India, S. Radhakrishnan called him one of the "makers of Modern India", as did Sri Aurobindo.[552][553][554]

He was a sanyasi (ascetic) from boyhood and a scholar. He believed in the infallible authority of the Vedas. Dayananda advocated the doctrine of Karma and Reincarnation. He emphasized the Vedic ideals of brahmacharya, including celibacy and devotion to God.

Among Dayananda's contributions were his promoting of the equal rights for women, such as the right to education and reading of Indian scriptures, and his commentary on the Vedas from Vedic Sanskrit in Sanskrit as well as in Hindi.

478 1825 BC Battle between British East India Company and Bharatpur State (December 1825 – January 1826).[1]
479 1825 1917 C Dadabhai Naoroji (4 September 1825 – 30 June 1917) also known as the "Grand Old Man of India" and "Unofficial Ambassador of India" was an Indian political leader, merchant, scholar and writer who was a Liberal Party Member of Parliament in the United Kingdom House of Commons between 1892 and 1895 and the first Asian to be a British MP[555][556] other than the Anglo-Indian MP David Ochterlony Dyce Sombre, who was disenfranchised for corruption after nine months in office. Naoroji is renowned for his work in the Indian National Congress, of which he was one of the founding members and thrice — in 1886, 1893, and 1906 — elected president.[557]

His book Poverty and Un-British Rule in India[556] brought attention to his theory of the Indian "wealth drain" into Britain. He was also a member of the Second International along with Kautsky and Plekhanov.

480 1825 E Indian indenture system:

First massive migration of Indian workers from Madras to Reunion[558][559] and Mauritius.

This immigrant Hindu community builds their first temple in 1854.

The Indian indenture system was a system of indentured servitude, by which more than one million Indians[560] were transported to labour in European colonies, as a substitute for slave labour, following the abolition of the trade in the early 19th century. The system expanded after the abolition of slavery in the British Empire in 1833,[561] in the French colonies in 1848, and in the Dutch Empire in 1863. Indian indentureship lasted till the 1920s. This resulted in the development of a large Indian diaspora in the Caribbean,[562] Natal (South Africa), Réunion, Mauritius, Sri Lanka,[563] Malaysia,[564] Myanmar, to Fiji, as well as the growth of Indo-Caribbean, Indo-African, Indo-Fijian, Indo-Malaysian, and Indo-Singaporean populations.

481 1825 1917 F Dadabhai Naoroji (4 September 1825 – 30 June 1917)

Credited with establishing the Indian National Congress, Dadabhai Naoroji is remembered as one of the most prominent members to have participated in the independence movement. In one of the books published by him, he wrote about the colonial rule of the British which was precisely aimed at looting wealth from India.

482 1826 Bombay T The Colaba Observatory also known as the Bombay Observatory,[565] was an astronomical, timekeeping, geomagnetic and meteorological observatory located on the Island of Colaba, Mumbai (Bombay), India.[566][567]

The Colaba Observatory was built in 1826 by the East India Company for astronomical observations and time-keeping, with the purpose to provide support to British and other shipping which used the port of the then-named Bombay.[568] The 165-year-old building served as office space for the Indian Institute of Geomagnetism. The recording of geomagnetism and meteorological observations was started at the observatory in 1841 by Arthur Bedford Orlebar, who was then Professor of Astronomy at Bombay’s Elphinstone College. Magnetic measurements between the years of 1841 and 1845 were intermittent; following 1845 they became bi-hourly, then hourly.

483 1827 Calcutta A The Bengal Club is a social club in Kolkata, West Bengal. It was opened in 1827 as the Calcutta United Service Club. The club's first President was Lt. Col. The Hon. J. Finch. The club-house was in a building in Esplanade West, erected in 1813 and has been catering elites since 1827.[569]

The club was established in 1827 as a gentlemen's club for British officers.

In 1959, membership of Indians was permitted.

484 1827 Ad The "Elphinstone Code"[517] of the year 1827 compiled by Mountstuart Elphinstone introduces a uniform scheme of criminal law and after six years in 1833 an Act was passed providing for the enactment of laws.

The Elphinstone Code of 1827 was a formal and ordered set of Regulations (about thirty in number) drafted upon a uniform system – an improvement in certain details upon the Cornwallis Code of 1793. It contained Regulation XIV of 1827, dealing with criminal law, which remained in force until it was superseded by the Indian Penal Code of 1860.

485 1827 1890 C Jyotirao Govindrao Phule (11 April 1827 – 28 November 1890) was an Indian social activist, thinker, anti-caste social reformer and writer from Maharashtra.[570][571] His work extended to many fields, including eradication of untouchability and the caste system and for his efforts in educating women and exploited caste people.[572] He and his wife, Savitribai Phule, were pioneers of women's education in India.[572][573] Phule started his first school for girls in 1848 in Pune at Tatyasaheb Bhide's residence or Bhidewada.[574] He, along with his followers, formed the Satyashodhak Samaj (Society of Truth Seekers) to attain equal rights for people from exploited castes. People from all religions and castes could become a part of this association which worked for the upliftment of the oppressed classes. Phule is regarded as an important figure in the social reform movement in Maharashtra. He was bestowed with honorific Mahātmā (Sanskrit: "great-souled", "venerable") title by Maharashtrian social activist Vithalrao Krishnaji Vandekar in 1888.[575]
486 1827 1857 F Mangal Pandey (19 July 1827 – 8 April 1857)

Mangal Pandey was an Indian soldier who played a key part in the events immediately preceding the outbreak of the Indian rebellion of 1857. He was a sepoy (infantryman) in the 34th Bengal Native Infantry (BNI) regiment of the British East India Company.

Early martyr of Indian rebellion. Pandey was a soldier of the British Indian army, but rebelled against it. Mangal Pandey is said to have played a key role in inspiring Indian soldiers to start the great rebellion of 1857. Working as a soldier for the British East India Company, Pandey started firing at English officials and caught them unawares. His attack is regarded as the first step of the Indian rebellion that started in 1857.

He was executed on 8 April 1857 in Barrackpore.

487 1828 1894 C Nilmani Mitra (1 January 1828 – 24 August 1894) was an Indian civil engineer and architect, who designed the famous mansions of 19th century Kolkata.[576] He was the pioneer behind the Bengali settlement in Madhupur.[577]
488 1828 1858 F Rani Lakshmi Bai (Rani of Jhansi) (19 November 1828 – 18 June 1858),[578][579] was an Indian queen of the Maratha princely state of Jhansi in North India currently present in Jhansi district in Uttar Pradesh, India.[580] She was one of the leading figures of the Indian Rebellion of 1857 and became a symbol of resistance to the British Raj for Indian nationalists.

One of the key members of India's first war of independence, Rani Lakshmi Bai went on to inspire thousands of women to join the fight for freedom. On 23 March, 1858 Lakshmi Bai defended her palace and the entire city of Jhansi when it was threatened to be captured by British troops led by Sir Hugh Rose. Rani Lakshmi Bai was killed in a cavalry action near Kotah-ke-Serai on 17 June. Rani Laxmi Bhai was one of the leading figures of the Indian Rebellion of 1857 and became a symbol of resistance to the British Raj for Indian nationalists.

489 1828 1835 G Lord William Bentinck – Governor General of India

Lord William Henry Cavendish-Bentinck (Lord William Bentinck) was British Soldier and Statesman. He was first Governor-General of India. Everyone else before him was the governor of Bengal (Fort William).

During his time as Governor General ....

  • He carried out social reforms such as abolition of Sati Pratha with the help of Raja Ram Mohan Roy.
  • Suppression of Thuggee.
  • Established first Medical College in Calcutta.
  • He made English as the language of higher education.
  • He also suppressed female infanticide and child sacrifice.
490 1828 R Raja Ram Mohan Roy founds Adi Brahmo Samaj in Calcutta, first movement to initiate socio-religious reform. Influenced by Islam and Christianity, he denounces polytheism, idol worship; repudiates the Vedas, avataras, karma and reincarnation, caste and more.

Adi Dharm refers to the religion of Adi Brahmo Samaj the first development of Brahmoism and includes those Sadharan Brahmo Samajists who were reintegrated into Brahmoism after the second schism of 1878 at the instance of Hemendranath Tagore.[581] This was the first organised casteless movement in British India and reverberated from its heart of Bengal to Assam, Bombay State (Maharashtra and Gujarat), Punjab and Madras, Hyderabad, and Bangalore.

491 1829 BC The Kol uprising, Kol rebellion, also known in British records as the Kol mutiny was a revolt of the adivasi Kol people of Chhota Nagpur during 1829-1839 as a reaction to economic exploitation brought on by the systems of land tenure and administration that had been introduced by the East India Company. The Kol people were joined by other communities including the Mundas, Oraons, Hos leading to some authors also calling it the Munda uprising.

British historiography described the Kol uprising as banditry. In 1831, the Kol tribesmen of Chhota Nagpur, who were upset over exploitation by agents of the East India Company (EIC), rose in revolt against the EIC. The rebel kols were under the leadership of Buddhu Bhagat, Joa Bhagat, Madara Mahato and others. The Kols grew restive over the increasing encroachment on tribal territories by the non-tribals like Hindu, Muslim and Sikhs. The new non-tribal landlords resorted to forced labour, fines, and often confiscated their cattle.

492 1829 Calcutta Ed The Senate of Serampore College (University) is located in Serampore in West Bengal, India. Serampore was granted the status of university in 1829, making it India's first institution to have the status of a university.[582]

The college was founded by the missionaries Joshua Marshman, William Carey and William Ward (the Serampore trio), to give an education in arts and sciences to students of every "caste, colour or country" and to train a ministry for the growing Church in India.

493 1829 R Dharma Sabha was formed in 1829 in Calcutta by Radhakanta Deb. The organization was established mainly to counter the ongoing social reform movements led by protagonists such as Raja Ram Mohun Roy and Henry Derozio. More specifically, the impetus of forming the organization came from a new law enacted by the colonial British rule which banned the practice of sati in the country; the focus of the new association was to repel the law which was seen as an intrusion by the British into the religious affairs of the indigenous people by some sections of the Hindu community.[583] Dharma Sabha filed an appeal in the Privy Council against the ban on Sati by Lord William Bentinck as it went against the assurance given by George III of non-interference in Hindu religious affairs; however, their appeal was rejected and the ban on Sati was upheld in 1832.[584][585]

The Dharma Sabha campaigned against the Hindu Widow Remarriage Act, 1856 and submitted a petition against the proposal with nearly four times more signatures than the one submitted for it by Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar.However[586][587] Lord Dalhousie personally finalized the bill despite the opposition and it being considered a flagrant breach of Hindu customs as prevalent then, and it was passed by Lord Canning.[588][589]

The organization soon morphed into a 'society in defense of Hindu way of life or culture' which then turns as a think tank for RSS.[590]

494 1829 Calcutta S The Royal Calcutta Golf Club, founded in 1829, is the oldest golf club outside the British Isles. It was variously located in Dum Dum and Maidan, but finally settled down in Tollygunge and was conferred the epithet "Royal' by George V at the Delhi Durbar in 1911.
495 1830 Calcutta Ed Scottish Church College is a college affiliated by Calcutta University, India. It offers selective co-educational undergraduate and postgraduate studies and is the oldest continuously running Christian liberal arts and sciences college in India.[591][592]

Former names ....

  • 1830: General Assembly's Institution
  • 1843: Free Church Institution
  • 1863: Duff College
  • 1908: Scottish Churches College
  • 1929: Scottish Church College
496 1830 1837 Em William IV (William Henry; 21 August 1765 – 20 June 1837) was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and King of Hanover from 26 June 1830 until his death in 1837. The third son of George III, William succeeded his elder brother George IV, becoming the last king and penultimate monarch of Britain's House of Hanover.
497 1830 T Grand Trunk Road:

In the 1830s the East India Company started a program of metalled road construction, for both commercial and administrative purposes. The road, now named Grand Trunk Road, from Calcutta, through Delhi, to Kabul, Afghanistan was rebuilt at a cost of £1000/mile. A Public Works Department along with a training institute (the erstwhile Thomason College of Civil Engineering) which is now known as the Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee was founded, to train and employ local surveyors, engineers, and overseers, to perform the work, and in future maintain it and other roads.[593][594]

The road is mentioned in a number of literary works including those of Foster and Rudyard Kipling. Kipling described the road as: "Look! Look again! and chumars, bankers and tinkers, barbers and bunnias, pilgrims – and potters – all the world going and coming. It is to me as a river from which I am withdrawn like a log after a flood. And truly the Grand Trunk Road is a wonderful spectacle. It runs straight, bearing without crowding India's traffic for fifteen hundred miles – such a river of life as nowhere else exists in the world."[595]

498 1830 1895 W "The Great Game" was a political and diplomatic confrontation that existed for most of the 19th century and beginning of the 20th century between the British Empire and the Russian Empire, over Afghanistan and neighbouring territories in Central and South Asia. It also had direct consequences in Persia and British India. Britain was fearful of Russia invading India to add to the vast empire that Russia was building. As a result, there was a deep atmosphere of distrust and the talk of war between the two major European empires.[439][596][597] Britain made it a high priority to protect all the approaches to India, and the "great game" is primarily how the British did this. Some historians have concluded that Russia had no plans involving India, as the Russians repeatedly stated to the British.[598]

The Great Game began on 12 January 1830 when Lord Ellenborough, the President of the Board of Control for India, tasked Lord William Bentinck, the Governor-General, with establishing a new trade route to the Emirate of Bukhara.[596][597][599] Britain intended to gain control over the Emirate of Afghanistan and make it a protectorate, and to use the Ottoman Empire, the Persian Empire, the Khanate of Khiva, and the Emirate of Bukhara as buffer states between both empires. This would protect India and also key British sea trade routes by stopping Russia from gaining a port on the Persian Gulf or the Indian Ocean.[596][597] Russia proposed Afghanistan as the neutral zone.[600] The results included the failed First Anglo-Afghan War of 1838, the First Anglo-Sikh War of 1845, the Second Anglo-Sikh War of 1848, the Second Anglo-Afghan War of 1878, and the annexation of Kokand by Russia.

Historians consider the end of the Great Game to be the 10 September 1895 signing of the Pamir Boundary Commission protocols,[601] when the border between Afghanistan and the Russian empire was defined.[602][603][604][605] :p14 The 1901 novel Kim by Rudyard Kipling made the term popular and introduced the new implication of great power rivalry. It became even more popular after the 1979 advent of the Soviet–Afghan War.[606]

499 1831 6 May BS Sikh Empire defeats the Mujahideen forces of Syed Ahmad Barelvi in the Battle of Balakot.[1]
500 1831 3 Jan C Savitribai Phule (3 January 1831 – 10 March 1897) was an Indian social reformer, educationalist, and poet from Maharashtra. She is regarded as the first female teacher of India. Along with her husband, Jyotirao Phule, she played an important and vital role in improving women's rights in India. She is regarded as the mother of Indian feminism. Phule and her husband founded one of the first Indian girls' school in Pune, at Bhide wada in 1848. She worked to abolish the discrimination and unfair treatment of people based on caste and gender. She is regarded as an important figure of the social reform movement in Maharashtra.

A philanthropist and an educationist, Phule was also a prolific Marathi writer.

501 1832 T Infrastructure and Railroad[607]:

Railroads were introduced to India for quicker and more efficient access to trade. Unfortunately, they had the unintended consequence of exacerbating both environmental and economic conditions that proved damaging in times of famine. The initial advocates for developing railways were mercantile firms in London and Manchester with trading ambitions in India. The goals of the plan to introduce railways were to lower transport costs and to give English merchants easier access to raw cotton from India. Also, the railway would simultaneously open the Indian market to British manufactured products such as cotton textiles. Initially, neither the railways promoter nor the East India Company envisioned much of a demand for passenger traffic. Railway construction started in 1853, with two “experimental” lines beginning in Bombay and Calcutta, and accelerated quickly following the Indian Mutiny, the first Indian war of independence, and the transfer of the government of India from the East India Company to direct rule by the British Crown.

502 1832 T Infrastructure and Railroads[607]:

A British plan for railway development in India was first initiated in 1832, but the core of the pressure for building railways came from London in the 1840s. In the year 1844, private entrepreneurs were permitted to launch a railway system by Lord Hardinge, who was the Governor-General of India. The railway age dawned in India on 16 April 1853, when the first train ran from Bombay’s Bori Bunder to Thane, a distance of 21 miles, marked by a 21-gun salute. The mileage of India’s rail network grew from 838 miles in 1860 to 15,842 miles in 1880, mostly radiating inland from the three major port cities of Bombay, Madras, and Calcutta. Most of the rail construction was made by Indian companies under the supervision of British engineers. They built a railway system of strong bridges and a mixture of broad-meter and narrow-gauge tracks. By 1901 India had a rail network covering 25,373 miles.

The common people of India did not see the railroad as a wonderful invention or great convenience; they even referred to it as the Great Rakasha or Rakas (ghost). While the railway conveyed the huge might and power of the British and boosted India’s efforts at commercial modernization, it did little to help local people in times of famine.

503 1832 T Infrastructure and Railroads[607]:

Indeed, scholars point out that the railroads were designed to serve altogether different goals than the needs of the local population, and as an unintended side effect, they created a trade system that boosted grain prices beyond what poor workers could afford. Instead of feeding the population of inland provinces, the railroads served to carry grain away from the regions where it was needed most, so that it could be stored near port cities for export. Beyond all of this, railways were noted as the carriers of epidemic diseases such as cholera and influenza. Their greatest impact of railroads on the famines, therefore, may have been neither the ability to transport commodities over long distances nor their impact on the Indian economy, but rather the way they catalyzed the natural processes of the spread of diseases, a process magnified immensely in the context of famine. Indeed, railroads serve as a telling example of the misalignment between colonial development and the environmental factors of famine. For while railroad development was undertaken with enthusiasm by colonial industrialists, irrigation projects drew comparatively little investment. Until March 1902, large tracts of country were without irrigation facilities. Irrigation was only carried out by means of canals in Bengal, Agra and Oudh, Punjab, Bombay, and Madras provinces, and expenditures on irrigation were much lower than major industrialization projects.

504 1832 T Infrastructure and Railroads[607]:

British colonial authorities argued that it was the climate and failure of rains that caused failure of crops and famine. Similarly, some scholars have argued, for example, that the famines were caused by environmental factors such as scarcity of water and poor soil quality, and that this guaranteed that investments in agriculture were excessively risky. Seen through the lens of economic goals, this comes as little surprise, just as the enthusiastic development of railroads appears as a logical means for pursuing colonial economic goals. But infrastructure development always involves a process of overlaying human technologies upon natural systems and landscapes. The combination of robust investment in railroads and meager development of irrigation systems, together with natural systems involving repeated droughts and opportunistic disease vectors, contributed to the destruction of India’s nineteenth century famines.

505 1832 Tr The first railway proposals for India were made in Madras in 1832[607].
506 1833 Ad The Saint Helena Act 1833[608] or the Charter Act of 1833[609] (3 & 4 Will 4 c 85) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.

As this Act was also intended to provide for an extension of the royal charter granted to the East India Company, it is also called the Charter Act of 1833.[610] This Act extended the charter by 20 years. It contained the following provisions:

  • It redesignated the Governor-General of Bengal as the Governor-General of India. Under this provision Lord William Bentinck became the first Governor-General of India in the last of 1833.[611]
  • It deprived the Governors of Bombay and Madras of their legislative powers. For the first time, the Governor-General's Government was known as the 'Government of India' and his council as the 'India Council'. The Governor-General and his executive council were given exclusive legislative powers for the whole of British India.
  • It ended the activities of the British East India Company as a commercial body and it became a purely administrative body. In particular, the Company lost its monopoly on trade with China and other parts of the Far East.
  • It attempted to introduce a system of open competitions for the selection of civil servants. However this provision was negated after opposition from the Court of Directors who continued to hold the privilege of appointing Company officials.
  • Control of the island of Saint Helena is transferred from the East India Company to the Crown.[612]

With the exception of section 112, vesting Saint Helena in the monarchy, the act was repealed by the Government of India Act 1915.[613][614]

507 1833 Bombay R Christ Church in Byculla, Mumbai, is affiliated to the Church of North India and was built in 1833 as an Anglican church. The church's establishment has been the subject of a myth that it was built to suit the convenience of the Governor of Bombay, Mountstuart Elphinstone, who reportedly had to earlier travel from his central Bombay residence in Parel to St Thomas Cathedral in South Bombay.[615] Elphinstone had already left India in 1829.[616] The church was, in fact, built during the governorship of John FitzGibbon, 2nd Earl of Clare, who laid the foundation stone in July, 1832.[617][618]

Along with the Church of St Andrew and St Columba in South Bombay, Christ Church was one of the last 19th-century churches in the city to be built in the Neoclassical style, as Gothic Revival emerged as the preferred style thereafter.[619] It was built by a Portuguese architect called Augusto.[620] The first service was held on 10 August, 1833, but the church was only consecrated in December 1835 by Revd. Daniel Wilson, the then Bishop of Calcutta.[621][619]

508 1833 W Slavery is abolished in British Commonwealth countries, giving impetus to abolitionists in United States.[2]
509 1834 Bombay Ed Elphinstone College is one of the constituent colleges of Dr. Homi Bhabha State University, a state cluster university. Established in 1834, it is one of the oldest colleges in Mumbai. It played a major role in shaping and developing the educational landscape of the city. It also played a pivotal role in the inception of the University of Mumbai.

The College enjoys a sea of Notable Alumnus. This includes the likes of Revolutionaries such as B. R. Ambedkar, Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Virchand Gandhi, Badruddin Tyabji, Pherozeshah Mehta, Nanabhai Haridas, Kashinath Trimbak Telang, and Jamsetji Tata and teachers include Dadabhai Naoroji. It played a key role in the spread of education in Mumbai.

By the 19th century, Mumbai was a prosperous center for maritime trade and commerce. In 1824, an English school was set up by the Bombay Native Education Society for Indian students.

In 1827, a resolution was passed that an institution for the promotion of education should be established under Bombay Native Education Society and be designated as "Elphinstone College" (distinct from High School). This was named after Mountstuart Elphinstone, the departing Governor of the Bombay Presidency, who was responsible for beginning higher education in the city. An exuberant amount of Rs. 2,29,636.00 was collected by public subscription to fund teaching professorships in the English language and the Arts, Science, and Literature of Europe.

The college was formally constituted in 1835. The classes commenced in 1836, at Town Hall, with the first two professors: Arthur Bedford Orlebar(Natural Philosophy – i.e. Science) and John Harkness (General Literature – i.e Classics).In 1840, the professors' classes were amalgamated with the Society's High School to form the Elphinstone Native Education Institution. In 1845, the name was shortened to Elphinstone Institution.

Elphinstone College became a distinct institution, separated from the high school, on 1 April 1856. This year is officially considered to be the year of the establishment of Elphinstone College.

The college was affiliated with the University of Mumbai in 1860.

510 1834 S Polo in India: The first polo club in India was established at Silchar, Assam in 1834.
511 1835 Ad Civil service jobs in India are opened to Indians.
512 1835 E Indian indenture system: Mauritius receives 19,000 migrant indentured labourers from India. Workers continued to be shipped to Mauritius till 1922.
513 1835 Ed Civilizing mission:

The civilizing mission is a political rationale for military intervention and for colonization purporting to facilitate the modernization and the Westernization of indigenous peoples, especially in the period from the 15th to the 20th centuries. As a principle of European culture, the term was most prominently used in justifying French[622] colonialism in the late-15th to mid-20th centuries. The civilizing mission was the cultural justification for the colonial exploitation of French Algeria, French West Africa, French Indochina, Portuguese Angola and Portuguese Guinea, Portuguese Mozambique and Portuguese Timor, among other colonies. The civilizing mission also was a popular justification for the British,[623] German,[624][625] and U.S. colonialism. The western European colonial powers claimed that, as Christian nations, they were duty-bound to disseminate Western civilization to what Europeans perceived as the heathen and primitive cultures of the Eastern world. In addition to economic exploitation and imposition of imperialist government, the ideology of the civilizing mission required the cultural assimilation of "primitive peoples", as the nonwhite Other, into the colonial subaltern of eastern Europe.

Civilising mission, is a rationale for intervention or colonization, purporting to contribute to the spread of civilization and used mostly in relation to the colonization and Westernization of indigenous peoples in the 19th and 20th centuries. Its advocates postulated a duty of Europeans to help “backwards” peoples “civilize.”

In India, the British "Civilising mission" focused largely on educational reforms designed to speed up modernization and reduce administrative charges. Colonial authorities fervently debated the question of the best policy. The orientalists believed that education should happen in Indian languages while the utilitarians (also called anglicists) strongly believed that traditional India had nothing to teach regarding modern skills and the best education would happen in English.

One of the most influential reformers was Thomas Babington Macaulay, who in 1835 authored “Minute on Indian Education"[626]. In it, he urged the Governor-General to reform secondary education on utilitarian lines to deliver “useful learning,” which to Macaulay was synonymous with Western culture. He argued that Sanskrit and Persian were no more accessible than English to the speakers of the Indian vernacular languages and existing Sanskrit and Persian texts were of little use for “useful learning.”

514 1835 Ed English Education Act 1835#Macaulay's "Minute Upon Indian Education"[627]:

Thomas Babington Macaulay’s text largely coincided with Governor-General Lord William Bentinck’s views and Bentinck’s English Education Act 1835 closely matched Macaulay’s recommendations. Under Macaulay, thousands of elementary and secondary schools were opened, typically with all-male student bodies. However, Macaulay’s views enjoyed little support in London and subsequent Governors-General took a more conciliatory approach to existing Indian education.

Missionaries opened their own schools that taught Christianity and the 3-Rs (reading, writing, and arithmetic). Universities in Calcutta, Bombay, and Madras were established in 1857. The government opened 186 universities and colleges of higher education by 1911. All these benefits, however, went to the Indian elites and middle classes, who were expected to serve as loyal supporters of the British rule in India.

The “Civilising mission” rhetoric continued, but soon became an alibi for British misrule and racism without the pretense that Indian progress was ever a goal. Those who advocated actual reforms became less influential. The British assumed Indians had to be ruled by heavy hand, with democratic opportunities postponed indefinitely.

515 1835 1836 G Charles Metcalfe, 1st Baron Metcalfe, GCB PC (30 January 1785 – 5 September 1846), known as Sir Charles Metcalfe, Bt between 1822 and 1845, was a British colonial administrator. He held appointments including acting Governor-General of India, Governor of Jamaica and Governor General of the Province of Canada.

He held the Governor-General of India post temporarily and removed restriction on Vernacular press.

516 1835 P English Education Act 1835:

Macaulay's "Minute Upon Indian Education"[626] furthers Western education in India. English is made official government and court language.

In discussions leading up to the Act Thomas Babington Macaulay produced his famous Memorandum on (Indian) Education which was scathing on the inferiority (as he saw it) of native (particularly Hindu) culture and learning. He argued that Western learning was superior, and currently could only be taught through the medium of English. There was therefore a need to produce—by English-language higher education—"a class of persons, Indian in blood and colour, but English in taste, in opinions, in morals and in intellect" who could in their turn develop the tools to transmit Western learning in the vernacular languages of India. Among Macaulay's recommendations were the immediate stopping of the printing by the East India Company of Arabic and Sanskrit books and that the Company should not continue to support traditional education beyond "the Sanskrit College at Benares and the Mahometan College at Delhi" (which he considered adequate to maintain traditional learning).

517 1836 1842 G George Eden, 1st Earl of Auckland, GCB, PC (25 August 1784 – 1 January 1849) was an English Whig politician and colonial administrator. He was thrice First Lord of the Admiralty and also served as Governor-General of India between 1836 and 1842.

First Afghan War was fought in his reign.

518 1836 Pr The North-Western Provinces was an administrative region in British India. The North-Western Provinces were established in 1836, through merging the administrative divisions of the Ceded and Conquered Provinces. In 1858, the nawab-ruled kingdom of Oudh was annexed and merged with the North-Western Provinces to form the renamed North-Western Provinces and Oudh. In 1902, this province was reorganized to form the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh.[463] Allahabad served as its capital from 1858, when it also became the capital of India for a day.[628]

The province included all divisions of the present-day state of Uttar Pradesh with the exception of the Lucknow Division and Faizabad Division of Awadh.[463] Among other regions included at various times were: the Delhi Territory, from 1836 until 1858, when the latter became part of the Punjab Province of British India; Ajmer and Merwara, from 1832 and 1846, respectively, until 1871, when Ajmer-Merwara became a minor province of British India; and the Saugor and Nerbudda Territories from 1853 until 1861, when they were absorbed into the Central Provinces.[463][629]

The North Western Provinces was governed by a Lieutenant-Governor, who was appointed by the East India Company from 1836 to 1858, and by the British Government from 1858 to 1902.[463]

In 1856, after the annexation of Oudh State, the North Western Provinces became part of the larger province of North Western Provinces and Oudh. In 1902, the latter province was renamed the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh; in 1904, the region within the new United Provinces corresponding to the North Western Provinces was renamed the Agra Province.[630]

519 1836 R Sri Ramakrishna Paramahamsa (18 Feb 1836 – 16 August 1886), born Gadadhar Chattopadhyaya, was an Indian Hindu mystic, saint, and religious leader in 19th century Bengal. Sri Ramakrishna experienced spiritual ecstasies from a young age, and was influenced by several religious traditions, including devotion toward the Goddess Kali, Tantra, Bhakti and Advaita Vedanta.[631]

As a priest at the Dakshineshwar Kali Temple, his mystical temperament and ecstasies gradually gained him widespread acknowledgement, attracting to him various spiritual teachers, social leaders, and lay followers; he eventually taught disciples, who would later form the monastic Ramakrishna Order.[632] He was generally revered by Bengali elites and within religious circles, which led his chief disciple Swami Vivekananda to found the Ramakrishna Math, which provides spiritual training for monastics and householder devotees and the Ramakrishna Mission to provide charity, social work and education.[633]

520 1837 Ad Britain formalizes emigration of Indian indentured laborers to supply cheap labor under a system more morally acceptable to British Christian society than slavery, illegal in the British Empire since 1833.[2]
521 1837 18 Feb BS Hari Singh Nalwa, commander of the Sikh Khalsa Army defeats the Durrani Empire in the Battle of Jamrud and extends the frontier of Sikh Empire to beyond the Indus River right up to the mouth of the Khyber Pass.[1]
522 1837 P Thuggee: Kali-worshipping thugs suppressed by the British.
523 1837 Tr The country's first train, Red Hill Railway (built by Arthur Cotton to transport granite for road-building), ran from Red Hills to the Chintadripet bridge in Madras in 1837[634].
524 1838 E British Guyana receives its first 250 Indian laborers.[2]
525 1838 N The Times of India, English, Daily
  • 1838 – The Times of India issued its first edition on 3rd November, as The Bombay Times and Journal of Commerce.
  • 1861 – The first edition of The Times of India was published by Robert Knight. Up to 1947 this newspaper continued to support the causes of Britishers.

Times of India has grown to be the biggest English daily in the country.

The Times of India is an Indian English-language daily newspaper and digital news media owned and managed by The Times Group. It is the third-largest newspaper in India by circulation and largest selling English-language daily in the world.[635][636][637][638][639][640] It is the oldest English-language newspaper in India, and the second-oldest Indian newspaper still in circulation, with its first edition published in 1838.[641] It is nicknamed as "The Old Lady of Bori Bunder",[642][643] and is an Indian "newspaper of record".[644][645]

Near the beginning of the 20th century, Lord Curzon, the Viceroy of India, called The Times of India "the leading paper in Asia".[646][647] In 1991, the BBC ranked The Times of India among the world's six best newspapers.[648][649]

526 1838 Bombay N First edition of Bombay Times and Journal of Commerce launched[106].
527 1839 P Preacher William Howitt attacks British rule in India.

William Howitt (18 December 1792 – 3 March 1879), was a prolific English writer on history and other subjects.

528 1839 1842 W The First Opium War, also known as the Opium War or the Anglo-Chinese War, was a series of military engagements fought between Britain and the Qing dynasty of China. The immediate issue was Chinese official seizure of opium stocks at Canton to stop the banned opium trade, and threatening the death penalty for future offenders. The British government insisted on the principles of free trade, equal diplomatic recognition among nations, and backed the merchants' demands. The British navy defeated the Chinese using technologically superior ships and weapons, and the British then imposed a treaty that granted territory to Britain and opened trade with China.

In the 18th century the demand for Chinese luxury goods (particularly silk, porcelain, and tea) created a trade imbalance between China and Britain. European silver flowed into China through the Canton System, which confined incoming foreign trade to the southern port city of Canton. To counter this imbalance, the British East India Company began to grow opium in Bengal and allowed private British merchants to sell opium to Chinese smugglers for illegal sale in China. The influx of narcotics reversed the Chinese trade surplus, drained the economy of silver, and increased the numbers of opium addicts inside the country, outcomes that seriously worried Chinese officials.

In 1842, the Qing dynasty was forced to sign the Treaty of Nanking —the first of what the Chinese later called the Unequal Treaty. In the supplementary Treaty of the Bogue, the Qing empire also recognised Britain as an equal to China and gave British subjects extraterritorial privileges, opened five treaty ports to British merchants, and ceded Hong Kong Island to the British Empire.

In 1844, the United States and France concluded similar treaties with China, the Treaty of Wanghia and Treaty of Whampoa, respectively.[650]

529 1839 1842 W The First Anglo-Afghan War, also known by the British as the Disaster in Afghanistan,[651] was fought between the British Empire and the Emirate of Afghanistan from 1839 to 1842. Initially, the British successfully intervened in a succession dispute between emir Dost Mohammad (Barakzai) and former emir Shah Shujah (Durrani), whom they installed upon conquering Kabul in August 1839. The main British Indian force occupying Kabul along with their camp followers, having endured harsh winters as well, was almost completely annihilated during its 1842 retreat from Kabul.[652][653] The British then sent an Army of Retribution to Kabul to avenge the destruction of their previous forces, defeating the Afghans and having demolished parts of the capital. After recovering prisoners, they withdrew from Afghanistan by the end of the year. Dost Mohammed returned from exile in India to resume his rule.

It was one of the first major conflicts during the Great Game, the 19th century competition for power and influence in Central Asia between Britain and Russia.[654]

530 1839 W The First Anglo-Afghan War#Battle honour: The battle honour of 'Afghanistan 1839' was awarded to all units of the presidency armies of the East India Company that had proceeded beyond the Bolan Pass, by gazette of the governor-general, dated 19 November 1839, the spelling changed from 'Afghanistan' to 'Affghanistan' by Gazette of India No. 1079 of 1916, and the date added in 1914. All the honours awarded for this war are considered to be non-repugnant. The units awarded this battle honour were:
  • 4th Bengal Irregular Cavalry – 1st Horse
  • 5th Madras Infantry
  • Poona Auxiliary Horse – Poona Horse
  • Bombay Sappers & Miners – Bombay Engineer Group
  • 31st Bengal Infantry
  • 43rd Bengal Infantry
  • 19th Bombay Infantry
  • 1st Bombay Cavalry – 13th Lancers
  • 2nd, 3rd Bengal Light Cavalry – mutinied in 1857
  • 2nd, 3rd Companies of Bengal Sappers and Miners – mutinied in 1857
  • 16th, 35th, 37th, 48th Bengal Infantry – mutinied in 1857
  • 42nd Bengal Infantry (5th LI) – disbanded 1922
531 1840 BE New Zealand becomes officially British, after which systematic colonization there follows rapidly. Partly owing to pressure from missionaries, British control is later extended to Fiji, Tonga, Papua, and other islands in the Pacific Ocean[28][655].
532 1840 W Joseph de Goubineau (1816-1882), French scholar, writes The Inequality of Human Races. Proclaims the "Aryan race" superior to other great strains and lays down the aristocratic class-doctrine of Aryanism that later provides the basis for Adolf Hitler's Aryan racism.[2]
533 1842 1926 C Nawab Syed Hussain Bilgrami, Imad-ul-Mulk Bahadur, CSI (1842–1926)[656][657][658] was an Indian civil servant, politician, educationalist and an early leader of the All India Muslim League.
534 1842 1901 F Mahadev Govind Ranade (18 January 1842 – 16 January 1901)

Popularly referred to as Justice Ranade, was an Indian scholar, social reformer, judge and author. He was one of the founding members of the Indian National Congress party[659][660] and owned several designations as member of the Bombay legislative council, member of the finance committee[659] at the centre, and judge of the Bombay High Court, Maharashtra.[661]

As a well known public figure, his personality as a calm and patient optimist influenced his attitude towards dealings with Britain as well as reform in India. During his life he helped to establish the Vaktruttvottejak Sabha, the Poona Sarvajanik Sabha, Maharashtra Granthottejak Sabha, and the Prarthana Samaj, and edited a Bombay Anglo-Marathi daily paper, the Induprakash, founded on his ideology of social and religious reform.

He was given the title of Rao Bahadur.[662]

535 1842 1856 G James Broun-Ramsay, 1st Marquess of Dalhousie KT PC (22 April 1812 – 19 December 1860), also known as Lord Dalhousie, styled Lord Ramsay until 1838 and known as The Earl of Dalhousie between 1838 and 1849, was a Scottish statesman and colonial administrator in British India. He served as Governor-General of India from 1848 to 1856.
  • Opened first Railway line from Bombay to Thane in 1853.
  • Opened first Telegraph line from Calcutta to Agar in 1853.
  • Introduced Doctrine of lapse captured Satara (1848), Jaipur and Sambalpur (1849), Udaipur (1852), Jhansi (1853), Nagpur (1854).
  • Many bridges were constructed and started Grand Trunk Road.
  • Established Postal system[663] which made communication easier.
  • In 1854, Wood's despatch was passed, which provided the proper system of education from School to University.
  • Widow Remarriage Bill was passed.
536 1843 N Mangaluru Samachara, Kannada, Daily

Mangaluru Samachara or Mangalooru Samachara which literally means "The news of Mangalore" is the first newspaper published in Kannada. It was produced by a German, Rev. Hermann Friedrich Mögling of the Basel Mission beginning in 1843. The paper was printed using stone slabs, which exist to this day in the Basel Mission Printing Press in Balmatta, Mangalore. It was a very difficult task to publish a newspaper at that time because there was no simple way of communicating news and other written words to the general public.[664][665]

In 1836 a diminutive German arrived on the shores of Mangalore armed with the Bible, seeking to spread the message of the Gospel.

Seven years later, in 1843, the Christian missionary had mastered Kannada well enough to launch Karnataka’s first vernacular newspaper, Mangalura Samachara. With that enterprising leap in journalism, Hermann Frederick Mogling of the Basel Mission, for which Mangalore was the "most important centre" of its work in India, not just propelled 19th century Karnataka into the world of new, the four-page weekly Mangaluru Samachara even published news on Afghanistan – but took the pioneering step in translating several literary works in Kannada into German.[666]

537 1843 1883 N Tattwabodhini Patrika ("truth-searching newspaper") was established by Debendranath Tagore on 16 August 1843, as a journal of the Tattwabodhini Sabha, and continued publication until 1883. It was published from Kolkata, India. Its editorial board including Debendranath Tagore, Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar, Akshay Kumar Dutta, Rajnarayan Basu, Rajendralal Mitra and Dwijendranath Tagore.

The journal changed the tone of vernacular (Indian language) journalism. From its earliest days, it propagated the positive aspects of the religious scriptures but did not accept their infallibility. It strongly reacted against revelations and miracles.

538 1843 P The 'Doctrine of lapse' was a policy of annexation initiated by the East India Company in the Indian subcontinent in relation to the princely states, and applied until 1859, two years after Company rule was succeeded by the British Raj. Elements of the doctrine of lapse continued to be applied by the post-independence Indian government to derecognise individual princely families until 1971, when the former ruling families were collectively derecognised.

According to the doctrine, any Indian princely state under the suzerainty of the East India Company (EIC) (the dominant imperial power in the Indian subsidiary system), would have its princely status abolished (and therefore be annexed into British India) if the ruler was either "manifestly incompetent or died without a male heir".[667] The latter supplanted the long-established right of an Indian sovereign without an heir to choose a successor. In addition, the EIC decided whether potential rulers were competent enough. The doctrine and its applications were widely regarded as illegitimate by many Indians, leading to resentment against the EIC.

The policy is most commonly associated with Lord Dalhousie, who was the Governor General of the East India Company in India between 1848 and 1856. However, it was articulated by the Court of Directors of the East India Company as early as 1847 and several smaller states had already been annexed under this doctrine before Dalhousie took over the post of Governor-General.[citation needed] Dalhousie used the policy most vigorously and extensively, though, so it is generally associated with him.

Doctrine of lapse#Princely states annexed under the doctrine:

Princely State Year Annexed
Angul 1848
Arcot 1855
Banda 1858
Guler 1813
Jaintia 1803
Jaitpur 1849
Jalaun 1840
Jaswan 1849
Jhansi 1854
Kachar 1830
Kangra 1846
Kannanur 1819
Kittur 1824
Kodagu 1834
Kozhikode 1806
Kullu 1846
Kurnool 1839
Kutlehar 1825
Makrai 1890
Nagpur 1854
Nargund 1858
Punjab 1849
Ramgarh 1858
Sambalpur 1849
Satara 1848
Surat 1842
Siba 1849
Tanjore 1855
Tulsipur 1854
Udaipur, Chhattisgarh 1854
539 1843 17 Feb Co Battle of Miani:

British conquer the Sindh region (present day Pakistan).

The Battle of Miani (or Battle of Meeanee) was a battle between forces of the Bombay Army of the East India Company, under the command of Charles Napier and the Baluch army of Talpur Amirs of Sindh, led by Mir Nasir Khan Talpur. The battle took place on 17 February 1843 at Miani, Sindh, in what is now modern-day Pakistan. This battle eventually led to the capture of parts of Sindh region, first territorial possession by the East India Company in what is the modern-day nation of Pakistan.

According to Nadeem Wagan (a Sindh writer), the primary causes of the battle were the East India Company's desire to expand their possession in South Asia and General Charles Napier's ambitions. The General had held previous position as Governor of the Greek island of Kefalonia with very limited scope for glory. The Talpur kingdom of Sindh was inefficiently and loosely governed by the Amirs and a relatively easy target as opposed to the Sikh kingdom of the Punjab. Napier moved his army aggressively from the East India Company's Bombay Presidency area and entered the Sindh border. Negotiations ensued between the Talpur Amir in Hyderabad and Napier. An agreement was reached after the Amir gave significant concessions. Napier then started to move his army back towards Bombay and the Amir disbanded his army that had been mobilised. However, Napier was firmly determined in conquering Sindh and Hyderabad. While moving towards Bombay and giving the impression of keeping the agreement that had been reached, he suddenly turned back towards Hyderabad on the pretext of hostile intentions by the Amir and marched with great speed towards the capital.

540 1844 A Started in 1844, Higginbotham's is an Indian bookstore chain and publisher based in the city of Chennai. The company's first bookstore at Mount Road, Chennai is India's oldest bookshop in existence.[668][669] The company's second bookstore in Bangalore, located at M. G. Road, opened in 1905 and is the oldest existing bookstore in the city. Since 1949, Higginbotham's has been owned by the Amalgamations Group.

An English librarian named Abel Joshua Higginbotham established Higginbotham's after reportedly arriving in India as a British stowaway. The captain of the ship he was on ejected him from the ship at Madras port, after he was discovered on board.[670][671][672] In the 1840s, he found employment as a librarian with a bookstore named Weslyan Book Shop run by Protestant missionaries.[670][671] However, the store suffered heavy losses and the missionaries who ran the business decided to sell their shop for a low price. Higginbotham purchased the business, set up his own store and called it "Higginbotham's" in the year 1844.[670] Higginbotham's is, therefore, India's oldest bookstore in existence.[670] It soon gained a reputation for quality.

John Murray, in his Guidebook to the Presidencies of Madras and Bombay in 1859, describes Higginbotham's as the "premier bookshop of Madras".[673] In March 1859, in a letter to Lord Macaulay, Lord Trevelyan, the Governor of Madras wrote:

Among the many elusive and indescribable charms of life in Madras City, is the existence of my favourite book shop 'Higginbotham's' on Mount Road. In this bookshop I can see beautiful editions of the works of Socrates, Plato, Euripides, Aristophanes, Pindar, Horace, Petrarch, Tasso, Camoyens, Calderon and Racine. I can get the latest editions of Victor Hugo, the great French novelist. Amongst the German writers, I can have Schiller and Goethe. Altogether a delightful place for the casual browser and a serious book lover[673]

541 1844 1922 C Er.Ing. Himmatlal Dhirajram Bhachech, Rao Bahadur – (1844–1922) was a Civil Engineer in the PWD (Public Works Department) of British India.

Himmatlal worked as engineer in the PWD for many years. In 1892 he was credited with the re-building of the Ellis Bridge of Ahmadabad, which was originally built in 1869.[674][675] Himmatlal reconstructed the bridge at a cost of only Rs.407,000/-which was significantly below projected budget of Rs. 500,000/-[676] that led the British government to suspect he was using poor quality building materials. An inquiry committee eventually recognized his construction as better than the original work and subsequently honored him for saving the country money.[676]

Er.Ing.Himmatlal was honored in 1893 with title of 'Rao Bahadur' by the Viceroy of India, Lord Lansdowne.[674]

He was president of Ahmadabad Municipalityin the 1890s and consulted in the construction of Gujarat College; Ahemedabad in 1897.[677]

Er.Ing.Himmatlal Dhirajram Bhachech died on September 30, 1922.[674]

542 1845 1846 BC The First Anglo-Sikh War:

Was fought between the Sikh Empire and the East India Company in 1845 and 1846 in and around the Ferozepur district of Punjab. It resulted in defeat and partial subjugation of the Sikh kingdom and cession of Jammu and Kashmir as a separate princely state under British suzerainty.

  • 18 December 1845 : The Battle of Mudki, was fought on 18 December 1845, between the forces of the East India Company and part of the Sikh Khalsa Army, the army of the Sikh Empire of the Punjab. The British army won an untidy encounter battle, suffering heavy casualties.
  • 21 and 22 December 1845 : The Battle of Ferozeshah, was fought on 21 December and 22 December 1845 between the British East India Company and the Sikh Empire, at the village of Ferozeshah in Punjab. The British were led by Sir Hugh Gough and Governor-General Sir Henry Hardinge, while the Sikhs were led by Lal Singh. The British emerged victorious.[678] Lal Singh's and Tej Singh's desertion of their armies and refusal to attack when opportunity offered seem inexplicable.
  • 28 January 1846 : The Battle of Aliwal was fought on 28 January 1846 between British and Sikh forces in northern India (now Punjab). The British were led by Sir Harry Smith,[679] while the Sikhs were led by Ranjodh Singh Majithia. Britain's victory in the battle is sometimes regarded as the turning point in the First Anglo-Sikh War.
  • 10 February 1846 : The Battle of Sobraon was fought on 10 February 1846, between the forces of the East India Company and the Sikh Khalsa Army, the army of the Sikh Empire of the Punjab. The Sikhs were completely defeated, making this the decisive battle of the First Anglo-Sikh War.
543 1845 1846 BC The First Anglo-Sikh War::
  • 9 March 1846 : Treaty of Lahore – the Sikhs were made to surrender the Jullundur Doab between the Beas River and Sutlej River. The Lahore Durbar ceded Kashmir, Hazarah and all the forts, territories, rights and interests in the hill countries situated between the Rivers Beas and Indus to the East India Company (EIC), as equivalent to ten million of rupees. It was a peace treaty marking the end of the First Anglo-Sikh War. The Treaty was concluded, for the British, by the Governor-General Sir Henry Hardinge and two officers of the East India Company and, for the Sikhs, by the seven-year-old Maharaja Duleep Singh Bahadur and seven members of Hazara, the territory to the south of the river Sutlej and the forts and territory in the Jalandhar Doab between the rivers Sutlej and Beas.[680] In addition, controls were placed on the size of the Lahore army and thirty-six field guns were confiscated.[681] The control of the rivers Sutlej and Beas and part of the Indus passed to the British, with the proviso that this was not to interfere with the passage of passenger boats owned by the Lahore Government.[682] Also, provision was made for the separate sale of all the hilly regions between River Beas and Indus, including Kashmir, by the East India Company at a later date to Gulab Singh, the Raja of Jammu.[683]
  • Later by a separate Treaty of Amritsar (1846), the Raja of Jammu, Gulab Singh, purchased Kashmir from the EIC for a payment of 7.5 million rupees and was granted the title Maharaja of Jammu and Kashmir. The treat was executed by the British East India Company and Raja Gulab Singh of Jammu after the First Anglo-Sikh War, established the princely state of Jammu and Kashmir under the suzerainty of the British Indian Empire.[684] The treaty was executed on 16 March 1846. It formalised the arrangements in the Treaty of Lahore between the British East India Company and Raja Gulab Singh of Jammu after the First Anglo-Sikh War.[684] By Article 1 of the treaty, Gulab Singh acquired "all the hilly or mountainous country with its dependencies situated to the eastward of the River Indus and the westward of the River Ravi including Chamba and excluding Lahul, being part of the territories ceded to the British Government by the Lahore State according to the provisions of Article IV of the Treaty of Lahore, dated 9th March, 1846." Under Article 3, Gulab Singh was to pay 75 lakhs (7.5 million) of Nanak Shahi rupees (the ruling currency of the Sikh Empire) to the British Government, along with other annual tributes.[684] The Treaty of Amritsar marked the beginning of Dogra rule in Kashmir.[685]

The Sikh empire was until then one of the few remaining kingdoms in India after the rise of the company and the fall of the Mughal empire. Although the Sikh Army was weakened by the war, resentment at British interference in the government led to the Second Anglo-Sikh War within three years.

544 1845 E Trinidad receives its first 197 Indian immigrant laborers.[2]
545 1845 Bombay Ed The Grant Government Medical College, Bombay, is a public medical college, affiliated to the Maharashtra University of Health Sciences.

Founded in 1845, it counts among the premier medical institutions in India and one of the oldest institutions teaching Western medicine in South Asia.[106]

546 1845 1883 F Vasudev Balwant Phadke (4 November 1845 – 17 February 1883) also known as ‘Father Of Indian Armed Rebellion’ was an Indian independence activist and revolutionary who sought India's independence from colonial rule. Phadke was moved by the plight of the farming community and believed that Swaraj was the only remedy for their ills. With the help of the Koli, Bhil, Mahar, Mang, Ramoshi and Dhangar communities in the region, he formed a revolutionary group of the Ramoshi people. The group started an armed struggle to overthrow the colonial government, launching raids on wealthy European businessmen to obtain funds for the purpose. Phadke came to prominence when he got control of the city of Pune for a few days after catching colonial soldiers off-guard during one such surprise attack.

Phadke was one of the earliest persons to graduate from a British-established institution in Bombay presidency.[686] In 1860, along with fellow social reformers and revolutionaries Laxman Narhar Indapurkar and Waman Prabhakar Bhave, Phadke co-founded the Poona Native Institution (PNI) which was later renamed as the Maharashtra Education Society (MES). Through the PNI, he went on set up Bhave School in Pune.

547 1845 1883 F Vasudev Balwant Phadke's plans to organise several simultaneous attacks against the colonial government nationwide were met with very limited success. He once had a direct engagement with the colonial army in the village of Ghanaur, whereafter the government offered a bounty for his capture. Not to be outdone, Phadke in turned offered a bounty for the capture of the Governor of Bombay, announced a reward for the killing of each European, and issued other threats to the government. He then fled to Hyderabad State to recruit Rohilla and Arabs into his organisation. A British Major, Henry William Daniell and Abdul Haque, Police Commissioner to the Nizam of Hyderabad, pursued the fleeing Phadke day and night. The British move to offer a bounty for his capture met with success: someone betrayed Phadke, and he was captured in a temple after a fierce fight at the district of Kaladgi on 20 July 1879 while he was on his way to Pandharpur.

From here he was taken to Pune for trial. Ganesh Vasudeo Joshi, also known as Sarvajanik Kaka, defended his case.[687] Phadke and his comrades were housed in the district session court jail building, near Sangam bridge, which now happens to be the state C.I.D. building. His own diary provided evidence to have him sentenced for life. Phadke was transported to jail at Aden, but escaped from the prison by taking the door off from its hinges on 13 February 1883. He was soon recaptured and then went on a hunger strike, dying on 17 February 1883.[688]

548 1845 Tr In 1845, the Godavari Dam Construction Railway was built by Arthur Cotton at Dowleswaram in Rajahmundry, to supply stone for the construction of a dam over the Godavari River.
549 1846 Ad British forcibly separate Kashmir from the Sikhs and sell it to the Maharaja of Jammu for pounds 1,000,000.[2]
550 1846 Bombay T In Bombay, Mahim Causeway between Salsette and Mahim completed[106].

The Mahim Causeway is a vital link road connecting South Mumbai with its northern suburbs. The causeway links the neighbourhoods of Mahim to the south with Bandra to the north.

The Mahim Causeway was built between 1841 and 1846 to connect the island of Salsette with Mahim. The swampy area between the two islands made travel dangerous and thus a need for a causeway arose. The British East India Company, who governed Bombay at that time, refused to fund the project. This led Lady Jeejeebhoy, wife of the first baronet Sir Jamsetjee Jeejeebhoy, to donate the entire amount of Rs.1,57,000/- on the condition that the government would not charge a toll for its use or disturb the Koli community who lived around the area[689]

The Mahim causeway forms the link between Swami Vivekanand Road and L.J.Road, being the stretch between Bandra masjid and Mahim church (St. Michael's). It is not to be confused with the Bandra-Worli Sea Link, a major infrastructural project opened on 30 June 2009 which is designed to ease traffic across the causeway by building another bridge across the Mahim Bay.

551 1847 C 1st October, Annie Wood (Besant) was born in Clapham, London, UK.

Annie Besant (née Wood; 1 October 1847 – 20 September 1933) was a British socialist, theosophist, women's rights activist, writer, orator, educationist, and philanthropist. Regarded as a champion of human freedom, she was an ardent supporter of both Irish and Indian self-rule. She was a prolific author with over three hundred books and pamphlets to her credit.[690] As an educationist, her contributions included being one of the founders of the Banaras Hindu University.

She also became involved in politics in India, joining the Indian National Congress. When World War I broke out in 1914, she helped launch the Home Rule League to campaign for democracy in India, and dominion status within the British Empire. This led to her election as president of the Indian National Congress, in late 1917.

In the late 1920s, Besant travelled to the United States with her protégé and adopted son Jiddu Krishnamurti, who she claimed was the new Messiah and incarnation of Buddha. Krishnamurti rejected these claims in 1929.[691] After the war, she continued to campaign for Indian independence and for the causes of theosophy, until her death in 1933.

In particular she attacked the status of the Church of England as a state-sponsored faith.

Passed away on 20 September 1933 (aged 85), in Adyar, Chennai, India.

552 1847 Ed Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee (abbreviated IIT Roorkee or IITR) is a premier public technical and research university located in Roorkee, Uttarakhand, India. It is formerly known as University of Roorkee (1949–2001) and Thomason College of Civil Engineering (1847–1949).

Established in 1847 in British India by the then lieutenant governor, Sir James Thomason, it is the oldest technical institution in Asia. It was given university status in 1949 and was converted into an Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) in 2001

553 1847 Ed St Aloysius' Anglo-Indian High School is a Christian mission school in the city of Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India. It was founded in the year 1847, in the East India Company rule in India by British Indian Army this school was started for the purpose of British Indian Army European Soldiers Children Educational purpose[692]

St. Aloysius' was the first English medium school in the Andhra Pradesh. During the Colonial period, it was the only English-medium education school between Chennai and Kolkata.[693]

554 1847 1907 F Kali Charan Banerjee (1847–1902), spelt also as Kalicharan Banerji or K.C. Banerjea or K.C. Banurji, a Bengali convert to Anglican Church, was the founder of Calcutta Christo Samaj, a Christian parallel to Brahmo Samaj.[694][695][696]

[697]

K.C. Banerji was also one of the pioneers of Indian Christian movement, founder of the movement for emancipation, and was the finest orator in the whole assembly of Congress sessions.

He being a fine orator and representative of Bengali Christian community, he joined the Indian National Congress(Congress) in 1885, and regularly addressed the Congress annual sessions in moulding the policy of national movement. Rev. Kalicharan Banerji along with G.C. Nath from Lahore, and Peter Paul Pillai from Madras(present Chennai), represented Indian Christians at the four sessions of the Congress between 1888 and 1891, and became a prominent leader in the Congress in the early years of formation.[695][696][698]

Gandhi, having told his Christian friends in South Africa that he would meet the Christian Indians and acquaint himself with their condition; accordingly, Gandhi while taking shelter at Gokhale's residence, decided to visit Babu Kalicharan Banerji, whom Gandhi held high regard as he took a prominent part in Congress in spite of isolating himself from Hindus and Mussalmans.

555 1847 1933 F Annie Besant (1 October 1847 – 20 September 1933)

Being a British, Annie Besant advocated Indian self-rule and eventually became a prominent freedom fighter. After becoming a part of the Indian National Congress, she was made the President of INC in 1917. After acting as one of the key members in establishing ‘Home Rule League’ (Indian Home Rule movement), she even founded a Hindu school in Benares to achieve her goal of freeing India from the clutches of her countrymen.

556 1847 Calcutta S The Royal Calcutta Turf Club (RCTC), a horse racing organisation is the oldest turf club in India, and one of the most beautiful and largest in the world. Encompassing a significant area of the Maidan, it was founded in 1847, and is distinguished for its "Monsoon Track" – one of the fastest draining tracks in the world. It was conferred the epithet "Royal" by George V in 1912.

The organisation was founded in Calcutta, British India (now Kolkata). Horse events and sports were initially organised for the British cavalry at Akra before they were moved to the Maidan. The RCTC became the foremost horse-racing organization in India during the British Raj. At one time it was the governing body for nearly all racecourses in the subcontinent, defining and applying the rules governing the sport. During its heyday, RCTC-organised races were among the most important social events of the bigwigs' calendar and were opened by the Viceroy of India. Still a private club, the RCTC operates Kolkata Race Course in the Maidan.

The club also held polo matches during the late 19th century, and hosted English-style gambling; the Calcutta Derby Sweeps, organised by the RCTC, was the world's largest sweepstake in the 1930s. After the closure of the Tollygunge racecourse, a new racecourse was opened by the club in Barrackpore during the 1920s; it was unsuccessful due to poor attendance.

557 1848 1849 BC The Second Anglo-Sikh War (First War of Sikh Independence):

Was a military conflict between the Sikh Empire and the British East India Company that that took place in 1848 and 1849. It resulted in the fall of the Sikh Empire, and the annexation of the Punjab and what subsequently became the North-West Frontier Province, by the East India Company.

  • 22 November 1848 : The Battle of Ramnagar (sometimes referred to as Battle of Rumnuggur) was fought on 22 November 1848 between British East India Company and Sikh Empire forces during the Second Anglo-Sikh War. The British were led by Sir Hugh Gough, while the Sikhs were led by Raja Sher Singh Attariwalla. The Sikhs repelled an attempted British surprise attack.
  • Jan-1849 : The Battle of Chillianwala was fought in January 1849 during the Second Anglo-Sikh War in the Chillianwala region of Punjab[699] (Mandi Bahauddin), now part of modern-day Pakistan. The battle was one of the bloodiest fought by the British East India Company. Both armies held their positions at the end of the battle and both sides claimed victory.[700] The battle was a strategic check to immediate British ambitions in India and a shock to British military prestige.[701]
  • 21 February 1849 : The Battle of Gujrat was a decisive battle in the Second Anglo-Sikh War, fought on 21 February 1849, between the forces of the East India Company, and a Sikh army in rebellion against the Company's control of the Sikh Empire, represented by the child Maharaja Duleep Singh who was in British custody in Lahore.[702] The Sikh army was defeated by the British regular and Bengal Army forces of the British East India Company. After it capitulated a few days later, the Punjab was annexed to the East India Company's territories and Duleep Singh was deposed.
558 1848 1849 BC The Second Anglo-Sikh War (First War of Sikh Independence):
  • 12 March 1849 : Chattar Singh and Sher Singh surrendered to Sir Walter Gilbert near Rawalpindi. Some 20,000 men (mainly irregular cavalry) laid down their arms. The Afghan contingent hastily withdrew through Attock and Peshawar, which the British reoccupied. Dost Mohammad Khan later signed a treaty acknowledging British possession of these cities.
  • 30 March 1849 : Duleep Singh held his last court at Lahore, at which he signed away all claims to the rule of the Punjab. Lord Dalhousie proclaimed annexation of the Punjab on 29 March 1849. His foreign secretary, Henry Meirs Elliot, arrived at Lahore to obtain the signatures of the members of the Council of Regency and of the minor king, Maharaja Duleep Singh. A darbar was held in the Lahore Fort and, with the British troops lined up on his right and his helpless Sardars on his left, the young Duleep Singh affixed his signatures to the document which deprived him of his crown and kingdom.

The Sikh Wars gave the two sides a mutual respect for each other's fighting prowess (although the war itself had been unchivalrously fought; the Sikhs took no prisoners at the Battle of Chillianwala, and the British had taken no prisoners at Gujrat).

There was an increased recruitment of people from various communities of the Punjab in the Punjab Irregular Force under British command. These recruits fought for the East India Company during the Indian Rebellion of 1857, against the mutineers and other opponents (mostly high-caste Hindus from Eastern provinces, and forces or loyalists of Shia, Maratha and Mughal rulers).

559 1848 Ed India’s first school for girls was set up at Bhide Wada[703], Pune, on January 1, 1848.

It was the courageous initiative of Savitribai Phule and her associate, Fatima Begum, who set up the first school for girls in India. The aim was to free girls from social slavery and ignorance. They faced immense opposition and even abuse, but continued steadfast amidst adversity, and continued to run the school. Savitribai Phule was the wife of the radical social reformer Mahatma Jyotiba Phule. The school was named ‘Bhide School’, after the owner of the property, Tatyarao Bhide. He gave some rooms to Mahatma Phule at his Bhide wada, to start the first school for girls.

560 1848 1934 F Madhusudan Das (28 April 1848 – 4 February 1934) was an Indian lawyer and social reformer, who founded Utkal Sammilani in 1903 to campaign for the unification of Odisha along with its social and industrial development. He was one of the main persons, helping in the creation of Orissa Province (present-day Odisha, India), which was established on 1 April 1936. He was also the first graduate and advocate of Orissa. He is also known as Kulabruddha (Grand Old Man), Madhu Babu, and Utkala Gouraba (Pride of Utkal). In Odisha, his birthday is celebrated as the Lawyers' Day on 28 April.
561 1848 1925 F Surendranath Banerjee (10 November 1848 – 6 August 1925)

Was one of the earliest Indian political leaders during the British Rule. He founded a nationalist organization called the Indian National Association, through which he led two sessions of the Indian National Conference in 1883 and 1885, along with Anandamohan Bose. Banerjee later became a senior member of the Indian National Congress.

Surendranath repudiated Montagu–Chelmsford Reforms, unlike Congress, and with many liberal leaders he left Congress and founded a new organisation named Indian National Liberation Federation in 1919. He was one of the founding members of the Indian National Congress.

562 1849 D Kohinoor (Koh-i-Noor):

The Koh-i-Noor (/ˌkɪˈnʊər/; lit. "Mountain of light"),[704][705] also spelt Kohinoor and Koh-i-Nur, is one of the largest cut diamonds in the world, weighing 105.6 carats (21.12 g). It is part of the British Crown Jewels.

Possibly mined in Kollur Mine, India, during the period of the Kakatiya dynasty, there is no record of its original weight – but the earliest well-attested weight is 186 old carats (191 metric carats or 38.2 g). It was later acquired by Delhi Sultan Alauddin Khalji. The diamond was also part of the Mughal Peacock Throne. It changed hands between various factions in south and west Asia, until being ceded to Queen Victoria after the British annexation of the Punjab in 1849, during the reign of eleven-year-old emperor Maharaja Duleep Singh under the shadow influence of the British ally Gulab Singh the 1st Maharaja of Jammu and Kashmir, who had previously been in possession of the stone.

Dalhousie commissioned Theo Metcalfe, a junior assistant magistrate in Delhi with a taste for gambling and parties, to undertake some research on the gem.[706]

Koh-i-Noor#Acquisition by Queen Victoria:

On 29 March 1849, following the conclusion of the Second Anglo-Sikh War, the Kingdom of Punjab was formally annexed to Company rule, and the Last Treaty of Lahore was signed, officially ceding the Koh-i-Noor to Queen Victoria and the Maharaja's other assets to the company. Article III of the treaty read:

The lead signatory of the treaty for the eleven-year-old Maharaja Duleep Singh was his commander-in-chief Tej Singh, a loyalist of Maharaja Gulab Singh who had previously been in possession of the Koh-i-noor and gained Kashmir from the Sikh empire, via treaty with Britain, following the First Anglo-Sikh War.

The Governor-General in charge of the ratification of this treaty was the Marquess of Dalhousie. The manner of his aiding in the transfer of the diamond was criticized even by some of his contemporaries in Britain. Although some thought it should have been presented as a gift to Queen Victoria by the East India Company, it is clear that Dalhousie believed the stone was a spoil of war, and treated it accordingly, ensuring that it was officially surrendered to her by Duleep Singh, the youngest son of Ranjit Singh.[708] The presentation of the Koh-i-Noor by the East India Company to the queen was the latest in a long history of transfers of the diamond as a coveted spoil of war.[709] Duleep Singh had been placed in the guardianship of Dr John Login, a surgeon in the British Army serving in the Presidency of Bengal. Duleep Singh would move to England in 1854.

The diamond was shipped to Britain on a ship where cholera broke out and supposedly the keeper of the diamond lost it for some days and it was returned to him by his servant. The diamond was handed to Queen Victoria in July 1850.

The governments of India, Pakistan, Iran, and Afghanistan have all claimed rightful ownership of the Koh-i-Noor and demanded its return ever since India gained independence from the UK in 1947. The British government insists the gem was obtained legally under the terms of the Last Treaty of Lahore and has rejected the claims.

563 1849 D Kohinoor (Koh-i-Noor):

This diamond—known as ‘Babur’s Diamond’ before 1739—was acquired from the Kakatiya dynasty by Allauddin Khilji. When Ibrahim Lodi was defeated by Babur, it was apparently handed over to Humayun by the mother of Ibrahim Lodi to guarantee the family’s safety. However, other sources say that it was gifted to Humayun by the Gwalior Royal Family. Thereafter, it was presented by Humayun to the Persian Shah Tamasp (to garner his support to regain Hindustan), who then gave it to the Deccan Kingdom as a gift. It came back to the Mughals during Shah Jahan’s reign, via a Persian diamond dealer Mir Jumla, and remained with the Mughal emperors until 1739.[710]

It is rumoured that Nadir Shah was tipped off that the emperor Muhammad Shah was hiding the diamond in his turban. Nadir Shah then invited the emperor to a customary turban-exchange ceremony to foster eternal supportive ties between the two empires. He could not believe his eyes when he found the diamond concealed within the layers of the turban, and exclaimed, ‘Koh-i-Noor!’ (‘Mountain of Light!’). Since then, it has been known by that name.[710]

After Nader Shah was assassinated, the diamond fell into the hands of Ahmad Shah Abdali of Kabul. After Abdali, it was ceded by the Afghans to Sikh King Ranjit Singh of Punjab. On his death-bed in 1839, Ranjit Singh willed the Koh-i-Noor to the Jagannath Temple at Puri. The British East India Company acquired it from his son (Duleep Singh) in 1843. It is said that the diamond was kept by John Lawrence, who had absent-mindedly put the box in his coat pocket. When Governor General Dalhousie asked for it to be sent from Lahore to Mumbai, Lawrence asked his servant to find it; while rummaging through his wardrobe, the servant replied, “there is nothing here, Sahib, but a bit of glass!” The Koh-i-Noor was transported to England aboard HMS Madea, with Dalhousie carrying it personally. It was cut and put in a crown by the crown jewellers Garrard & Co.; Queen Mary wore this crown to the Delhi Coronation Durbar in 1911.[710]

564 1849 Tr The Great Indian Peninsula Railway (reporting mark GIPR) was a predecessor of the Central Railway (and by extension, the current state-owned Indian Railways), whose headquarters was at the Boree Bunder in Mumbai (later, the Victoria Terminus and presently the Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj Terminus). The Great Indian Peninsula Railway Company was incorporated on 1 August 1849 by the Great Indian Peninsula Railway Company Act 1849 (12 & 13 Vict. c.83) of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. It had a share capital of 50,000 pounds. On 21 August 1847 it entered into a formal contract with the East India Company for the construction and operation of a railway line, 56 km long, to form part of a trunk line connecting Bombay with Khandesh and Berar and generally with the other presidencies of India.[711] The Court of Directors of the East India Company appointed James John Berkeley[712] as Chief Resident Engineer and Charles Buchanan Ker and Robert Wilfred Graham as his assistants.[713]

It was India's first passenger railway, the original 21 miles (33.8 km) section opening in 1853, between Bombay (Mumbai) and Tanna (Thane). On 1 July 1925 its management was taken over by the Government.[714] On 5 November 1951 it was incorporated into the Central Railway.

565 1850 Ad First English translation of the Rig Veda by Horace Hayman Wilson, first holder of Oxford's Boden Chair, founded "to promote the translation of the Scriptures into English, so as to enable his countrymen to proceed in the conversion of the natives of India to the Christian religion."[2]
566 1850 Ec Three phases of British exploitation of India[272]:

The 3rd phase- Finance-Imperialism[715] from the latter half of the nineteenth century onwards- This phase saw export of capital from India and also chains of British-controlled banks, export-import firms and managing agency houses. The manner in which Railways were developed is a fine example of finance imperialism.

Also see Sn: 202, 315 and 1558

567 1850 1861 T List of dams and reservoirs in Andhra Pradesh (pre-independence):
  • 1850 Dowleswaram Barrage, Godavari River, Irrigation & Water Supply
  • 1855 Prakasam Barrage, Krishna River, Irrigation & Water Supply
  • 1861 Sunkesula Barrage, Tungabhadra River, Irrigation & Water Supply
568 1851 A Sir M. Monier-Williams (1819-99) publishes English-Sanskrit Dictionary. His completed Sanskrit-English Dictionary is released in 1899 after three decades of work.[2]
569 1851 T British India's first telegraph line and office was opened in October 1851, between Calcutta and Diamond Harbour along the busy shipping route on the Hooghly[716][717]. By March 1854, there were 800 miles of telegraph lines between Calcutta and Agra and this was further connected to Bombay and Madras.
570 1851 T Telegraph[716][717] was first installed in 1851 and a trans-India telegraph was completed three years later in 1854.

The first official telegraph line that connected then Calcutta and Diamond Harbour opened in October 1851. In 1856 the British completed a 4000-mile Indian telegraph system. It connected Calcutta, Agra, Bombay, Peshawar, and Madras. The telegraph was the brainchild of a visionary inventor named William Brooke O'Shaughnessy, and it secured England's grip on India. O'Shaughnessy an Irish physician famous for his wide-ranging scientific work in pharmacology, chemistry, and inventions related to telegraphy and its use in India, had gone to India in 1833 as a 24-year-old assistant surgeon with the East India Company. There he began experimenting with electricity. He invented an electric motor and a silver chloride battery. Then, in 1839, he set up a 13½-mile-long demonstration telegraph system near Calcutta. That was only two years after Samuel Morse (Samuel Finley Breese Morse, April 27, 1791 – April 2, 1872) built his famous demonstration system in the United States. But O'Shaughnessy was unaware of Morse's work. His telegraph used a different code and, at first, he transmitted the message by imposing a series of tiny electric shocks on the operator's finger. He also came up with another unique invention. He used a 2½-mile stretch of the Hooghly River, in place of wire, to complete the circuit.

O'Shaughnessy is known for: Medical cannabis; Intravenous therapy; Telegraphy; Forensic chemistry.

O'Shaughnessy died on 8 January 1889 at the age of 80 in Southsea, Portsmouth, United Kingdom Samuel Morse died in New York City at the age of 80 on April 2, 1872.

571 1851 T Telegraph[716][717]:

O'Shaughnessy published a pamphlet about the system, but he failed to ignite any interest in telegraphy. Finally, in 1847, Lord Dalhousie took over as Governor-General of India. Dalhousie showed real vision in developing public works. He initiated roads, canals, steamship service to England, the Indian railway, and a postal system. Of course it was Dalhousie who saw the potential of O'Shaunessy's telegraph. He authorized O'Shaughnessy to build a 27-mile line near Calcutta. That was running so successfully by 1851 that Dalhousie authorized him to build a full trans-India telegraph. O'Shaughnessy finished it three years later. It was an amazing triumph over technical and bureaucratic problems. By then O'Shaughnessy knew about the new English and American telegraph systems, but that was more hindrance than help. It simply meant he had to invent his own equipment to avoid patent disputes. He also had to work with local materials, environments, and methods of construction. He had to invent his own signal transmitter and create his own means for stringing lines. While the system was still under construction, it helped the British in the Crimean War.

Three years later, the full system so networked British rule that it was decisive in putting down the Sepoy Uprising. One captured rebel, being led to the gallows, pointed to a telegraph line and bravely cried, "There is the accursed string that strangles us."

O'Shaughnessy showed what one person can do by trusting the creative ability that's there to claim. He stands as a reminder that one person can make a difference.

572 1851 Tr In 1851, the Solani Aqueduct Railway was built by Proby Cautley in Roorkee to transport construction materials for an aqueduct over the Solani River.[718]
573 1852 T First adhesive stamps in Asia:

The first adhesive postage stamps in Asia were issued in the Indian district of Scinde in July 1852 by Henry Bartle Frere, chief commissioner of the region. Frere was an admirer of Rowland Hill, the English postal reformer who had introduced the Penny Post. The Scinde stamps became known as "Scinde Dawk"; "Dawk" is the Anglicised spelling of the Hindustani word Dak or ("post"). These stamps, with a value of ​1⁄2-anna, were in use until June 1866.

The first all-India stamps were issued on 1 October 1854.

574 1852 W The Church of St. John the Evangelist located in Navy Nagar, Mumbai, India, more commonly known as the Afghan Church, was dedicated in 1852 as a memorial to the dead of the First Anglo-Afghan War.
575 1853 N Gujarat Mitra, Gujarati, Daily

Guajratmitra is a leading daily newspaper of Surat and Gujarat in India. It is published from Surat, in Gujarati. It is one of the oldest newspapers of India.

576 1853 T First railway established between Mombay and Thane[719][720][721].
577 1853 Tr India's first passenger train, operated by the Great Indian Peninsula Railway and hauled by three steam locomotives (Sahib, Sindh and Sultan), ran for 34 kilometres (21 mi) with 400 people in 14 carriages on 1,676 mm (5 ft 6 in) broad gauge track between Bori Bunder (Bombay) and Thane on 16 April 1853[719][720][721].
578 1853 Bombay Tr 16 April 1853 First railway line in India between Mumbai and Thane[106].
579 1853 W Max Muller (1823-1900), German Christian philologist and Orientalist, advocates the term Aryan to name a hypothetical primitive people of Central Asia, the common ancestors of Hindus, Persians and Greeks. Muller speculates that this "Aryan race" divided and marched west to Europe and east to India and China around 1500 bce. Their language, Muller contends, developed into Sanskrit, Greek, Latin, German, etc., and all ancient civilizations descended from this Aryan race.[2]
580 1854 1936 C Sir Rajen Mookerjee KCIE KCVO (or Sir Rajendra Nath Mookerjee) (23 June 1854–15 May 1936) was a pioneering Bengali Indian industrialist.
581 1854 Ed College of Engineering, Pune (COEP), is a college affiliated to Savitribai Phule Pune University in Pune, Maharashtra, India. Established in 1854, it is the 3rd oldest engineering college in India, after College of Engineering, Guindy, Chennai (1794) and IIT Roorkee (1847).[722][723][724]
582 1854 Bombay Ed Wood's despatch:

Sir Charles Wood, the President of the Board of Control, played an important role in spreading English learning and female education in India. When in 1854 he sent a dispatch to Lord Dalhousie, the then Governor-General of India, Wood suggested that primary schools must adopt vernacular languages, high schools must adopt Anglo-vernacular language and at college-level English should be the medium of education. This is known as Wood's despatch. Vocational and women's education were also stressed upon.

One of the most favourable steps taken was to create an English class among Indian people to be used as workforce in the company's administration.

In accordance with "Wood's despatch", in 1854, The University of Mumbai was established in 1857 after presentation of a petition from the Bombay Association to the British colonial government in India.

The University of Mumbai was modeled on similar universities in the United Kingdom, specifically the University of London.

Wood's despatch recommended there in that:

  • English education will enhance the moral character of Indians and thus supply EIC with civil servants who can be trusted.
  • An education department was to be set up in every province.
  • Universities on the model of the London university be established in big cities such as Bombay, Calcutta and Madras.
  • At least one government school be opened in every district.
  • Affiliated private schools should be given grant in aid.
  • The Indian natives should be given training in their mother tongue also.
  • Provision was made for a systematic method of education from primary level to the university level.
  • The government should support education for women.
  • The medium of instruction at the primary level was to be vernacular while at the higher levels it would be English.
  • Promotion and stress on teachers’ training at all levels.
583 1854 1927 F Abdul Hafiz Mohamed Barakatullah (7 July 1854 – 20 September 1927)

A co-founder of Ghadar Party (Ghadar Movement) that operated from San Francisco, Abdul Hafiz Mohamed Barakatullah was one of those revolutionaries who fought for the freedom of India from overseas. He was associated with a leading daily in England, through which he published fiery articles, propagating the idea of independent India.

Known with his honorific as Maulana Barkatullah, he was an Indian revolutionary with sympathy for the Pan-Islamic movement. Barkatullah was born on 7 July 1854 at Itwra Mohalla Bhopal in Madhya Pradesh, India. He fought from outside India, with fiery speeches and revolutionary writings in leading newspapers, for the independence of India. He did not live to see India independent. He died at San Francisco in 1927 and buried at Sacramento City Cemetery California. In 1988, Bhopal University was renamed Barkatullah University[725] in his honour. He was also Prime Minister of first Provisional Government of India established at Afghanistan in 1915.

584 1854 T A Central Public Works Department was created in India in 1854, with responsibility for the construction of roads, canals and other civil engineering projects. It experienced difficulties in recruiting suitably qualified staff from the United Kingdom, and in 1868 a scheme was proposed for a dedicated training college in England. The chief advocate of this scheme, and effective founder of the college, was Sir George Tomkyns Chesney. The India Office bought the Cooper's Hill estate for £55,000 in 1870; and the college was formally opened on 5 August 1872, with Chesney as its first President.

CPWD consists of three wings in execution field:

  1. B&R (Buildings and Roads)
  2. E&M (Electrical and Mechanical)
  3. Horticulture
585 1854 T Central Public Works Department:

Centralized public works in India can be traced to efforts of Lord Dalhousie and Sir Arthur Cotton in the mid 19th century. Sir Arthur Cotton sums up the early policy of the East India Company rulers thus,[726][727]

Public works have been almost entirely neglected throughout India. The motto hitherto has been: Do nothing, have nothing done, let nobody do anything. Bear any loss, let the people die of famine, let hundreds of lakhs be lost in revenue for want of water or roads, rather than do anything.

– Arthur Cotton (1854)[726]

Lord Dalhousie established the Central Public Works Department, and irrigation projects were among the earliest to be started.[728]

Public Works Department was formally established in the year 1854 in the sixth year of Lord Dalhousie's tenure as Governor General. In the minutes of meeting held on 12 July 1854 the Governor General resolved that a central agency be provided by creating an office of Secretary to the Government of India in Department of Public Works.

Colonel W.E. Baker of the Bengal Engineers was accordingly appointed first Secretary to the Department of Public Works, this is the genesis of the Central Public Works Department.[729]

586 1854 1 Apr T The Department of Posts (DoP), trading as India Post, is a government-operated postal system in India, which is under the jurisdiction of Ministry of Communications. Generally called "the Post Office" in India, it is the most widely distributed postal system in the world. Warren Hastings had taken initiative under East India Company to start the Postal Service in the country in 1788. It was initially established under the name "Company Mail". It was later modified into a service under the "Crown" in 1854 by Lord Dalhousie. Dalhousie introduced uniform postage rates (universal service) and helped to pass the India Post Office Act 1854 which significantly improved upon 1837 Post Office act which had introduced regular post offices in India.[730] It created the position Director General of Post for the whole country.[731][732]
587 1854 Bombay T In Bombay, First cotton mill started[106].
588 1854 Tr The Thane viaducts, India's first railway bridges, were built over the Thane creek when the Mumbai-Thane line was extended to Callian (present day Kalyan) in May 1854[719][720][721].

The construction of this portion was difficult as it involved two-line viaducts over the estuary and two tunnels.

Thane railway bridge or Thane railway viaduct is the oldest rail bridge constructed on this creek. The bridge lies between Thane and Parsik tunnel, Kalwa. It has two sections, a smaller section built of stones and concrete and a longer section built of stone and concrete but with a steel girder in middle.

A parallel railway bridge lies on the harbour line of Mumbai suburban railway.

On 12 May 1856 the line was extended to Campoolie (present day Khopoli) via Padusdhurree (present day Palasdari) and on 14 June 1858 Khandala-Poona (present day Pune) section was opened to traffic. The Padusdhurree-Khandala section involved the difficult crossing of the Bhore Ghat (present day Bhor Ghat) and it took another five years for completion. During this period, the 21 km gap was covered by palanquin, pony or cart through the village of Campoolie (Khopoli). The Kassarah (present day Kasara) line was opened on 1 January 1861 and the steep Thull ghat (present day Thal Ghat) section up to Egutpoora (present day Igatpuri) was opened on 1 January 1865 and thus completed the crossing of the Sahyadri (Western Ghats).

589 1854 Tr Eastern India's first passenger train ran 39 km (24 mi) from Howrah, near Calcutta, to Hoogly on 15 August 1854[719][720][721].
590 1854 Tr Former Railway Companies[719][720][721].

There were close to 214 railway companies in India during the British Raj.

591 1855 1856 F Sidhu and Kanhu Murmu[733]

Sidhu Murmu and Kanhu Murmu were the leaders of the Santhal rebellion (1855–1856), the rebellion (sometimes referred to as the Sonthal rebellion) in present-day Jharkhand and Bengal (Purulia and Bankura) in eastern India against both the British colonial authority and the corrupt zamindari system.[734]

In 1855, Sidhu Murmu and Kanhu Murmu led a group of 10,000 Santal people in a revolt. The movement, which came to be known as the Santhal rebellion, took the British by surprise. The movement was so successful that the British government had no choice but to announce a bounty of Rs. 10,000 to those who were willing to capture Sidhu and his brother Kanhu.

It started on June 30, 1855 and on November 10, 1855 martial law was proclaimed which lasted until January 3, 1856 when martial law was suspended and the movement was brutally ended by troops loyal to the British.

The rebellion was led by the four Murmu Brothers – Sidhu, Kanhu, Chand and Bairab.

On 30 June 1855, the Santal rebel leaders, Sidhu Murmu and Kanhu Murmu (related as brother) along with Chand and Bairab,[735] mobilized about 10,000 Santals and declared a rebellion against British colonists.[736] The Santals initially gained some success but soon the British found out a new way to tackle these rebels. Instead, they forced them to come out of the forest. In a conclusive battle which followed, the British, equipped with modern firearms and war elephants, stationed themselves at the foot of the hill. When the battle began, the British officer ordered his troops to fire without loading bullets. The Santals, who did not suspect this trap set by the British war strategy, charged with full potential. This step proved to be disastrous for them. As soon as they neared the foot of the hill, the British army attacked with full power and this time they were using bullets. Although the revolution was suppressed, it marked a great change in the colonial rule and policy. The day is still celebrated among the Santal community.[737]

592 1855 31 May R Rani Rashmoni builds the Dakshineswar Kali Temple.[1]
593 1856 A Catholic missionary Bishop Caldwell coins the term Dravidian to refer to South Indian Caucasian peoples.[2]
594 1856 Ad Hindu Widows' Remarriage Act, 1856:

The Hindu Widows' Remarriage Act, 1856, also Act XV, 1856, enacted on 26 July 1856, legalised the remarriage of Hindu widows in all jurisdictions of India under East India Company rule. It was drafted by Lord Dalhousie and passed by Lord Canning before the Indian Rebellion of 1857. It was the first major social reform legislation after the abolition of sati by Lord William Bentinck.[738][739][740][741][742][743]

To protect what it considered family honour and family property, upper-caste Hindu society had long disallowed the remarriage of widows, even child and adolescent ones, all of whom were expected to live a life of austerity and abnegation.[744] The Hindu Widows' Remarriage Act of 1856,[745] provided legal safeguards against loss of certain forms of inheritance for remarrying a Hindu widow, though, under the Act, the widow forsook any inheritance due her from her deceased husband. Especially targeted in the act were Hindu child widows whose husbands had died before consummation of marriage.

Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar was the most prominent campaigner. He petitioned the Legislative council,[746] but there was a counter petition against the proposal with nearly four times more signatures by Radhakanta Deb and the Dharma Sabha.[747][748] But Lord Dalhousie personally finalised the bill despite the opposition and it being considered a flagrant breach of Hindu customs as prevalent then.[749][750]

595 1856 1926 F Swami Shraddhanand (22 February 1856 – 23 December 1926), also known as Mahatma Munshi Ram Vij, was an Indian Independence activist and an Arya Samaj Sannyasa who propagated the teachings of Dayananda Saraswati. This included the establishment of educational institutions, like the Gurukul Kangri University, and played a key role on the Sangathan (consolidation and organization) and the Shuddhi (purification), a Hindu reform movements in the 1920s.

Gurukul Kangri University (Deemed to be University) was founded on 4 March 1902 by the Arya Samaj sannyasi Swami Shraddhanand, who was a follower of Dayananda Saraswati, with the sole aim to revive the ancient Indian Gurukula system of education. This institution was established with the objective of providing an indigenous alternative to Lord Thomas Babington Macaulay's education policy by imparting education in the areas of Vedic literature[751], Indian philosophy, Culture of India, modern sciences, and research.

596 1856 1920 F Bal Gangadhar Tilak (23 July 1856 – 1 August 1920)

Born as Keshav Gangadhar Tilak, he was an Indian nationalist, teacher, and an independence activist. He was one third of the Lal Bal Pal triumvirate.[752] Tilak was the first leader of the Indian independence movement. The British colonial authorities called him "The father of the Indian unrest". He was also conferred with the title of "Lokmanya", which means "accepted by the people (as their leader)".[753] Mahatma Gandhi called him "The Maker of Modern India".[754]

Tilak was one of the first and strongest advocates of Swaraj ("self-rule") and a strong radical in Indian consciousness. He is known for his quote in Marathi: "Swarajya is my birthright and I shall have it!". He formed a close alliance with many Indian National Congress leaders including Bipin Chandra Pal, Lala Lajpat Rai, Aurobindo Ghose, V. O. Chidambaram Pillai and Muhammad Ali Jinnah.

Bal Gangadhar Tilak was one of the most prominent freedom fighters of India who inspired thousands with the slogan – “Swaraj is my birthright and I shall have it”. As a form of protest against the British, Tilak established schools and published rebellious newspapers.

597 1856 1928 F Narayana Guru (20 August 1856 – 20 September 1928)[755] was a philosopher, spiritual leader and social reformer in India. He was born into a family that belonged to the Ezhava caste. He led a reform movement against the injustice in the caste-ridden society of Kerala in order to promote spiritual enlightenment and social equality.[756]
598 1856 1862 G Charles Canning, 1st Earl Canning, KG, GCB, KSI, PC (14 December 1812 – 17 June 1862), also known as The Viscount Canning and Clemency Canning was an British statesman and Governor-General of India during the Indian Rebellion of 1857[757] and the first Viceroy of India after the transfer of power from the East India Company to the Crown of Queen Victoria in 1858 after the rebellion was crushed.[758]

Canning is credited for ....

  • Ensuring that the administration and most departments of the government functioned normally during the rebellion and took major administrative decisions even when peak of the Rebellion in 1857.
  • Establishing of the first three modern Universities in India, the University of Calcutta, University of Madras and University of Bombay based on Wood's despatch.[759][760][761]
  • Passing the Hindu Widows' Remarriage Act, 1856 which was drafted by his predecessor Lord Dalhousie before the rebellion.[762][763]
  • Passing The General Service Enlistment Act Of 1856. It required every Indian soldier to go overseas for deployment if required. It was one of the main causes for the Uprising of 1857, as it was a taboo for Brahmins in those days to cross the seas, it was known as Samudrolanghana or Sagarollanghana.
  • After the rebellion he presided over a smooth transfer and reorganisation of government from the East India company to the crown,[764]
  • Drafting the Indian Penal Code in 1860 based on the code drafted by Macaulay and which came into force in 1862.[765]
  • Meeting the rebellion '"with firmness, confidence, magnanimity and calm" as per his biographer.[766]
  • Being very firm during the rebellion but after that he focused on reconciliation and reconstruction rather than retribution and issued a clemency proclamation.[767][768][769]
599 1856 Pr The Oudh State, also Kingdom of Oudh, or Awadh State was a princely state in the Awadh region of North India until its annexation by the British in 1856. The name Oudh, now obsolete, was once the anglicized name of the state, also written historically as Oude.

As the Mughal Empire declined and decentralized, local governors in Oudh began asserting greater autonomy, and eventually Oudh matured into an independent polity governing the fertile lands of the Central and Lower Doab. With the British East India Company entering Bengal and decisively defeating Oudh at the Battle of Buxar in 1764, Oudh fell into the British orbit.

Oudh State#British annexation:

On 7 February 1856 by order of Lord Dalhousie, General of the East India Company, the king of Oudh (Wajid Ali Shah) was deposed, and its kingdom was annexed to British India under the terms of the Doctrine of lapse on the grounds of alleged internal misrule.[630]

Between 5 July 1857 and 3 March 1858 there was an upheaval by the son of the deposed king joining the Indian Rebellion of 1857. At the time of the rebellion, the British lost control of the territory; they reestablished their rule over the next eighteen months, during which time there were massacres such as those that had occurred in the course of the Siege of Cawnpore.[770][771]

After Oudh's territory was merged with the North Western Provinces, it formed the larger province of North Western Provinces and Oudh. In 1902, the latter province was renamed the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh, and in 1904 the region within the new United Provinces, corresponding to the former North Western Provinces and Oudh, was renamed the Agra Province.[630]

600 1856 Tr The first passenger train in South India ran 97 km (60 mi) from Royapuram-Vyasarpadi (Madras) to Wallajah Road (Arcot) on 1 July 1856[719][720][721].
601 1856 Tr The Calcutta and Burmah Steam Navigation Company was formed in 1856 out of Mackinnon, Mackenzie & Co, a trading partnership of the Scots William Mackinnon and Robert Mackenzie, to carry mail between Calcutta and Rangoon. It became British India SN Co in 1862. Under the hand of Lord Inchcape, who had become chairman in 1913, the company became part of the P&O group of companies in 1914 through a complex amalgamation, but continued with its own identity and organisation for another nearly 60 years until 1972, when it was entirely absorbed into P&O.

British India Steam Navigation Company#Fleet & Routes:

As one of the largest shipowners of all time, the company owned more than 500 ships and managed 150 more for other owners. At its height in 1922, BI had more than 160 ships in the fleet, many built on Clydeside, Scotland. The main shipping routes of the line were: Britain to India, Australia, Kenya, Tanganyika. The company ran services from India to Pakistan, Ceylon, Bay of Bengal, Singapore, Malaya, Java, Thailand, Japan, Persian Gulf, East Africa and South Africa. BI had a long history of service to the British and Indian governments through trooping and other military contracts. In the last decade of its operational existence BI carried thousands of school children on educational cruises.

602 1856 1860 W The Second Opium War, also known as the Second Anglo-Chinese War, the Second China War, the Arrow War, or the Anglo-French expedition to China,[772] was a war pitting the British Empire and the French Empire against the Qing dynasty of China that lasted from 1856 to 1860.

It was the second major war in the Opium Wars, fought over issues relating to the exportation of opium to China, and resulted in a second defeat for the Qing dynasty. The agreements of the Convention of Peking led to the ceding of Kowloon Peninsula as part of Hong Kong.

603 1856 1857 W The Anglo–Persian War or Anglo-Iranian War lasted between November 1, 1856 and April 4, 1857 and was fought between the British Empire and Iran, which was ruled by the Qajar dynasty. The war had the British oppose an attempt by Iran to press its claim on the city of Herat. Though Herat had been part of Iran under the Qajar dynasty when the war broke out, it had declared itself independent under its own rebellious emir and placed itself under the protection of the British in India and in alliance with the Emirate of Kabul, the predecessor of the modern state of Afghanistan. The British campaign was successfully conducted under the leadership of Major General Sir James Outram in two theatres: on the southern coast of Iran near Bushehr and in southern Mesopotamia.

The war resulted in the Persians withdrawing from Herat and signing a new treaty to surrender its claims on the city and in the British withdrawing from southern Iran.

604 1857 BC Siege of Cawnpore (5–25 June 1857)

The Siege of Cawnpore was a key episode in the Indian rebellion of 1857. The besieged Company forces and civilians in Cawnpore (now Kanpur) were unprepared for an extended siege and surrendered to rebel forces under Nana Sahib, in return for a safe passage to Allahabad. However, their evacuation from Cawnpore turned into a massacre, and most of the men were killed. As an East India Company rescue force from Allahabad approached Cawnpore, 120 British women and children captured by the Sepoy forces were killed in what came to be known as the Bibighar Massacre, their remains being thrown down a nearby well in an attempt to hide the evidence. Following the recapture of Cawnpore and the discovery of the massacre, the angry Company forces engaged in widespread retaliation against captured rebel soldiers and local civilians. The murders greatly embittered the British rank-and-file against the Sepoy rebels and inspired the war cry "Remember Cawnpore!".[773][774]

605 1857 1859 BE Deep resentment toward British policies leads to a widespread but unsuccessful rebellion by the sepoys (native Indian soldiers employed by the East India Company) against British rule in India. Although the rebellion is stopped, it reveals the limits of the company’s power. After the Indian Mutiny the British government takes direct rule of India, beginning the period of the British raj. As a result, the company is dissolved, and India becomes an official British colony[28][29].
606 1857 1858 BC List of battles of Rajasthan#Post-Mughal rule:
  • Battle of Auwa (8 September 1857) – Kushal singh Rathore, a noble of Jodhpur joined the Indian Rebellion of 1857 against the British Empire, around 5,000 Rajputs of Pali joined him. The British asked raja Takht Singh to deal with him, however most of the Rathore nobles refused to fight with a fellow clansmen for foreigners. Kushal Singh thus defeated a force of local levies raised by Raja Takht Singh of Jodhpur.[775]
  • Siege of Auwa (1857–1858) – Kushal Singh killed captain Mason and hung his head on his fort gate for insulting him, he then defeated a British army of 2,000 men under brigadier Lawrence. Another army of 30,000 men under colonel Holmes forced Kushal Singh to retreat to his fort in Auwa. Holmes besieged the Auwa fort and breached it after 6 months of siege. Kushal Singh was able to escape to Udaipur. Auwa was then confiscated by the British until the death of Kushal Singh in 1864.[776]
607 1857 1914 C Bipradas Pal Chowdhury (1857 – 25 October 1914) was a Bengali industrialist and distinguished landlord.[777]

His father was prominent Zamindar Madhusudan Pal Chowdhury. He completed F.A from the Presidency College Calcutta in 1873 and went to England for studying Civil Engineering. Returning from England, Pal Chowdhury made factories of Brass and a tannery.[778] He was interested to produce Swadeshi articles and took part in independent capitalist development in Bengal.[777] After that he entered in Tea business and form Gayabari Tea estate near Darjeeling competing with British businessman. He was a man of modern, enlightened concept. Pal Chowdhury also donated lots of land for expansion of railway line in Nadia.[778]

608 1857 Ed University of Madras is considered to be the first college of the country, to provide individual courses in mechanical engineering.

The University of Madras or Madras University is a public state university in Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.[779] Established in 1857, it is one of the oldest universities in India, incorporated by an Act of Legislative Council of India under the British government.[780]

University of Madras is the alma mater of two Indian Physics Nobel Laureates, C. V. Raman and Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar, five Presidents of India, including A.P.J. Abdul Kalam, and several notable mathematicians including Srinivasa Ramanujan.

609 1857 1930 F Shyamji Krishna Varma (4 October 1857 – 30 March 1930)

Shyamji Krishna Varma was an Indian revolutionary fighter,[781] an Indian patriot, lawyer and journalist who founded the Indian Home Rule Society, India House and The Indian Sociologist in London. A graduate of Balliol College, Krishna Varma was a noted scholar in Sanskrit and other Indian languages. He pursued a brief legal career in India and served as the Divan of a number of Indian princely states in India.[782] He had, however, differences with Crown authority, was dismissed following a supposed conspiracy of British colonial officials at Junagadh[783] and chose to return to England. An admirer of Dayanand Saraswati's approach of cultural nationalism, and of Herbert Spencer, Krishna Varma believed in Spencer's dictum: "Resistance to aggression is not simply justified, but imperative".[782]

In 1905 he founded the India House and The Indian Sociologist, which rapidly developed as an organised meeting point for radical nationalists among Indian students in Britain at the time and one of the most prominent centres for revolutionary Indian nationalism outside India. Krishna Varma moved to Paris in 1907, avoiding prosecution.

610 1857 O Opposition to the partition of India: (Threats to Hindu–Muslim unity)

In the Indian Rebellion of 1857, many Hindus and Muslims in India joined together as Indians to fight against the British East India Company.[784] The British government became concerned about this rise in Indian nationalism therefore; according to some writers, they tried to stir up communalistic feelings among Hindus and Muslims so that they might not again unite to try and overthrow crown rule.[784] For example, Theodore Beck, the principal of Muhammadan Anglo-Oriental College, had told Syed Ahmad Khan that Muslims should have no sympathy with the objectives of the Indian National Congress and "that Anglo-Muslims unity was possible, but Hindu–Muslims unity was impossible".[784]

The author of Composite Nationalism and Islam, Maulana Husain Ahmad Madani, a Deobandi Muslim scholar and proponent of a united India, argued that the British government were attempting to "scare Muslims into imagining that in a free India Muslims would lose their separate identity, and be absorbed into the Hindu fold", a threat that "aim[ed] at depoliticizing the Muslims, weaning them away from struggle for independence".[784] In the eyes of Madani, support for a two-nation theory resulted in the entrenchment of British imperialism.[784]

611 1857 O Opposition to the partition of India: (Threats to Hindu–Muslim unity)

In the same vein, Kashmiri Indian politician and Supreme Court judge Markandey Katju wrote in The Nation:[785]

Up to 1857, there were no communal problems in India; all communal riots and animosity began after 1857. No doubt even before 1857, there were differences between Hindus and Muslims, the Hindus going to temples and the Muslims going to mosques, but there was no animosity. In fact, the Hindus and Muslims used to help each other; Hindus used to participate in Eid celebrations, and Muslims in Holi and Diwali. The Muslim rulers like the Mughals, Nawab of Awadh and Murshidabad, Tipu Sultan, etc were totally secular; they organised Ramlilas, participated in Holi, Diwali, etc. Ghalib’s affectionate letters to his Hindu friends like Munshi Shiv Naraln Aram, Har Gopal Tofta, etc attest to the affection between Hindus and Muslims at that time. In 1857, the ‘Great Mutiny’ broke out in which the Hindus and Muslims jointly fought against the British. This shocked the British government so much that after suppressing the Mutiny, they decided to start the policy of divide and rule (see online “History in the Service of Imperialism” by B.N. Pande). All communal riots began after 1857, artificially engineered by the British authorities. The British collector would secretly call the Hindu Pandit, pay him money, and tell him to speak against Muslims, and similarly he would secretly call the Maulvi, pay him money, and tell him to speak against Hindus. This communal poison was injected into our body politic year after year and decade after decade..[785]

On the other hand, Ajay Verghese says that the conflicts between the Hindu-Muslim population existed long before arrival of the British to the Indian subcontinent; he says that in places where British had less influence (like the princely states), the number of communal riots was more frequent as compared to places which were directly under British rule (like British Indian provinces).[786]

612 1857 10 May P Indian Rebellion of 1857: (10 May 1857 – 20 June 1858)

The Indian Rebellion of 1857 was a major, but ultimately unsuccessful, uprising in India in 1857–58 against the rule of the British East India Company, which functioned as a sovereign power on behalf of the British Crown.[787][788] The rebellion began on 10 May 1857 in the form of a mutiny of sepoys of the Company's army in the garrison town of Meerut, 40 mi (64 km) northeast of Delhi (that area is now Old Delhi). It then erupted into other mutinies and civilian rebellions chiefly in the upper Gangetic plain and central India,[789][790] though incidents of revolt also occurred farther north and east.[791] The rebellion posed a considerable threat to British power in that region,[792] and was contained only with the rebels' defeat in Gwalior on 20 June 1858.[793] On 1 November 1858, the British granted amnesty to all rebels not involved in murder, though they did not declare the hostilities to have formally ended until 8 July 1859. Its name is contested, and it is variously described as the Sepoy Mutiny, the Indian Mutiny, the Great Rebellion, the Revolt of 1857, the Indian Insurrection, and the First War of Independence.[794]

The Indian rebellion was fed by resentments born of diverse perceptions, including invasive British-style social reforms, harsh land taxes, summary treatment of some rich landowners and princes,[795][796] as well as scepticism about the improvements brought about by British rule.[797]

The final spark was provided by the ammunition for the new Enfield P-53 rifle. To load the rifle, sepoys had to bite the cartridge open to release the powder, but the grease used on these cartridges was rumored to include tallow derived from beef, offensive to Hindus, and pork, offensive to Muslims. While the Company was quick to reverse the effects of the policy to quell the unrest, this convinced many sepoys that the rumors were true and their fears were justified.

Civilians developed their own grievances against the Company. The nobility felt it interfered with a traditional system of inheritance through the Doctrine of Lapse. Rural landlords lost half their landed estates to peasant farmers as a result of the land reforms in the wake of annexation of Oudh. Some historians have suggested that heavy land-revenue assessment in some areas resulted in many landowning families losing their land or going into great debt.

Many Indians rose against the British; however, many also fought for the British, and the majority remained seemingly compliant to British rule.[797] Violence, which sometimes betrayed exceptional cruelty, was inflicted on both sides, on British officers, and civilians, including women and children, by the rebels, and on the rebels, and their supporters, including sometimes entire villages, by British reprisals; the cities of Delhi and Lucknow were laid waste in the fighting and the British retaliation.[797]

613 1857 P Indian Rebellion of 1857: Timeline of the Indian Rebellion of 1857

A timeline of the Indian Rebellion of 1857 which began as a mutiny of sepoys of British East India Company's army on 10 May 1857, in the town of Meerut, and soon erupted into other mutinies and civilian rebellions largely in the upper Gangetic plain and central India.

Events of 1857
Date Event
26 February Sepoys of the 19th Native Infantry at Berhampur (West Bengal) refuse rifle practice
29 March At Barrackpore, in Bengal, Mangal Pandey wounds two British mutiny of 34th Native Infantry
31 March 19th Native Infantry disbanded.
8 April Pandey hanged at Barrackpore
24 April Troopers of the 3rd Bengal Light Cavalry at Meerut refuse orders to fire greased cartridges
2 May Unrest at Ambala, 48th Mutiny at Lucknow
6 May Part of the 34th Native Infantry disbanded at Barrackpore
8 May Troops of the 3rd Bengal Light Cavalry found guilty by court-martial and given severe sentences
10 May Mutiny and Murders at Meerut, troops head towards Delhi
11 May Europeans, and Christians slaughtered in Delhi
13 May Bahadur Shah II proclaimed new Mughal emperor. British disarm the garrison at Lahore
17 May Delhi Field Force, under George Anson, advances from Ambala
22 May Peshawar garrison disarmed
20–23 May Part of 9th Native Infantry mutiny at Agra
27 May Anson dies of cholera;replaced by Major-General Sir Henry Barnard
30 May Mutinies at Muttra and Lucknow
31 May Rohilkhand and Bhurtpore Army mutinies
4 June Jhansi state captured by rebels and handed over to Rani of Jhansi
5 June Cawnpore 2nd Cavalry Mutinies
6 June Cawnpore Siege begins, Mutiny at Allahabad
7 June Wilson and Barnard meet at Alipur
8 June Battle of Badli-ki-Serai; Massacre at Jhansi
11 June Lucknow Police rebel; Neill arrives at Allahabad
25 June Nana Sahib offers terms at Cawnpore
27 June Satichaura Ghat Massacre at Cawnpore
30 June British defeat at Chinhat; Lucknow Residency besieged
1 July Mutiny at Indore
2 July Arrival of Bakht Khan at Delhi
4 July Sir Henry Lawrence dies at Lucknow
5 July General Barnard dies of cholera;Major-General Thomas Reed succeeds as commander of the Delhi Field Force
7 July Allan attacks Delhi leading to the Slaughter of Delhi
12 July Brigadier-General Sir Henry Havelock defeats rebels at Fatehpur, en route to Cawnpore
15 July Allan goes to Barrackpore and assembles a large standing army of nearly 6000 men and prepares for battle
15 July Havelock defeats rebels at Aong and Pandu Nadi, near Cawnpore.
16 July Nana Sahib defeated in first battle for Cawnpore
17 July Sir Archdale Wilson replaces the ailing Reed as commander of the Delhi Field Force
27 July Ammunition is blocked from reaching citizens instead it is re routed to Barrackpore
29 July Havelock's victory at Unao
30 July First relief of Arrah fails
31 July Lord Canning issues his controversial 'Clemency' resolution, by which he advises against the execution of mutineers not convicted of murder
3 August Siege of Arrah ends after action by Major Vincent Eyre
5 August Havelock's victory at Bashiratganj
13 August Havelock withdrawal to Cawnpore ;Colin Campbell, Anson's successor as Commander-in-Chief of India,arrives at Calcutta
14 August John Nicholson arrives at Delhi Ridge
16 August Havelock victory at Bithur
17 August Major William Hobson defeats a large body of rebel cavalry near Rohtak
4 September Siege train, proceeding from Punjab, arrives in the British camp outside Delhi
5 September Battle of Suppression starts thousands are slaughtered as Allan moves to Jharkhand
14 September Wilson's assault on Delhi begins, Nicholson wounded
19 September Havelock and Outram march to Lucknow
20 September Delhi captured and cleared of rebel troops
21 September William Hodson captures King of Delhi
22 September Hodson executes Mughal princes
23 September Nicholson dies of wounds
25 September First relief of Lucknow
10 October Agra mutineers defeated
9 November Kavanagh escapes from Lucknow
14–17 November Second relief of Lucknow by Campbell
19 November Women and children evacuated from Lucknow
22 November British withdraw from Lucknow
24 November Havelock dies of dysentery
26–28 November Windham defeated at second battle of Cawnpore
29 November Campbell reaches Cawnpore to join Windham
6 December Tantia Tope defeated at third battle of Cawnpore
Sources: www.britishempire.co.uk and Saul David, The Indian Mutiny
Events of 1858
Date Event
6 January Campbell reoccupies Fategarh
16 January Hugh Rose begins campaign in central India
February Campbell opens separate campaign for reconquest of Oudh
3 February Rose relieves Saugor after a seven-month siege
2 March Campbell returns to Lucknow
21 March Last rebels removed from Lucknow
1 April Dividing his force,Rose defeats a numerically superior army under Tatya Tope on the river Betwa
3 April Jhansi captured and sacked
15 April Walpole defeated at Ruiya
23 April Rose enters Kalpi
5 May Campbell victory at Bareilly
7 May Rose defeats large force under Tantia Topi and the Rani of Jhansi at Kutch
22 May Rose wins at Kalpi;end of operations in Rohilkhand; start of guerrilla warfare
28 May Rao Sahib, Tantia Topi, the Rani of ]hansi and the Nawab of Banda enter Gwalior State with the remnants of their force and seize Gwalior on 1 June
5 June Death of the Maulvi
12 June James Hope Grant wins at Nawabganj in the final decisive battle in Oudh
17 June Battle of Kotah-ki-Serai, death of Rani of Jhansi
19 June Battle of Gwalior
2 August Queen Victoria approves bill transferring administration of India from the East India Company

to the Crown

1 November Royal Proclamation replacing East India Company with British Government and offering unconditional pardon to all not involved in murder or the protection of murderers
Source: www.britishempire.co.uk
Events of 1859
Date Event
4 January Various Oudh leaders, including Nana Sahib, forced into the Nepal Terai by Hope Grant
7 January Operations in Oudh declared officially over.
29 March Bahadur Shah found guilty
7 April Tatya Tope betrayed to the British,
18 April Tatya Tope executed.
8 July Peace officially declared.[798][799]
Source: www.britishempire.co.uk
614 1857 P Indian Rebellion of 1857:

Result : Rebellion stopped; End of the Mughal Empire; End of East India Company, Control taken by the British Crown.

Territorial changes : British Indian Empire created out of former-East India Company territory, some land returned to native rulers, other land confiscated by the Crown.

In general, the rebels were disorganized, had differing goals, were poorly equipped, led, and trained, and had no outside support or funding.

The rebellion and its aftermath resulted in the deaths of more than 100,000 Indians. The alleged killings of women and children by the rebels left many British soldiers seeking revenge. Most of the British press and British public, outraged by the stories of alleged rape and the killings of civilians and wounded British soldiers, did not advocate clemency of any kind.

The rebellion also transformed both the native and European armies of British India.

615 1857 P Government of India Act 1858

In the aftermath of the Indian Rebellion of 1857, under the provisions of the Government of India Act 1858, the British government nationalized the EIC. The Crown took over its Indian possessions, its administrative powers and machinery, and its armed forces. The EIC was officially dissolved in 1858 and the rebellion also led the British to reorganize the army, the financial system, and the administration in India. The country was thereafter directly governed by the Crown as the new British Raj.

The Government of India Act 1858 was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom (21 & 22 Vict. c. 106) passed on 2 August 1858. Its provisions called for the liquidation of the British East India Company (who had up to this point been ruling British India under the auspices of Parliament) and the transference of its functions to the British Crown.[800] Lord Palmerston, then-Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, introduced a bill for the transfer of control of the Government of India from the East India Company to the Crown, referring to the grave defects in the existing system of the government of India. However, before this bill was to be passed, Palmerston was forced to resign on another issue. Later Edward Stanley, 15th Earl of Derby (who would later become the first Secretary of State for India), introduced another bill which was originally titled as "An Act for the Better Governance of India" and it was passed on 2 August 1858. This act provided that India was to be governed directly and in the name of the Crown.

The Government of India Act 1858, passed on August 2, made changes in the governance of India at three levels:

  1. In the imperial government in London,
  2. In the central government in Calcutta, and
  3. In the provincial governments in the presidencies (and later in the provinces).

In London, it provided for a cabinet-level Secretary of State for India and a fifteen-member Council of India. In Calcutta, the Governor-General remained head of the Government of India, commonly called the Viceroy.

If the Government of India needed to enact new laws, it followed the decisions of a Legislative Council, half of which consisted of British officials with voting power and half comprised Indians and domiciled Britons in India who served only in an advisory capacity. All laws enacted by Legislative Councils in India required the final assent of the Secretary of State in London. This prompted Sir Charles Wood, the second Secretary of State, to describe the Government of India as “a despotism controlled from home.”

Provisions of the Bill:

  • The Company's territories in India were to be vested in the Queen, the Company ceasing to exercise its power and control over these territories. India was to be governed in the Queen's name.
  • The Queen's Principal Secretary of State received the powers and duties of the Company's Court of Directors. A council of fifteen members was appointed to assist the Secretary of State for India. The council became an advisory body in Indian affairs. For all the communications between Britain and India, the Secretary of State became the real channel.
  • The Secretary of State for India was empowered to send some secret despatches to India directly without consulting the Council. He was also authorised to constitute special committees of his Council.
  • The Crown was empowered to appoint a Governor-General and the Governors of the Presidencies.
  • An Indian Civil Service was to be created under the control of the Secretary of State.
  • Hereto all the property and other assets of the East India Company were transferred to the Crown. The Crown also assumed the responsibilities of the Company as they related to treaties, contracts, and so forth.[801]

The Act ushered in a new period of Indian history, bringing about the end of Company rule in India. The era of the new British Raj would last until the Partition of India in August 1947, when the territory of the British Raj was granted dominion status as the Dominion of Pakistan and the Dominion of India.[801]

616 1857 P Even the Baburnama, the record of Babur's rule, could not throw much light on the issue as the 20-odd pages dealing with the episode were 'missing' from the original held in the British Museum.

The clever British saw great potential in the Ayodhya dispute to continue with their 'divide and rule' policy and the pages of Baburnama going missing is par for the course for British intrigue.

The British government changed its policies and it was decided to create a rift between the Hindu and the Muslim community, who revolted unitedly in 1857. It was under this policy, Ibrahim Lodi’s Inscription on Babari mosque was dismantled. Anton Führer, late director of Archeological Survey of India's translation of that inscription was also in the files of Archeological Survey of India. No one thought to delete it. What they forgot to remove though, were the pages of Baburnama that provide the evidence that Babar went to Awadh but not Ayodhya ...and after that, the rulers and HR Neville at their behest prepared the Faizabad gazette and maliciously noted that Babur stayed in Ayodhya for one week and destroyed the Ram Mandir.

617 1858 Ad As per the Regulating Act of 1773, the post of Governor general came into existence. Earlier, the Governor General of Bengal was appointed by East India Company. After the adoption of Government of India Act 1858, Governor-General of India become Viceroy of India.
618 1858 Ad Secretary of State for India:

His (or Her) Majesty's Principal Secretary of State for India, known for short as the India Secretary or the Indian Secretary, was the British Cabinet minister and the political head of the India Office responsible for the governance of the British Indian Empire (usually known simply as 'the Raj' or British India), Aden, and Burma. The post was created in 1858 when the East India Company's rule in Bengal ended and India, except for the Princely States, was brought under the direct administration of the government in Whitehall in London, beginning the official colonial period under the British Empire.

In 1937, the India Office was reorganised which separated Burma and Aden under a new Burma Office, but the same Secretary of State headed both departments and a new title was established as "His Majesty's Principal Secretary of State for India and Burma". The India Office and its Secretary of State were abolished in August 1947, when the United Kingdom granted independence in the Indian Independence Act, which created two new independent dominions, India and Pakistan. Burma soon achieved independence separately in early 1948.

619 1858 1947 Ad Indian Civil Service:

The Indian Civil Service (ICS), for part of the 19th century officially known as the Imperial Civil Service, was the elite higher civil service of the British Empire in British India during British rule in the period between 1858 and 1947.

Its members ruled over more than 200 million people[802] in the British Raj. They were ultimately responsible for overseeing all government activity in the 250 districts that comprised British India. They were appointed under Section XXXII(32) of the Government of India Act 1858,[803][804] enacted by the British Parliament.[805] The ICS was headed by the Secretary of State for India, a member of the British cabinet. At first almost all the top thousand members of the ICS, known as "Civilians", were British, and had been educated in the "best" British schools. By 1905, five per cent were from Bengal. In 1947 there were 322 Indians and 688 British members; most of the latter left at the time of partition and independence.[806]

Until the 1930s the Indians in the service were very few and not a single Indian was allowed to occupy a high-ranked post.[807] British historian Martin Wainwright notes that by the mid-1880s, "the basis of racial discrimination in the sub-continent had solidified".[808]

At the time of the creation of India and Pakistan in 1947, the outgoing Government of India's ICS was divided between India and Pakistan. Although these are now organised differently, the contemporary Civil Services of India, the Central Superior Services of Pakistan, Bangladesh Civil Service and Myanmar Civil Service are all descended from the old Indian Civil Service. Historians often rate the ICS, together with the railway system, the legal system, and the Indian Army, as among the most important legacies of British rule in India.[809]

620 1858 1947 Ad Civil Services of India:

During the British raj, Warren Hastings laid the foundation of civil service and Charles Cornwallis reformed, modernised, and rationalised it. Hence, Charles Cornwallis is known as 'the Father of civil service in India'.

Cornwallis introduced two divisions of the Indian Civil service—covenanted and uncovenanted. The covenanted civil service consisted of only Europeans (i.e., British personnel) occupying the higher posts in the government. The uncovenanted civil service was solely introduced to facilitate the entry of Indians at the lower rung of the administration.[810][811]

With the passing of the Government of India Act 1919, the Imperial Services headed by the Secretary of State for India were split into two—the All India Services and the Central Services.[812]

The All India and Central Services (Group A) were designated as Central Superior Services as early as 1924.[813] From 1924 to 1934, the administration of India consisted of 10 All India Services and 5 central departments, all under the control of the Secretary of State for India, and 3 central departments under joint Provincial and Imperial Control.[813]

621 1858 Bombay B The Chartered Bank of India, Australia and China opens its Bombay branch[106].

The Chartered Bank of India, Australia and China was a bank incorporated in London in 1853 by Scotsman James Wilson, under a Royal charter from Queen Victoria.

622 1858 BC The Central Indian campaign of 1858:

The Central India Campaign was one of the last series of actions in the Indian rebellion of 1857. A small British and Indian Army (from the Bombay Presidency) overcame a disunited collection of states in a single rapid campaign, although determined rebels continued a guerrilla campaign until the spring of 1859.

Gwalior : The rebels captured Gwalior, but there was no looting, other than from Scindia's treasury to pay the rebel troops. The rebels now wasted time celebrating and proclaiming the renewed rebellion. Rose had offered to remain in the field until his replacement arrived, and on 12 June, he recaptured Morar, in spite of the great heat and humidity. Rani Lakshmi Bai was killed in a cavalry action near Kotah-ke-Serai on 17 June, 1858. Over the next two days, most rebels abandoned Gwalior while the British recaptured the city, although there was some desperate resistance before the fort fell.

Most of the rebel leaders now surrendered or went into hiding, but Tatya Tope remained in the field. Aided by monsoon rains which delayed his pursuers, Tatya continued to dodge around Central India. Other leaders joined him, among them Rao Sahib, Man Singh, and Firuz Shah (who had been fighting in Rohilkhand). Eventually in April 1859, Tatya Tope was betrayed by Man Singh, and hanged.

623 1858 BC The Central Indian campaign of 1858:

Indian historians criticise the conduct of the Indian princes, most of whom were self-interested or effete, and the lack of leadership among the sepoys. In the East India Company's Army, no Indian soldier could attain a rank greater than that equivalent to a subaltern or senior warrant officer. Most of the sepoys' officers were elderly men who had attained their rank through seniority while seeing little action and receiving no training as leaders. The rebellion therefore depended on charismatic leaders such as Tatya Tope and Rani Lakshmi Bai, who nevertheless were regarded with jealousy and animosity by many other princes.

In many cases, the defenders of cities and fortresses fought well at first but were demoralised when relieving forces were defeated, and then abandoned easily defended positions without fighting.

By contrast, Durand, Rose, and their principal subordinates had acted quickly and decisively. Many of their forces came from the Bombay Army, which was not disaffected to the same degree as the Bengal Army.

624 1858 1937 C Sir Jagadish Chandra Bose[814] CSI CIE FRS[815][816][817](30 November 1858 – 23 November 1937[818]) was a biologist, physicist, botanist and an early writer of science fiction.[819] He pioneered the investigation of radio and microwave optics, made significant contributions to plant science, and laid the foundations of experimental science in the Indian subcontinent.[820] IEEE named him one of the fathers of radio science.[821] Bose is considered the father of Bengali science fiction, and also invented the crescograph, a device for measuring the growth of plants. A crater on the moon has been named in his honour.[822] He founded Bose Institute, a premier research institute of India and also one of its oldest. Established in 1917, the Institute was the first interdisciplinary research centre in Asia.[823] He served as the Director of Bose Institute from its inception until his death.
625 1858 1957 Co British Raj:

The British Raj (literally, "rule" in Sanskrit and Hindustani)[824] was the rule by the British Crown primarily on the Indian subcontinent from 1858 to 1947.[825][826][827][828] The rule is also called Crown rule in India,[829] or direct rule in India.[830] The region under British control was commonly called India in contemporaneous usage, and included areas directly administered by the United Kingdom, which were collectively called British India, and areas ruled by indigenous rulers, but under British tutelage or paramountcy, called the princely states. The region was sometimes called the Indian Empire, though not officially.[831]

Formally, India was not a colony but a separate realm sharing a Monarch (the King-Emperor or Queen-Empress) with Britain. Thus, though ruled by a British Viceroy, "India" was a founding member of the League of Nations, a participating nation in the Summer Olympics in 1900, 1920, 1928, 1932, and 1936, and a founding member of the United Nations in San Francisco in 1945.[832] In both World Wars, Britain's declaring war on Germany did not automatically apply to India and a separate declaration of war by India was needed. The Indian Army was a completely distinct armed force – British-commanded but separate from the British Army and with its own chain of command.

626 1858 18 Jun F Rani of Jhansi, Rani Lakshmibai died
627 1858 1932 F Bipin Chandra Pal (7 November 1858 – 20 May 1932)

Bipin Chandra Pal was an Indian nationalist, writer, orator, social reformer and Indian independence movement freedom fighter. He was one third of the “Lal Bal Pal” triumvirate.[833] Pal was one of the main architects of the Swadeshi movement along with Sri Aurobindo. He also opposed the partition of Bengal by the British colonial government.

He, along with Lala Lajpat Rai and Bal Gangadhar Tilak, spearheaded many revolutionary activities. For this reason, he is called as the ‘Father of Revolutionary Thoughts.’

628 1858 8 Apr P India Under British Rule:

Queen Victoria's Proclamation taking over in the name of the Crown the governance of India from the East India Company. Civil service jobs in India are opened to Indians.

Because of the sepoy rebelion the East India Company's powers were taken over by the British government and India became a part of the British empire. The British Raj (from rāj, literally, "rule" in Sanskrit and Hindustani) was the rule by the British Crown on the Indian subcontinent from 1858 to 1947. The rule is also called Crown rule in India, or direct rule in India. The region under British control was commonly called India in contemporaneous usage, and included areas directly administered by the United Kingdom, which were collectively called British India, and areas ruled by indigenous rulers, but under British tutelage or paramountcy, called the princely states. The region as a whole was never officially referred to as the Indian Empire.

Minto Park, officially Madan Mohan Malaviya Park, is a park in Allahabad. It is located in the southern part of the city along the banks of Yamuna river. The park is a historical site for in 1858 Earl Canning read out the declaration of Queen Victoria's Proclamation which resulted in the complete transfer of control over India from The East India Company to the government of Britain. The park is named after Earl of Minto who, in 1910, laid a stone memorial with a four-lion symbol on the park.

629 1858 1947 Pr Presidencies, Provinces, Princely States, (Presidencies and provinces of British India):

Following the Indian Rebellion of 1857 the company's remaining powers were transferred to the Crown. Under the British Raj (1858–1947), administrative boundaries were extended to include a few other British-administered regions, such as Upper Burma. Increasingly, however, the unwieldy presidencies were broken up into "Provinces".[834]

Princely state:

A princely state, also called a native state, feudatory state or Indian state (for those states on the subcontinent), was a vassal state[835] under a local or indigenous or regional ruler in a subsidiary alliance with the British Raj. Though the history of the princely states of the subcontinent dates from at least the classical period of Indian history, the predominant usage of the term princely state specifically refers to a semi-sovereign principality on the Indian subcontinent during the British Raj that was not directly governed by the British, but rather by a local ruler, subject to a form of indirect rule on some matters. The imprecise doctrine of paramountcy allowed the government of British India to interfere in the internal affairs of princely states individually or collectively[836] and issue edicts that applied to all of India when it deemed it necessary.

A princely state was a semi-sovereign principality during the British Raj that was not directly governed by the British, but rather by a local ruler. The princely states varied greatly in status, size, and wealth. Their courts existed under the authority of the respective rulers. The British controlled the external affairs of the princely states absolutely. As the states were not British possessions, however, they retained control over their own internal affairs, subject to a degree of British influence which in many states was substantial.

630 1858 Calcutta S The Calcutta Rowing Club (CRC) located in Kolkata, India, was founded in 1858[837] and is one of the oldest rowing clubs of its kind outside the United Kingdom.
631 1858 T India complete first 200 miles of railway track[719][720][721].

By 1869, 5,000 miles of steel track have been completed by British railroad companies.

In 1900, total track is 25,000 miles, and by World War I, 35,000 miles.

By 1970, at 62,136 miles, it has become the world's greatest train system. Unfortunately, this development depletes India's forest lands.

632 1858 1947 Ad Posts[838] and the British Raj (1858–1947)

The British Raj was instituted in 1858, when the rule of the East India Company was transferred to the Crown.[839][840]

A number of acts were enacted during the British Raj to expand and regulate posts and telegraphs service:

  • The Government Savings Bank Act, 1873 (5 of 1873), passed by the legislature 28 January 1873, was enacted in 1881. On 1 April 1882, Post Office Savings Banks opened throughout India (except in the Bombay Presidency). In Madras Presidency, it was limited; in the Bengal Presidency, no POSBs were established in Calcutta or Howrah.[841]
  • Postal life insurance began on 1 February 1884 as a welfare measure for the employees of the Posts & Telegraphs Department as Government of India dispatch No. 299 dated 18 October 1882 to the Secretary of State.[842]
  • The Indian Telegraph Act, 1885
  • The Indian Post Office Act, 1898,[843] passed by the legislature on 22 March 1898, became effective on 1 July 1898 regulating postal service. It was preceded by Act III of 1882 and Act XVI of 1896.
  • The Indian Wireless Telegraphy Act, 1933[844]

The world's first official airmail flight took place in India on 18 February 1911, a journey of 18 kilometres (11 mi) lasting 27 minutes. Henri Pequet, a French pilot, carried about 15 kilograms (33 lb) of mail (approximately 6,000 letters and cards) across the Ganges from Allahabad to Naini; included in the airmail was a letter to King George V of the United Kingdom.[845] India Post inaugurated a floating post office in August 2011 at Dal Lake in Srinagar, Kashmir.[846] Telegraphy and telephony made their appearance as part of the postal service before becoming separate departments. One unique telegraph office was established and operated in the capital of Lhasa until the People's Republic of China's annexation of Tibet.[847][848][849][850] It is one of the Floating Wonders of India. The Posts and Telegraphs departments merged in 1914, dividing again on 1 January 1985.

633 1859 18 Apr F Death of Tatya Tope
634 1959 W The British felt threatened by the construction of the Suez Canal (1859–1869) by Ferdinand de Lesseps in Egypt. They tried to oppose its completion by diplomatic pressures and by promoting revolts among workers.

The Suez Canal was successfully built by the French, but became a joint British-French project in 1875. Both nations saw it as vital to maintaining their influence and empires in Asia.

635 1860 A Pandit Vishnu Narayan Bhatkhande (10 August 1860 – 19 September 1936) was an Indian musicologist who wrote the first modern treatise on Hindustani classical music, an art which had been propagated for acenturies mostly through oral traditions. During those earlier times, the art had undergone several changes, rendering the raga grammar documented in scant old outdated texts.[851]

Ragas used to be classified into Raga (male), Ragini (female), and Putra (children). Bhatkhande reclassified them into the currently used thaat system. He noted that several ragas did not conform to their description in ancient Sanskrit texts. He explained the ragas in an easy-to-understand language and composed several bandishes which explained the grammar of the ragas. He borrowed the idea of lakshan geet from the Carnatic music scholar Venkatamakhin.

636 1860 1962 C September 15 is Engineer’s Day in India, marked on the birth anniversary of the celebrated engineer and civil servant Mokshagundam Visvesvaraya (M. Visvesvaraya) (15 September 1860 – 14 April 1962).

Sir M. (Mokshagundam) Visvesvaraya KCIE FASc,[852] more commonly known as "Sir MV" (15 September 1860 – 14 April 1962),[853][854] was an Indian civil engineer, statesman[855] and the 19th Diwan of Mysore, serving from 1912 to 1919.[856] He pursued his degree from one of the best and the 3rd oldest engineering college in Asia, College of Engineering, Pune. He received India's highest honour, the Bharat Ratna, in 1955. He was knighted as a Knight Commander of the British Indian Empire (KCIE) by King George V for his contributions to the public good. His birthday, 15 September, is celebrated as Engineers' Day in India, Sri Lanka and Tanzania in his memory. He was the Chief Engineer of Krishna Raja Sagara dam in the north-west suburb of Mysuru city, and also served as one of the Chief Engineers of the flood protection system for the city of Hyderabad.[857]

The Krishna Raja Sagara dam, constructed under MV's supervision, created the biggest reservoir in Asia at the time. Jawaharlal Nehru and Mokshagundam Visvesvaraya both received their Bharat Ratna the same year, 1955

637 1860 E SS Truro and SS Belvedere dock in Durban, South Africa, carrying first indentured servants from Madras and Calcutta to work sugar plantations[858].

The Indian indenture system was a system of indentured servitude, by which more than one million Indians[859] were transported to labour in European colonies, as a substitute for slave labour, following the abolition of the trade in the early 19th century. The system expanded after the abolition of slavery in the British Empire in 1833,[860] in the French colonies in 1848, and in the Dutch Empire in 1863. Indian indentureship lasted till the 1920s.

This resulted in the development of a large Indian diaspora in the Caribbean,[861] Natal (South Africa), Réunion, Mauritius, Sri Lanka,[862] Malaysia,[863] Myanmar, to Fiji, as well as the growth of Indo-Caribbean, Indo-African, Indo-Fijian, Indo-Malaysian, and Indo-Singaporean populations.

638 1860 Calcutta Ed St. Xavier's College, Kolkata is a private higher education college in Kolkata, India.

The college was founded in 1860 by the Jesuits, an all-male Catholic religious order formed by Saint Ignatius of Loyola. The college is named after Francis Xavier, the 16th century Spanish Jesuit saint who travelled to India. The founder of the college is Fr. Henri Depelchin . He had overseen most of the ground work, during the foundation years.[864]

In 2006, it became the first autonomous college in West Bengal, India,[865] and is affiliated to the University of Calcutta.

Sans Souci theatre : 30 Park Street (now Mother Teresa Sarani), Kolkata-700016, was where the Sans Souci theatre was located, before 1843. A fire broke out in 1843, leaving nothing but ashes. This same address was later bought by 7 Jesuits, who had arrived from Belgium. It is here, that the present day campus stands tall.[866]

639 1860 1954 F Baba Gurdit Singh (25 August 1860 – 24 July 1954)

Baba Gurdit Singh was the central figure in the Komagata Maru incident of 1914,[867] one of several incidents in the history of early 20th century involving exclusion laws in both Canada and the United States designed to keep out immigrants of only Asian origin.

Singh was born in 1860 at Sarhali, in Amritsar District of British Punjab province (India). In 1914 he chartered a Japanese ship, the Komagata Maru, to go to Canada, reaching Vancouver on 23 May 1914.[867] The government did not allow the ship to anchor and the ship was attacked by the police at night. The attack was repulsed by the passengers and it created a great stir among Indians in Canada.[868]

Baba Gurdit Singh understood that India must take its fight for freedom overseas as well in order to truly succeed. But a law prevented the entry of Asians into countries like Canada and the United States. In order to change this law, Baba Gurdit Singh embarked on a journey to Canada and thus became actively involved in the ‘Komagata Maru incident’.

640 1861 1947 Ad The Imperial Legislative Council:

The Imperial Legislative Council was a legislature for British India from 1861 to 1947. It succeeded the Council of the Governor-General of India, and was succeeded by the Constituent Assembly of India and after 1950, was succeeded by Parliament of India.

During the rule of the East India Company, the council of the Governor-General of India had both executive and legislative responsibilities. The council had four members of the Council elected by the Court of Directors. The first three members were permitted to participate on all occasions, but the fourth member was only allowed to sit and vote when legislation was being debated. In 1858, the British Crown took over the administration from the East India Company. The council was transformed into the Imperial Legislative Council, and the Court of Directors of the Company, which had the power to elect members of the Governor-General's Council, ceased to have this power. Instead, the one member who had a vote only on legislative questions came to be appointed by the Sovereign, and the other three members by the Secretary of State for India.

641 1861 Ad The Indian High Courts Act 1861[869][870] (24 & 25 Vict. c. 104) was an act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom to authorize the Crown to create High Courts in the Indian colony.[871] Queen Victoria created the High Courts in Calcutta, Madras, and Bombay by Letters Patent in 1862. These High Courts would become the precursors to the High Courts in the modern day India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh.

The Act was passed after the First War of Independence of 1857 and consolidated the parallel legal systems of the Crown and the East India Company.

the Indian High Courts Act 1861 was enacted to create high courts for various provinces and abolished Supreme Courts at Calcutta, Madras and Bombay and also the sadar adalats in presidency towns in their respective regions (the Sadar Diwani Adalat and the Sadar Faujdari Adalat at Calcutta; Sadar Diwani Adalat and Sadar Faujdari Adalat at Madras; Sadar Diwani Adalat and Faujdari Adalat at Bombay).

These new high courts had the distinction of being the highest courts for all cases till the creation of the Federal Court of India under the Government of India Act 1935. The Federal Court had jurisdiction to solve disputes between provinces and federal states and hear appeals against judgement of the high courts. The first CJI of India was H. J. Kania.[872]

The Supreme Court of India came into being on 28 January 1950.[873] It replaced both the Federal Court of India and the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council which were then at the apex of the Indian court system. The first proceedings and inauguration, however, took place on 28 January 1950 at 9:45 am, when the judges took their seats. Which is thus regarded as the official date of establishment.[874]

642 1861 B The Paper Currency Act of 1861[875][876][877] conferred upon Government of India the monopoly of Note Issue bringing to an end note issues of Private and Presidency Banks. Paper currency in India owed much to the intellectual stimulus and personal dynamism of Sir James Wilson (businessman), the first Finance Member in the Executive Council of the Viceroy of India. With the early death of Sir James, the task of issuing Government Paper Money in India devolved upon his successor Samuel Laing who substantially modified Wilson's original proposals.

Government of India continued to issue currency notes till the Reserve Bank of India was established on 1st April, 1935. When the one rupee note was reintroduced as a war time measure in August, 1940, it was issued by Government of India with the status of a coin. Government of India continued to issue Rupee one notes till 1994.

643 1861 1941 C Rabindranath Tagore is born.

Born Robindronath Thakur, (7 May 1861 – 7 August 1941) was a Bengali polymath – poet, writer, playwright, composer, philosopher, social reformer and painter.

He reshaped Bengali literature and music as well as Indian art with Contextual Modernism in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Author of the "profoundly sensitive, fresh and beautiful verse" of Gitanjali, he became in 1913 the first non-European to win the Nobel Prize in Literature. Tagore's poetic songs were viewed as spiritual and mercurial; however, his "elegant prose and magical poetry" remain largely unknown outside Bengal. He is sometimes referred to as "the Bard of Bengal".[878]

644 1861 1944 C Acharya Sir Prafulla Chandra Ray (also spelled Prafulla Chandra Rây and Prafulla Chandra Roy) CIE, FNI, FRASB, FIAS, FCS (Bengali: প্রফুল্ল চন্দ্র রায় Praphulla Chandra Rāy; 2 August 1861 – 16 June 1944)[879] was an eminent Bengali chemist, educationist, historian, industrialist and philanthropist.[879] He established the first modern Indian research school in chemistry (post classical age) and is regarded as the father of chemical science in India.[880]

The Royal Society of Chemistry honoured his life and work with the first ever Chemical Landmark Plaque outside Europe. He was the founder of Bengal Chemicals & Pharmaceuticals, India's first pharmaceutical company. He is the author of A History of Hindu Chemistry[881] from the Earliest Times to the Middle of Sixteenths Century (1902).

645 1861 1931 F Motilal Nehru (6 May 1861 – 6 February 1931)

Motilal Nehru was an Indian lawyer, activist and politician belonging to the Indian National Congress. He also served as the Congress President twice, 1919–1920 and 1928–1929. He was a member of the Nehru-Gandhi family and the father of Jawaharlal Nehru, the first Prime Minister of India.

One of the most prominent leaders of the Indian National Congress, Motilal Nehru was also an important activist and member of Indian National Movement. Twice in his political career, he was elected as the President of Congress. He actively participated in many protests including the Non-Cooperation Movement, during which he was arrested by the British government.

Motilal Nehru#Nehru report:

Motilal Nehru chaired the famous Nehru Commission in 1928, a counter to the all-British Simon Commission. The Nehru Report, the first constitution written by Indians only, envisioned a dominion status for India within the Empire, akin to Australia, New Zealand and Canada. It was endorsed by the Congress Party, but rejected by more nationalist Indians who sought complete independence. The report was rejected by the Muslim leadership of India, especially MA Jinnah for its unfair rules towards Muslims.

646 1861 1946 F Madan Mohan Malaviya (25 December 1861 – 12 November 1946)

Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya was an Indian scholar, educational reformer and politician notable for his role in the Indian independence movement, as the three times president of Indian National Congress and the founder of Akhil Bharatiya Hindu Mahasabha. He was respectfully addressed as Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya[882] and also addressed as "Mahamana".[883]

Malaviya strived to promote modern education among Indians and eventually cofounded Banaras Hindu University (BHU) at Varanasi in 1916, which was created under the B.H.U. Act, 1915. The largest residential university in Asia and one of the largest in the world,[884] having over 40,000 students across arts, commerce, sciences, engineering, linguistic, Ritual medical, agriculture, performing arts, law and technology from all over the world. He was Vice Chancellor of Banaras Hindu University from 1919–1938.[885][886]

He is also remembered for his role in ending the Indian indenture system, especially in the Caribbean. His efforts in helping the Indo-Caribbeans is compared to Mahatma Gandhi's efforts of helping Indian South Africans.[887]

Malaviya was one of the founders of Scouting in India.[888] He also founded a highly influential, English-newspaper, The Leader published from Prayagaraj in 1909.[889] He was also the Chairman of Hindustan Times from 1924 to 1946. His efforts resulted in the launch of its Hindi edition named Hindustan Dainik in 1936.[890]

An important participant of the Non-Cooperation Movement, Madan Mohan Malaviya served as the President of Indian National Congress on two different occasions. On 25 April, 1932, he was arrested for his participation in the Civil disobedience Movement. Malaviya was also a central figure during the protests against the Simon Commission in 1928.

647 1861 1936 F Madam Bhikaiji Cama (24 September 1861 – 13 August 1936) was one of the prominent figures in the Indian independence movement.

Bhikaiji Cama was born in Bombay (now Mumbai) in a large, affluent Parsi Zoroastrian family.[891] Her parents, Sorabji Framji Patel and Jaijibai Sorabji Patel, were well known in the city, where her father Sorabji—a lawyer by training and a merchant by profession—was an influential member of the Parsi community. She was invited to hoist the flag over the parliament in Germany.

Like many Parsi girls of the time, Bhikhaiji attended Alexandra Girls' English Institution.[892] Bhikhaiji was by all accounts a diligent, disciplined child with a flair for languages.

On 3 August 1885, she married Rustom Cama, who was the son of K. R. Cama.[893] Her husband was a wealthy, pro-British lawyer who aspired to enter politics. It was not a happy marriage, and Bhikhaiji spent most of her time and energy in philanthropic activities and social work.

Bhikhaiji Rustom Cama was one of the greatest women freedom fighters of India who promoted the cause of Indian freedom movement outside India as well. She was the one who first unfurled India’s national flag at an international assembly. She discarded the life of luxury and lived in exile to serve her motherland.

648 1861 1936 Fl Madam Bhikaiji Cama:

In October 1896, the Bombay Presidency was hit first by famine, and shortly thereafter by bubonic plague. Bhikhaiji joined one of the many teams working out of Grant Medical College (which would subsequently become Haffkine's plague vaccine research centre), in an effort to provide care for the afflicted, and (later) to inoculate the healthy. Cama subsequently contracted the plague herself but survived. As she was severely weakened, she was sent to Britain for medical care in 1902.

On 22 August 1907, Cama attended the second Socialist Congress at Stuttgart, Germany, where she described the devastating effects of a famine that had struck the Indian subcontinent. In her appeal for human rights, equality and for autonomy from Great Britain, she unfurled what she called the "Flag of Indian Independence".

She said "This flag is of India's independence. Behold, it is born. It is already sanctified by the blood of martyred Indian youth. I call upon you, gentlemen, to rise and salute the flag of Indian independence. In the name of this flag, I appeal to lovers of freedom all over the world to cooperate with this flag in freeing one-fifth of the human race."

It has been speculated that this moment may have been an inspiration to African American writer and intellectual W. E. B. Du Bois in writing his 1928 novel Dark Princess.[894] Cama's flag, a modification of the Calcutta Flag, was co-designed by Cama, and Vinayak Damodar Savarkar, and would later serve as one of the templates from which the current national flag of India was created.

649 1861 Bombay R Magen David Synagogue (Byculla) is an Orthodox Sephardi synagogue located in Byculla, India.

It is believed to be one of the oldest ones in the city. David Sassoon, a Baghdadi Jew, built the Magen David Synagogue in 1861 in Byculla, where the family first lived.

Erected in 1864, the synagogue was constructed by David Sassoon in Victorian style for the growing population of Baghdadi Jews who had fled from persecution by the governor and Wali of Baghdad Dawud Pasha.[895] By 1910, the Jewish community in the neighbourhood of Byculla had increased to the extent that the synagogue could no longer service all the devotees and the synagogue was extended with the help of Jacob, David Sassoon's grandson.[896]

650 1862 Calcutta Ad The Calcutta High Court:

The Calcutta High Court is the oldest High Court in India. It is located in B.B.D. Bagh, Kolkata, West Bengal. It has jurisdiction over the state of West Bengal and the Union Territory of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. The High Court building's design is based on the Cloth Hall, Ypres, in Belgium.[897]

The Calcutta High Court is one of the three High Courts in India established at the Presidency Towns by Letters patent granted by Queen Victoria, bearing date 26 June 1862, and is the oldest High Court in India. It was established as the "High Court of Judicature at Fort William" on 1 July 1862 under the High Courts Act, 1861, which was preceded by the Supreme Court of Judicature at Fort William.

The neo-Gothic High Court building was constructed in 1872, ten years after the establishment of the court itself. The design, by then government architect Walter Granville, was loosely modelled on the 13th-century Cloth Hall at Ypres, Belgium.[898] In 1977 another building named High Court Centenary Building or annexed building was inaugurated to reduce the pressure.[899]

651 1862 BE Fort George, Bombay was an extension to the fortified walls of Bombay (now Mumbai) built in 1769; it was in the present-day Fort area, to the east of the site of the former Dongri Fort. The hill on which the Dongri fort stood was razed, and in its place Fort George was built.

In 1862, the fort was demolished.

652 1862 G James Bruce, Viceroy :

James Bruce, 8th Earl of Elgin and 12th Earl of Kincardine, KT, GCB, KSI, PC (20 July 1811 – 20 November 1863) was a British colonial administrator and diplomat. He served as Governor of Jamaica (1842–1846), Governor General of the Province of Canada (1847–1854), and Viceroy of India (1862–1863).[900] In 1857, he was appointed High Commissioner and Plenipotentiary in China and the Far East to assist in the process of opening up China and Japan to Western trade. In 1860, during the Second Opium War in China, in retaliation for the torture and execution of almost twenty European and Indian prisoners, he ordered the destruction of the Old Summer Palace in Beijing, an architectural wonder with immeasurable collections of artworks and historic antiques, inflicting invaluable loss of cultural heritage.[901] Subsequently, he compelled the Qing dynasty to sign the Convention of Peking, adding Kowloon Peninsula to the British crown colony of Hong Kong.

653 1862 Calcutta S Calcutta Polo Club[902]:

Calcutta Polo Club is a polo club located in Kolkata, West Bengal, India. It was established in 1862 and is considered as the oldest polo club of the world in existence.[903][904]

In 1862 the Calcutta Polo Club was established by two British soldiers, Captain Robert Stewart and (later Major General) Joe Sherer.[905] They were inspired by the game in Manipur and later they spread the game to their peers in England.

The club runs the oldest and first ever Polo Trophy, the Ezra Cup (1880), besides other old ones such as the Carmichael Cup (1910) and the Stewarts Cup (1932).[905] In earlier days matches were played between various royal dynasties of India.

Kolkata has yet another polo club in the Fort William Polo Club.

654 1863 Bu The Bombay Burmah Trading Corporation, Limited, often simply called the Bombay Burmah Trading Company (BBTC) is a corporation that was formed in 1863 by the Wallace Brothers of Scotland. India's second oldest publicly quoted company, BBTC was established to engage in the Burmese tea business through the initial step of taking over the Burmese assets of William Wallace.

The company’s founding occurred when the six Wallace Brothers, originally members of a Scottish merchant house in Edinburgh, first arrived in Bombay (now Mumbai) in the 1840s. A Bombay partnership was formed in 1848 as “Wallace Bros & Co”. In the mid-1850s the Wallaces set up a business in Rangoon, shipping tea to Bombay. In 1863 the business was floated as “The Bombay Burmah Trading Corporation”. Its equity was held by both Indian merchants along with the Wallace Brothers, who had the controlling interests. By the 1870s the company was a leading producer of teak in Burma and Siam, as well as having interests in cotton, oil exploration and shipping.

British motivations for the third Anglo-Burmese War were partly influenced by concerns of the BBTC. The Burmese state's conflict with the BBTC furnished British leaders with a pretext for conquest.[906]

Bombay Burmah Trading Corp. was formed to encourage the teak business. Gradually, it expanded its trading all over Asia. In 1913, it turned to tea plantations, its current business. It is a leading company of the Wadia Group.

655 1863 1902 C Swami Vivekananda is born.

Swami Vivekananda (12 January 1863 – 4 July 1902), born Narendranath Datta, was an Indian Hindu monk. He was a chief disciple of the 19th-century Indian mystic Ramakrishna.[907][908] He was a key figure in the introduction of the Indian philosophies of Vedanta and Yoga to the Western world,[909] and is credited with raising interfaith awareness, bringing Hinduism to the status of a major world religion during the late 19th century. He was a major force in the contemporary Hindu reform movements in India, and contributed to the concept of nationalism in colonial India. Vivekananda founded the Ramakrishna Math and the Ramakrishna Mission. He is perhaps best known for his speech which began with the words "Sisters and brothers of America ...", in which he introduced Hinduism at the Parliament of the World's Religions in Chicago in 1893.

656 1863 Ed Visva-Bharati University is a central research university and an Institution of National Importance located in Shantiniketan, West Bengal, India. It was founded by Rabindranath Tagore who called it Visva-Bharati, which means the communion of the world with India. Until independence it was a college. Soon after independence, the institution was given the status of a central university in 1951 by an act of the Parliament.

The origins of the institution date back to 1863 when Debendranath Tagore was given a tract of land by the zamindar of Raipur, Birbhum, zamindar of Kirnahar and he set up an ashram at the spot that has now come to be called chatim tala[910] at the heart of the town. The ashram was initially called Brahmacharya Ashram, which was later renamed Brahmacharya Vidyalaya. It was established with a view to encouraging people from all walks of life to come to the spot and meditate. In 1901 his youngest son Rabindranath Tagore established a co-educational school inside the premises of the ashram.

From 1901 onwards, Tagore used the ashram to organise the Hindu Mela, which soon became a centre of nationalist activity.

Patha Bhavana, Santiniketan is not only the oldest school of the university but also the oldest institution on which the university was subsequently built. It is the university school of Santiniketan. Initially called Ashram Vidyalaya it was later called Santiniketan Vidyalaya. It was started by Tagore in 1901.

657 1863 Ed Institutes and centres of Visva-Bharati University ....
  • Kala Bhavana (Institute of Fine Arts), 1919
  • Palli Samgathana Vibhaga (Institute of Rural Reconstruction), 1922
  • Siksha Satra It was founded in 1924. It was later shifted to Sriniketan in 1927. The students are from the neighbouring villages.
  • Sangit Bhavana (Institute of Dance, Drama & Music), 1933
  • Cheena Bhavana (Institute of Chinese Language and Culture), 1937
  • Hindi Bhavana, 1939
  • Rabindra Bhavana (Institute of Tagore Studies and Research), 1942
658 1863 R "Prarthana Samaj" established earlier known as "Atmiya Sabha", "Tahzeeb-ul-Akhlaq" was started.

Prarthana Samaj or "Prayer Society" in Sanskrit, was a movement for religious and social reform in Bombay, India, based on earlier reform movements. Prarthana Samaj was founded by the Dadoba Pandurang and his brother Atmaram Pandurang in 1863 when Keshub Chandra Sen visited Maharashtra, with an aim to make people believe in one God and worship only one God. It became popular after Mahadev Govind Ranade joined. The main reformers were the intellectuals who advocated reforms of the social system of the Hindus. It was spread to southern India by noted Telugu reformer and writer, Kandukuri Veeresalingam.

The movement was started as a movement for religious and social reform in Maharashtra and can be seen much more alike Brahmo Samaj. The precursor of the Prarthana Samaj in Mumbai was the Paramahamsa Sabha, a secret society for the furtherance of liberal ideas by Ram Balkrishna Jaykar and others in Mumbai. It was secret in order to avoid the wrath of the powerful and orthodox elements.

Beyond religious concerns, the primary focus of the Prarthana Samaj was on social and cultural reform.

659 1864 1930 C Joseph Baptista or Joseph "Kaka" Baptista (17 March 1864 – 1930) was an Indian politician and activist from Bombay (today known as Mumbai), closely associated with the Lokmanya Tilak and the Home Rule Movement.He was the first president of indian home rule league established in 1916. He was elected as the Mayor of Bombay in 1925. He was given the title Kaka that means "uncle".
660 1864 1924 C Sir Ashutosh Mukherjee CSI, FRSE, FRAS, FPSL, MRIA[911][912] (anglicised, originally Asutosh Mukhopadhyay,[912] also anglicised to Asutosh Mookerjee) (29 June 1864 – 25 May 1924) was a prolific Bengali educator, jurist, barrister and mathematician. He was the first student to be awarded a dual degree (MSc in Mathematics and MSc in Physics) from Calcutta University. Perhaps the most emphatic figure of Indian education, he was a man of great personality, high self-respect, courage and towering administrative ability. The second Indian Vice-Chancellor of the University of Calcutta for four consecutive two-year terms (1906–1914) and a fifth two-year term (1921–23), Mukherjee was responsible for the foundation of the Bengal Technical Institute in 1906, which later known as Jadavpur University and the University College of Science (Rajabazar Science College) of the Calcutta University in 1914.
661 1864 Ad In 1864, Shimla was declared as the summer capital of British India. After independence, the city became the capital of Punjab and was later made the capital of Himachal Pradesh.
662 1864 1869 G John Lawrence, 1st Baron Lawrence, GCB GCSI PC (4 March 1811 – 27 June 1879), known as Sir John Lawrence, Bt., between 1858 and 1869, was an English-born Ulsterman who became a prominent British Imperial statesman who served as Viceroy of India from 1864 to 1869.

On 12 January 1864, Lawrence returned to India, succeeding Lord Elgin as Viceroy of India. His stated ambitions as Viceroy were to consolidate British power and to improve the ‘condition of the people’.[913] One of his first acts was to ban the Hindu practice of throwing their dead into the Hooghly River.[914]

To enable Lawrence to claim both his annuity from the East India Company and his full salary as Viceroy, the Salary of Sir J. Lawrence Act 1864 was passed in March 1864.[915]

Major events during his tenure were ....

  • High Court was established at Calcutta, Bombay, Madras in 1865.
  • Created Indian Forest Department.
  • Opened telegraph line with Europe.
  • Introduced various reforms and became the member of Punjab Board of Administration after second Sikh war.

He was known as the Savior of Punjab.

663 1864 Calcutta S Eden Gardens is a cricket ground in Calcutta. Established in 1864, it is the oldest cricket stadium in India.

Eden Gardens is one of only two 100,000 seater amphitheatres for the game of cricket (the other being Melbourne Cricket Ground).

The stadium was established in 1864. It takes its name from the Eden Gardens, one of the oldest parks in Kolkata, adjacent to the stadium, designed in 1841 and named after the Eden sisters of Lord Auckland, the then Governor-General of India.[916] Initially it was named 'Auckland Circus Gardens' but later changed to 'Eden Gardens' by its makers inspired by Garden of Eden in the Bible.[917] According to popular culture, Babu Rajchandra Das, the then zamindar (landlord) of Kolkata, had gifted one of his biggest gardens besides river Hooghly, to Viceroy Lord Auckland Eden and his sister Emily Eden after they helped him by saving his 3rd daughter from a fatal disease. From then onwards the garden's name was changed from Mar Bagan to Eden Gardens. The cricket grounds were built between Babughat and Fort William.[918] The stadium is in the B. B. D. Bagh area of the city, near the State Secretariat and opposite to the Calcutta High Court.

The gardens house a transported Burmese pagoda of exquisite design. The pavilion was built in 1871 and the 1st first class match played in the season of 1911–12.

The first recorded Test at the venue was held in 1934 between England and India,[919]

664 1864 Bombay Tr The Bombay, Baroda, and Central India Railway (later merged with other railways to form Western Railway) is extended to Bombay[106].
665 1864 1876 W The International Workingmen's Association (IWA), often called the First International (1864–1876), was an international organisation which aimed at uniting a variety of different left-wing socialist, communist[920] and anarchist groups and trade unions that were based on the working class and class struggle. It was founded in 1864 in a workmen's meeting held in St. Martin's Hall, London. Its first congress was held in 1866 in Geneva.

In Europe, a period of harsh reaction followed the widespread Revolutions of 1848. The next major phase of revolutionary activity began almost twenty years later with the founding of the IWA in 1864. At its peak, the IWA reported having 8 million members[921] while police reported 5 million.[922] In 1872, it split in two over conflicts between statist and anarchist factions and dissolved in 1876. The Second International was founded in 1889.

666 1865 B Pre-Indepence Banks in India[923][924]:

During the Pre Independence period over 600 banks had been registered in the country, but only a few managed to survive.

  • 1865 Allahabad Bank,
  • 1894 Punjab National Bank,
  • 1906 Bank of India,
  • 1906 Central Bank of India,
  • 1908 Bank of Baroda,
  • 1911 Central Bank of India

Reasons as to why many major banks failed to survive during the pre-independence period are ....

  • Indian account holders had become fraud-prone,
  • Lack of machines and technology,
  • Human errors & time-consuming,
  • Fewer facilities,
  • Lack of proper management skills.
667 1865 B Allahabad Bank (The oldest joint stock bank in India):

On 24 April 1865, a group of Europeans founded Allahabad Bank in Allahabad. By the end of the 19th century it had branches at Jhansi, Kanpur, Lucknow, Bareilly, Nainital, Calcutta, and Delhi.

In the early 20th century, with the start of Swadeshi movement, Allahabad Bank witnessed a spurt in deposits. In 1920, P & O Banking Corporation acquired Allahabad Bank with a bid price of 436 (US$6.10) per share. In 1923 the bank moved its head office and the registered office to Calcutta for reasons of both operational convenience and business opportunities. Then in 1927 Chartered Bank of India, Australia and China (Chartered Bank) acquired P&O Bank. However, Chartered Bank continued to operate Allahabad Bank as a separate entity.

Allahabad Bank opened a branch in Rangoon (Yangon). At some point, Chartered Bank amalgamated Allahabad Bank's branch in Rangoon with its own.[925] In 1963 the revolutionary government in Burma nationalized the Chartered Bank's operations there, which became People's Bank No. 2.[926]

On 19 July 1969, the Indian Government nationalised Allahabad Bank, along with 13 other banks.

668 1865 Bu Shapoorji Pallonji & Company Private Limited trading as Shapoorji Pallonji Group:

The company was founded as a partnership firm Littlewood Pallonji, in 1865.[927][928][929] The first project was the construction of a pavement on the Girgaum Chowpatty,[930] followed by being part of the construction of a reservoir on Malabar Hill which supplied water to Mumbai for over 100 years. The company also built the Brabourne stadium in Mumbai and the Jawaharlal Nehru stadium in Delhi.[927]

669 1865 1928 F Lala Lajpat Rai (28 January 1865 – 17 November 1928)

Lala Lajpat Rai (28 January 1865 – 17 November 1928) was an Indian independence activist. He played a pivotal role in the Indian Independence movement. He was popularly known as Punjab Kesari. He was one of the three Lal Bal Pal triumvirates.[931] He was also associated with activities of Punjab National Bank and Lakshmi Insurance Company in their early stages of death in 1894. He died a few weeks after sustaining severe injuries during a baton charge by police when he led a peaceful protest march against the all-British Simon Commission, a commission constituted by the United Kingdom for Indian constitutional reform.

He was a part of the famous triumvirate called ‘Lal Bal Pal.’

670 1865 N The Pioneer (India), English, Daily

The Pioneer is an English language daily newspaper in India. It is published from multiple locations in India, including Delhi. It is the second oldest English language newspaper in India still in circulation after The Times of India.[932]

The Pioneer was founded in Allahabad in 1865, by George Allen, an Englishman who had great success in the tea business in north-east India in the previous decade.[933] It was brought out three times a week from 1865 to 1869 and daily thereafter.[934] In 1866, a supplement, the Pioneer Mail, consisting of "48 quarto-size pages", mostly of advertisements, was added to the publication.[933] In 1872, Alfred Sinnett became the editor of the newspaper. Although he was later to be known for his interest in theosophy, he oversaw the transformation of the newspaper to one of exercising great influence in British India.[933] In 1874, the weekly Pioneer Mail became the Pioneer Mail and India Weekly News and began to also feature short stories and travel writings.[934] Author Rudyard Kipling (1865-1936), in his early 20s, worked at the newspaper office in Allahabad as an assistant editor from November 1887 to March 1889.[935] In July 1933, The Pioneer was sold to a syndicate[936] and moved from Allahabad to Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, at which time the Pioneer Mail and India Weekly News ceased publication.[934]

671 1866 Ad The Allahabad High Court or the High Court of Judicature at Allahabad is the high court based in Allahabad (Prayagraj) that has jurisdiction over the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. It was established on 17 March 1866, making it one of the oldest high courts to be established in India.

Allahabad became the seat of Government of North-Western Provinces and a High Court was established in 1834 but was shifted to Agra within a year.[937] In 1869 it shifted back to Allahabad.[938][939] The former High Court was located at the Accountant General's office at the University of Allahabad complex.[939]

It was founded as the High Court of Judicature for the North-Western Provinces at Agra on 17 March 1866 by the Indian High Courts Act 1861 replacing the old Sadr Diwani Adalat. Sir Walter Morgan, Barrister-at-Law and Mr. Simpson were appointed the first Chief Justice and the first Registrar respectively of the High Court of North-Western Provinces.

The location High Court for the North-Western Provinces was shifted from Agra to Allahabad in 1869 and the name was correspondingly changed to the High Court of Judicature at Allahabad from 11 March 1919.

On 2 November 1925, the Oudh Judicial Commissioner's Court was replaced by the Oudh Chief Court at Lucknow by the Oudh Civil Courts Act of 1925[940], enacted by the United Provinces Legislature with the previous sanction of the Governor General the passing of this Act.

672 1866 Bu In 1866, German-born pharmacist Henri Nestlé developed farine lactée (flour with milk) in Vevey, Switzerland, for infants. World War I brought good business because of demand for its condensed milk. It survived the Great Depression because of its iconic Nescafé coffee.
673 1866 Co Deobandi, is an Islamic revivalist movement within Sunni (primarily Hanafi) Islam[941][942] that formed around the Darul Uloom Islamic seminary in the town of Deoband, India, where the name derives from, during the late 19th century.[943][944][945] The seminary was founded by Muhammad Qasim Nanautavi, Rashid Ahmad Gangohi, and several other figures in 1866,[944] eight years after the Indian Rebellion of 1857-58;[943][945][946][947] the Deobandi movement's political wing, Jamiat Ulema-e-Hind, was founded in 1919 and played a major role in the Indian independence movement through its propagation of the doctrine of composite nationalism.[948][949][950]
674 1866 E Orissa famine of 1866: At least a million and a half Indians die in the Orissa Famine.

The Orissa famine of 1866 affected the east coast of India from Madras northwards, an area covering 180,000 miles and containing a population of 47,500,000;[951] the impact of the famine, however, was greatest in Orissa, now Odisha, which at that time was quite isolated from the rest of India.[952] In Odisha, one third of the population died due to famine.[953]

Like all Indian famines of the 19th-century, the Orissa famine was preceded by a drought: the population of the region depended on the rice crop of the winter season for their sustenance; however, the monsoon of 1865 was scanty and stopped prematurely.[952] In addition, the Bengal Board of Revenue made incorrect estimates of the number of people who would need help and was misled by fictitious price lists. Consequently, as the food reserves began to dwindle, the gravity of the situation was not grasped until the end of May 1866, and by then the monsoons had set in.[952]

Lessons learnt from this famine by the British rulers included "the importance of developing an adequate network of communications" and "the need to anticipate disaster".[954] Indian Famine Codes were slowly developed which were "designed to be put into place as soon as a failure of the monsoon, or other warning-signal, indicated a probable shortage".[955] One early success of this new approach was seen in the Bihar famine of 1873-74 when the famine relief under Sir Richard Temple resulted in the avoidance of almost all mortality.[956]

The famine also served to awaken educated Indians about the effect that British rule was having on India. The fact that during the Orissa famine India exported more than 200 million pounds of rice to Great Britain even while more than one million succumbed to famine outraged Indian nationalists. Dadabhai Naoroji used this as evidence to develop the Drain Theory, the idea that Britain was enriching itself by "sucking the lifeblood out of India".[953]

675 1866 O Opposition to the partition of India:

Deobandi is an Islamic revivalist movement within Sunni (primarily Hanafi) Islam, formed in 1866.

Muslims of the Deobandi school of thought "criticized the idea of Pakistan as being the conspiracy of the colonial government to prevent the emergence of a strong united India" and helped to organize the Azad Muslim Conference to condemn the partition of India.[957] They also argued that the economic development of Muslims would be hurt if India was partitioned,[957] seeing the idea of partition as one that was designed to keep Muslims backward.[958] They also expected "Muslim-majority provinces in united India to be more effective than the rulers of independent Pakistan in helping the Muslim minorities living in Hindu-majority areas."[957] Deobandis pointed to the Treaty of Hudaybiyyah, which was made between the Muslims and Qureysh of Mecca, that "promoted mutual interaction between the two communities thus allowing more opportunities for Muslims to preach their religion to Qureysh through peaceful tabligh".[957]

Deobandi scholar Sayyid Husain Ahmad Madani argued for a united India in his book Muttahida Qaumiyat Aur Islam (Composite Nationalism and Islam), promulgating the idea that different religions do not constitute different nationalities and that the proposition for a partition of India was not justifiable, religiously.[959]

676 1867 Tr Allahabad–Jabalpur section: The Allahabad-Jubbulpore (present day Jabalpur) branch line of the East Indian Railway had been opened in June 1867
677 1868 1936 C Ardeshir Burjorji Sorabji Godrej (1868–1936) known as Ardeshir Godrej was an Indian businessman. With his brother Pirojsha Burjorji Godrej, he co-founded the Godrej Brothers Company (Godrej family), the precursor of the modern Godrej Group.
678 1868 1927 F Hakim Ajmal Khan (11 February 1868 – 29 December 1927)

Better known as Hakim Ajmal Khan, was a physician in Delhi, India, and one of the founders of the Jamia Millia Islamia University. He also founded another institution, Ayurvedic and Unani Tibbia College, better known as Tibbia College, situated in Karol Bagh, Delhi. He was the only muslim to chair a session of the Hindu Mahasabha. He became the university's first chancellor in 1920 and remained in office until his death in 1927.[960]

Hakim Ajmal Khan changed from medicine to politics after he started writing for the Urdu weekly Akmal-ul-Akhbar launched by his family. Khan also headed the Muslim team who met the Viceroy of India in Shimla in 1906 and presented him with a memorandum written by the delegation. At the end of December 1906, he actively participated at the Dhaka founding of the All India Muslim League on 30 December 1906.[961] At a time when many Muslim leaders faced arrest, Khan approached Mahatma Gandhi for help in 1917, thereafter uniting with him and other Muslim leaders such as Maulana Azad, Maulana Mohammad Ali Jouhar and Maulana Shaukat Ali in the well-known Khilafat movement. Khan was also the sole person elected to the Presidency of the Indian National Congress, the Muslim League and the All India Khilafat Committee.[962]

Before he died of heart problems on 29 December 1927, Hakim Ajmal Khan had renounced his government title, and many of his Indian followers awarded him the title of Masih-ul-Mulk (Healer of the Nation). He was succeeded to the position of Jamia Millia Islamia Chancellor by Mukhtar Ahmed Ansari.[962]

Ajmaline, a class Ia antiarrhythmic agent and Ajmalan a parent hydride, are named after him.[963]

679 1868 N Amrita Bazar Patrika:

Amrita Bazar Patrika was one of the oldest daily newspapers in India. Originally published in Bengali script,[964] it evolved into an English format published from Kolkata and other locations such as Cuttack, Ranchi and Allahabad.[965] The paper discontinued its publication in 1991 after 123 years of publication.[966][964]

It debuted on 20 February 1868. It was started by Sisir Ghosh and Moti Lal Ghosh, sons of Hari Naryan Ghosh, a rich merchant from Magura, in District Jessore, in Bengal Province of British Empire in India. The family had constructed a Bazaar and named it after Amritamoyee, wife of Hari Naryan Ghosh. Sisir Ghosh and Moti Lal Ghosh started Amrita Bazar Patrika as a weekly first. It was first edited by Motilal Ghosh, who did not have a formal university education. It had built its readership as a rival to Bengalee which was being looked after by Surendranath Banerjee.[967] After Sisir Ghosh retired, his son Tushar Kanti Ghosh became editor for the next sixty years, running the newspaper from 1931 to 1991.[968]

Amrita Bazaar Patrika was the oldest Indian-owned English daily. It played a major role in the evolution and growth of Indian journalism and made a striking contribution to creating and nurturing the Indian freedom struggle. In 1920, Russian Communist revolutionary Vladimir Lenin described ABP as the best nationalist paper in India.

ABP was born as a Bengali weekly in February 1868 in the village of Amrita Bazaar in Jessore District (now located in modern-day Bangladesh). It was started by the Ghosh brothers (Sisir Ghosh and Moti Lal Ghosh) to fight the cause of peasants who were being exploited by indigo planters. Sisir Kumar Ghosh was the first editor. The Patrika operated out of a battered wooden press purchased for Rs 32.

In 1871, the Patrika moved to Calcutta (now Kolkata), due to the outbreak of plague in Amrita Bazaar. Here it functioned as a bilingual weekly, publishing news and views in English and Bengali. Its anti-government views and vast influence among the people was a thorn in the flesh of the government. Lord Lytton, the Viceroy of India promulgated the Vernacular Press Act on 1878 mainly against ABP.

680 1868 N Amrita Bazar Patrika:

The Patrika became a daily in 1891. It was the first Indian-owned English daily to go into investigative journalism. During the tenure of Lord Lansdowne, a Patrika journalist rummaged through the waste paper basket of the Viceroy's office and pieced together a torn up letter detailing the Viceroy's plans to annexe Kashmir. ABP published the letter on its front page, where it was read by the Maharaja of Kashmir, who immediately went to London and lobbied for his independence.

The Patrika had many brushes with Lord Curzon, the Viceroy of India at the time of the Partition of Bengal (1905). It referred to him as 'Young and a little foppish, and without previous training but invested with unlimited powers.' Because of such editorials, the Press Act of 1910 was passed and a security of Rs 5,000 was demanded from ABP. Motilal Ghosh was also charged with sedition but his eloquence won the case.

After this, the Patrika started prefacing articles criticising the British government with ridiculously exuberant professions of loyalty to the British crown. When Subhas Chandra Bose and other students were expelled from Calcutta Presidency College (Presidency University, Kolkata), the Patrika took up their case and succeeded in having them re-admitted.

681 1868 N Amrita Bazar Patrika:

Even after Motilal Ghosh's death in 1922, the Patrika kept up its nationalist spirit. Higher securities of Rs 10,000 were demanded from it during the Salt Satyagraha. Its editor Tushar Kanti Ghosh (son of Sisir Kumar Ghosh) was imprisoned. The Patrika contributed its share to the success of its freedom movement under the leadership of Gandhi and suffered for its views and actions at the hands of the British rulers.

The Patrika espoused the cause of communal harmony during the Partition of India. During the great Calcutta killings of 1946, the Patrika left its editorial columns blank for three days. When freedom dawned on 15 August 1947, the Patrika published in an editorial:

It is dawn, cloudy though it is. Presently sunshine will break.

682 1868 Tr Great Indian Peninsula Railway#Bombay to Madras, (Bombay to Madras Railway)[719][720][721]:

Beyond Callian, the south-east main line proceeded over Bhor Ghat to Poona, Sholapore (present day Solapur) and Raichore (present day Raichur), where it joined the Madras Railway.

By 1868, route kilometerage was 888 km and by 1870, route kilometerage was 2,388.[969][970]

683 1869 1948 F Mahatma Gandhi (2 October 1869 – 30 January 1948)

Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi[971] (2 October 1869 – 30 January 1948) was an Indian lawyer,[972] anti-colonial nationalist,[973] and political ethicist,[974] who employed nonviolent resistance to lead the successful campaign for India's independence from British rule,[975] and in turn inspired movements for civil rights and freedom across the world. The honorific "Mahātmā" (Sanskrit: "great-souled", "venerable"), first applied to him in 1914 in South Africa, is now used throughout the world.[976][977]

Mahatma Gandhi led the Indian independence movement and was successful in freeing India from the clutches of the British. He employed non-violence and engaged in various movements as part of his inspiring protest against the British rule. He went on to become the most significant freedom fighter and hence is called as the ‘Father of the Nation.’

684 1869 1925 F Chittaranjan Das (5 November 1869 – 16 June 1925)

Popularly called "Deshbandhu" (Friend of the Nation), he was an Indian freedom fighter, political activist and lawyer during the Indian independence movement and founder-leader of the Swaraj Party (Independence party) in Bengal during the period of British colonial rule in India. His name is abbreviated as "C. R. Das".

A lawyer by profession, Chittaranjan is credited for successfully defending Aurobindo Ghosh when the latter was charged under a criminal case by the British. Chittaranjan Das is best known for mentoring Subhas Chandra Bose.

685 1869 1951 F Amritlal Vithaldas Thakkar, popularly known as Thakkar Bapa (29 November 1869 – 20 January 1951) was an Indian social worker who worked for upliftment of tribal people in Gujarat state in India. He became a member of the Servants of India Society founded by Gopal Krishna Gokhale in 1905.[978] In 1922, he founded the Bhil Seva Mandal. Later, he became the general secretary of the Harijan Sevak Sangh founded by Mahatma Gandhi in 1932 .[979] The Bharatiya Adimjati Sevak Sangh was founded on 24 October 1948 on his initiative.[980] When Indian constitution was in process, Kenvi visited remotest and most difficult parts of India and conducted probe into the situation of tribal and Harijan people. He added valuable inputs in the process of constitution. Mahatma Gandhi would call him 'Bapa'.
686 1869 1944 F Kasturba Gandhi (11 April 1869 – 22 February 1944)

Kasturbai "Kasturba" Mohandas Gandhi, born Kasturbai Gokuldas Kapadia (11 April 1869 – 22 February 1944) was an Indian political activist. She married Mohandas Gandhi in 1883. In association with her husband and son, she was involved in the Indian independence movement in British-ruled India. She was very influenced by her husband Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, a.k.a. Mahatma Gandhi. National Safe Motherhood Day is observed on April 11 every year.[981]

Best known as the wife of Mahatma Gandhi, Kasturba was an ardent freedom fighter. Alongside Gandhi, Kasturba actively participated in almost all the independence movements, becoming one of the important activists. She was arrested on several occasions for her participation in nonviolent protests and Quit India movement.

687 1869 1872 G Lord Mayo – Viceroy

Richard Bourke, 6th Earl of Mayo, , KP, GCSI, PC (21 February 1822 – 8 February 1872), styled Lord Naas between 1842 and 1867, called Lord Mayo in India, was a statesman, Viceroy of India and prominent member of the British Conservative Party from Dublin, Ireland.

During his tenure as Viceroy, he ....

  • Started financial decentralization in India.
  • Established Rajkot College in Kathiawar and Mayo College in Ajmer for Indian princess.
  • Held First Census of India in 1871.
  • Organized Statistical Survey of India.

He was the only Viceroy who was murdered in office by a pathan in Andaman in 1872. While visiting the convict settlement at Port Blair in the Andaman Islands in 1872 for the purpose of inspection, he was assassinated by Sher Ali Afridi, an Afghan convict who used a knife. Mayo's body was brought home to Ireland and buried at the medieval ruined church in Johnstown, County Kildare, near his home at Palmerstown House. Afridi was hanged on March 11, 1872.[982]

688 1869 W The Suez Canal is an artificial sea-level waterway in Egypt, connecting the Mediterranean Sea to the Red Sea through the Isthmus of Suez and dividing Africa and Asia. The canal is part of the Silk Road that connects Europe with Asia.

Constructed by the Suez Canal Company between 1859 and 1869, it officially opened on 17 November 1869. The canal offers watercraft a more direct route between the North Atlantic and northern Indain oceans via the Mediterranean and Red seas, thus avoiding the South Atlantic and southern Indian oceans and reducing the journey distance from the Arabian Sea to London, for example, by approximately 8,900 kilometres (5,500 mi).

689 1870 1933 C R. N. Arogyasamy Mudaliar (Diwan Bahadur Rayapuram Nallaveeran Arogyaswamy Mudaliar) (18 April 1870 – 30 January 1933) was an Indian politician and civil engineer who served as the Minister of Excise, Medical Administration and six other departments in the Madras Presidency from 1926 to 1928.
690 1870 1942 F Matangini Hazra (17 November 1870 – 29 September 1942) was an Indian revolutionary who participated in the Indian independence movement until she was shot dead by the British Indian police in front of the Tamluk Police Station (of erstwhile Midnapore District) on 29 September 1942. She was affectionately known as Gandhi buri, Bengali for old lady Gandhi.[983]

As part of the Quit India Movement, members of the Congress planned to take over the various police stations of Medinipore district and other government offices.[983] This was to be a step in overthrowing the British government in the district and establishing an independent Indian state. Hazra, who was 72 years at the time, led a procession of six thousand supporters, mostly women volunteers, with the purpose of taking over the Tamluk police station.[984][985] When the procession reached the outskirts of the town, they were ordered to disband under Section 144 of the Indian Penal Code by the Crown police.[984] As she stepped forward, Hazra was shot once.[984] Apparently, she had stepped forward and appealed to the police not to open fire at the crowd.[983]

The Biplabi newspaper of the parallel Tamluk National Government commented:

Matangini led one procession from the north of the criminal court building; even after the firing commenced, she continued to advance with the tri-colour flag, leaving all the volunteers behind. The police shot her three times. She continued marching despite wounds to the forehead and both hands.[985]

As she was repeatedly shot, she kept chanting Vande Mataram, "hail to the Motherland". She died with the flag of the Indian National Congress held high and still flying.[983][984][986]

691 1870 1898 F Damodar Hari Chapekar (1870–1898) (Chapekar brothers)

During the bubonic plague that hit Pune in the year 1896, the British administration came up with a special committee to minimize the damage caused by the dreaded disease. The committee was headed by an officer named W. C. Rand.

The Chapekar Brothers,

  1. Damodar Hari Chapekar (25 June 1869 – 18 April 1898),
  2. Balkrishna Hari Chapekar (1873 – 12 May 1899, also called Bapurao) and
  3. Vasudeo Hari Chapekar (1880 – 8 May 1899), also spelt Wasudeva or Wasudev,

were involved in the assassination of Walter Charles Rand, the British Plague Commissioner of Pune.

A Special Plague Committee was formed, under the chairmanship of Walter Charles Rand, an Indian Civil Services officer. Troops were brought in to deal with the emergency. The measures employed included entry into private houses, stripping and examination of occupants (including women) by British officers in public, evacuation to hospitals and segregation camps and preventing movement from the city. These measures were considered oppressive by the populace of Pune and complaints were ignored by Rand.

On 22 June 1897, the Diamond Jubilee of the coronation of Queen Victoria, Rand and his military escort Lt. Ayerst were shot while returning from the celebrations at Government House. Both died, Ayerst on the spot and Rand of his wounds on 3 July. The Chapekar brothers and two accomplices were charged with the murders in various roles, as well as the shooting of two informants and an attempt to shoot a police officer. All three brothers were found guilty and hanged, an accomplice was dealt with similarly, and another, then a schoolboy, was sentenced to ten years' rigorous imprisonment.[987]

692 1870 1968 F Sohan Singh Bhakna (1870–1968)

Baba Sohan Singh Bhakna (22 January 1870 – 21 December 1968)[988] was an Indian revolutionary, the founding president of the Ghadar Party, and a leading member of the party involved in the Ghadar Conspiracy of 1915, which was aimed at initiating a pan-Indian attack to end the British rule. Tried at the Lahore Conspiracy trial, Sohan Singh served sixteen years of a life sentence for his part in the conspiracy before he was released in 1930. He later worked closely with the Indian labour movement, devoting considerable time to the Kisan Sabha and the Communist Party of India.

693 1870 Fl Indian Reform Association:

The Indian Reform Association was formed on 29 October 1870 with Keshub Chunder Sen as president. It represented the secular side of the Brahmo Samaj and included many who did not belong to the Brahmo Samaj. The objective was to put into practice some of the ideas Sen was exposed to during his visit to Great Britain.[989]

David Kopf says that Sen was enthusiastic about the Unitarian social gospel, which he observed first hand during his trip abroad. He seemed convinced that the reform efforts he witnessed in Britain could be duplicated in India. The Indian Reform Association was formed to promote "the social and moral reformation of the natives of India".[990]

The comprehensive objective of the Association was to be served through five departments of activity[991]

  1. Cheap literature,
  2. Female improvement,
  3. Education,
  4. Temperance, and
  5. Charity.
694 1870 Fl Vande Mataram (also pronounced Bande Mataram; transl. Mother, I bow to thee) is a poem written in Sanskrit by Bankim Chandra Chatterjee in 1870s, which he included in his 1882 Bengali novel Anandamath.[992][993] The poem was first sung by Rabindranath Tagore in the 1896 session of the Indian National Congress.[992][994] The first two verses of the song were adopted as the National Song of India in October 1937 by the Congress Working Committee prior to the end of colonial rule in August 1947.[995][996]

It played a vital role in the Indian independence movement, first sung in a political context by Rabindranath Tagore at the 1896 session of the Indian National Congress.[997]

It became a popular marching song for political activism and Indian freedom movement in 1905.[994] Spiritual Indian nationalist and philosopher Shri Aurobindo referred it as "National Anthem of Bengal".[998] The song and the novel containing it was banned by the colonial government, but workers and the general public defied the ban (with many being imprisoned repeatedly for singing it in public); with the ban being overturned by the Indian government after the country gained independence from colonial rule in 1947.[999][1000]

A rare painting of the national song, Vande Mataram, was published in 1923.

695 1870 N Sulabh Samachar was a Bengali weekly, published from Calcutta, a pioneering journalistic venture in 19th century Bengal.

Sulabh Samachar was started on 16 November 1870. It was priced one pice (the smallest unit of currency). Umanath Gupta was the first editor of this cheap journal for the information of the masses. At the time there were about a dozen similar pice newspapers in Calcutta.

The weekly dealt with diverse subjects such as the miserable condition of the peasants, the administrative system, measures for the uplift of the common people and their education, abuses of the zamindari system and exploitation by the zamindars, abuses of the British administration, importance of science and scientific explanations in elementary form, diseases of the human body and their remedies, and prices of commodities, apart from general news from urban and rural areas.

696 1870 Bombay T Bombay Port Trust formed[106].

Mumbai Port Trust (also known as the Bombay Port Trust) is a port which lies midway on the West coast of India, on the natural deep-water harbour of Mumbai (Bombay) in Maharashtra.The harbour spread over 400 square kilometres (150 sq mi) is protected by the mainland of Konkan to its east and north and by the island city of Mumbai to its west. The harbour opens to the south to the Arabian Sea.

Mumbai Harbour has been used by ships and boats for centuries. It was used by the Maratha Navy, as well as the British and Portuguese colonial navies. In 1652, the Surat Council of the East India Company, realising the geographical advantage of the Port, urged its purchase from the Portuguese. Their wish was gratified nine years later when, under the Marriage Treaty between Charles II of Great Britain and the Infant Catherine of Portugal, the ‘Port and Island of Bombay’ were transferred to the king of Great Britain The first of the present-day docks of the Port were built in the 1870s.[1001]

Bombay Port Trust (BPT) was established as a corporation on 26 June 1873.[1002]

BPT's founding chairman was Colonel J.A. Ballard.

Port development was undertaken by the civil engineering partnership Sir John Wolfe-Barry and Lt Col Arthur John Barry as Joint Consulting Engineers to the Bombay Port Trust at the end of the nineteenth century.[1003]

From its establishment, the port has been the gateway to India, and was a primary factor in the emergence of Mumbai as the commercial capital of India. The port and the corporation took their present names in the 1990s

697 1870 Tr Great Indian Peninsula Railway#Bombay to Calcutta (Bombay to Calcutta Railway)[719][720][721]:

Beyond Callian, the north-east main line proceeded over the Thull ghat to Bhosawal (present day Bhusawal). From Bhosawal, there was a bifurcation. One passed through great cotton district of Oomravuttee (present day Amravati) and was extended up to Nagpore (present day Nagpur) and then to Raj-nandgaon in Drug district (Present day Durg). The other was extended up to Jubbulpore (present day Jabalpur) to connect with the Allahabad-Jubbulpore branch line of the East Indian Railway which had been opened in June 1867. Hence it became possible to travel directly from Bombay to Calcutta.

The Howrah-Allahabad-Mumbai line was officially opened on 7 March 1870 and it was part of the inspiration for French writer Jules Verne's book Around the World in Eighty Days. Although, in the novel it is erroneously claimed that the line passes through Aurangabad, which is, again erroneously claimed as the capital of the Emperor Aurangzeb Alamgeer. At that time period, line had not reached Aurangabad but rather moved northward after reaching Bhusawal towards Jabalpur.

At the opening ceremony, the Viceroy Lord Mayo concluded that “it was thought desirable that, if possible, at the earliest possible moment, the whole country should be covered with a network of lines in a uniform system”.[1004]

698 1871 Ad Criminal Tribes Act (CTA) enacted by British rule in India, which named over 160 communities "Criminal Tribes", i.e. hereditary criminals. It was repealed in 1949, after Independence of India.

Various pieces of legislation in India during British rule since the 1870s were collectively called the Criminal Tribes Act (CTA). They criminalized entire communities by designating them as habitual criminals. Under these acts, ethnic or social communities in India which were defined as "addicted to the systematic commission of non-bailable offences" such as thefts, were systematically registered by the government. Since they were described as "habitually criminal", restrictions on their movements were also imposed. Adult male members of such groups were forced to report weekly to the local police.[1005]

The first CTA, the Criminal Tribes Act 1871, applied mostly in North India. This Act was extended to the Bengal Presidency and other areas in 1876, and, finally, with the Criminal Tribes Act 1911, to Madras Presidency. The Act went through several amendments in the next decade, and, finally, the Criminal Tribes Act 1924 incorporated all of them.[1006]

At the time of Indian independence in 1947, thirteen million people in 127 communities faced search and arrest if any member of the group was found outside the prescribed area.[1007] The Act was repealed in August 1949 and former "criminal tribes" were denotified in 1952, when the Act was replaced with the Habitual Offenders Act 1952 of Government of India, and in 1961 state governments started releasing lists of such tribes.[1008][1009]

699 1871 Co French colonization (French India):

By a decree of 25 January 1871, French India was to have an elective general council (conseil général) and elective local councils (conseil local). The results of this measure were not very satisfactory, and the qualifications for and the classes of the franchise were modified.

The governor resided at Pondichéry and was assisted by a council. There were ....

  • Two Tribunaux d'instance (Tribunals of first instance) at Pondichéry and Karikal,
  • One Cour d'appel (Court of Appeal) at Pondichéry and
  • Five Justices de paix (Justices of the Peace).

Agricultural production consisted of rice, peanuts, tobacco, betel nuts and vegetables.[1010]

700 1871 1951 F Hemchandra Kanungo Das (12 June 1871 – 8 April 1951) was an Indian nationalist and a member of the Anushilan Samiti. Kanungo travelled to Paris in 1907, where he learnt the technique of assembling Picric acid bombs from exiled Russian revolutionaries. Kanungo's knowledge was disseminated throughout Indian nationalist organisations in the Raj and abroad. In 1908, Kanungo was one of the principal co-accused with Aurobindo Ghosh in the Alipore Bomb Case (1908–09). He was sentenced to transportation for life in the Andamans, but was released in 1921.[1011]

He was probably the first revolutionary from India who went abroad to obtain military and political training. He obtained training from the Russian emigre in Paris.[1012] He returned to India in January 1908. He opened a secret bomb factory "Anusilonee Somitee" at Maniktala near Kolkata, founder members of which were Hemchandra Kanungo, Aurobindo Ghosh (Sri Aurobindo) and his brother, Barindra Kumar Ghosh. He was one of the creators of the Calcutta flag, based on which the first flag of independent India was raised by Bhikaiji Cama on 22 August 1907 at the International Socialist Conference in Stuttgart, Germany.

701 1871 1940 F Charles Freer Andrews (12 February 1871 – 5 April 1940)

Charles Freer Andrews was an Anglican priest and Christian missionary, educator and social reformer, and an activist for Indian Independence. He became a close friend of Rabindranath Tagore and Mahatma Gandhi and identified with the Indian liberation struggle.

He was instrumental in convincing Gandhi to return to India from South Africa, where Gandhi had been a leading light in the Indian civil rights struggle.

C. F. Andrews was affectionately dubbed Christ's Faithful Apostle by Gandhi, based on his initials, C.F.A. For his contributions to the Indian independence movement, Gandhi and his students at St. Stephen's College, Delhi, named him Deenabandhu, or "Friend of the Poor".

Andrews had been involved in the Christian Social Union since university, and was interested in exploring the relationship between a commitment to the Gospel and a commitment to justice, through which he was attracted to struggles for justice throughout the British Empire, especially in India.

In 1904 he joined the Cambridge Mission to Delhi and arrived there to teach philosophy at St. Stephen's College, where he grew close to many of his Indian colleagues and students. Increasingly dismayed by the racist behaviour and treatment of Indians by some British officials and civilians, he supported Indian political aspirations, and wrote a letter in the Civil and Military Gazette in 1906 voicing these sentiments. Andrews soon became involved in the activities of the Indian National Congress, and he helped to resolve the 1913 cotton workers' strike in Madras.

702 1871 T Yerwada Central Jail was built in 1871 by the British, when it was outside the city limits of Pune.[1013][1014]

Under British rule, the jail housed many Indian freedom fighters including Mahatma Gandhi, Jawaharlal Nehru, Netaji Subhas Bose, Joachim Alva and Bal Gangadhar Tilak and Bhuralal Ranchhoddas Sheth.[1013][1014] In 1924, Vinayak Damodar Savarkar was also kept in the jail.[1015]

Mahatma Gandhi spent several years in Yerwada Jail during India's freedom struggle, notably in 1932 and later in 1942 during the Quit India movement, along with many other freedom fighters.[1016] During his 1932 imprisonment, which started after his arrest in January 1932, Gandhi went on an indefinite fast to protest against the Communal Award for depressed classes on 20 September 1932,.[1017] He discontinued his fast after signing an agreement called the Poona Pact, with the leader of depressed classes, Dr. Ambedkar in the jail on 24 September 1932. Gandhi was released from the jail in May 1933.[1018]

703 1871 Tr The Indus Valley State Railway:

Indus Valley State Railway (reporting marks IVSR) was a railway founded in 1871 to provide a rail link between Kotri and Multan and to replace the Indus Steam Flotilla.[1019][1020][719][720][721]

The opening of the line thus connected Karachi with Lahore.

The survey of the Indus Valley railway line began in 1869 and was undertaken by John Brunton, the Chief Resident Engineer of Scinde Railway, and assisted by his son William Arthur Brunton. The Empress Bridge, opened in 1878, carried the IVSR over the Sutlej River near Bahawalpur. The Indus and Sutlej rivers were seen as major impediments in the expansion of the railways. The IVSR had reached Rohri in 1879 and a steam ferry would transport eight wagons at a time across the Indus River between from Rohri to Sukkur. This was found to be cumbersome and time-consuming. The opening of Lansdowne Bridge in 1889 solved this bottleneck, as rail traffic could now travel from Karachi uninterrupted to Lahore. The Indus Valley State Railway was merged in 1886 to form the North Western State Railway. Today, this line forms a section of the Karachi-Peshawar Railway Line.

704 1872 BC Sher Ali Afridi, also called Shere Ali, is known for killing Lord Mayo, the Viceroy of India, on 8 February 1872. He was a prisoner on the Andaman and Nicobar Islands at the time, sentenced for murder.

In a family feud, he killed one of his relatives named Hydur[1021] at Peshawar in broad daylight and although he pleaded innocence, he was sentenced to death on 2 April 1867. On appeal, his sentence was reduced by a judge, Colonel Pollock,[1021] to life imprisonment[1022] and he was deported to Kala Pani or the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, to serve his sentence.[1023] He was permitted to work as a barber at Port Blair as he was acknowledged to have behaved well since his arrival.[1021]

Richard Bourke, 6th Earl of Mayo, Viceroy of India from 1869, was visiting the Andaman and Nicobar Islands in February 1872. The island group was then used as a British penal colony for convicts from India, both criminals and political prisoners.[1021] Lord Mayo was involved in drafting the regulations of Port Blair, the principal town of the islands.[1022] On 8 February, when the Viceroy had almost completed his inspection and was returning at 7:00 PM to his boat, where Lady Mayo was also waiting, Sher Ali Afridi appeared from the dark and stabbed him.[1022] Sher Ali was immediately arrested by twelve security personnel. Lord Mayo soon bled to death.[1022] This incident, which attracted much attention to the island group, happened at the foot of Mount Harriet.[1024]

Sher Ali Afridi was condemned to death and was hanged on the gallows of Viper Island prison,[1022] on 11 March 1872.[1023]

705 1872 1936 F V.O. Chidambaram Pillai (5 September 1872 – 18 November 1936)

Valliyappan Ulaganathan Chidambaram, popularly known by his initials, V.O.C. (spelled Va Voo Cee in Tamil), also known as Kappalottiya Tamizhan or "The Tamil Helmsman", was an Indian freedom fighter and leader of Indian National Congress. Founder of Swadeshi Steam Navigation Company[1025] in 1906 to compete against the monopoly of the British India Steam Navigation Company (BISNC).[1026] He launched the first indigenous Indian shipping service between Tuticorin and Colombo with the Swadeshi Steam Navigation Company (SSNC), competing against British ships. Tuticorin Port Trust, one of India's thirteen major ports, is named after him.

At one time a member of the Indian National Congress, he was later charged with sedition by the British government and sentenced to life imprisonment, and his barrister license was revoked.

706 1872 1957 F Tanguturi Prakasam Pantulu (23 August 1872 – 20 May 1957):

Pantulu was an Indian politician and freedom fighter, chief minister of the Madras Presidency, and subsequently became the first chief minister of the new Andhra state, created by the partition of Madras State along linguistic lines. He was also known as Andhra Kesari (Lion of Andhra).

707 1870 1950 F Sri Aurobindo (born Aurobindo Ghose; 15 August 1872 – 5 December 1950) was an Indian philosopher, yogi, maharishi, poet, and Indian nationalist.He was also journalist, editing newspapers like Bande Mataram. He joined the Indian movement for independence from British colonial rule, till 1910 was one of its influential leaders and then became a spiritual reformer, introducing his visions on human progress and spiritual evolution.

Aurobindo studied for the Indian Civil Service at King's College, Cambridge, England. After returning to India he took up various civil service works under the Maharaja of the Princely state of Baroda and became increasingly involved in nationalist politics in the Indian National Congress and the nascent revolutionary movement in Bengal with the Anushilan Samiti. He was arrested in the aftermath of a number of bomb outrages linked to his organization in a public trial where he faced charges of treason for Alipore Conspiracy. However Sri Aurobindo could only be convicted and imprisoned for writing articles against British colonial rule in India. He was released when no evidence could be provided, following the murder of a prosecution witness, Narendranath Goswami, during the trial. During his stay in the jail, he had mystical and spiritual experiences, after which he moved to Pondicherry, leaving politics for spiritual work.

At Pondicherry, Sri Aurobindo developed a spiritual practice he called Integral Yoga. The central theme of his vision was the evolution of human life into a divine life in divine body. He believed in a spiritual realisation that not only liberated but transformed human nature, enabling a divine life on earth. In 1926, with the help of his spiritual collaborator, Mirra Alfassa (referred to as "The Mother"), Sri Aurobindo Ashram was founded.

His main literary works are The Life Divine, which deals with theoretical aspects of Integral Yoga; Synthesis of Yoga, which deals with practical guidance about Integral Yoga; and Savitri: A Legend and a Symbol, an epic poem.

For Anushilan Samiti, the incarceration of many of its prominent leaders led to a decline in the influence and activity of the Manicktolla branch, and its activities were overtaken by what emerged to be called the Jugantar branch under the leadership of Bagha Jatin.

708 1872 1944 F Ubaidullah Sindhi:

Buta Singh Uppal, later known as Ubaidullah Sindhi (10 March 1872 – 21 August 1944) was a political activist of the Indian independence movement and one of its vigorous leaders. According to Dawn, Karachi, Maulana Ubaidullah Sindhi struggled for the independence of British India and for an exploitation-free society in India.[1027] He was also Home Minister of first Provisional Government of India established in Afghanistan in 1915.

Involved in Silk Letter Conspiracy.

709 1872 1940 F Surendranath Tagore (1872–1940) was a Bengali author, literary scholar, and translator. He is particularly noted for translating a number of works of Rabindranath Tagore to English.[1028]

Involved in the Swadeshi movement in Bengal, in opposition to the Partition of Bengal (1905).

710 1872 1876 G Thomas George Baring, Viceror :

Thomas George Baring, 1st Earl of Northbrook, GCSI, PC, FRS (22 January 1826 – 15 November 1904) was a British Liberal statesman. Gladstone appointed him Viceroy of India 1872–1876. His major accomplishments came as an energetic reformer who was dedicated to upgrading the quality of government in the British Raj. He began large scale famine relief, reduced taxes, and overcame bureaucratic obstacles in an effort to reduce both starvation and widespread social unrest.[1029] He served as First Lord of the Admiralty between 1880 and 1885.

The Ghanta Ghar Multan, or Clock Tower of Multan, was named 'Northbrook Tower'. It is located in the center of Multan in Punjab province, Pakistan.

711 1872 P First British census conducted in India.

While it has been undertaken every 10 years, beginning in 1872 under british Viceroy Lord Mayo, the first complete census was taken in 1881.

The Census of India prior to independence was conducted periodically from 1865 onward to 1941. The censuses were primarily concerned with administration and faced numerous problems in their design and conduct ranging from absence of house numbering in hamlets to cultural objections on various grounds to dangers posed by wild animals to census personnel. The censuses were designed more for social engineering and to further the British agenda for governance rather than to uncover the underlying structure of the population. The sociologist Michael Mann says that the census exercise was "more telling of the administrative needs of the British than of the social reality for the people of British India". The difference of the nature of Indian society during the British Raj from the value system and the societies of the West were highlighted by the inclusion of "caste", "religion", "profession" and "age" in the data to be collected, as the collection and analysis of this information had a considerable impact on the structure and political overtones of Indian society.

712 1872 P Caste and religion still form the most significant social constructs in India and the former, in particular, has been influenced by the Raj census efforts. Although there were certainly some enumerations of caste prior to the arrival of the British, some modern academics, such as Bernard Cohn (anthropologist) and Nicholas Dirks have argued that the British, through their census and other works, effectively created the caste system as it exists today.

Census of India prior to independence:

  • 1872 Census of india
  • 1881 Census of India
  • 1891 Census of India
  • 1901 Census of India
  • 1911 Census of India
  • 1921 Census of India
  • 1931 Census of India
  • 1941 Census of India
713 1872 Calcutta S Calcutta Football Club (founded 1872).

In the early days, football was played only among army teams, but gradually it spread among the masses, credit of which goes to Nagendra Prasad Sarbadhikari. The Calcutta FC was the first club which was established in 1872. The Indian Football Association was founded in 1893, but none of its board members was Indians[1030].

Nagendra Prasad Sarbadhikari[1031][1032] (1869–1940) was known as the "Father of Indian Football" for his role in introducing football as a teenager in the year 1877 at Hare School, Calcutta.[1033][1034] It was he who mobilized his classmates and started playing the game at the Hare School compound. Attracted by the enthusiasm of the boys in the school, the European teachers of the school and adjacent colleges encouraged Nagendra Prasad and his companions to promote the game among students in and around Calcutta. The Boys' Club, founded by Nagendra Prasad around this time, was the first Indian initiative at football organization.

714 1872 1906 T The Royal Indian Engineering College (or RIEC) was a British college of Civil Engineering run by the India Office to train civil engineers for service in the Indian Public Works Department. It was located on the Cooper's Hill estate, near Egham, Surrey. It functioned from 1872 until 1906, when its work was transferred to India.

The college was colloquially referred to as Cooper's Hill and I.C.E. College (I.C.E. being an acronym for Indian Civil Engineering).[1035]

A Public Works Department was created in India in 1854, with responsibility for the construction of roads, canals and other civil engineering projects. It experienced difficulties in recruiting suitably qualified staff from the United Kingdom, and in 1868 a scheme was proposed for a dedicated training college in England. The chief advocate of this scheme, and effective founder of the college, was Sir George Tomkyns Chesney.[1036] The India Office bought the Cooper's Hill estate for £55,000 in 1870; and the college was formally opened on 5 August 1872, with Chesney as its first President.[1037]

The college educated about 50 students a year, who paid fees of £150 each. The curriculum included pure and applied mathematics, construction, architectural design, surveying, mechanical drawing, geometry, physics, geology, accounts, Hindustani, and the history and geography of India.[1038]

By the late 1870s the college was training more civil engineers than were required in India; but, rather than scaling down its activities, Chesney broadened them. From 1878, the college began to train candidates for the Indian Telegraph Department.[1039] From 1881, it began to train candidates for non-Indian services, such as the Royal Engineers, the Egyptian Government, and the Uganda Railway.[1040] In 1885, the first forestry school in England was established at Cooper's Hill, with William Schlich as the founding director.[1041]

In the face of competition from new training facilities for engineers elsewhere (notably at the new "redbrick" universities), the college closed on 13 October 1906.[1042]

715 1873 1874 E Bihar famine of 1873–74:

The Bihar famine of 1873–1874 (also the Bengal famine of 1873–1874) was a famine in British India that followed a drought in the province of Bihar, the neighboring provinces of Bengal, the North-Western Provinces and Oudh. It affected an area of 140,000 square kilometres (54,000 sq mi) and a population of 21.5 million.[1043] The relief effort—organized by Sir Richard Temple, the newly appointed Lieutenant-Governor of Bengal—was one of the success stories of the famine relief in British India; there was little or no mortality during the famine.[1044]

The famine proved to be less severe than had originally been anticipated, and 100,000 tons of grain was left unused at the end of the relief effort.[1045] According to some,[1045] the total government expense was 50 percent more than the total budget of a similar relief effort during the Maharashtra famine of 1973 (in independent India), after adjusting for inflation.

Since the expenditure associated with the relief effort was considered excessive, Sir Richard Temple was criticized by British officials. Taking the criticism to heart, he revised the official famine relief philosophy, which thereafter became concerned with thrift and efficiency.[1044] The relief efforts in the subsequent Great Famine of 1876–78 in Bombay and South India were therefore very modest, which led to excessive mortality.[1044]

716 1873 1938 F Shaukat Ali (politician) (10 March 1873 – 18 November 1938)

He was an Indian Muslim leader of the Khilafat Movement. He was the elder brother of the renowned political leader Mohammad Ali Jouhar.[1046]

One of the prominent Muslim leaders of the Khilafat Movement, Shaukat Ali was instrumental in forming the political policy of the Muslims by publishing revolutionary magazines.

Maulana, "Shaukat Ali", his brother "Mohammad Ali Jauhar" and their mother "Abadi Bano Begum (Bi Amman)", played an incredible role in the freedom movement of India against the British Imperialism. These brave freedom fighters were unmitigated champions of Hindu-Muslim unity who endorsed the Hindus and the Muslims to fight together in the struggle for independence from the British forgetting their religious feelings and thinking only they are Indians, they were the ambassadors of Hindu-Muslim Unity.

Khilafat Movement:

Shaukat Ali helped his younger brother Mohammad Ali Jouhar publish the Urdu weekly Hamdard and the English weekly Comrade. In 1915 he published an article which said Turks were right to fight the British. These two weekly magazines played a key role in shaping the political policy of Muslim India back then.[1046] In 1919, while jailed for publishing what the British charged as seditious materials and organizing protests, he was elected as the last president of the Khilafat conference. He was re-arrested and imprisoned from 1921 to 1923 for his support to Mahatma Gandhi and the Indian National Congress during the Non-Cooperation Movement (1919–1922). His fans accorded him and his brother the title of Maulana. In March 1922, he was in Rajkot jail and was later released in 1923.[1046]

Nehru Report:

While still a supporter of Congress and its non-violent ethos, Ali even surpassed some of his colleagues in also providing support to the revolutionary independence movement. To this end, he supplied guns to Sachindranath Sanyal.[1047]

He opposed the 1928 Nehru Report. Instead, he demanded separate electorates for Muslims and finally the Khilafat Committee rejected the Nehru Report. Shaukat Ali attended the first and second Round Table Conferences (India) in London in 1930-31. His brother Jouhar died in 1931, and Shaukat Ali continued on and organized the World Muslim Conference in Jerusalem.

In 1936, Ali became a member of the All India Muslim League and became a close political ally of and campaigner for Muhammad Ali Jinnah, the future founder of Pakistan. He served as member of the 'Central Assembly' in British India from 1934 to 1938. He travelled all over the Middle East, building support for India's Muslims and the struggle for independence from the British rule in India.[1046]

717 1873 1933 F Vithalbhai Patel (27 September 1873 – 22 October 1933)

A co-founder of Swaraj Party, Vithalbhai Patel was a fierce independence activist and elder brother of Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel. Vithalbhai became a close associate of Subhas Chandra Bose and even called Gandhi a failure. When his health was fast deteriorating, he bequeathed his property, which amounted to a whopping Rs. 120,000, to Subhas Chandra Bose for his revolutionary activities.

While Vithalbhai was in London, the relationship between the British Empire and Ireland began to deteriorate. The outlaw Eamon De Valera came into power and refused to pay the annuity. The British cabinet was interested in devising ways to protect Ireland from slipping out of British hands. De Valera wanted Vithalbhai to act as an arbitrator between the British Empire and Ireland in the dispute on the Irish Question.[1048]

Patel's health worsened in Europe.[1048] As his last political act, Patel signed a statement written by Bose which proclaimed Gandhi as a failed leader and called for a militant form of non-cooperation.[1048]

On his deathbed he left a will of sorts, bequeathing three-quarters of his money to Bose to use in promoting India’s cause in other countries. When Vallabhbhai Patel saw a copy of the letter in which his brother had left a majority of his estate to Bose, he asked a series of questions: Why was the letter not attested by a doctor? Had the original paper been preserved? Why were the witnesses to that letter all men from Bengal and none of the many other veteran freedom activists and supporters of the Congress who had been present at Geneva where Vithalbhai had died? Patel may even have doubted the veracity of the signature on the document. The case went to court and after a legal battle that lasted more than a year, the courts judged that Vithalbhai’s estate could only be inherited by his legal heirs, that is, his family. Patel promptly handed the money over to the Vithalbhai Memorial Trust[1049]

Vitthalbhai died in Geneva, Switzerland, on 22 October 1933.[1048] His body was embalmbed in Geneva and transported to Bombay on S. S Narkunda. and was cremated in Bombay on 10 November in front of a crowd of over 3 lakh people.[1048]

718 1873 Fl Bharat Mata (Mother India in English) is the national personification of India as a mother goddess.[1050] She is usually depicted as a woman clad in a saffron sari holding the Indian national flag, and sometimes accompanied by a lion.[1051]

The concept of bharat mata as the personification of the Indian subcontinent came into existence starting in the late 19th century, especially after the Indian Rebellion of 1857 against the British. Bharat Mata as a concept was first perceived to be an image of the land of India prominently by Bankim Chandra Chatterjee in his book Anandamath in 1880 and by Abanindranath Tagore through a 1905 painting.

The concept of bhārat mātā as the personification of the Indian subcontinent came into existence starting in the late 19th century, especially after the Indian Rebellion of 1857 against the British. Bhārat Mātā as a concept was first perceived to be an image of the land of India prominently by Bankim Chandra Chatterjee in his book Anandamath in 1880 and by Abanindranath Tagore through a 1905 painting.[1052]

The image of Bhāratmātā formed with the Indian independence movement of the late 19th century. A play by Kiran Chandra Bannerjee, Bhārat Mātā, was first performed in 1873. The play, set during the 1770 Bengal famine, depicts a woman and her husband who go to the forest and encounter rebels. A priest takes them to a temple where they are shown Bharat Mata. Thus they are inspired and lead a rebellion which results in the defeat of the British.[1053]

The Manushi magazine story traces origin to a satirical work Unabimsa Purana or The Nineteenth Purana by Bhudeb Mukhopadhyay which was first published anonymously in 1866.[1054]

719 1873 Fl Satyashodhak Samaj (Truth-seekers' Society) was a social reform society founded by Jyotirao Phule in Pune, Maharashtra, on 24 September 1873. It espoused a mission of education and increased social rights and political access for underprivileged groups, focused especially on women, Shudras, and Dalits, in Maharashtra.[1055][1056] Jyotirao's wife Savitribai was the head of women's section of the society.

The Samaj disbanded during the 1930s as leaders left to join the Indian National Congress party under Mahatma Gandhi.[1057]

720 1873 1896 T List of dams and reservoirs in Haryana (pre-independence) :
  • 1873 Tajewala Barrage, Sahibi River
  • 1876 Pathrala Barrage, Somb River
  • 1896 Ottu Barrage, Ghaggar-Hakra River
721 1873 Tr Trams in Kolkata:

The first horse-drawn trams in India ran for 2.4 miles (3.9 km) between Sealdah and Armenian Ghat Street on 24 February 1873. The service was discontinued on 20 November of that year.[1058] The Calcutta Tramway Company was formed and registered in London on 22 December 1880. Meter-gauge horse-drawn tram tracks were laid from Sealdah to Armenian Ghat via Bowbazar Street, Dalhousie Square, and Strand Road. The route was inaugurated by the Viceroy, Lord Ripon, on 1 November 1880.[1058]

Timeline:

  • 1873 – Opening of horse tram as meter gauge, closure in the same year.
  • 1880 – Final opening of horse tram as a permanent system. Calcutta Tramways Company was established.
  • 1881 – Dalhousie Square – Lalbazar – Bowbazar – Lebutala – Sealdah Station route opened (Later route 14).
  • 1882 – Esplanade – Wellington Square – Bowbazar – Boipara – Hatibagan – Shyambazar Junction route opened (Later route 5).
  • 1882 – Steam locomotives were deployed experimentally to haul tram cars. In the next year a new route opened for steam tram service towards Khidirpur.
  • 1883 – Esplanade – Racecourse – Wattganj – Khidirpur route opened (Later route 36)
  • 1884 – Wellington Square – Park Street route opened (Later route 21 & 22 after extension)
  • 1900 – Nimtala – Companybagan route opened (non-revenue service only).
  • 1900 – Electrification of the tramway and conversion of its tracks to 4 ft 8 1⁄2 in (1,435 mm) (standard gauge) began.[1058]
  • 1902 – The first electric tramcar in Calcutta ran from Esplanade to Kidderpore on 27 March 1902
722 1873 Tr Trams in India:

Trams in India were established in the late-19th century. Horse-drawn trams were introduced in Kolkata in 1873; electric trams began in Chennai in 1895, and trams were also introduced in Mumbai, Kanpur, and Delhi. They were discontinued in all Indian cities between 1933 and 1964, except for Kolkata.[1059]

723 1874 C Darogha Ubbas Alli (aka Darogha Abbas Ali) was a 19th-century Indian engineer and photographer. Following his retirement as a municipal engineer in Lucknow, Alli began photographing the city and its surroundings in the 1870s. He published fifty of these photographs in an album named The Lucknow Album in 1874. In 1880, he produced another photographic album, titled An Illustrated Historical Album of Rajas and Taaluqdars of Oudh, comprising images of the landed gentry of Oudh.[1060]
724 1874 Bombay Ed In Bombay, St. Peters School was set up by the Cowley Fathers at Dockyard[106][1061].
725 1874 Tr Trams in Bombay[1062][1063][1064]:

A mass public-transport system for Mumbai (then Bombay) was proposed in 1865 by an American company, which applied for a licence to operate a horse-drawn tram system. Although a licence was granted, the project was never realised due to the city's economic depression.

The Bombay Tramway Company was set up in 1873. After a contract was signed between the Bombay Tramway Company, the municipality and the Stearns and Kitteredge company, the Bombay Presidency enacted the Bombay Tramways Act, 1874 licensing the company to run a horsecar tram service in the city.[1065] On 9 May, 1874, the first horse-drawn carriage made its début in the city, plying the Colaba–Pydhone via Crawford Market, and Bori Bunder to Pydhonie via Kalbadevi routes. The initial fare was three annas (15 paise pre-decimalisation), and no tickets were issued. As the service became increasingly popular, the fare was reduced to two annas (10 pre-decimalisation paise). Later that year, tickets were issued to curb increasing ticket-less travel.[1066] Stearns and Kitteredge reportedly had a stable of 1,360 horses over the lifetime of the service.[1067]

726 1874 Tr Trams in Bombay[1062][1063][1064]:

In 1899, the Bombay Tramway Company applied to the municipality to operate electric trams. In 1904, the British Electric Traction Company applied for a license to supply electricity to the city with the Brush Electrical Engineering Company its agent. It received the Bombay electric license on 31 July, 1905, signed by Bombay Tramways Company, the Bombay Municipality and the Brush Electrical Company. In 1905, the Bombay Electric Supply and Tramway Company (BEST) was formed. BEST received a monopoly on electric supply and an electric tram service in the city, and bought the Bombay Tramway Company's assets for ₹9,850,000.[1068] Two years later, the first electric tram debuted in the city. Later that year, a 4,300 kilowatts (5,800 hp) steam power generator was commissioned at Wari Bunder. In 1916, a power purchase from Tata Power (a private company) began, and by 1925, all power generation was outsourced from Tata.[1069] To ease rush-hour traffic, double-decker trams were introduced in September, 1920.

The trams met travellers' needs until the betterment of the city's train network, and the service closed on 31 March, 1964.[1070]

727 1875 E Deccan Riots:

In May and June 1875, peasants of Maharashtra in some parts of Pune and Ahmednagar districts revolted against increasing agrarian distress. The Deccan Riots of 1875 targeted conditions of debt peonage (kamiuti) to moneylenders. The rioters' specific purpose was to obtain and destroy the bonds, decrees, and other documents in the possession of the moneylenders.[1071] The peasants began a systematic attack on the moneylenders’ houses and shops. They seized and publicly burnt debt bonds and deeds signed under pressure, in ignorance, or through fraud and other documents dealing with their debts. They socially boycotted the moneylenders. Within days the disturbances spread to other villages of the Poona and Ahmednagar districts, although there was no anti-colonial consciousness among them.

728 1875 Ed Minto Circle, officially Syedna Tahir Saifuddin School (STS School), is a semi-residential high school under Aligarh Muslim University at Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh, India. The school was established as "Muhammadan Anglo-Oriental Collegiate School" by Sir Syed Ahmad Khan in 1875, which later evolved as Aligarh Muslim University. It is one of the five senior secondary schools run by the university.
729 1875 Ed Muhammadan Anglo-Oriental College was founded in 1875 by Sir Syed Ahmad Khan, initially as a primary school, with the intention of taking it to a college level institution, known as Muhammedan Anglo Oriental Collegiate School. Its given Urdu name was Madrasatul Uloom Musalmanan-e-Hind. It started operations on Queen Victoria's 56th birthday, 24 May 1875.[1072]

It was established as Madrasatul Uloom Musalmanan-e-Hind in 1875, and after two years it became Muhammadan Anglo-Oriental College. The statesman Sir Syed Ahmad Khan founded the predecessor of Aligarh Muslim University, the Muhammadan Anglo Oriental College, in 1875 having already established two schools. These were part of the movement of Muslim awakening associated with Syed Ahmad Khan which came to be known as Aligarh Movement.[1073] He considered competence in English and "Western sciences" necessary skills for maintaining Muslims' political influence, especially in Northern India. Khan's image for the college was based on his visit to Oxford and Cambridge and he wanted to establish an education system similar to the British model.[1074]

730 1875 1900 F Birsa Munda (15 November 1875 – June 9 1900) was an Indian tribal freedom fighter, religious leader, and folk hero who belonged to the Munda tribe. He spearheaded a tribal religious millenarian movement that arose in the Bengal Presidency (now Jharkhand) in the late 19th century, during the British Raj, thereby making him an important figure in the history of the Indian independence movement.[1075] The revolt mainly concentrated in the Munda belt of Khunti, Tamar, Sarwada and Bandgaon.[1076]

His portrait hangs in the Indian Parliament Museum;[1077] he is the only tribal leader to have been so honored.[1078]

Principally a religious leader, Birsa Munda used the religious beliefs of his tribe in order to revolt against the government of British. He implemented guerrilla warfare techniques to upset the rhythm of the British troops.

Birsa Munda's slogan threatening the British Raj—Abua raj ete jana, maharani raj tundu jana ("Let the kingdom of the queen be ended and our kingdom be established")—is still remembered in areas of Jharkhand, Odisha, Bihar, West Bengal, and Madhya Pradesh.[1079]

It is said that around 7000 men and women assembled around Christmas of 1899, to herald the Ulgulaan (revolution) which soon spread to Khunti, Tamar, Basia, and Ranchi. The Anglican Mission at Murhu and the Roman Catholic Mission at Sarwada were the main targets. The Birsaits openly declared that the real enemies were the British and not Christian Mundas and called for a decisive war against the British. For two years, they attacked places loyal to the British.

On 5 January 1900, Birsa's followers killed two constables at Etkedih. On 7 January, they attacked Khunti Police station, killed a constable, and razed the houses of local shopkeepers. The commissioner, A. Fobes, and deputy commissioner, H.C. Streattfield, rushed to Khunti with an army of 150 to crush the rebellion. The British administration set a reward of Rs 500 for Birsa. The British forces attacked Munda guerillas at Dumbari Hill, indiscriminately firing on and killing hundreds of people. Birsa escaped to the hills of Singhbhum.

He was arrested at Jamkopai forest in Chakradharpur on 3 February 1900.[1080] According to Deputy commissioner Ranchi, vide letter, 460 tribals were made accused in 15 different criminal cases, out of which 63 were convicted. One was sentenced to death, 39 to transportation for life and 23 to imprisoned for terms up to fourteen years. There were six deaths, including that of Birsa Munda in the prison during trials. Birsa Munda died in jail on 9 June 1900.[1081]

After his death, the movement faded out. In 1908, the colonial government introduced the Chotanagpur Tenancy Act (CNT), which prohibits the transfer of tribal land to non-tribals.[1082][1083]

731 1875 1950 F Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel (31 October 1875 – 15 December 1950), popularly known as Sardar Patel, was an Indian statesman. He served as the first Deputy Prime Minister of India. He was an Indian barrister, and a senior leader of the Indian National Congress who played a leading role in the country's struggle for independence and guided its integration into a united, independent nation.[1084] He was one of the conservative members of the Indian National Congress. In India and elsewhere, he was often called Sardar, meaning "chief" in Hindi, Urdu, and Persian. He acted as Home Minister during the political integration of India and the Indo-Pakistani War of 1947.[1085]

He was a successful lawyer. He subsequently organised peasants from Kheda, Borsad, and Bardoli in Gujarat in non-violent civil disobedience against the British Raj, becoming one of the most influential leaders in Gujarat. He was appointed as the 49th President of Indian National Congress, organising the party for elections in 1934 and 1937 while promoting the Quit India Movement.

For his role in the Bardoli Satyagraha, Patel came to be known as Sardar.

As the first Home Minister and Deputy Prime Minister of India, Patel organised relief efforts for refugees fleeing to Punjab and Delhi from Pakistan and worked to restore peace. He led the task of forging a united India, successfully integrating into the newly independent nation those British colonial provinces that formed the Dominion of India.[1086] Besides those provinces that had been under direct British rule, approximately 565 self-governing princely states had been released from British suzerainty by the Indian Independence Act of 1947. Patel persuaded almost every princely state to accede to India. His commitment to national integration in the newly independent country was total and uncompromising, earning him the sobriquet "Iron Man of India".[1087] He is also remembered as the "patron saint of India's civil servants" for having established the modern all-India services system. He is also called the "Unifier of India".[1088]

732 1875 1951 F Syed Fazl-ul-Hasan (14 October 1875 – 13 May 1951), known by his pen-name Hasrat Mohani, was an Indian activist, freedom Fighter in the Indian independence movement and a noted poet of the Urdu language.[1089]

He coined the notable slogan Inquilab Zindabad (translation of "Long live the revolution!") in 1921.[1090] Together with Swami Kumaranand, he is regarded as the first person to demand complete independence for India in 1921 at the Ahmedabad Session of the Indian National Congress.[1091][1092]

He was among the founders of the Communist Party of India at Kanpur in 1925.[1091] He was also imprisoned for promoting anti-British ideas, especially for publishing an article against British policies in Egypt, in his magazine 'Urdu-e-Mualla'.

Afterwards, unlike some Urdu poets like Josh Malihabadi and many Muslim leaders, he chose to live in India rather than move to Pakistan after independence (1947) to represent left over Indian Muslims on various platforms. In recognition for his efforts, he was made a member of the constituent assembly which drafted the Indian constitution. But unlike other members, he never signed it.[1091]

733 1875 N The Statesman (India), English, Daily:

The Statesman is an Indian English-language broadsheet daily newspaper founded in 1875 and published simultaneously in Kolkata, New Delhi, Siliguri and Bhubaneswar. It incorporates and is directly descended from "The Friend of India", founded in 1818. It is owned by The Statesman Ltd and headquartered at Statesman House, Chowringhee Square, Kolkata, with its national editorial office at Statesman House, Connaught Place, New Delhi. It is a member of the Asia News Network.

734 1875 R The Arya Samaj was founded by the sannyasi (ascetic) Dayananda Saraswati.

Founded: April 10, 1875, Girgaon, Bombay, India. Motto: "Make the world noble!" Purposes: Education, Spirituality, Religious studies

Arya Samaj (Hindi: आर्य समाज, "Noble Society") is a monotheistic Indian Hindu reform movement that promotes values of based on the belief in the infallible authority of the Vedas. The samaj was founded by Maharishi Dayanand Saraswati on 10 April 1875.[1093] Members of the Arya Samaj reject idolatry.[1094]

Arya Samaj was the first Hindu organization to introduce proselytization in Hinduism.[1095][1096]

Members of the Arya Samaj believe in one God and reject the worship of idols Was founded 6 years after Gandhi's birth.

735 1875 R Theosophical Society :

The Theosophical Society, founded in 1875, is a worldwide body with the aim to advance the ideas of Theosophy in continuation of previous Theosophists, especially the Greek and Alexandrian Neo-Platonic philosophers dating back to 3rd century AD. It also encompasses wider religious philosophies like Vedānta, Mahāyāna Buddhism, Qabbalah, and Sufism.

The Theosophical Society functions as a bridge between East and West, emphasizing the commonality of human culture.[1097]

The term "theosophy" comes from the Greek theosophia, which is composed of two words: theos ("god", "gods", or "divine") and sophia ("wisdom"). Theosophia, therefore, may be translated as "wisdom of the gods", "wisdom in things divine", or "divine wisdom".

The Theosophical Society was officially formed in New York City, United States, on 17 November 1875 by Helena Petrovna Blavatsky, Colonel Henry Steel Olcott, William Quan Judge, and 16 others.[1098]

736 1876 A Max Muller, pioneer of comparative religion as a scholarly discipline, publishes 50-volume Sacred Books of the East, English translations of Indian-Oriental scriptures.[2]
737 1876 E Great Famine of 1876–1878 mishandled by Viceroy Lord Lytton.
738 1876 E Muhammad Ali Jinnah (born Mahomedali Jinnahbhai; 25 December 1876 – 11 September 1948) was a barrister, politician and the founder of Pakistan.[1099] Jinnah served as the leader of the All-India Muslim League from 1913 until the inception of Pakistan on 14 August 1947, and then as the Dominion of Pakistan's first Governor-General until his death. He is revered in Pakistan as the Quaid-i-Azam ("Great Leader") and Baba-i-Qaum ("Father of the Nation"). His birthday is observed as a national holiday in Pakistan.
739 1876 1901 Em Queen Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death in 1901. Known as the Victorian era, her reign of 63 years and seven months was longer than any previous British monarch. It was a period of industrial, political, scientific, and military change within the United Kingdom, and was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire.

In 1876, Parliament voted to grant her the additional title of Empress of India.

740 1876 1880 G Lord Lytton – Viceroy

Edward Robert Lytton Bulwer-Lytton, 1st Earl of Lytton, GCB, GCSI, GCIE, PC (8 November 1831 – 24 November 1891) was an English statesman, Conservative politician, and poet (who used the pseudonym Owen Meredith). He served as Viceroy of India between 1876 and 1880—during his tenure Queen Victoria was proclaimed Empress of India—and as British Ambassador to France from 1887 to 1891.

His tenure as Viceroy was controversial for its ruthlessness in both domestic and foreign affairs: especially for his handling of the Great Famine of 1876–78, and the Second Anglo-Afghan War. Lytton's policies were alleged to be informed by his Social Darwinism. His son Victor Bulwer-Lytton, 2nd Earl of Lytton, who was born in India, later served as Governor of Bengal and briefly as acting Viceroy. The senior earl was also the father-in-law of the architect Sir Edwin Lutyens, who designed New Delhi.

During his tenure as Viceroy ....

  • The Delhi Durbar was held on January 1 1877, to decorate Queen Victoria with the title of Kaiser-i-hind.
  • Statutory Civil Service in 1879. It was also laid down that the candidates had to appear and pass the civil services examination which began to be held in England. The maximum age for these candidates were reduced from 21 to 19 years.
  • Vernacular Press Act was passed in 1878.
741 1876 1901 P Queen Victoria (1819–1901) is proclaimed Empress of India.

After the Indian Rebellion of 1857, the British East India Company, which had ruled much of India, was dissolved, and Britain's possessions and protectorates on the Indian subcontinent were formally incorporated into the British Empire. The Queen had a relatively balanced view of the conflict, and condemned atrocities on both sides.[1100] She wrote of "her feelings of horror and regret at the result of this bloody civil war",[1101] and insisted, urged on by Albert, that an official proclamation announcing the transfer of power from the company to the state "should breathe feelings of generosity, benevolence and religious toleration".[1102] At her behest, a reference threatening the "undermining of native religions and customs" was replaced by a passage guaranteeing religious freedom.[1102]

In the 1874 general election, Disraeli was returned to power. He ....

  • Passed the Public Worship Regulation Act 1874, which removed Catholic rituals from the Anglican liturgy and which Victoria strongly supported.[1103] She preferred short, simple services, and personally considered herself more aligned with the presbyterian Church of Scotland than the episcopal Church of England.[1104]
  • Pushed the Royal Titles Act 1876 through Parliament, so that Victoria took the title "Empress of India" from 1 May 1876.[1105] The new title was proclaimed at the Delhi Durbar of 1 January 1877.[1106]
742 1876 1934 T List of dams and reservoirs in Tamil Nadu (pre-independence):
  • 2nd Century AD Kallanai Dam (built by Chola), Kaveri
  • 17th Centuiry AD Kodiveri Dam, Bhavani river
  • 1876 Puzhai Reservoir, Bhavani River
  • 1906 Pechiparai Reservoir, Kodayar River
  • 1934 Mettur Dam, Kaveri
743 1876 T Nain Singh Rawat (21 October 1830 – 1 February 1882) :

Rai Bahdur Nain Singh (21 October 1830 – 1 February 1882), also known as Nain Singh Rawat, was one of the first Indian explorers (dubbed "pundits") employed by the British to explore the Himalayas and Central Asia. He came from the Johar Valley in Kumaon. He surveyed the trade route through Ladakh to Tibet, determined the location and altitude of Lhasa in Tibet, and surveyed a large section of Brahmaputra.[1107] He walked "1,580 miles, or 3,160,000 paces, each counted".[1107]

In May 1877, Singh was awarded the Royal Geographic Society's Patron's Medal "for his great journeys and Surveys in Tibet and along the Upper Brahmaputra, he has determined the position of Lhasa, and positive knowledge of the map of Asia". Henry Yule received the award on Singh's behalf and in his acceptance speech said that "[Singh's] observations have added a larger amount of important knowledge to the map of Asia than those of any other living man."[1108]

744 1877 1947 A Lifetime of Sri Lanka's Ananda Coomaraswamy, foremost interpreter of Indian art and culture to the West.
745 1877 Ad The Delhi Durbar (meaning "Court of Delhi") was an Indian imperial-style mass assembly organized by the British at Coronation Park, Delhi, India, to mark the succession of an Emperor or Empress of India. Also known as the Imperial Durbar, it was held three times, in 1877, 1903, and 1911, at the height of the British Empire. The 1911 Durbar was the only one that a sovereign, George V, attended. The term was derived from the common Mughal term durbar.

The Delhi Durbar of 1877:

Called the "Proclamation Durbar", the Durbar of 1877, for which the organisation was undertaken by Thomas Henry Thornton, was held beginning on 1 January 1877 to proclaim Queen Victoria as Empress of India by the British. The 1877 Durbar was largely an official event and not a popular occasion with mass participation like later durbars in 1903 and 1911. It was attended by the 1st Earl of Lytton—Viceroy of India, maharajas, nawabs and intellectuals. This was the culmination of transfer of control of British India from the East India Company to the Crown.

746 1877 C Mir Ahmed Ali, Nawab Ali Nawaz Jung Bahadur (born on 11 July 1877) was chief engineer during the rule of Nizam of Hyderabad. He was responsible for major irrigation works, buildings and bridges in Hyderabad State such as Osman Sagar, Nizam Sagar Himayat Sagar and Ali Sagar reservoir of Nizamabad district, also named after him. He served as a chairman of National Planning Committee on River training and Irrigation.[1109]
747 1877 1946 F Bhulabhai Desai (13 October 1877 – 6 May 1946)

Bhulabhai Desai was an Indian independence activist and acclaimed lawyer. He is well-remembered for his defence of the three Indian National Army soldiers accused of treason during World War II, and for attempting to negotiate a secret power-sharing agreement with Liaquat Ali Khan of the Muslim League.

Desai-Liaquat pact :

While Mohandas Gandhi and the entire Congress Working Committee had been arrested during the Quit India movement, from 1942 to 1945, Desai was one of few Congress leaders free. While pressing demands for the immediate release of political prisoners, Desai began secretive talks with Liaquat Ali Khan, the second-most important leader of the Muslim League. However this assertion has been seriously challenged by other eminent people like Sir Chiman Lal Setalwad who have stated that Gandhi had full knowledge of the ongoing negotiations. It was their intention to negotiate an agreement for a future coalition government, which would enable a united choice for Hindus and Muslims for the independent Government of India. In this deal, Liaquat gave up the demand for a separate Muslim state in turn for parity of Muslims-to-Hindus in the council of ministers. Conceding the League as the representative of Muslims and giving a minority community equal place with the majority Hindus, Desai attempted to construct an ideal Indian alliance that would hasten India's path for freedom while ending the Quit India struggle. While Desai was working without the knowledge of Gandhi, Patel, Jawaharlal Nehru or any other Congress leader, Khan had kept the deal a secret from his superior, Muhammad Ali Jinnah.

When a press report leaked the prospective deal in 1945, the respective parties were alarmed. While Desai presented full information to Gandhi, Jinnah and the League outrightly rejected any agreements, and Liaquat Ali Khan denied that such a pact was being negotiated. Desai's assertion that a deal had been reached was ridiculed by the League, while Congress leaders were angry at him for conducting such negotiations without informing them. Bhulabhai Desai would lead a major effort in March 1945 to get the House to defeat the unpopular war budget, but he had lost political standing in his own party owing to the fallout of the Desai-Liaquat pact. He was not given a ticket to contest elections for the Constituent Assembly of India on grounds of his ill-health, but also due to feelings in the Congress that Desai had been advancing his own power and popularity while the Congress leadership was imprisoned. This should be kept in mind that at that time many a proceedings of the Indian National Congress were shrouded in secrecy and people like Sir Chiman Lal Setalwad have time and again asserted that Gandhi had full knowledge of the Desai-Liaquat pact and was in fact the silent force behind the negotiations. It is also a matter worth note that when Desai was on his death bed, Gandhi went to meet him and did not speak a single word citing his "Maunvrata" (a fast wherein people do not speak for a designated period of time).

INA soldiers trial :

When three captured Indian National Army (INA) officers, Shahnawaz Khan, Prem Kumar Sahgal and Gurbaksh Singh Dhillon were put on trial for treason, the Congress formed a Defence committee composed of 17 advocates including Bhulabhai Desai. The court-martial hearing began in October 1945 at the Red Fort. Bhulabhai was the leading counsel for the defence. Undeterred by poor health, Bhulabhai made an emphatic and passionate argument in defence of the charged soldiers. He worked for three months at a stretch. He cited international law in his arguments, arguing that the accused were entitled to take up arms to gain independence for their country under the order of the Provisional Government which Subhas Bose had established and which had the recognition of a few sovereign governments, and that the Indian Penal Code did not apply to their case. The judge nevertheless pronounced the three officers guilty and sentenced them to transportation for life. The accused were however released and during the course of the trials reignited the Indian freedom struggle leading to complete independence in 1947.

748 1877 T Victoria Bridge, Mandi, Himachal Pradesh

On River Beas was built by Raja Vijay Sen at a cost of Rs 1 lakh in 1877 to connect Old Mandi with New Mandi town. Design of the bridge was exactly like Victoria Bridge in Bath, England, buit across Avon river in 1836[1110][1111].

749 1877 T The Punalur Suspension Bridge located in Punalur is the oldest motorable Bridge in Kerala, which was built by Travancore Government and is now a historical attraction. The bridge has a length of 400 feet (120 m). The suspension bridge was built to prevent wild animals from crossing into the town from the forest area of old Kattupathanapuram.

The Punalur Suspension Bridge is the first motorable bridge in South India. The suspension bridge crossing the river is the only suspended-deck type in south India. Built in 1877 by Albert Henry across the Kallada River, this huge bridge was suspended by two spans and was used for vehicular movement. Construction took more than six years. It is said that after completion of the bridge people hesitated to walk over the bridge. In order to prove the strength of the bridge the engineer and his family passed under the bridge in a country boat while six elephants were walking over it. Now the bridge is of historical interest and is a major tourist attraction.[1112]

750 1878 1972 F C. Rajagopalachari (10 December 1878 – 25 December 1972) informally called Rajaji or C.R., was an Indian statesman, writer, lawyer, and independence activist.[1113] Rajagopalachari was the last Governor-General of India, as India soon became a Republic in 1950. He was also the first Indian-born governor-general, as all previous holders of the post were British nationals.[1114] He also served as leader of the Indian National Congress, Premier of the Madras Presidency, Governor of West Bengal, Minister for Home Affairs of the Indian Union and Chief Minister of Madras state. Rajagopalachari founded the Swatantra Party and was one of the first recipients of India's highest civilian award, the Bharat Ratna. He vehemently opposed the use of nuclear weapons and was a proponent of world peace and disarmament. During his lifetime, he also acquired the nickname 'Mango of Salem'.
751 1878 N The Hindu, English, Daily:

The Hindu is an English-language daily newspaper owned by The Hindu Group, headquartered in Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. It began as a weekly in 1878 and became a daily in 1889.[1115] It is one of the Indian newspapers of record[1116][1117] and the second most circulated English-language newspaper in India, after The Times of India.

The Hindu was founded in Madras on 20 September 1878 as a weekly newspaper, by what was known then as the Triplicane Six consisting of 4 law students and 2 teachers:- T. T. Rangacharya, P. V. Rangacharya, D. Kesava Rao Pantulu and N. Subba Rao Pantulu, led by G. Subramania Iyer (a school teacher from Tanjore district) and M. Veeraraghavacharyar, a lecturer at Pachaiyappa's College.[1118] Started in order to support the campaign of Sir T. Muthuswamy Iyer for a judgeship at the Madras High Court and to counter the propaganda against him carried out by the Anglo-Indian press, The Hindu was one of the newspapers of the period established to protest the policies of the British Raj. About 100 copies of the inaugural issue were printed at Srinidhi Press, Georgetown, on one rupee and twelve annas of borrowed money. Subramania Iyer became the first editor and Veera Raghavacharya, the first managing director of the newspaper.

752 1878 N Vernacular Press Act :

In British India, the Vernacular Press Act (1878) was enacted to curtail the freedom of the Indian press and prevent the expression of criticism toward British policies—notably, the opposition that had grown with the outset of the Second Anglo-Afghan War (1878–80).[1119] The Act was proposed by Lord Lytton, then Viceroy of India, and was unanimously passed by the Viceroy's Council on 14 March 1878. The act excluded English-language publications as it was meant to control seditious writing in 'publications in Oriental languages' everywhere in the country, except for the South. Thus the British totally discriminated against the (non-English language) Indian Press.

The act empowered the government to impose restrictions on the press in the following ways:

  1. Modelled on the Irish press act, this act provided the government with extensive rights to censor reports and editorials in the Vernacular press.
  2. From now on the government kept regular track of Vernacular newspapers.
  3. When a report published in the newspaper was judged as seditious, the newspaper was warned.

It elicited strong and sustained protests from a wide spectrum of the Indian populace.

General threats to the Indian language press included:

  1. Subversion of democratic institutions
  2. Agitations and violent incidents
  3. False allegations against British authorities or individuals
  4. Endangering law and order to disturb the normal functioning of the state
  5. Threats to internal stability

Any one or more of the above were punishable by law, but no redress could be sought in any court in the land.[1120]

The succeeding administration of Lord Ripon (governed 1880–84), reviewed the developments consequent upon the Act and finally withdrew it (1881). However, the resentment it produced among Indians helped fuel India's growing independence movement. The Indian Association, which is generally considered to be one of the precursors of the Indian National Congress, was one of the Act's biggest critics.[1119] The crucial demand for a judicial trial in case of an accusation of sedition against an editor was never conceded by the government. However, in October 1878 the act was modified in minor respect; the submission of proofs before publication was no longer insisted upon, although the bail-bond remained.[1121]

753 1878 1880 W The Second Anglo-Afghan War was a military conflict fought between the British Raj and the Emirate of Afghanistan from 1878 to 1880, when the latter was ruled by Sher Ali Khan of the Barakzai dynasty, the son of former Emir Dost Mohammad Khan. The war was part of the Great Game between the British and Russian empires.

The war was split into two campaigns – the first began in November 1878 with the British invasion of Afghanistan. The British were quickly victorious and forced the Amir – Sher Ali Khan to flee. Ali's successor Mohammad Yaqub Khan immediately sued for peace and the Treaty of Gandamak was then signed on 26 May 1879. The British sent an envoy and mission led by Sir Louis Cavagnari to Kabul but on 3 September this mission was massacred and the conflict was reignited by Ayub Khan which led to the abdication of Yaqub.[1122]

The second campaign ended in September 1880 when the British decisively defeated Ayub Khan outside Kandahar. A new Amir – Abdur Rahman Khan selected by the British, ratified and confirmed the Gandamak treaty once more. When the British and Indian soldiers had withdrawn, the Afghans agreed to let the British attain all of their geopolitical objectives, as well as create a buffer between the British Raj and the Russian Empire.[1123]

754 1879 Bu Bombay Dyeing & Manufacturing Company Limited (Bombay Dyeing) is the flagship company of the Wadia Group, engaged primarily in the business of Textiles. Bombay Dyeing is one of India's largest producers of textiles.[1124]

Products : Bed linen, Towels, Furnishings

755 1879 E The Leonidas (ship), first emigrant ship to Fiji, adds 498 Indian indentured labourers to the nearly 340,000 already working in other British empire colonies.

(Named after king Leonidas I of Sparta) was a labour transport ship (schooner) that played an important role in the history of Fiji. She had been earlier used to carry indentured labourers to the West Indies, having transported 580 Indian indentured labourers to St Lucia in 1878. Captained by McLachlan, the ship departed from Calcutta, India on 3 March 1879 and arrived at Levuka, Fiji, on 14 May that year.[1125] The indentured labourers who disembarked were the first of over 61,000 to arrive from the Indian Sub-continent over the following 37 years, forming the nucleus of the Fiji Indian community that now numbers close to forty percent of Fiji's population.

756 1879 1915 F Bagha Jatin, born Jatindranath Mukherjee (7 December 1879 – 10 September 1915), was an Indian freedom fighter.

Involved in The Howrah-Sibpur conspiracy case, Hindu-German Conspiracy.

He was the principal leader of the Jugantar party that was the central association of revolutionary freedom fighters in Bengal.

Inspired by Swami Vivekananda, Jatin expressed his ideals in simple words: "Amra morbo, jaat jagbe" — "We shall die to awaken the nation".[1126] It is corroborated in the tribute paid to Jatin by Charles Tegart, the Intelligence Chief and Police Commissioner of Bengal: "Though I had to do my duty, I have a great admiration for him. He died in an open fight."[1127]

Later in life, Tegart admitted: "Their driving power (...) immense: if the army could be raised or the arms could reach an Indian port, the British would lose the War". Professor Tripathi analysed the added dimensions revealed by the Howrah Case proceedings: acquire arms locally and abroad; raise a guerrilla; create a rising with Indian soldiers; Jatin Mukherjee's action helped improve (especially economically) the people's status. "He had indeed an ambitious dream."[1128]

757 1879 1949 F Sarojini Naidu (née Chattopadhyay; 13 February 1879 – 2 March 1949)[1129] was an Indian political activist and poet. A proponent of civil rights, women's emancipation, and anti-imperialistic ideas, she was an important figure in India's struggle for independence from colonial rule. Naidu's work as a poetess earned her the sobriquet 'the Nightingale of India', or 'Bharat Kokila' by Mahatma Gandhi because of colour, imagery and lyrical quality of her poetry.[1130]

Born in a Bengali family in Hyderabad, Naidu was educated in Madras, London and Cambridge. Following her time in England, where she worked as a suffragist, she was drawn to Indian National Congress' movement for India's independence from British rule. She became a part of the Indian nationalist movement and became a follower of Mahatma Gandhi and his idea of swaraj. She was appointed as the President of the Indian National Congress in 1925 and later became the Governor of the United Provinces in 1947, becoming the first woman to hold the office of Governor in the Dominion of India.

Naidu's poetry includes both children's poems and others written on more serious themes including patriotism, romance, and tragedy. Published in 1912, "In the Bazaars of Hyderabad" remains one of her most popular poems. She married Govindarajulu Naidu, a general physician, and had five children with him. She died of a cardiac arrest on 2 March 1949.

758 1879 1941 F Herabai Tata (1879–1941) was an Indian women's rights activist and suffragist. Married in 1895, Tata's husband was progressive and supported the education of his wife and daughter, hiring tutors to help her with her schooling. In 1909, Tata, who was Parsi, developed an interest in Theosophy and within a few years made the acquaintance of Annie Besant. Around the same time, in 1911, she met Sophia Duleep Singh, a British suffragist with Indian heritage, who influenced her development as a suffragist. A founding member and the general secretary of the Women's Indian Association, she became one of the women who petitioned for enfranchisement before the Montagu-Chelmsford investigation in 1917.
759 1879 1973 F Periyar E. V. Ramasamy, (17 September 1879 – 24 December 1973):

Erode Venkatappa Ramasamy[1131], commonly known as Periyar or Thanthai Periyar, was an Indian social activist and politician who started the Self-Respect Movement and Dravidar Kazhagam. He is known as the 'Father of the Dravidian movement'.[1132] He rebelled against Brahminical dominance and gender and caste inequality in Tamil Nadu.[1133][1134][1135]

E.V. Ramasamy joined the Indian National Congress in 1919, but resigned in 1925 when he felt that the party was only serving the interests of Brahmins. He questioned the subjugation of non-Brahmin Dravidians as Brahmins enjoyed gifts and donations from non-Brahmins but opposed and discriminated against non-Brahmins in cultural and religious matters.[1136][1137] In 1924, E.V. Ramasamy participated in non-violent agitation (satyagraha) in Vaikom, Travancore. From 1929 to 1932 Ramasamy made a tour of British Malaya, Europe, and Soviet Union which influenced him.[1138][1139][1140] In 1939, E.V. Ramasamy became the head of the Justice Party,[1141] and in 1944, he changed its name to Dravidar Kazhagam.[1142] The party later split with one group led by C. N. Annadurai forming the Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (DMK) in 1949.[1142] While continuing the Self-Respect Movement, he advocated for an independent Dravida Nadu (land of the Dravidians).[1143]

E.V. Ramasamy promoted the principles of rationalism, self-respect, women’s rights and eradication of caste. He opposed the exploitation and marginalisation of the non-Brahmin Dravidian people of South India and the imposition of what he considered Indo-Aryan India.

760 1879 1950 Tr In 1879, the Nizam's Guaranteed State Railway was established which built several railway lines across the then Hyderabad State with Kacheguda railway station serving as its headquarters.

Nizam's Guaranteed State Railway (NGSR) was a railway company operating in India from 1879 to 1950. It was owned by the Nizams of Hyderabad State, and its full name was His Exalted Highness, The Nizam's Guaranteed State Railway. The company began with a line built privately by the HEH, the Nizam, which was owned and operated by the company under a guarantee from the Hyderabad State, much to the dismay of the British authorities. Capital for the line was raised by issuing redeemable mortgage debentures. The Nizam's railway was eventually consolidated with the Hyderabad-Godavari Valley Railway (HGVR). In 1951, both the NGSR and the HGVR were nationalised and merged into Indian Railways.

761 1880 1936 C Munshi Premchand, (31 July 1880 - 8 October 1936) :

Dhanpat Rai Srivastava[1144], better known by his pen name Munshi Premchand[1145][1146], was an Indian writer famous for his modern Hindustani literature. He is one of the most celebrated writers of the Indian subcontinent,[1147] and is regarded as one of the foremost Hindi writers of the early twentieth century.[1148] His novels include Godaan, Karmabhoomi, Gaban, Mansarovar, Idgah. He published his first collection of five short stories in 1907 in a book called Soz-e Watan.

He began writing under the pen name "Nawab Rai", but subsequently switched to "Premchand", Munshi being an honorary prefix. A novel writer, story writer and dramatist, he has been referred to as the "Upanyas Samrat" ("Emperor among Novelists") by writers. His works include more than a dozen novels, around 300 short stories, several essays and translations of a number of foreign literary works into Hindi.

762 1880 1937 F Virendranath Chattopadhyaya, alias Chatto, (1880 – 2 September 1937, Moscow), was a prominent Indian revolutionary who worked to overthrow the British Raj in India using armed force. He created alliances with the Germans during World War I, was part of the Berlin Committee organising Indian students in Europe against the British, and explored actions by the Japanese at the time.

He went to Moscow in 1920 to develop support by the Communists for the Indian movement, including among Asians in Moscow who were working on revolutionary movements. He joined the German Communist Party (KPD). He lived in Moscow for several years in the 1930s. Arrested in July 1937 in Joseph Stalin's Great Purge, Chatto was executed on 2 September 1937. He was the brother of prominent political activist and poet Sarojini Naidu.

In January–February 1934, Chatto exchanged letters with Krupskaya (Lenin's widow). On 18 March 1934 he gave a talk about his reminiscences of Vladimir Lenin.[1149] He wrote to Georgi Dimitrov, Comintern's Secretary-General, on 9 September 1935: "For three years I have been kept away from active work in the Comintern." Clemens Palme Dutt (the brother of Rajani Palme Dutt), mentioned having seen Chatto for the last time in 1936/37 at the department of ethnography of the Academy of Science in Leningrad.[1150]

Chattopadhyaya was arrested on 15 July 1937 during the Great Purge of Stalin. His name appeared on a death list among 184 other persons, which was signed on 31 August 1937 by Stalin, Molotov, Voroshilov, Zhdanov and Kaganovich.[1151] The death sentence was pronounced by Military Collegium of the Supreme Court of the USSR on 2 September 1937 and Chatto was executed the same day.

On 10 July 1938, A. C. N. Nambiar, Chattopadhyaya's brother-in-law, wrote to Nehru about the arrest. He replied on 21 July, agreeing to try to find out about Chattopadhyaya's fate.

Chatto was well known in Great Britain and India as a revolutionary. He is believed to have inspired Somerset Maugham's character of "Chandralal" in his short story, "Giulia Lazzari;" (its character of Ashenden was based upon Maugham). The American writer Agnes Smedley, who was involved with Chatto for eight years, used him as a model for the character Ananda in her novel Daughter of Earth.. The Indian revolutionary in Berlin, A C N Nambiar, had married Chatto's sister Suhasini.

763 1880 1961 F Bhupendranath Datta (4 September 1880 – 25 December 1961)[1152] was an Indian revolutionary and later a noted sociologist and anthropologist. He associated Rishi Aurobindo in his political works. In his youth, he was closely associated with the Jugantar movement, serving as the editor of Jugantar Patrika till his arrest and imprisonment in 1907. In his later revolutionary career, he was privy to the Indo-German Conspiracy. His elder brother was Swami Vivekananda. The Asiatic Society today holds the Dr. Bhupendranath Datta memorial lecture in his honour.

Datta was a writer too. He wrote several books on Indian culture and society. He wrote a book named "Swami Vivekananda, Patriot-prophet".

Bhupendranath Datta was arrested in 1907 for his involvement in the Jugantar Movement and for working as the editor of a revolutionary newspaper called ‘Jugantar Patrika’. Post his release, he joined the Ghadar Party and went on to become the secretary of Indian Independence Committee. Bhupendranath Datta fought for Indian independence from outside the country.

Indo-German Conspiracy, member of Anushilan Samiti.

764 1880 1957 F Amarendranath Chatterjee (1 July 1880 – 4 September 1957) was an Indian independence movement activist. In charge of raising funds for the Jugantar movement, his activities largely covered revolutionary centres in Bihar, Odisha and the United Provinces.

Since Sri Aurobindo's retiring to Pondicherry in 1910, Amarendra closely associated with Jatin's followers such as Atulkrishna Ghosh, M.N. Roy and Bepin Ganguli, and served as intermediary between Jatin Mukherjee and Rasbehari Bose, becoming a key-figure in the Indo-German Conspiracy under Jatin during World War I. Two of his faithful lieutenants – Basanta and Manmatha Biswas went to North India to assist Rasbehari in an attempt to murder Lord Hardinge; immediately after Basanta's capital punishment in this connection, Amarendra was blacklisted by the Police.

765 1880 1959 F Barindra Kumar Ghosh (5 January 1880 – 18 April 1959)

Barindra Kumar Ghosh or Barindra Ghosh, or, popularly, Barin Ghosh was an Indian revolutionary and journalist. He was one of the founding members of Jugantar Bengali weekly, a revolutionary outfit in Bengal. Barindra Ghosh was a younger brother of Sri Aurobindo.

A key founding member of Jugantar Party, Barindra Kumar Ghosh carried out many revolutionary activities including the famous Alipore bombing. He even published a weekly named ‘Jugantar’ that propagated anti-British and revolutionary ideas. He also formed a group that was responsible in making bombs and other ammunition in a secret place.

766 1880 1967 F Pandurang Mahadev Bapat, popularly known as Senapati Bapat (12 November 1880 – 28 November 1967)

After earning a scholarship to study engineering in Britain, Senapati Bapat focused on bomb-making skills instead of learning engineering. He returned to India with his newly acquired skill and became one of the members who were involved in the Alipore bombing case. Senapati Bapat is also credited for educating his countrymen about the British rule as many of them hadn’t even realized that their country was being ruled by the British.

767 1880 1884 G George Robinson, 1st Marquess of Ripon (Lord Rippon) – Viceroy

When Gladstone returned to power in 1880 he appointed Ripon Viceroy of India, an office he held until 1884. During his time in India, Ripon ....

  • Introduced Legislation in 1883 (the "Ilbert Bill", named for his secretary, Courtenay Ilbert), that would have granted native Indians more legal rights, including the right of Indian judges to judge Europeans in court. Though progressive in its intent, the legislation was scuppered by Europeans living in India who did not want to be tried by a native judge. In this Ripon was supported by Florence Nightingale,
  • Was backed by Nightingale in his efforts to obtain a Bengal land tenancy bill (eventually the Bengal Tenancy Act 1885) that would improve the situation of the peasants.
  • Rpealed the controversial Vernacular Press Act of 1878 passed by Lytton, in 1882.
  • Raised age for the entry in Civil Service exam to 21 years.
  • Passed First Factory act in 1881, it prohibited the child labour.
  • Passed Local Self Government act in 1882.
  • Promoted the Indian Famine Codes.
  • Was also instrumental in supporting Dietrich Brandis to reorganize the Madras Forest Department and expand systematic forest conservancy in India.
768 1880 1884 G George Robinson, 1st Marquess of Ripon (Lord Rippon) – Viceroy

In 1883, Lord Ripon joined a shooting party organised by the Maharaja of Darbhanga which had a total bag of 1683, including 4 tigers, 47 buffaloes, 280 pigs and 467 deer. The remainder being ″small game″. There was some criticism at ″... such wholesale destruction, particularly as it happens to be the breeding season.″

He is still revered in Madras, India as "Lord Ripon engal appan" meaning: Lord Ripon, our father. The Corporation of Chennai's Ripon Building was named for him, as well as the town of Riponpet in the Shivamogga district in the state of Karnataka. In Calcutta, the Ripon Street was named for him. The Ghanta Ghar Multan or Clock Tower of Multan in Pakistan was named Ripon Building and hall of same building was named Ripon Hall. The Ripon Club in Mumbai (formerly Bombay) founded in 1884 by the Parsis for their community members, was named after him.

769 1880 1908 W George Robinson, 1st Marquess of Ripon (Lord Rippon) – (1884 to 1908)

Lord Ripon also became a supporter of Home Rule for Ireland. In Gladstone's 1886 government he was First Lord of the Admiralty, and in the government of 1892 to 1895 he was Secretary of State for the Colonies. When the Liberals again returned to power in 1905 under Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman, he took office, aged 78, as Lord Privy Seal and Leader of the House of Lords. In 1908, he declined to remain as Lords leader when H. H. Asquith became Prime Minister in April, and he resigned as Lord Privy Seal in October.

As noted by Neil Smith, Ripon's liberalism had roots in the mid-nineteenth century, but his political views “shifted with the times.” According to Smith “he was greatly interested in labour questions, deeply sympathetic to labour aspirations and believed the state might interfere with wages and that the state had a duty to deal with unemployment".

770 1881 1970 F Bhavabhushan Mitra (1881– 27 January 1970)

Bhavabhushan Mitra took part in many Indian independence movements including the famous Non Cooperation Movement and Quit India Movement. He was also a prominent social worker who sought a few important changes in the Indian society in order to achieve complete independence from the British rule. He was also arrested for his revolutionary activities. Ghadar Mutiny

771 1881 2 Feb N The Tribune (Chandigarh), English, Daily

The Tribune is an Indian English-language daily newspaper published from Amritsar, Jalandhar, Ludhiana, Bathinda, Chandigarh and New Delhi. It was founded on 2 February 1881, in Lahore, Punjab (now in Pakistan), by Sardar Dyal Singh Majithia, a philanthropist, and is run by a trust comprising five persons as trustees.

It is a major Indian newspaper with a worldwide circulation.

772 1881 N Kesari (newspaper), Marathi

Kesari (Marathi: Sanskrit for Lion) is a Marathi newspaper which was founded in 1881 by Lokmanya Bal Gangadhar Tilak, a prominent leader of the Indian Independence movement. The newspaper was used as a spokes piece for the Indian national freedom movement, and continues to be published by the Kesari Maratha Trust and Tilak's descendants.

Bal Gangadhar Tilak used to run his two newspapers, Kesari, in Marathi and Mahratta (Run by Kesari-Maratha Trust) in English from Kesari Wada, Narayan Peth, Pune. The newspapers were originally started as a co-operative by Chiplunkar, Agarkar and Tilak.

773 1881 P The first synchronous Census of India was taken under British rule on February 17, 1881, by Sir William Chichele Plowden, Census Commissioner of India. Since then, censuses have been undertaken uninterruptedly once every ten years.

In this census, the main emphasis was not only laid on complete coverage but also on the classification of demographic, economic and social characteristic took in the entire continent of British India (except Kashmir).

The first complete census of India was conducted in 1830 by Henry Walter in Dacca (now Dhaka). In this census the statistics of the population with sex, broad age group, and the houses with their amenities were collected.

Second Census was conducted in 1836–37 by Fort St.George.

774 1881 Bombay R St. Anne's Church: Byculla is home to St. Anne's Church in Mazagon. The present structure of St Anne's Church was erected in 1881 on top of the foundation of the small chapel that was originally built in 1787. The original chapel was erected by an Armenian woman called Rose Nesbit. The land on which the chapel (and now St Anne's Church) was built was her farmland, on the Island of Mazagon where she lived with her parents.
775 1881 T The Hanging Gardens of Mumbai, also known as Pherozeshah Mehta Gardens, are terraced gardens perched at the top of Malabar Hill, on its western side, just opposite the Kamala Nehru Park. They provide sunset views over the Arabian Sea and feature numerous hedges carved into the shapes of animals.

The park was laid out in 1881 by Ulhas Gokhale over Bombay's main reservoir, some say to cover the water from the potentially contaminating activity of the nearby Towers of Silence. When seen from the air, the walkway inside the park (Hanging Gardens Path), spell out the letters PMG (Pherozeshah Mehta Gardens) in cursive.

776 1882 1963 F Abinash Chandra Bhattacharya (16 October 1882-7 March 1963) was an important leader in Revolutionary movement for Indian independence or a radical Indian nationalist noted for his role in the Indo-German Conspiracy (Hindu–German Conspiracy) of World War I. Born in "Chunta" in the district of Tripura, India, Bhattacharya in his youth became involved with the works of the Anushilan Samiti.

In 1910, Abinash Bhattacharya proceeded to Germany to qualify as a Chemist at Martin Luther University of Halle-Wittenberg. He obtained his PhD in Chemistry from there.

Bhattacharya became one of the Key founding member of the Berlin Committee, which during the war came to be involved in a number of failed plans for nationalist revolution within India and mutiny in the Indian Army.

He returned to India in 1914 and founded a chemical factory known as "Techno Chemical Laboratory and Works Limited" in Calcutta. He is known as "Pioneer in Industrial Chemistry".

777 1882 1921 F Subramania Bharati (11 December 1882 – 11 September 1921)

A poet by profession, Subramania Bharati used his literary skills to inspire thousands of Indians during the independence movement. His works were often impassioned and patriotic in nature. In 1908, Bharati had to flee to Puducherry when the British government issued an arrest warrant against him. A prominent member of the Indian National Congress, Bharati continued his revolutionary activities from Puducherry.

The Bharathiyar Illam[1153] Chennai is the house of the greatest Tamil Poet, Subramania Bharati. The works of this poet is considered to be exceptional. Bharathiyar Illlam is now one of the popular tourist attractions of Madras.

778 1883 1909 F Madan Lal Dhingra (8 February 1883 – 17 August 1909)

One of the earliest revolutionaries who sacrificed his life for the sake of his motherland, Madan Lal Dhingra served as an inspiration to other important revolutionaries, such as Bhagat Singh and Chandra Shekhar Azad. When he was studying Mechanical Engineering in England, Dhingra murdered Sir William Hutt Curzon Wyllie for which he was sentenced to death.

Several weeks before assassinating Curzon Wyllie, Dhingra had tried to kill George Curzon, Viceroy of India. He had also planned to assassinate the ex-Governor of Bengal, Bampfylde Fuller, but was late for a meeting the two were to attend could not carry out his plan. Dhingra then decided to kill Curzon Wyllie. Curzon Wylie had joined the British Army in 1866 and the Indian Political Department in 1879. He was also the head of the Secret Police and had been trying to obtain information about Savarkar and his fellow revolutionaries. Curzon Wyllie was said to have been a close friend of Dhingra's father.

779 1883 1909 F Madan Lal Dhingra:

On the evening of 1 July 1909, Dhingra, along with a large number of Indians and Englishmen had gathered to attend the annual 'At Home' function hosted by the Indian National Association at the Imperial Institute. When Sir Curzon Wyllie, political aide-de-camp to the Secretary of State for India, was leaving the hall with his wife, Dhingra fired five shots right at his face, four of which hit their target. Cawas Lalcaca (or Lalkaka), a Parsee doctor who tried to save Sir Curzon, died of Dhingra's sixth and seventh bullets, which he fired because Lalcaca had come between them. Dhingra's suicide attempt failed and he was overpowered. He was arrested immediately by the police. Madan Lal Dhingra was hanged on 17 August 1909 at HM Prison Pentonville.

780 1883 1966 F Vinayak Damodar Savarkar (28 May 1883 – 26 February 1966)

The founder of Abhinav Bharat Society and Free India Society, Vinayak Damodar Savarkar was an activist and was popularly known as Swatantryaveer Savarkar. Also an eminent writer, Savarkar published a book titled ‘The Indian War of Independence’ that spoke about the struggles of the Indian mutiny of 1857. He formulated the Hindu nationalist philosophy of Hindutva. He was a leading personality in the Hindu Mahasabha. Savarkar joined the Hindu Mahasabha and popularized the term Hindutva (Hinduness), previously coined by Chandranath Basu, to create a collective "Hindu" identity as an essence of Bharat (India). Savarkar was an atheist and also a pragmatic practitioner of Hindu philosophy.

781 1883 30 Oct R Maharishi Dayananda Saraswati dies.
782 1883 T The Indian Telegraph Act, 1885, passed in 1883, was intended to give the Central Government power to establish telegraph lines on private as well as public property. At the time the Act was conceived, India was still under the rule of the British Raj. Telegraph was first installed in 1851 and a trans-India telegraph was completed three years later in 1854.

The telegraph had become, in the intervening thirty years, an important tool for British dominion over India by quelling rebellions and consolidating information. It was thus important for the British to have control of telegraphy and infrastructure across the subcontinent.

The act came into force on 1 October 1885. Since that time, numerous amendments have been passed to update the act to respond to changes in technology.

783 1884 1885 BE European nations meet in Berlin to divide Africa. Britain wins the most territory, which stretches from South Africa to Egypt[28].
784 1884 1939 F Lala Har Dayal (14 October 1884 – 4 March 1939)

A revolutionary among Indian nationalists, Lala Har Dayal turned down a lucrative job offer and went on to inspire hundreds of non-resident Indians to fight against the atrocities of the British Empire. In 1909, he served as the editor of Bande Mataram, a nationalist publication founded by the Paris Indian Society.

785 1884 1958 F Tarak Nath Das (15 June 1884 – 22 December 1958)

Tarak Nath Das was a shrewd freedom fighter, who instead of getting himself involved in revolutionary activities, found a more profound way of fighting for the country’s freedom. During a meeting in 1906, Tarak Nath Das, along with Jatindra Nath Mukherjee, decided to fly out to pursue higher education. But the real motive behind his act was to learn military knowledge and to create sympathy among leaders of the Western countries in order to seek their support for a free India.

786 1884 1888 G Lord Dufferin – Viceroy. (Frederick Hamilton-Temple-Blackwood, 1st Marquess of Dufferin and Ava)

He possessed enough of his ancestor's literary gifts and political bile to gain a reputation for having "an iron hand inside the velvet glove". He excelled as a diplomat, particularly as British ambassador in St. Petersburg and as governor-general of Canada, leading to his appointment as India's viceroy. The home government expected Dufferin to smooth over the ruffled feathers of the British Indian Civil Service which had revolted against the efforts of his predecessor (Lord Ripon, viceroy 1880–1884) to give Indians an opportunity to gain experience in modern government. Dufferin proved equal to that task.

When the short-lived jingoistic Conservative ministry of Lord Randolph Churchill came to power in 1885, Dufferin obediently fulfilled the prime minister's desire to annex Upper Burma, though the high cost of that venture forced Dufferin to drain India's famine fund and to impose an income tax. These steps alienated Western-educated Indians—whose continued loyalty Ripon had wisely identified as the key to the continuance of the Raj—and led directly to the formation of the Indian National Congress.

The emergence of the Congress alarmed the home government, which urged Dufferin to find some harmless means of answering its critiques of British Indian administration, such as through the appointment of token Indians to the Council of India. He responded by holding a brief dialogue with Congress cofounder Allan Octavian Hume, but Dufferin's own hatred of nationalism among subject-peoples—borne perhaps of his experiences as a harsh northern Irish landlord—resulted in a deeply racist antipathy for its Indian counterpart. He refused to believe that there was "one Indian fit" for any high public office.

787 1884 T Postal Life Insurance (PLI) was introduced on 1 February 1884 with the express approval of the Secretary of State (for India) to Her Majesty, the Queen Empress of India. It was essentially a welfare scheme for the benefit of Postal employees in 1884 and later extended to the employees of Telegraph Department in 1888. In 1894, PLI extended insurance cover to female employees of P & T Department at a time when no other insurance company covered female lives. It is the oldest life insurer in this country[1154].
788 1885 1965 F Ullaskar Dutta (16 April 1885 – 17 May 1965) was an Indian revolutionary associated with Anushilan Samiti and Jugantar of Bengal and was a close associate of Barindra nath Ghosh.

Ullaskar was a member of the Jugantar party and he became expert in bomb-making. Khudiram Bose used a bomb manufactured by Ullaskar and Hem Chandra Das in an attempt to murder the venerable magistrate, Kingsford. However, police caught many members of the Jugantar group including Ullaskar Dutta, Barindra Ghosh and Khudiram.

In the famous Alipore bomb case (Emperor vs Aurobindo Ghosh and others), Ullaskar was arrested on 2 May 1908 and he was sentenced to death by hanging in 1909. Later, on appeal, the verdict was reduced to transportation for life and he was deported to the Cellular Jail in Andaman. Ullaskar was subjected to brutal torture in the Cellular Jail and is said have lost his mental balance. He was set free in 1920 and he returned to Kolkata.

Ullaskar was again arrested in 1931 and sentenced to 18 months imprisonment. He returned to his home village Kalikachha when colonial rule ended in 1947. After a lonely life of 10 years, he returned to Kolkata in 1957. After returning to Kolkata he married his childhood friend Lila, daughter of Bipin Chandra Pal at that time she was a physically challenged widow woman and went to Silchar, the district town of Cachar District of Assam and spent his later life there. He died on 17 May 1965.

789 1885 1933 F Jatindra Mohan Sengupta (22 February 1885 – 23 July 1933)

A lawyer by profession, Jatindra Mohan Sengupta defended and saved many young revolutionaries from being sentenced to death. He even joined the Indian National Congress and went on to actively take part in the Non-cooperation movement. He was arrested on several occasions before he eventually died while being held as a prisoner in Ranchi.

790 1885 28 Dec P Formation of "Indian National Congress". First session held at Bombay on 28th Dec. Attended by 72 delegates.

The Indian National Congress was founded in 1885 by Indian and British members of the Theosophical Society to obtain a greater share in government for educated Indians and create a platform for civic and political dialogue between educated Indians and the British Raj. The Indian National Congress was to be a voice of Indian opinion to the British government.

From its foundation on 28 December 1885 by Allan Octavian Hume until the time of independence of India on 15 August 1947, the Indian National Congress was considered to be the largest and most prominent Indian public organization, and central and defining influence of the Indian Independence Movement.

Indian National Congress was founded initially as a moderate body to press for greater opportunities for all Indians irrespective of religion. Demands include end of discriminatory practices in employment, greater public spending on education and lower taxes on the mass of poverty-stricken peasantry. Within the next few years, the organization decided to advocate in favor of the independence movement. After internal conflicts over how to win independence, the moderate faction advocating gradual reforms won leadership over the radical faction that called for an open rebellion.

791 1885 P Lord Randolph Churchill becomes Secretary of State for India
792 1885 Bombay P In Bombay, Indian National Congress formed at Gowalia Tank Maidan.

The Indian National Congress is a political party in India with widespread roots. Founded in 1885, it was the first modern nationalist movement to emerge in the British Empire in Asia and Africa. Gowalia Tank Maidan is a park in Tardeo, central Mumbai where Mahatma Gandhi issued the Quit India Movement speech on 8 August 1942 decreeing that the British must leave India immediately or else mass agitations would take place.

793 1885 W King Leopold II of Belgium born on 9th April.

In 1885, Leopold and his army adventured into Congo. And for 23 years until 1908, he hellishly colonized the Congo (now known as the Democratic Republic of Congo and previously known as Zaire) and turned it into his private multi-billion corporation. In the process, he viciously forced the indigenous people to produce massive daily quotas of ivory and later much more massive daily quotas of rubber.

Mark Twain sardonically ridiculed the Belgian monarch in King Leopold’s Soliloquy. Arthur Conan Doyle, author of Sherlock Holmes, in 1909 penned The Crime of The Congo to expose Leopold’s brutality as a crime against humanity. Joseph Conrad’s 1902 book, Heart of Darkness, was a fictional but accurate account of Leopold’s barbaric reign and that book was later made into a movie, Apocalypse Now starring Marlon Brando.

But the greatest denunciation came from Roger Casement, an Irish nationalist and Easter Rising leader, who (surprisingly) wrote Britain’s official document regarding Leopold’s wickedness in the Congo. That document, dated 1903, is entitled The Casement Report and it goes into gory detail. It’s both a must read and a disturbing read.

794 1886 1969 A Khan Bahadur Ardeshir Irani (5 December 1886 – 14 October 1969) was a writer, director, producer, actor, film distributor, film showman and cinematographer in the silent and sound eras of early Indian cinema. He was the one of the greatest legend of today's Indian Cinema.

He was the director of India's first sound film Alam Ara. He was the producer of India's first colour film Kisan Kanya. He was renowned for making films in Hindi, Telugu language, English language, German language, Indonesian language, Persian language, Urdu and Tamil language. He was a successful entrepreneur who owned film theatres, a gramophone (Phonograph record) agency, and a car agency.

795 1886 Bu The Burmah Oil Company was a leading British oil business company founded as the Rangoon Oil Company in Glasgow in 1886, by David Sime Cargill to develop oil fields in the Indian subcontinent. In the late 1890s, it passed into the ownership of Sir Campbell Kirkman Finlay, whose family already possessed vast colonial interests through their trading vehicle James Finlay and Co.

In the first decade of the 20th century, Burmah Oil created a subsidiary company named Anglo-Persian Oil Company (APOC) – later Anglo-Iranian Oil Company, then British Petroleum and eventually BP. It restricted its downstream interests to the Indian subcontinent, where BP had no business interests. In 1923, the company gave £5,000 (£236,000 in 2011 money) to future Prime Minister Winston Churchill to lobby the British government to allow them sole control over oil resources in Persia.

It played a major role in the oil industry in the Indian subcontinent for about a century through its subsidiaries, and in the discovery of oil in the Middle East through its significant influence over British Petroleum. It marketed itself under the BOC brand in Burma, Bangladesh (formerly East Pakistan) and Assam (in India) and through a joint venture Burmah-Shell with Shell in the rest of India.

796 1886 1911 F Vanchinathan Iyer (1886 – 17 June 1911), popularly known as Vanchinathan or Vanchi, was an Indian revolutionary. He is best remembered for murdering Robert William Escourt Ashe, also known as Robert Ashe (administrator), the British Tax Collector of Thirunelveli.

On 17 June 1911, Vanchi who was 25, assassinated Robert Ashe, the district collector of Tirunelveli, who was also known as Collector Dorai. He shot Ashe at point-blank range when Ashe's train had stopped at the Maniyachi Station, en route to Madras. He committed suicide thereafter. The railway station has since been renamed Vanchi Maniyachchi.

For the first time in the history of independent India, a Dalit group paid floral tributes to Ashe. “Since this great Briton was against untouchability and recognised the Dalits as human beings even when the caste-ridden society took all-out measures to oppress them, we pay floral tributes to the slain Collector,” justified members of Aathi Thamizhar Katchi[1155].

797 1886 1945 F Rash Behari Bose (25 May 1886 – 21 January 1945)

Rash Behari Bose was one of the most important revolutionaries who tried to assassinate Lord Hardinge (Charles Hardinge, 1st Baron Hardinge of Penshurst), the then Viceroy of India. Along with other revolutionaries, Bose is credited for organizing Ghadar Mutiny and the Indian National Army. He was also involved in persuading the Japanese to help the Indians in their struggle for freedom. He was one of the key organisers of the Ghadar Mutiny, and later the Indian National Army. Rash Behari Bose handed over Indian National Army to Subhas Chandra Bose.

Following the attempt to assassinate Lord Hardinge, Rash Behari was forced to go into hiding. The attempt was made on 23 December 1912 in Delhi when Lord Hardinge was in a ceremonial procession transferring the capital from Calcutta to New Delhi. He was attacked near the Red Fort by Basanta Kumar Biswas a disciple of Amrendar Chatterjee, but missed the target and failed. The bomb was made by Manindra Nath Nayak. Bose was hunted by the colonial police due to his active participation in the failed assassination attempt directed at the Governor General and Viceroy Lord Charles Hardinge in Delhi. He returned to Dehradun by the night train and joined the office the next day as though nothing had happened. Further, he organized a meeting of loyal citizens of Dehradun to condemn the dastardly attack on the Viceroy.

Lord Hardinge, in his My Indian Years, described the whole incident in an interesting way. During the flood relief work in Bengal in 1913, he came in contact with Jatin Mukherjee in whom he "discovered a real leader of men", who "added a new impulse" to Rash Behari's failing zeal. Thus during World War I he became extensively involved as one of the leading figures of the Gadar Revolution that attempted to trigger a mutiny in India in February 1915. Trusted and tried Ghadrites were sent to several cantonments to infiltrate into the army. The idea of the Gadar leaders was that with the war raging in Europe most of the soldiers had gone out of India and the rest could be easily won over. The revolution failed and most of the revolutionaries were arrested. But Rash Behari managed to escape British intelligence and reached Japan in 1915.

798 1886 1973 F Nellie Sengupta (1886–1973)

Born as Edith Ellen Gray, Nellie Sengupta was a British who fought for the independence of the Indians. She married Jatindra Mohan Sengupta and started living in India post her wedding. During the struggle for freedom, Nellie actively participated in the Non-Cooperation Movement and was also imprisoned on many occasions.

799 1886 1979 F Mahendra Pratap Singh (1 December 1886 – 29 April 1979) was an Indian freedom fighter, journalist, writer, revolutionary, President in the Provisional Government of India, which served as the Indian Government in exile during World War I, and social reformist in the Republic of India. He also formed the Executive Board of India in Japan in 1940 during the Second World War. He also took part in the Balkan War in the year 1911 along with his fellow students of MAO (Muhammadan Anglo-Oriental College School). In recognition of his services, the government of India issued postage stamps in his honor.

He was nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize in 1932. N.A Nilsson, his nominator, said about him- "Pratap gave up his property for educational purposes, and he established a technical college at Brindaban. In 1913 he took part in Gandhi's campaign in South Africa. He traveled around the world to create awareness about the situation in Afghanistan and India. In 1925 he went on a mission to Tibet and met the Dalai Lama. He was primarily on an unofficial economic mission on behalf of Afghanistan, but he also wanted to expose the British brutalities in India. He called himself the servant of the powerless and weak."

800 1886 T The Jubilee Bridge (India) is a former rail bridge over the Hooghly River between Naihati and Bandel in West Bengal, India. It provided an important connection between Garifa railway station and Hooghly Ghat railway station.

The Jubilee Bridge was opened on 16 February 1885 in the fiftieth, or jubilee, year of the reign of Queen Victoria. Construction began in 1882 and was completed in 1887. The Chief Engineer in charge of construction works was Lt Col Arthur John Barry, nephew of Sir John Wolfe-Barry, project engineer of the London Tower Bridge. The Bridge was designed by Sir Bradford Leslie, Chief Engineer in India and Alexander Meadows Rendel. Its steel was manufactured by Hawks Crawshay of Gateshead in England and James Goodwin of Motherwell in Scotland. Bradford Leslie also designed the floating pontoon bridge across the Hooghly in Calcutta, which was replaced by the Howrah Bridge in 1942 and the Gorai River Railway Bridge near Kushtia in Bangladesh. He was a son of the American painter Charles Robert Leslie, ultimately Professor of Painting at the Royal Academy in London.

The Jubilee Bridge is noteworthy in that it is a cantilever truss bridge, constructed entirely by riveting, without any nuts or bolts used in the construction.

The Jubilee Bridge was decommissioned from service on 17 April 2016

801 1886 Tr The Sind–Pishin State Railway (reporting mark SPR) was the name of a broad gauge line that ran between Rohri, Sindh and Chaman, Balochistan. In 1886, the southern section of the Sind–Pishin State Railway was amalgamated with the Kandahar State Railway and several other railways to form the North Western State Railway (NWR)[719][720][721]. Today the line is still active and part of the Rohri–Chaman Railway Line
802 1887 1920 C Srinivasa Ramanujan FRS (born Srinivasa Ramanujan Aiyangar; 22 December 1887 – 26 April 1920) was an Indian mathematician who lived during the British Rule in India. Though he had almost no formal training in pure mathematics, he made substantial contributions to mathematical analysis, number theory, infinite series, and continued fractions, including solutions to mathematical problems then considered unsolvable. Ramanujan initially developed his own mathematical research in isolation: according to Hans Eysenck: "He tried to interest the leading professional mathematicians in his work, but failed for the most part. What he had to show them was too novel, too unfamiliar, and additionally presented in unusual ways; they could not be bothered". Seeking mathematicians who could better understand his work, in 1913 he began a postal partnership with the English mathematician G. H. Hardy at the University of Cambridge, England.

In 1919, ill health—now believed to have been hepatic amoebiasis (a complication from episodes of dysentery many years previously)—compelled Ramanujan's return to India, where he died in 1920 at the age of 32. His last letters to Hardy, written in January 1920, show that he was still continuing to produce new mathematical ideas and theorems. His "lost notebook", containing discoveries from the last year of his life, caused great excitement among mathematicians when it was rediscovered in 1976.

803 1887 Ed The Nizam College is a constituent college of Osmania University established in 1887 during the reign of Mir Mahbub Ali Khan, Asaf Jah VI, in Basheerbagh, Hyderabad.

The Nizampur University College was originally the "Mirsarai" of Nawab Safdar Jung Musheer-ud-Daulah Fakhrul-ul-Mulk II the owner of the grand Errum Manzil palace. Fakhar ul mulk and Khan-i-Khanan II, were the son's of Nawab Fakhar-ul-mulk I, a noble of Hyderabad.

The founder of the college and of several other educational institutions in the Hyderabad State, was Syed Hussain Bilgrami (Nawab Imad-ul- Mulk), who did pioneering work in the field of education as the Director of Education. He scouted and then appointed Dr. Aghorenath Chattopadhyay (father of Sarojini Naidu, Nightingale of India) as the first Principal of the college. The present building, was a summer palace of Paigah Nawab Mulk Fakrul Bahadur, later he gifted the palace to the college administration.

804 1887 Bombay Ed Veermata Jijabai Technological Institute (VJTI) established. First and only institute offering degree in engineering until 1960[106].

Located in Bombay, it is one of the oldest engineering colleges in Asia. Founded in 1887 and formerly known as the Victoria Jubilee Technical Institute.

805 1887 1910 F Krishnaji Gopal Karve (1887 – 19 April 1910) was an Indian freedom fighter, a revolutionary. He had completed his B.A.(Hons) and had taken admission to LLB in Mumbai University. He was a member of the Abhinav Bharat Society in Nashik. On 21 December 1909, he along with Anant Laxman Kanhere shot A. M. T. Jackson, the Collector of Nashik. He was sentenced to death in the Bombay high court and hanged in Thane Jail on 19 April 1910.
806 1887 1938 F George Joseph (activist):

George Joseph (5 June 1887 – 5 March 1938) was a lawyer and Indian independence activist. One of the earliest and among the most prominent Syrian Christians from Kerala to join the freedom struggle, Joseph's working life in Madurai and is remembered for his role in the Home Rule agitation and the Vaikom Satyagraha and for his editorship of Motilal Nehru's The Independent (India) and Mahatma Gandhi's Young India.

807 1887 1943 F S. Satyamurti (19 August 1887 – 28 March 1943)

Mayor of Madras, President of the Madras District Congress Party Committee, Advocate of the High Court of Madras, Senior Advocate of the Federal Court of India, Deputy leader of the Congress party, Member of the Indian Legislative Assembly.

Sundara Sastri Satyamurti was an important member of the Indian National Congress. Satyamurti actively participated in the protests against the Jallianwala Bagh massacre. For his revolutionary activities during the Quit India Movement, he was arrested and tortured by the British soldiers. Satyamurti is also remembered as the mentor of K. Kamaraj, another freedom fighter who later became the Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu.

808 1887 1971 F Kanaiyalal Maneklal Munshi (30 December 1887 – 8 February 1971)

The founder of Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, Kanhaiyalal Maneklal Munshi was an important freedom fighter, who took part in Salt Satyagraha and Quit India Movement. He was arrested on several occasions for his protests. An ardent follower of Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, Mahatma Gandhi and Maharaja Sayajirao Gaekwad III, Munshi was an active member of Swaraj Party and Indian National Congress.

809 1887 1954 F Mandayam Parthasarathi Tirumal Acharya, also known as M. P. T. Acharya (1887 – March 1954) was an Indian nationalist, communist and anarchist who was among the founding members of the Communist Party of India (Tashkent group). In a long political and activist life, Acharya was at various times associated with India House in London and the Hindu-German Conspiracy during World War I when, as a key functionary of the Berlin Committee, he along with Har Dayal sought to establish the Indian Volunteer Corps with Indian prisoners of war from the battlefields of Mesopotamia and Europe. Acharya subsequently moved in 1919 after the end of the war to the Soviet Union, where he was one of the founding members of the Communist Party of India at Tashkent. However, disappointed with the Communist International, Acharya returned to Europe in the 1920s where he was involved with the League against Imperialism and subsequently was involved with the international anarchist movement.
810 1887 N Deepika (newspaper), Malayalam, Daily

Deepika newspaper was started in 1887 as Nasrani Deepika by a Syrian Catholic priest, Nidhirikkal Manikkathanar. Jatiaikya Sangham, an organization formed with the objective of uniting the Pazhayakoor and Puthenkoor communities among the Christians of Kerala, came up with the idea of a newspaper for all the various Christian communities in Kerala.

Although this project did not work out, the Catholics in this group sought the permission of Mar Marcelinos, the bishop of Veropoly and started a newspaper. The first issue of the newspaper was published on April 15, 1887. Initially, the newspaper was printed on a wooden printing press at St. Joseph's Printing Press, Mannanam, near Kottayam. The first editor-in-chief was Nidhirikal Manikkathanar.

Shortly afterwards, the Nasrani Deepika newspaper split from the Jatiaikya Sangham and was taken over by the Mannanam Ashram, the religious house of the congregation started by St. Kuriakose Elias Chavara.

811 1887 Calcutta S The Calcutta Swimming Club (mainly known by its acronym CSC), located on the Strand Road near Babughat in Kolkata, is the oldest swim club in India.

The club was built in 1887 under the name Calcutta Swimming Bath by order of the Lieutenant Governor of Bengal. The present structure and club were founded by Walter Davis, a partner of Hamilton & Company, who was also the first Secretary of the Club. The Lieutenant Governor of Bengal was the Head of the Club from its inception until 1923 when Mr. N. Hamilton was elected as its first President.

The club celebrated its Golden Jubilee in 1937. It was renamed the Calcutta Swimming Club in 1941, in appreciation of its contribution to the war efforts. The club would not accept Indians as members even after independence. This changed in 1964, when Maharaja of Cooch Behar was inducted as its first Indian member.

812 1887 T Malviya Bridge, inaugurated in 1887 (originally called The Dufferin Bridge), is a double decker bridge over the Ganges at Varanasi. It carries rail track on lower deck and road on the upper deck. It is one of the major bridges on the Ganges and carries the Grand Trunk Road across the river.

It has 7 spans of 350 ft and 9 spans of 110 ft and it was the first bridge of its type constructed in the Indian sub-continent by the engineers of Oudh and Rohilkhand Railway (O&R Railway). The engineer in charge of construction of the Dufferin Bridge was Frederick Thomas Granville Walton, who went on to become the Engineer in Chief of the Oudh and Rohilkhand Railway company. The bridge was renamed as the Malviya Bridge in 1948 after Madan Mohan Malaviya. As the bridge is near Rajghat, it is also locally known as Rajghat bridge. Malviya Bridge is between Kashi, Varanasi Junction and Pandit Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Junction (Mughalsarai Junction) stations.

In Rudyard Kipling's story The Bridge Builders, the bridge is given the name Kashi Bridge, after the nearby city also known as Varanasi. Dufferin Bridge's opening ceremony was delayed because of floods; the Kashi bridge in the story also faces similar problems due to flooding just before it was opened to public

813 1887 Tr West of India Portuguese Railway (WIPR)[719][720][721]:

In the year 1878, an agreement was signed between the West of India Portuguese Guaranteed Railway Company (WIPR) and Portuguese Government of Portuguese India for construction of Harbour and connected Railway but the railway work started only in 1882. In December 1887, The total length of existing meter gauge railway track in the Goan Territory of 43 km between Mormugao-Sanvordem via Vasco da Gama was inaugurated. In 1888, Mormugao was connected with Southern Mahratta Railway at Caranzol-Castle Rock junction. In 1902, with the metre gauge line on the verge of bankruptcy, the company leased the railway to the Southern Mahratta Railway, which continued to manage railway till 1955.

814 1888 A Max Muller, revising his stance, writes, "Aryan, in scientific language, is utterly inapplicable to race. If I say Aryas, I mean neither blood nor bones, nor hair nor skull; I mean simply those who spoke the Aryan language."[2]
815 1888 A Victoria Public Hall, or the Town Hall, is a historical building in Chennai, named after Victoria, Empress of India. It is one of the finest examples of British architecture in Chennai and was built to commemorate the golden jubilee of Queen Victoria. It served as a theatre and public assembly room in the late 19th century and the early 20th century. It now houses the South Indian Athletic Association Club.

The Suguna Vilasa Sabha (SVS), founded in 1891, was most closely associated with the hall. It conducted the first evening drama shows in Madras. In October 1906, the play Kaadalar Kangal was staged at the hall. For the next 30 years, the Sabha remained at the hall and later, built its own theatre on acquisition of 36 grounds next to Christ Church on Anna Salai and now functions only as a social club.

It was here that the first cinema show was held in Chennai. T. Stevenson, proprietor of the Madras Photographic Store, ran some shows that consisted of ten short films.

816 1888 Bombay Ad Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation founded[106].

Formerly and commonly known as the Bombay Municipal Corporation (BMC) is the governing civic body of Bombay. It is India's richest municipal corporation. It was established under the Bombay Municipal Corporation Act 1888.

817 1888 1964 C Sir Sonti Venkata Ramamurthy, KCIE (1 August 1888 – 19 January 1964), also known as S. V. Ramamurthy was an Indian civil servant who served as Chief Secretary to the Government of Madras Presidency from 1939 to 1943 and as advisor to the Madras government from 1941 to 1945. He was the first Indian to be appointed Chief Secretary of Madras. Ramamurthy also acted as the Governor of Bombay Presidency from 19 May 1947 to 30 May 1947.
818 1888 1970 C Sir Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman (7 November 1888 – 21 November 1970), popularly known as C. V. Raman was an Indian physicist known mainly for his work in the field of light scattering. With his student K. S. Krishnan, he discovered that when light traverses a transparent material, some of the deflected light changes wavelength and amplitude. This phenomenon was a new type of scattering of light and was subsequently termed as the Raman effect (Raman scattering). Raman won the 1930 Nobel Prize in Physics and was the first Asian person to receive a Nobel Prize in any branch of science.

Born to Hindu Tamil Brahmin parents, Raman was a precocious child, completing his secondary and higher secondary education from St Aloysius' Anglo-Indian High School at the ages of 11 and 13, respectively. He topped bachelor's degree examination at the University of Madras with honours in physics from Presidency College at age 16.

819 1888 1963 F Inayatullah Khan Mashriqi (August 1888 – 27 August 1963), also known by the honorary title Allama Mashriqi, was a British Indian, and later, Pakistani mathematician, logician, political theorist, Islamic scholar and the founder of the Khaksar movement.

Around 1930, he founded the Khaksar Movement, aiming to advance the condition of the masses irrespective of any faith, sect, or religion.

A theistic evolutionist who accepted some of Darwin's ideas while criticizing others, he declared that the science of religions was essentially the science of collective evolution of mankind; all prophets came to unite mankind, not to disrupt it; the basic law of all faiths is the law of unification and consolidation of the entire humanity. According to Markus Daeschel, the philosophical ruminations of Mashriqi offer an opportunity to re-evaluate the meaning of colonial modernity and notion of post-colonial nation-building in modern times.

Mashriqi is often portrayed as a controversial figure, a religious activist, a revolutionary, and an anarchist; while at the same time he is described as a visionary, a reformer, a leader, and a scientist-philosopher who was born ahead of his time. After Mashriqi resigned from government service, he laid the foundation of the Khaksar Tehrik (also known as Khaksar Movement) around 1930

820 1888 1908 O Opposition to the partition of India: Inayatullah Khan Mashriqi

Mashriqi and his Khaskar Tehrik "opposed the partition of India". He stated that the "last remedy under the present circumstances is that one and all rise against this conspiracy as one man. Let there be a common Hindu-Muslim Revolution. ... it is time that we should sacrifice…in order to uphold Truth, Honour and Justice." Mashriqi opposed the partition of India because he felt that if Muslims and Hindus had largely lived peacefully together in India for centuries, they could also do so in a free and united India. Mashriqi saw the two-nation theory as a plot of the British to maintain control of the region more easily, if India was divided into two countries that were pitted against one another. He reasoned that a division of India along religious lines would breed fundamentalism and extremism on both sides of the border. Mashriqi thought that "Muslim majority areas were already under Muslim rule, so if any Muslims wanted to move to these areas, they were free to do so without having to divide the country." To him, separatist leaders "were power hungry and misleading Muslims in order to bolster their own power by serving the British agenda".

821 1888 1953 F Asaf Ali (11 May 1888 – 2 April 1953) was an Indian independence fighter and noted Indian lawyer. He was the first Indian Ambassador to the United States. He was appointed governer of Odisha for two terms and later, Indian Ambassador to Switzerland.

In 1914, the British attack on the Ottoman Empire had a large effect on the Indian Muslim community. Asaf Ali supported the Turkish side and resigned from the Privy Council, England. He saw this as an act of non-cooperation and returned to India in December 1914. Upon his return to India, Asaf Ali became heavily involved in the nationalist movement. Asaf Ali rose to become one of the most respected lawyers in the country. He defended Shaheed Bhagat Singh and Batukeshwar Dutt as a lawyer, after they threw a bomb in the Central Legislative Assembly on 8 April 1929, during the passage of a controversial ordinance. In 1945, Ali came to be the convener of the INA defence team established by the Congress for the defense of the officers of the Indian National Army charged with treason later in November 1945.

In 1928, he married Aruna Asaf Ali, a marriage that raised eyebrows on the grounds of religion (Asaf Ali was a Muslim while Aruna was a Hindu) and age difference (Aruna was 20 years junior to him). She is widely remembered for hoisting the Indian National Congress flag at the Gowalia Tank maidan in Bombay during the Quit India Movement, 1942.

Later Aruna Asaf Ali was honored with India's highest civilian award- Bharat Ratna based on her work.

822 1888 1958 F Maulana Abul Kalam Azad (11 November 1888 – 22 February 1958)

Maulana Abul Kalam Azad was an active member of the Indian National Congress and a great freedom fighter. Maulana Azad took part in most of the important movements. He presided over the special session of Congress in September 1923 and at the age of 35 he became the youngest man to be elected as the President of the Congress.

823 1888 1982 F J. B. Kripalani (11 November 1888 – 19 March 1982)

Jivatram Bhagwandas Kripalani, best known as Acharya Kripalani, was a Gandhian socialist and independence activist. He was one of the most ardent followers of Mahatma Gandhi and was actively involved in many protests led by the father of the nation, including Non-cooperation movement, Civil disobedience, Salt Satyagraha (Salt March) and Quit India Movement.

824 1888 1908 F Prafulla Chaki (10 December 1888 – 2 May 1908)

Prafulla Chaki was a prominent revolutionary who was a part of the Jugantar group. The group was responsible in assassinating many British officials. Prafulla Chaki was given the responsibility of killing famous British officers like Sir Joseph Bampfylde Fuller and Kingsford. Prafulla and Khudiram Bose tried to assassinate the District Judge, Mr. Kingsford by throwing bombs at the carriage in which Kingsford was supposed to travel.

The Muzaffarpur killing: Khudiram and Prafulla watched the usual movements of Kingsford and prepared a plan to kill him. On the evening of 30 April 1908, the duo was waiting in front of the gate of European Club for Kingsford's carriage to arrive. When a vehicle came out of the gate, a bomb was thrown into the carriage. There was a mistake towards identification by them, as the vehicle was not carrying Kingsford, but wife and daughter of Mr Pringle Kennedy, a leading pleader at Muzaffarpur Bar. The daughter died soon after and his wife succumbed to her injuries. The revolutionaries fled. Prafulla and Khudiram took separate routes to escape. Prafulla reached Samastipur where he was provided shelter by a railway staff member, Triguna Charan Ghosh. Ghosh also provided him with an inter-class ticket for boarding the night train due for Mokama. Nandalal Banerjee, a police officer travelling in the same compartment grew suspicious of Prafulla and attempted to arrest him on the Mokama railway station platform. But Prafulla committed suicide by shooting himself using his own revolver. His head was severed from his body and sent to Kolkata to be identified by Khudiram who unfortunately got captured. Khudiram was later arrested and hanged to death. Following this incident, inspector Nandalal was assassinated by two young revolutionaries, Srishh Pal and Ranen Ganguly.

825 1888 1894 G Lord Lansdowne – Viceroy (Henry Petty-Fitzmaurice, 5th Marquess of Lansdowne)

Indian Council Act was passed in 1892.

Second Factory Act (1891) was passed during his time.

He appointed Durand Commission to define a line between British India and Afghanistan.

826 1888 N Malayala Manorama, Malayalam, Daily

Malayala Manorama Company is a private LLC corporation, owned by the Kandathil family, incorporated by Kandathil Varghese Mappillai at Kottayam in south-western Kerala on 14 March 1888. The company started with one hundred shares of ₹100 each. The investors paid in four equal instalments. With the first instalment, the company brought a Hopkinson and Cope press, made in London. A local craftsman, Konthi Achari, was hired to make Malayalam types for the imported press.

Varghese Mappillai had worked for a year as editor of Kerala Mitram, a Malayalam newspaper run by Gujarati businessman Devji Bhimji, in Cochin and he took over the same position for Manorama. The Maharajah of Travancore Moolam Thirunal approved the logo of the newspaper which was a slight modification of the Travancore Coat of Arms.

The first issue was published on 22 March 1890 from M.D Seminary, Kottayam, while the town was hosting a popular cattle fair. It was a four-page weekly newspaper, published on Saturdays. The weekly newspaper became a bi-weekly in 1901, a tri-weekly on 2 July 1918 and a daily on 2 July 1928. After Varghese Mappillai death in 1904, his nephew K. C. Mammen Mappillai took over as editor.

In 1938, Travancore state proscribed Malayala Manorama on charges of publishing news against the Diwan; Mammen Mappillai was convicted and imprisoned. Malayala Manorama re-commenced regular publication in 1947 after the Indian independence and the Diwan's downfall.

827 1888 S The Durand Football Tournament or Durand Cup is a football competition in India which was first held in 1888 in Annadale, Shimla. It is co-hosted by the Durand Football Tournament Society (DFTS) and Osians. The Tournament is the most oldest existing football tournament in Asia and 3rd of the most oldest existing football tournamens in the world.

The Tournament is named after its founder, Sir Mortimer Durand, Foreign Secretary in charge of India from 1884 to 1894.

828 1889 Ad The Official Secrets Act 1889, was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. It created offences of disclosure of information (section 1) and breach of official trust (section 2). It was replaced in the UK by the Official Secrets Act 1911.
829 1889 1940 F K. B. Hedgewar (1 April 1889 – 21 June 1940)

Keshav Baliram Hedgewar was the founding Sarsanghachalak (or "Chief") of the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS). Hedgewar founded the RSS in Nagpur in 1925, based on the ideology of Hindutva with the intention of creating a Hindu Rashtra (Hindu nationalism).

830 1889 1964 F Jawaharlal Nehru (14 November 1889 – 27 May 1964)

Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru was one of the most important freedom fighters of India, who went on to become the first Prime Minister of free India. He was also the author of the famous book – ‘The Discovery of India’. Nehru was extremely fond of children and was fondly called as ‘Chacha Nehru’. It was under his leadership that India embarked on the planned pattern of economic development.

831 1889 1964 F Jawaharlal Nehru:

Nehru and the Congress dominated Indian politics during the 1930s as the country moved towards independence. His idea of a secular nation-state was seemingly validated when the Congress swept the 1937 provincial elections and formed the government in several provinces; on the other hand, the separatist Muslim League fared much poorer. However, these achievements were severely compromised in the aftermath of the Quit India Movement in 1942, which saw the British effectively crush the Congress as a political organisation. Nehru, who had reluctantly heeded Gandhi's call for immediate independence, for he had desired to support the Allied war effort during World War II, came out of a lengthy prison term to a much altered political landscape. The Muslim League under his old Congress colleague and now opponent, Muhammad Ali Jinnah, had come to dominate Muslim politics in India. Negotiations between Congress and Muslim League for power sharing failed and gave way to the independence and bloody partition of India in 1947.

832 1889 1964 F Rajkumari Amrit Kaur (2 February 1889 – 6 February 1964)

A co-founder of the All India Women's Conference, Rajkumari Amrit Kaur was one of the most important members of Dandi March in 1930. After being imprisoned for her participation in the Dandi March, Amrit Kaur went on to actively participate in the Quit India Movement for which she was once again jailed by the British authorities.

833 1889 1956 F Acharya Narendra Dev (30 October 1889 – 19 February 1956)

One of the most prominent members of the Congress Socialist Party, Acharya Narendra Dev embraced non-violence and democratic socialism in his fight for the freedom of India. A key figure in the Hindi language movement, Narendra Dev was arrested on several occasions throughout his fight for freedom.

834 1889 1908 F Khudiram Bose (3 December 1889 – 11 August 1908)

Khudiram Bose was one of those young revolutionaries and freedom fighters whose deeds of bravery went on to become the subject of folklore. He was one of those brave men who challenged the British rule and gave them a taste of their own medicine. At the age of 19, he was martyred, with ‘Vande Mataram’ being his last words.

835 1889 1908 F Khudiram, along with Prafulla Chaki, attempted to assassinate a British judge, Magistrate Douglas Kingsford, by throwing bombs on the carriage they suspected the man was in. Magistrate Kingsford, however, was seated in a different carriage, and the throwing of bombs resulted in the deaths of two British women. Prafulla committed suicide before the arrest. Khudiram was arrested and trialed for the murder of the two women, ultimately being sentenced to death. He was one of the first freedom fighters in Bengal to be executed by Britishers.

At the time of his hanging, Khudiram was 18 years, 8 months, and 11 days old, making him one of the 2nd youngest revolutionaries in India. Mahatma Gandhi, however, denounced the violence, lamenting the deaths of the two innocent women. He stated "that the Indian people will not win their freedom through these methods". Bal Gangadhar Tilak, in his newspaper Kesari, defended the two young men and called for immediate swaraj. This was followed by the immediate arrest of Tilak by the British colonial government on charges of sedition.

836 1889 1915 F Bhai Balmukund (1889 – 11 May 1915)

Bhai Balmukund was involved in the famous Delhi conspiracy case. The conspiracy was a planned assassination of Lord Hardinge. A group of revolutionaries, including Bhai Balmukund, hurled a bomb at the Howdah that was carrying Lord Hardinge (Charles Hardinge, 1st Baron Hardinge of Penshurst). Although Hardinge escaped the attack with injuries, his mahout was killed. Balmukund was later arrested and was sentenced to death.

837 1889 Calcutta S Mohun Bagan A.C., the oldest football club, was established in 1889 AD. It grew from strength to strength after 1911 when Bengal crowd reacted to British jibes in a physical culture movement.

Mohun Bagan Athletic Club, commonly known as Mohun Bagan, is a major Indian multi-sport club based in Calcutta. Founded in 1889 as Mohun Bagan Sporting Club, the club's football section is one of the oldest football clubs in India and Asia. The club is most notable for its victory over East Yorkshire Regiment in the 1911 IFA Shield final. This victory made Mohun Bagan the first all-Indian side to win a championship over a British side and was a major moment during India's push for independence.

838 1889 Tr Trams in Nashik[1156]: (Trams in India)

Trams in Nashik (then Nasik) were built in 1889 as 2 ft 6 in (762 mm) narrow gauge. The consulting engineer was Everard Calthrop, later known with the Barsi Light Railway. Originally, the tram used two carriages pulled by four horses. It ran from the present Old Municipal Corporation building on Main Road to the Nasik Road railway station, a distance of 8 to 10 kms. The stretch between Nashik and Nashik Road was jungle-covered, and the only mode of transport from the station to the city was horse-drawn carriage or one of two taxis. The tram ceased operations between 1931 and 1933.

839 1889 1916 W The Second International (1889–1916) was an organisation of socialist and labour parties, formed on 14 July 1889 at a Paris meeting in which delegations from twenty countries participated. The Second International continued the work of the dissolved First International, though excluding the powerful anarcho-syndicalist movement and trade unions. In 1922 the Second International began to reorganise into the Labour and Socialist International.

Among the Second International's famous actions were its 1889 declaration of 1 May (May Day) as International Workers' Day and its 1910 declaration of the International Women's Day, first celebrated on 19 March and then on 8 March after the main day of the women's marches in 1917 during the Russian Revolution. It initiated the international campaign for the eight-hour working day.

840 1890 Bombay Ad George Harris, 4th Baron Harris arrives to take over as Governor of the Bombay Presidency[106].
841 1890 1954 C Sonti Kamesam (1890–1954) was an Indian timber engineer and scientist who worked at the Forest Research Institute, Dehra Dun. He is best known for his patented wood preservative, ASCU, from the chemical symbols for Arsenic and Copper.

Kamesam was born in Narsapur in West Godavari district of Andhra Pradesh and was a younger brother of S. V. Ramamurthy. After primary education at Visakhapatnam, he graduated from Presidency College, Chennai and obtained his B.E. from Guindy Engineering College. He also obtained an ME (honours) and became a Member of the Institution of Engineers (India). He joined in Forest Research Institute, Dehra Dun and later promoted as an Expert-in-charge of Wood Preservation.

The application of the ASCU process for use in the Indian Railways was examined by a committee headed by Sir C.V. Raman in 1933–34. In 1936 he designed a highway bridge with a 60-foot span. In order to prove the strength of the bridge, he made two adult elephants, each weighing in at around ten tons, walk across while his children stood underneath.

After retirement Kamesam joined Tiruvankur estate as director of the development department. He built many bridges with his preserved wood. He was awarded an honorary D.Sc. by Andhra University for his contributions in 1939. He wrote a booklet on Construction of Better and cheaper highway bridges in 1943.

842 1890 1966 F Atulkrishna Ghosh (1890 – 4 May 1966) was an Indian revolutionary, member of the Anushilan Samiti, and a leader of the Jugantar movement involved in Hindu-German Conspiracy during World War I.
843 1890 1988 F Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan (6 February 1890 – 20 January 1988)

Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan was one of those independence activists who opposed the partition of India at the time of its independence. Popularly known as Bacha Khan, he advocated non-violence and wanted a secular country. In 1929, he initiated the ‘Khudai Khidmatgar’ ( literally "servants of God") movement, which gave the British a run for their money. Since his principles were similar to that of Mahatma Gandhi’s, he worked closely with Gandhi in all his endeavours.

844 1890 1950 F Gopinath Bordoloi (6 June 1890 – 5 August 1950)

Gopinath Bordoloi’s fight for freedom began when he joined the Indian National Congress. He was then arrested for his participation in the Non-Cooperation Movement and was jailed for more than a year. A firm believer in Gandhi and his principles, Gopinath went on to become the Chief Minister of Assam after the independence.

845 1890 1931 F Ganesh Shankar Vidyarthi (26 October 1890 – 25 March 1931)

A journalist by profession, Ganesh Shankar Vidyarthi was one of the most important leaders of the Indian National Congress. He was also a prominent member of many important movements including the Non-cooperation movement. A close associate of revolutionaries like Chandra Shekhar Azad and Bhagat Singh, Ganesh was imprisoned in 1920 for his revolutionary activities.

While he was about to proceed to Karachi to attend the Congress Session, Kanpur fell into an orgy of communal rioting. Ganesh Shankar Vidyarthi threw himself in the midst of furious mobs and saved the lives of thousands of innocent persons belonging to both the Hindu and Muslim communities and it was on this mission of mercy that he was butchered to by a rioting mob of muslims only to be found a few days later near litter where it took some time to identify him due to multiple wounds by a knife[1157][1158][1159]

846 1890 S The origin of football in India can be traced back to mid nineteenth century when the game was introduced by British soldiers. Football spread among the masses through the sincere efforts of one Nagendra Prasad Sarbadhichary. Several football clubs like Calcutta FC (Calcutta Cricket and Football Club), Shobhabazar, Mohammadan Sporting known as Mohammedan SC (Kolkata), Mohun Bagan A.C. and Aryan FC were established in Calcutta around 1890s. Calcutta, then capital of British India, soon became the hub of Indian football. Tournaments like Gladstone Cup, Trades Cup and Cooch Behar Cup was also started around this time. The Durand Cup and IFA Shield were both started in late nineteenth century, making them two of the oldest football competitions in the world.
847 1891 A Suguna Vilasa Sabha is a club based in the city of Madra, India.The Suguna Vilasa Sabha club is also called as SVS club. The Suguna Vilasa Sabha club was founded by a band of public spirited men headed by Late Sambanda Mudaliar for promotion of histrionic talent in the year 1891. It is one of the oldest and foremost theatre companies in the city.

The Suguna Vilasa Sabha was established as a theatre company in a house in Georgetown. In 1902, the Sabha moved to the Victoria Public Hall from where it functioned from 1902 to 1936, when it moved to Mount Road. In 1945, the Sabha built its own theatre, the New Theatre. As stage dramas began to decline after the Second World War, the Sabha transformed into a social club.

848 1891 BE Anglo-Manipur War:

The Anglo-Manipur War was an armed conflict between the British Empire and the Kingdom of Manipur. The war lasted between 31 March and 27 April 1891, ending in a British victory.

849 1891 1910 F Anant Laxman Kanhere was an Indian independence fighter. On 21 December 1909, he shot the Collector of Nashik in British India. The murder of Jackson was an important event in the history of Nashik and the Indian revolutionary movement in Maharashtra.

A. M. T. Jackson Murder Case: The arrest of Ganesh Damodar Savarkar for printing a sixteen-page book of the songs of Kavi Govind and his prosecution was the last straw. Jackson was instrumental in getting Babarao arrested and prosecuted. A revolutionary group headed by Krishnaji Karve decided to eliminate Jackson in the first month of 1910. However, by the end of 1909, Jackson was promoted to the post of Commissioner of Mumbai. Krishnaji Karve, Vinayak Deshpande, and Anant Kanhere decided to eliminate Jackson before his transfer. People in Nashik arranged a farewell for Jackson at Vijayanand theatre in Nashik and staged the drama Sangeet Sharada in his honour.

On 21 December 1909, after Jackson had arrived to see the play, Anant jumped in front of him and fired four bullets at him from Browning pistol. Jackson was killed immediately. One of the Indian officers, Mr. Palshikar, and former DSP Mr. Marutrao Toradmal, attacked Anant with their batons. Other people present caught Anant and he was not able to shoot himself or get the poison. A copy of paper written by Karve named "Murder for Murder" was discovered from him.

Anant Kanhere, was then 18 years old. He admitted his part in the killing. The judgement to the above case was given by the Chief Justice of Bombay on 29 March 1910. He was prosecuted in Bombay court and hanged in the Thane Prison on 19 April 1910, a mere four months after Jackson was killed. Along with Anant, Krishnaji Karve and Vinayak Deshpande were also hanged. The other accused in the case Shankar Ramchandra Soman, Waman alias Daji Narayan Joshi and Ganesh BalajiVaidya were given Transportation of Life (Life imprisonment) punishment and Dattatraya Pandurang Joshi was sent to two years rigorous imprisonment.

850 1891 1956 F B. R. Ambedkar (14 April 1891 – 6 December 1956)

Fondly remembered as Baba Saheb, B. R. Ambedkar was a key figure in empowering Dalits. The British had used the Indian caste system to their advantage and were firm believers in the divide and rule policy. Ambedkar understood this motive of the British and ensured their downfall by inspiring the Dalit Buddhist Movement among many other movements.

He was an Indian jurist, economist, politician and social reformer, who inspired the Dalit Buddhist movement and campaigned against social discrimination towards the untouchables (Dalits). He was British India's Minister of Labour in Viceroy's Executive Council, a member of the Constituent Drafting committee, independent India's first Minister of Law and Justice, and considered the chief architect of the Constitution of India.

851 1891 1956 F B. R. Ambedkar:

As Ambedkar was educated by the Princely State of Baroda, he was bound to serve it. He was appointed Military Secretary to the Gaikwad but had to quit in a short time. He described the incident in his autobiography, Waiting for a Visa. Thereafter, he tried to find ways to make a living for his growing family. He worked as a private tutor, as an accountant, and established an investment consulting business, but it failed when his clients learned that he was an untouchable. In 1918, he became Professor of Political Economy in the Sydenham College of Commerce and Economics in Mumbai. Although he was successful with the students, other professors objected to his sharing a drinking-water jug with them.

Ambedkar had been invited to testify before the Southborough Committee, which was preparing the Government of India Act 1919. At this hearing, Ambedkar argued for creating separate electorates and reservations for untouchables and other religious communities. In 1920, he began the publication of the weekly Mooknayak (Leader of the Silent) in Mumbai with the help of Shahu of Kolhapur i.e. Shahu IV (1874–1922).

Ambedkar went on to work as a legal professional. In 1926, he successfully defended three non-Brahmin leaders who had accused the Brahmin community of ruining India and were then subsequently sued for libel. Dhananjay Keer notes that "The victory was resounding, both socially and individually, for the clients and the doctor".

While practising law in the Bombay High Court, he tried to promote education to untouchables and uplift them. His first organised attempt was his establishment of the central institution Bahishkrit Hitakarini Sabha, intended to promote education and socio-economic improvement, as well as the welfare of "outcastes", at the time referred to as depressed classes. For the defence of Dalit rights, he started many periodicals like Mook Nayak, Bahishkrit Bharat, and Equality Janta.

852 1891 1934 F Chempakaraman Pillai (15 September 1891 – 26 May 1934)

Often a forgotten freedom fighter, Chempakaraman Pillai was one of those activists who fought for the freedom of India from a foreign territory. A close associate of Subhas Chandra Bose, Pillai initiated his struggle for freedom in Germany. It was Chempakaraman Pillai who came up with the famous slogan ‘Jai Hind’ which is used even today.

853 1891 Fl ThamizhthThaai, (Tamil Thai) denotes the deified personification of the Tamil language as a mother.

This deification of Tamil language in the persona of a mother got established during the Tamil renaissance movement of the later half of the nineteenth century. The phrase became popular in the Tamil speaking world after the publication of a song invoking and praising Tamil mother in a play titled "Manonmaniyam" written by Manonmaniam Sundaram Pillai (1855–1897) and published in 1891.

The song with music composed by M.S. Viswanathan has since been adopted as the state song of Government of Tamil Nadu.

854 1891 R The Theosophical Society Adyar was formed.

The Theosophy Society – Adyar is the name of a section of the Theosophical Society founded by Helena Petrovna Blavatsky and others in 1882. In that same year, its headquarters moved with Blavatsky and president Henry Steel Olcott from New York to Adyar, an area of Chennai, India. The designation 'Adyar' is added to make it clear that this is the Theosophical Society headquartered there, after the American section and some other lodges separated from it in 1895, under William Quan Judge.

The US National Section of this organization is called the Theosophical Society in America located in Wheaton, Illinois.

855 1891 Calcutta S Mohammedan Sporting Club, known as Mohammedan SC (Kolkata), founded in 1891 at Kolkata, is one of the oldest and one of the most popular football clubs in India, with a support base in all parts of the country. In 1934, Mohammedan was the first Indian club to win the Calcutta Football League (CFL) and they continued their run until the 1938 season. Before Independence, numerous triumphs against British teams earned the club huge support from all India. Mohammedan Sporting Club became the entity against British oppression and the support continued even after Independence. It also became the first Indian club to win the Durand Cup in 1940. After Independence, it became the first Indian club to win on foreign soil by lifting Aga Khan Gold Cup in 1960.
856 1892 A Fatma Begum (1892–1983) was an Indian actress, director, and screenwriter. She is often considered the first female film director of Indian cinema. Within four years, she went on to write, produce and direct many films. She launched her own production house, Fatma Films, which later became Victoria-Fatma Films, and directed her first film, Bulbul-e-Paristan[1160], in 1926. She lived from 1892–1983 and was mother to three children.

Her legacy was carried on by her daughter Zubeida, whom besides being a silent film star, acted in India's first ever talkie, Alam Ara.

857 1892 Ad The Madras High Court is the second oldest High Court of India after the Calcutta High Court. It is located in Chennai, Tamil Nadu. The court is one of the three High Courts in India established in the three Presidency Towns of Madras, Bombay and Calcutta by letters patent granted by Queen Victoria, bearing date 26 June 1862. It exercises original jurisdiction over the city of Chennai and appellate jurisdiction over the entire state of Tamil Nadu and Union territory of Puducherry, as well as extraordinary original jurisdiction, civil and criminal, under the letters patent and special original jurisdiction for the issue of writs under the Constitution of India.

Covering 107 acres, the court buildings are believed to be the second largest judicial complex in the world after the one in London. The complex also houses the largest number of courts in Asia.

858 1892 Bu Britannia Industries Limited is an Indian food and beverage company. Founded in 1892 and headquartered in Kolkata, it is one of India's oldest existing companies. The company sells its Britannia and Tiger brands of biscuits, breads and dairy products throughout India and in more than 60 countries across the world.

Founded with Rs295 to cater to British officers and their families, operations were mechanized in 1910 and industrial ovens installed in 1921. In 1954, it pioneered high-quality sliced and wrapped bread.

Beginning with the circumstances of its takeover by the Wadia group in the early 1990s, the company has been mired in several controversies connected to its management. However, it does enjoy a large market share and is exceedingly profitable.

859 1892 1927 F Roshan Singh (22 January 1892 – 19 December 1927)

Yet another member of the Hindustan Republican Association (Hindustan Socialist Republican Association), Roshan Singh was a young revolutionary who too, was sentenced to death by the British government. Though he was not involved in the Kakori train robbery, he was arrested and was clubbed along with other revolutionaries who had taken part in the robbery.

860 1892 1962 F Ambika Chakrabarty (January 1892 – 6 March 1962) was an Indian independence movement activist and revolutionary. Later, he was a leader of the Communist Party of India and a member of the West Bengal Legislative Assembly.

He was a member of Chittagong Jugantar party. He took part in the Chittagong armoury raid led by Surya Sen. On 18 April 1930, he led a group of revolutionaries, who destroyed the entire communication system in Chittagong. On 22 April 1930, he was seriously injured in the gunfight with the British army in Jalalabad. But he was able to escape. After a few months, he was arrested by the police from his hideout and sentenced to death. However, the sentence was later changed to transportation for life to the Cellular Jail in Port Blair. Chakrabarty, after his release from the Cellular Jail in 1946, joined the Communist Party of India. He was elected to the Bengal Provincial Legislative Assembly in the same year.

861 1892 1979 F Bhupendra Kumar Datta (8 October 1892 – 29 December 1979) was an Indian freedom fighter and a revolutionary who fought for Indian independence from British rule. In addition to his other specific contributions as a Jugantar leader, he holds the record of a hunger strike for 78 days in Bilaspur Jail in December 1917.
862 1892 1942 F Mahadev Desai (1 January 1892 – 15 August 1942)

Best known as Gandhi’s personal secretary, Mahadev Desai was an important independence activist. He accompanied Mahatma Gandhi in most of his protests, including the Bardoli Satyagraha and Salt Satyagraha (Salt March) for which he was arrested. He was one of the members to have attended the Second Round Table ConferenceRound Table Conferences (India)#Second Round Table Conference (September 1931 – December 1931) and the only Indian to have accompanied the Mahatma when he met with King George V.

Mirabehn (22 November 1892 – 20 July 1982)

Madeleine Slade P. V., also known as Mirabehn or Meera Behn, was a British supporter of the Indian independence movement who in the 1920s left her home in England to live and work with Mahatma Gandhi. She devoted her life to human development and the advancement of Gandhi's principles (Gandhism).

She was the daughter of the British Rear-Admiral Sir Edmond Slade.

863 1892 S The Indian Polo Association (IPA) was founded in 1892.

India is the birthplace of modern polo. The modern game of polo is derived from Manipur, where the game was known as 'Sagol Kangjei', 'Kanjai-bazee', or 'Pulu'. It was the anglicised form of the last, referring to the wooden ball that was used, which was adopted by the sport in its slow spread to the west.

864 1892 S The Bombay Quadrangular was an influential cricket tournament held in Bombay (now known as Mumbai) from 1892 to 1945.

The Quadrangular tournament had its origins in an annual match played between the European members of the Bombay Gymkhana and the Parsis of the Young Zoroastrian Club. The first such game was played in 1877, when the Bombay Gymkhana accepted a request for a two-day match from the Parsis.

It was known variously as the Bombay Quadrangular, Presidency Match, Bombay Triangular, and the Bombay Pentangular.

  • 1892 to 1906  : Bombay Presidency Tournment
  • 1907 to 1911  : Bombay Triangular Tournment
  • 1912 to 1936  : Bombay Quadrangular Tournment
  • 1937 to 1945  : Bombay Pentangular Tournment

In 1912, the Muslims of the Mohammedan Gymkhana (Islam Gymkhana, Mumbai) were invited to the now famous Bombay tournament, making it a Quadrangular. The tournament was held throughout World War I. A change for the 1917 tournament was the use of neutral umpires for the first time. Up to this season, a European umpire appointed by the Bombay Gymkhana had always officiated, but from now on the umpires for any match would be supplied by the non-competing teams. This was one of the first uses of neutral umpires in world cricket.

865 1892 S The Bombay Quadrangular:

In 1930, Gandhi's campaign reached a climax with the Salt Satyagraha, provoking civil disobedience and the arrests of 60,000 Indians. Amidst this political turmoil, the Quadrangular tournament was cancelled. It was not held again until 1934, when the cricket-starved public enthusiastically supported its reinstatement. In 1935, the sports editor of the nationalist The Bombay Chronicle, J. C. Maitra, suggested the Quadrangular be replaced with a geographic-zone-based tournament, to remove the racial and religious overtones. A newspaper correspondent argued an opposite case, for expansion into a Pentangular, with a team for Indian Christians. The public however clamoured for the traditional format and these suggestions were ignored.

Finally, in 1937, a fifth team, called The Rest, was admitted to the tournament. It comprised Buddhists, Jews, and Indian Christians. On the odd occasion, players from Ceylon appeared for them including at least one Hindu. The first Pentangular, however, was played between just four teams, as the Hindus withdrew in protest over not being allocated what they considered a fair share of seats in the new Brabourne Stadium.

From 1938, the Pentangular attracted growing criticism as being divisive because of the communalism implicit in the makeup of the teams. This was exacerbated by the growing political movement for Indian independence, which wished to foster unity amongst Indians as opposed to competition. Eventually, amidst a backdrop of rioting and political unrest across India, the newly formed Board of Control for Cricket in India announced in 1946 that the Pentangular tournament was being abandoned, and being replaced by a zonal competition. The Ranji Trophy, in which regional teams from all over India compete, became the pre-eminent Indian cricket competition.

866 1893 A Bangiya Sahitya Parishad is a literary society in Maniktala of Kolkata, West Bengal, India. Established during the time of the British Raj, its goal is to promote Bengali literature, both by translating works in other languages to Bengali and promoting the production of original Bengali literature.

The organisation was founded by L. Leotard and Kshetrapal Chakraborty in 1893. Then it was known as The Bengal Academy of Literature. On 29 April 1894, the name of the society itself was changed to Bangiya Sahitya Parishad. 1894 saw the first officers, with Romesh Chunder Dutt as the first president and Rabindranath Tagore and Navinchandra Sen as vice presidents.

867 1893 1952 F Garimella Satyanarayana (14 July 1893 – 18 December 1952)

A poet by profession, Garimella Satyanarayana inspired thousands to fight against the atrocities of the British through his songs and poems. He actively participated in the civil disobedience movement by penning down fiery and revolutionary poems for which he was jailed on several occasions by the government of British.

868 1893 Bombay P Sectarian rioting between Hindus and Muslims[106].
869 1893 R Swami Vivekananda represents Hinduism at Chicago's Parliament of the World's Religions, first ever interfaith gathering, dramatically enlightening Western opinion as to the profundity of Hindu philosophy and culture.

Achieves great success with his stirring addresses.

870 1893 S The IFA Shield is an annual football competition organized by the Indian Football Association. The Indian Football Association is the association governing football in the state of West Bengal, came into existence in 1893. Named after the Association, the IFA Shield Tournament was started in the same year. It is one of the oldest football tournaments in India and the second oldest Cup in the world. During the initial years after its inception, the IFA Shield was dominated by British army teams. However, their stranglehold over the Shield was broken in 1911, when Mohun Bagan Athletic Club became the first Indian team to win the IFA Shield by defeating East Yorkshire Regiment 2–1. That was a historic moment for Indian football, as the natives beat the Englishmen at their own game.
871 1893 W The Durand Line is the international 2,670 km (1,660 mi) land border was originally established in 1893 as the international border between British India (British Raj) and Emirate of Afghanistan by Mortimer Durand, a British diplomat of the Indian Civil Service, and Abdur Rahman Khan, the Afghan Emir, to fix the limit of their respective spheres of influence and improve diplomatic relations and trade.

The single-page agreement, dated 12 November 1893, contains seven short articles, including a commitment not to exercise interference beyond the Durand Line.

A joint British-Afghan demarcation survey took place starting from 1894, covering some 1,287 km (800 mi) of the border. Established towards the close of the British-Russian "The Great Game", the resulting line established Afghanistan as a buffer zone between British and Russian interests in the region. The line, as slightly modified by the Anglo-Afghan Treaty of 1919, was inherited by Pakistan in 1947, following the partition of India.

872 1894 1934 F Surya Sen (22 March 1894 – 12 January 1934)

President of Indian National Congress Chittagong Branch, mastermind of Chittagong armoury raid. Surya Sen is credited for planning and executing a raid that aimed at seizing the weapons of police forces from the Chittagong armoury of British India. He led a battalion of armed Indians to carry out the task. He is known for turning youngsters into firebrand revolutionaries. Surya Sen is among thousands of young Indians who lost their lives, battling for an independent India.

873 1894 1978 F Bhim Sen Sachar (1 December 1894 – 18 January 1978)

A lawyer by profession, Bhim Sen Sachar was inspired by other revolutionaries and freedom fighters and joined the Indian National Congress at a young age. He was subsequently made as the Secretary of Punjab Congress Committee. Interestingly, Bhim Sen’s struggle for freedom continued even after 1947 as he got himself into trouble by voicing against the authoritarianism of Indira Gandhi.

874 1894 P Gandhi drafts first petition protesting the indentured servant system. Less than six months later, British announce the halt of indentured emigration from India.[2]
875 1894 1928 T The Linguistic Survey of India (LSI) is a comprehensive survey of the languages of British India, describing 364 languages and dialects.

The Survey was first proposed by George Abraham Grierson, a member of the Indian Civil Service and a linguist who attended the Seventh International Oriental Congress held at Vienna in September 1886. He made a proposal of the linguistic survey and it was initially turned down by the Government of India. After persisting and demonstrating that it could be done using the existing network of government officials at a reasonable cost, it was approved in 1891. It was however formally begun only in 1894 and the survey continued for thirty years with the last of the results being published in 1928.

A second Linguistic Survey of India project was initiated by the Language Division of Office of the Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India in 1984.

876 1895 Ad The Welby Commission was a group set up by the British Government to investigate wasteful spending in India. Established in 1895, its official name was the "Royal Commission on the Administration of Expenditure of India"[1161]. It is claimed that the Commission improved the economic condition of India by reducing excessive expenditure.

The Commission membership included: Reginald Welby, 1st Baron Welby known as Lord Welby (1832–1915) Lord Chaman (1859–1925) and T.R. Buchanan as Parliamentary representatives, and William Wedderburn (1838–1918), Dadabhai Naoroji (1825–1917), and William Sproston Caine (1842–1903) as representatives of Indian interests. G.K. Gokhale and Dinsha Wacha deposed before the commission in 1897.

877 1895 B Founded in Lahore in 1895 by a group of visionaries and patriots—including Lala Lajpat Rai and E.C. Jessawala, Punjab National Bank (PNB) was born out of the sentiment that “Indian capital was being used to run English banks and companies..."

PNB was the first bank in India to introduce the teller system in 1944.

878 1895 1982 C Vinoba Bhave:

Vinayak Narahari "Vinoba" Bhave (11 September 1895 – 15 November 1982) was an Indian advocate of nonviolence and human rights. Often called Acharya (Sanskrit for teacher), he is best known for the Bhoodan Movement. He is considered as a National Teacher of India and the Spiritual successor of Mahatma Gandhi. He was an eminent philosopher. The Bhagavad Gita has also been translated into Marathi language by him with the name as Geetai means mother Geeta.

Bhoodan movement:

The Bhoodan Movement (Land Gift Movement) also known as the Bloodless Revolution was a voluntary Land reform movement in India. It was initiated by Gandhian Acharya Vinoba Bhave in 1951 at Pochampally village, which is now in Telangana, and known as Bhoodan Pochampally.

The Bhoodan Movement attempted to persuade wealthy landowners to voluntarily give a percentage of their land to landless people. Philosophically, Bhave was influenced by Mahatma Gandhi's Sarvodaya movement and Gram Swarajya.

879 1895 C Jiddu Krishnamurti (11 May 1895 – 17 February 1986) was a philosopher, speaker and writer. In his early life, he was groomed to be the new World Teacher, but later rejected this mantle and withdrew from the Theosophy organization behind it.[1162] His interests included psychological revolution, the nature of mind, meditation, inquiry, human relationships, and bringing about radical change in society. He stressed the need for a revolution in the psyche of every human being and emphasised that such revolution cannot be brought about by any external entity, be it religious, political, or social.
880 1895 1969 F Jogesh Chandra Chatterjee (1895–1969)

A co-founder of Hindustan Republican Association (Hindustan Socialist Republican Association), Jogesh Chandra Chatterjee was another freedom fighter who was imprisoned for getting involved in the Kakori train robbery (Kakori conspiracy). He was also a part of ‘Anushilan Samiti’, an organization that encouraged violent means to end the British rule. After the independence, he served as a member of the Rajya Sabha.

881 1895 1951 F Liaquat Ali Khan (1 October 1895 – 16 October 1951)

Moved by the ill-treatment of Indian Muslims by British officials, Liaquat Ali resolved to free them from the clutches of the British. He joined the All-India Muslim League which was growing in prominence under the leadership of Muhammad Ali Jinnah. Eventually, Liaquat Ali became a key figure in acquiring a separate country for Indian Muslims.

A Pakistani statesman, lawyer, political theorist, and one of the leading founding fathers of Pakistan. He became the first Prime Minister of Pakistan; he also held cabinet portfolio as the first foreign, defence, and the frontier regions minister from 1947 until his assassination in 1951. Prior to the partition, Khan briefly tenured as the first finance minister in the interim government led by its Governor-general Louis Mountbatten, 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma.

Liaquat Ali Khan – Pakistan Movement:

When Muhammad Ali Jinnah returned to India, he started to reorganise the Muslim League. In 1936, the annual session of the League met in Bombay (now Mumbai). In the open session on 12 April 1936, Jinnah moved a resolution proposing Khan as the Honorary General Secretary. The resolution was unanimously adopted and he held the office till the establishment of Pakistan in 1947. In 1940, Khan was made the deputy leader of the Muslim League Parliamentary party. Jinnah was not able to take active part in the proceedings of the Assembly on account of his heavy political work. It was Khan who stood in his place. During this period, Khan was also the Honorary General Secretary of the Muslim League, the deputy leader of their party, Convenor of the Action Committee of the Muslim League, Chairman of the Central Parliamentary Board and the managing director of the newspaper Dawn.

The Pakistan Resolution was adopted in 1940 at the Lahore session of the All-India Muslim League. The same year elections were held for the central legislative assembly which were contested by Khan from the Barielly constituency. He was elected without contest. When the twenty-eighth session of the League met in Madras (now Chennai) on 12 April 1941, Jinnah told party members that the ultimate aim was to obtain Pakistan. In this session, Khan moved a resolution incorporating the objectives of the Pakistan Resolution in the aims and objectives of the Muslim League. The resolution was seconded and passed unanimously.

882 1895 S Beighton Cup is one of the oldest field hockey tournaments running till date. Instituted in 1895, it is organised by Hockey Bengal earlier called Bengal Hockey Association and used to be held on natural grass at the Mohun Bagan ground on the Maidan in Calcutta. The Beighton Cup was initially organized by the Indian Football Association, until the Calcutta Hockey League took over in 1905.

In his autobiography Goal!, the legendray Dhyan Chand remembers his Beighton Cup debut. He says, "In my opinion it is perhaps the best organised hockey event in the country. Kolkata is indeed lucky that it has at least three or four first class hockey grounds on the maidan, and this is a great advantage to run a tournament on schedule. Instituted in 1895, this tournament has had a non-stop run. World Wars I and II did not affect the tournament. Threats of Japanese bombs and actual bombings in Kolkata while the hockey season was on also did not prevent the tournament from being held. That being said, it is sad to think that the tournament had to yield to the communal frenzy which gripped the nation in 1946–47."

883 1895 Tr Trams in MadrasTrams in India#Chennai (Madras Tramways):

Trams in Madras operated between the docks and the inland areas, carrying goods and passengers. When the system began on 7 May, 1895, it was India's oldest electric tram system. The original conduit system was replaced by a conventional overhead wire system after a series of destructive monsoons. The trams could carry heavy loads and were popular, with thousands of riders daily. The route included Mount Road, Parry's Corner, Poonamallee Road and the Ripon Building. At its height in 1921, 97 cars ran on 24 kilometres (15 mi) of track. The tram company went bankrupt about 1950, and the system closed on 12 April 1953.

884 1895 Tr The Southern Punjab Railway (SPR) was a 1,676 mm (5 ft 6 in) broad-gauge railway built to provide a more direct connection from Karachi to Delhi by linking to the original Indus Valley State Railway at Samasata and avoiding the North Western Railway loop via Lahore[719][720][721].

The Southern Punjab Railway Company was formed in 1895 with Bradford Leslie as Chairman. Under contract with the Secretary of State for India, Leslie and his partners formed the company to build a BG railway from Delhi to Samasata about 400 miles to the west. Horace Bell was the consulting engineer for SPR in London for the construction.

The main line ran northwest from Delhi to Bathinda then southwest through Bahawalpur State to Samasata, a total distance of 402 miles (643 km). Several extension lines (Jullunder, Sutlej Valley etc.) extended the length to 502 miles(803 km) in 1905. In 1873, metre-gauge Delhi–Rewari line from the Delhi–Rewari section of Rajputana–Malwa Railway was extended to Hisar, and then to Bhatinda in 1883–84, connecting it all the way to Karachi via Delhi–Karachi line.

885 1896 Bombay Ad Famine followed by break out of Bubonic plague. Waldemar Haffkine begins plague research at Grant Medical CollegeGrant Medical College and Sir Jamshedjee Jeejeebhoy Group of Hospitals[106].
886 1896 BC The Cellular Jail, also known as Kālā Pānī (Hindi for black waters), was a colonial prison in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India. The prison was used by the British for the express purpose of exiling political prisoners to the remote archipelago. Many notable independence activists, including Batukeshwar Dutt, Yogendra Shukla, and Vinayak Damodar Savarkar were imprisoned here during the struggle for India's independence. Today, the complex serves as a national memorial monument.

Although the prison complex itself was constructed between 1896 and 1906, the British had been using the Andaman Islands as a prison since the days in the immediate aftermath of the revolt of 1857. The name, "cellular jail", derived from the solitary cells which prevented any prisoner from communicating with any other.

The Savarkar brothers, Babarao and Vinayak, did not know that they were in different cells in the same jail for two years.

887 1896 F Nationalist leader and Marathi scholar Bal Gangadhar Tilak (1956–1920) initiates Ganesha Visarjan and Shivaji festivals to fan Indian nationalism. He is the first to demand 'purna swaraj' or complete independence from Britain.
888 1896 1915 F Kartar Singh Sarabha (24 May 1896 – 16 November 1915)

Most famous accused in the Lahore Conspiracy Case trial. Kartar Singh Sarabha was one of the most famous revolutionaries who sacrificed his life at the age of 19. Sarabha joined the Ghadar Party, an organization formed to protest against the British rule, at the age of 17. He, along with his men, was arrested when a member of the Ghadar Party betrayed them by informing the police about their hiding place.

889 1897 BC Chapekar brothers assassinate W.C.Rand.
890 1897 Bu Incorporated in 1897 as a public limited company, Century Textile and Industries had only one unit until 1951—a cotton textile mill. Since then it has made rapid progress in yarn, denim, and pulp and paper industries, among others.
891 1897 Bu Godrej & Boyce Manufacturing Co. Ltd.

In 1897, Ardeshir Godrej decided to make locks, safes and security equipment. In 1918, the company launched Chavi, the first soap in the world to be made from vegetable oil. It was chosen to manufacture ballot boxes for India’s first general elections in 1951.

892 1897 E Queen Victoria's Diamond Jubilee celebrated amid yet another famine in British India.
893 1897 1924 F Alluri Sitarama Raju (1897 or 1898 – 7 May 1924)

An Indian Telugu revolutionary involved in the Indian independence movement was born. Raju led the Rampa Rebellion of 1922, during which a band of tribal people and other sympathisers fought in the border areas of the East Godavari and Visakhapatnam regions of Madras Presidency, in present-day Andhra Pradesh, against the British Raj, which had passed the 19882 Madras Forest Act. He was referred to as "Manyam Veerudu" ("Hero of the Jungle") by the local people.

Harnessing some aspects of the earlier non-cooperation movement and taking advantage of his own reputation among the tribal people, Raju led raids on police stations in and around Chintapalle, Rampachodavaram, Dammanapalli, Krishna Devi Peta, Rajavommangi, Addateegala, Narsipatnam and Annavaram. With his followers, he stole guns and ammunition and killed several British police officers, including two near Dammanapalli. Raju was eventually trapped by the British in the forests of Chintapalle, then tied to a tree and was executed by gunfire in Koyyuru village. His tomb is in Krishnadevipeta village.

894 1897 1927 F Ram Prasad Bismil (11 June 1897 – 19 December 1927)

Ram Prasad Bismil was one of those young revolutionaries who sacrificed his life for the sake of his motherland. Bismil was one of the most important members of the Hindustan Republican Association and also a prominent member of the group that was involved in the Kakori train robbery. He was sentenced to death by the British government for his involvement in the famous train robbery.

895 1897 1945 F Subhas Chandra Bose (23 January 1897 – 18 August 1945)

Founded the Indian Legion and revamped the Indian National Army.

Popularly known as Netaji, Subhas Chandra Bose was a fierce freedom fighter and popular leader on the political horizon of pre-independent India. Bose was elected as the President of the Indian National Congress in 1937 and 1939. He founded the Indian National Army and raised the famous slogans, ‘Delhi Chalo’ and ‘Tum Mujhe Khoon Do main Tumhe Ajadi Doonga.’ For his anti-British remarks and activities, Bose was jailed 11 times between 1920 and 1941. He was the leader of the youth wing of Congress Party.

896 1897 1945 F Subhas Chandra Bose:

In April 1941, Bose arrived in Nazi Germany, where the leadership offered unexpected, if equivocal, sympathy for India's independence. In November 1941, German funds were used to open a Free India Centre in Berlin, and to set up a Free India Radio on which Bose broadcast nightly. A 3,000-strong Free India Legion was recruited from among Indian POWs captured by Erwin Rommel's Afrika Korps to serve under Bose.

The Indian National Army (INA) had been formed in 1942 from the Indian POWs of the British Indian army captured by the Japanese in the Battle of Singapore. After arrival in Singapore, Bose enlisted Indian civilians, chiefly Tamil ones, in Malaya and Singapore. The Japanese had come to support a number of puppet and provisional governments in the captured regions. With Japanese support, a Provisional Government of Free India under Bose was formed in the Japanese-occupied Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Although the Japanese military at all times exercised firm control over the islands, Bose's visit in December 1943 was widely publicized. Charismatic and driven, Bose displayed unflagging enthusiasm for the cause of liberating India. The INA under Bose became a model of diversity by region, ethnicity, religion, and gender.

897 1897 1960 F Pandit Bal Krishna Sharma Naveen (8 December 1897 – 29 April 1960)

Pandit Bal Krishna Sharma was an important member of the Indian freedom movement, who was arrested on six different occasions. He was also an important revolutionary as the British government had declared him a ‘dangerous prisoner.’ A journalist by profession, Pandit Bal Krishna Sharma was responsible in inspiring many Indians to stand up and fight for their independence.

898 1897 T Commissioned on 10 November 1897 Sidrapong Hydroelectric Power Station, located at the foothills of Arya Tea Estate 12 km from Darjeeling town, is the oldest hydel power station or hydroelectric power plant in India.

Commissioned on 10 November 1897, its original capacity was 2 × 65 kW, which was expanded in phases for increased demands to a total 1000 kW in 1916 Having reached the limit of the water supply, the machinery was replaced in 1931 for more-efficient triple-phase transmission. The site was then a fine orchard of the Maharajah of Burdwan (Bardhaman Raj), who was pleased to hand it over to the municipality for the importance of the public interest. The work for the installation of a power station started immediately, with machines and equipment imported from Britain. There being no proper road communication, all equipment, machinery and materials had to be transported manually—a Herculean task, inconceivable in the present day.

899 1897 T The Philatelic Society of India was founded in Calcutta on 6 March 1897 to service postage-stamp collections. Function include design, printing and distribution of special or commemorative postage stamps, definitive postage stamps and items of postal stationery, promotion of philately, conduct of philatelic examinations at the national level, participation in international exhibitions and monitoring exhibitions at the state, regional and district levels and maintenance of the National Philatelic Museum.
900 1897 Bombay T Waldemar Haffkine announces plague vaccine, tests it on himself and on volunteers from Byculla Jail[106].

Waldemar Mordechai Wolff Haffkine CIE (15 March 1860 – 26 October 1930) was a bacteriologist from the Russian Empire who later became a French citizen. He emigrated to France and worked at the Pasteur Institute in Paris, where he developed an anti-cholera vaccine that he tried out successfully in India. He is recognized as the first microbiologist who developed and used vaccines against cholera and bubonic plague. He tested the vaccines on himself. Lord Joseph Lister named him "a saviour of humanity".

He was appointed Companion of the Order of the Indian Empire (CIE) in Queen Victoria's 1897 Diamond Jubilee Honours. The Jewish Chronicle of that time noted "a Ukraine Jew, trained in the schools of European science, saves the lives of Hindus and Mohammedans and is decorated by the descendant of William the Conqueror and Alfred the Great."

901 1897 Bombay T In October 1896, an epidemic of bubonic plague struck Bombay (Bombay plague epidemic) and the government asked Haffkine to help. He embarked upon the development of a vaccine in a makeshift laboratory in a corridor of Grant Medical College. In three months of persistent work (one of his assistants experienced a nervous breakdown; two others quit), a form for human trials was ready and on 10 January 1897. Haffkine tested it on himself. "Haffkine's vaccine used a small amount of the bacteria to produce an immune reaction." After these results were announced to the authorities, volunteers at the Byculla jail were inoculated and survived the epidemics, while seven inmates of the control group died. "Like others of these early vaccines, the Haffkine formulation had nasty side effects, and did not provide complete protection, though it was said to have reduced risk by up to 50 percent."

Despite Haffkine's successes, some officials still primarily insisted on methods based on sanitarianism: washing homes by fire hose with lime, herding affected and suspected persons into camps and hospitals, and restricting travel.

Even though official Russia was still unsympathetic to his research, Haffkine's Russian colleagues, doctors Volodymyr Vysokovych and Danylo Zabolotny, visited him in Bombay. During the 1898 cholera outbreak in the Russian Empire, the vaccine called "лимфа Хавкина" ("limfa Havkina", Havkin's lymph) saved thousands of lives across the empire.

By the turn of the 20th century, the number of inoculees in India alone reached four million and Haffkine was appointed the Director of the Plague Laboratory in Bombay (now called Haffkine Institute). In 1900, he was awarded the Cameron Prize for Therapeutics of the University of Edinburgh.

902 1897 Bombay T First ever gasoline motor-car in the Indian subcontinent brought to Bombay by Mr Forster of Crompton Greaves[106].
903 1897 Tr In 1897, lighting in passenger coaches was introduced by many railway companies[719][720][721].

In 1902, the Jodhpur railway division was the first to introduce electric lighting as standard fixtures.

Electric signal lighting was introduced between Dadar and Currey Road in Bombay in 1920.

904 1898 1982 F Sohan Singh Josh (12 November 1898 – 29 July 1982)

An eminent writer, Sohan Singh Josh played a critical role in publishing a revolutionary daily called ‘Kirti’. The daily was responsible in propagating Bhagat Singh’s ideas. Sohan Singh also went on to become the editor of ‘Jang-i-Azadi’, a communist paper. For his revolutionary activities, Sohan Singh was arrested and imprisoned for three years by the British government.

905 1898 T A marvel is in the form of a railway bridge named Bridge No.541[1163] that was constructed in 1898. The 53 metre long and 23 metre high bridge was built in four stages and has 34 arches.

The beauty of the Kalka-Shimla railway route is the absence of girder bridges and the effective use of arch-gallery bridges to move over ravines. These bridges resemble Roman aqueducts. Another distinct feature of this route is the 103 (now 102) railway tunnels.

906 1899 A First film to be shot by an Indian and the first Indian documentary film:

In 1897, a film presentation by Professor Stevenson featured a stage show at Calcutta's Star Theatre. With Stevenson's encouragement and camera Hiralal Sen, an Indian photographer, made a film of scenes from that show, namely The Flower of Persia (1898).

The Wrestlers (1899) by H. S. Bhatavdekar, showing a wrestling match at the Hanging Gardens in Bombay, was the first film to be shot by an Indian and the first Indian documentary film[1164].

907 1899 Bombay Ad Bombay plague epidemic[106].

The Bombay plague epidemic was a bubonic plague epidemic that struck the city of Bombay in the late nineteenth century. The plague killed thousands, and many fled the city leading to a drastic fall in the population of the city.

908 1899 1902 BE The South African War, or Second Boer War, erupts between British and Boer forces for control of two Boer republics—the South African Republic (Transvaal) and the Orange Free State. Although Great Britain wins the war, it proves longer and costlier than the British had anticipated[28].
909 1899 Bu The Calcutta Electricity Supply Corporation (now CESC Limited) was commissioned by the British government as part of its push to modernize India. Being the British capital till 1911, Calcutta was the first Indian city to be entirely electrified.
910 1899 1936 F Kamala Nehru (1 August 1899 – 28 February 1936)

Though she is widely remembered as the wife of Jawaharlal Nehru, Kamala was an eminent freedom fighter in her own right. She actively took part in the Non-cooperation movement by gathering a group of women and by protesting against the shops that were selling foreign goods. She was arrested by the British government on two occasions.

911 1899 1940 F Udham Singh (26 December 1899 – 31 July 1940)

Shooting in Caxton Hall.

Udham Singh was one of the most important and famous revolutionaries who took part in the Indian independence movement. He is remembered for avenging the Jallianwala Bagh massacre by brutally murdering Sir Michael O'Dwyer on March 13, 1940. For his act, Udham Singh was convicted and was eventually sentenced to death.

While in custody, he used the name Ram Mohammad Singh Azad, which represents the three major religions of Punjab and his anti-colonial sentiment.

912 1899 1905 G Lord Curzon – Viceroy (George Curzon, 1st Marquess Curzon of Kedleston)

He was a true successor of Lord Dalhousie. He was great imperialist, authoritarian in temperament, ruthless in his ways and wanted to achieve too much at too great pace.

The time of his governorship (1899–1905), was the formative phase of Indian national movement. Thus he tried to strangulate Indian nationalism and freedom movement by all fair and foul means.

Reactionary policies of Lord Curzon: Through Calcutta Corporation act 1899 he reduced the number of elected legislatures to deprive Indians from self-governanc.

He looked at Indians with contempt and insulted and injured their feelings. He described Bengalis as cowards, windbags, impracticable talkers and mere frothy patriots. He even refused to meet the president of Indian national congress. The biggest blunder he committed was the partition of Bengal. Although it was a political masterstroke to break growing Indian nationalism among Bengalis, it proved disastrous for British in longer term.

Partition of Bengal (1905) into two provinces- Bengal and East Bengal was done during his time.

Curzon by his impolitic utterances and imperialist designs brought political unrest in India to a bursting point. Curzon’s imperialistic policies provoked reaction which in turn stung political life in India. Out of his tyranny was born a stronger sense of nationhood. Taken in this light Curzon proved to be a benefactor of India without intending to do so.

913 1899 1905 G Lord Curzon – Viceroy, Reforms by Lord Curzon:
  • Educational: To set the educational system in order, he instituted in 1902, a Indian Universities Commission 1902 to go into the entire question of university education in the country. On the basis of the findings and recommendations of the Commission, Curzon brought in the Indian Universities Act of 1904, which brought all the universities in India under the control of the government.
  • Scientific: The Indian Agricultural Research Institute in Pusa (Bihar – Bengal Presidency) was established.
  • Administrative: He made efforts for police reforms, eliminating the corruption and to promote the economic development. He provided a revival to conservatism in India by refurbishing the main features of Lord Mayo’s policies. He instituted a Police Commission in 1902 under the chairmanship of Sir Andrew Frazer. Curzon accepted all the recommendations and implemented them. He set up training schools for both the officers and the constables and introduced provincial police service.
  • North-West Frontier Province (NWFP) 1901, was established which covered roughly the areas of upper course of River Indus.
  • Military: Imperial cadet corps was set up which became an instrument for Indianisation (British India) of army later.
  • Ancient Monuments Preservation Act 1904 was passed, which made it obligatory on the part of the government and local authorities to preserve the monuments of archaeological importance and their destruction an offence.
914 1899 R Advaita Ashrama, Mayavati, is a branch of the Ramakrishna Math, founded on 19 March 1899 at the behest of Swami Vivekananda, by his disciples James Henry Sevier, and Charlotte Sevier. Today it publishes the original writings of Vivekananda. As an ashram dedicated to the study and practice of Advaita Vedanta, no images or idols are worshipped there, not even of Ramakrishna; and no images were kept in the premises according to the Ashram ideals set by Vivekananda.
915 1899 11 Apr Wh On 11 April 1899, the U.S. established geopolitical hegemony upon islands and peoples in two oceans and in two hemispheres: the Philippines and Guam in the Pacific Ocean, Cuba and Puerto Rico in the Atlantic Ocean – The White Man's Burden.
916 1899 Wh The White Man's Burden by Rudyard Kipling.

proposes that the "white race" is morally obligated to rule the "non-white" peoples and to encourage their progress (economic, social, and cultural) through settler colonialism, which is based upon the Roman Catholic and Protestant missionaries displacing the natives' religions:

The implication, of course, was that the Empire existed not for the benefit—economic or strategic or otherwise—of Britain, itself, but in order that primitive peoples, incapable of self-government, could, with British guidance, eventually become civilized (and Christianized).

917 1899 February Wh The Brown Man's Burden[1165] by the British politician Henry Labouchère.

It shifts the emphasis of Kipling's notorious poem, offering a view of imperialism from the perspective of those who were most directly affected by the expansionist policies of nations like Britain and the United States. "The Brown Man's Burden" offers an indictment of imperial hypocrisy, with particular emphasis on the violence employed in subjugating countries like the Philippines in the name of freedom.

918 1899 February Wh The Brown Man's Burden[1165]:

Pile on the brown man's burden / To gratify your greed; // Go, clear away the "niggers" / Who progress would impede; Be very stern, for truly / 'Tis useless to be mild // With new-caught, sullen peoples, / Half devil and half child.

Pile on the brown man's burden; / And, if ye rouse his hate, // Meet his old-fashioned reasons / With Maxims up to date. With shells & dumdum bullets / A hundred times made plain // The brown man's loss must ever / Imply the white man's gain.

Pile on the brown man's burden, / compel him to be free; // Let all your manifestoes / Reek with philanthropy. And if with heathen folly / He dares your will dispute, // Then, in the name of freedom, / Don't hesitate to shoot.

Pile on the brown man's burden, / And if his cry be sore, // That surely need not irk you-- / Ye've driven slaves before. Seize on his ports & pastures, / The fields his people tread; // Go make from them your living, / And mark them with his dead.

Pile on the brown man's burden, / And through the world proclaim // That ye are Freedom's agent-- / There's no more paying game! And, should your own past history / Straight in your teeth be thrown, // Retort that independence / Is good for whites alone.

919 1899 April Wh The Black Man's Burden[1166][1167]: A Response to Kipling" by the African-American clergyman and editor H. T. Johnson.

A “Black Man’s Burden Association” was even organized with the goal of demonstrating that mistreatment of brown people in the Philippines was an extension of the mistreatment of black Americans at home. Pile on the Black Man’s Burden. 'Tis nearest at your door; / Why heed long bleeding Cuba, or dark Hawaii’s shore? Hail ye your fearless armies, / Which menace feeble folks Who fight with clubs and arrows / and brook your rifle’s smoke. Pile on the Black Man’s Burden His wail with laughter drown / You’ve sealed the Red Man’s problem, And will take up the Brown, / In vain ye seek to end it, With bullets, blood or death / Better by far defend it / With honor’s holy breath.

920 1899 Wh Take up the Black Man's Burden, (J. Dallas Bowser#Black Man's Burden) by the American educator J. Dallas Bowser.

In 1899, Bowser published a poem in response to Rudyard Kipling's "The White Man's Burden".

"Take up the Black Man's burden/Send forth the best ye breed,/To judge with righteous judgement/The Black Man's work and need,//...//Let the glory of your people/Be the making of great men,/The lifting of the lowly,/To noble thought and aim." He drew connections between racism and imperialism in the poem and criticized both. He also advocated black self-improvement, a position expressed as well by Booker T. Washington, president of the Tuskegee Institute. The poem is often paired with a number of poems written in response to Kipling, particularly with "Charity Begins at Home", published a few weeks earlier in the Colored Americanand pseudonymously written by "X-Ray". It was more biting in its criticism.

921 1899 Wh The Poor Man's Burden[1168] by Dr. Howard S. Taylor

Addresses the negative psycho-social effects of the imperialist ethos upon the working-class people of an empire.

922 1900 Bu American inventor Elisha Graves Otis built the first safety elevator in 1852. In the 1870s, Otis entered Europe. Its elevators were installed at the Kremlin, Balmoral Castle, the Hungarian Royal Palace and the Eiffel Tower.

In the early 1900s, the Buckingham and the Mysore Palaces were also home to Otis elevators.

923 1900 E India's tea exports to Britain reach 137 million Pounds.
924 1900 1927 F Ashfaqulla Khan (22 October 1900 – 19 December 1927)

Ashfaqulla Khan was a firebrand among the young revolutionaries, who sacrificed his life for the sake of his motherland. He was an important member of the Hindustan Republican Association. Khan, along with his associates, executed the train robbery at Kakori for which he was arrested and executed by the British.

Khan was put to death by hanging on 19 December 1927 at Faizabad jail. This revolutionary man became a martyr and a legend among his people due to his love for the motherland, his clear thinking, unshakeable courage, firmness and loyalty.

925 1900 1927 F Ashfaqulla Khan:

Khan was born in Shahjahanpur, United Provinces of British India to Shafiqullah Khan and Mazharunissa. He was born in a Muslim Pathan family of Khyber tribe. He was the youngest among his six siblings. In 1920, Mahatma Gandhi launched his Non-cooperation movement against the British rule in India. But after the Chauri Chaura incident in 1922, Mahatma Gandhi decided to withdraw the call for this movement.

At that point, many young people including Khan felt depressed. That is when Khan decided to form an organization with like-minded freedom fighters which resulted in the formation of Hindustan Republican Association in 1924. This association's purpose was to organize armed revolutions to achieve a free India.

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